The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky Essay

The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky Essay.

Stephen Crane took a unique approach to storytelling when he wrote “The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky”. He did not just focus on the hero alone; he also talked about the bride and included her in the title to advertise her importance in the story. The symbolism in this story makes it more interesting.

The role that each character in a story plays is very important, though each character’s idea of their own part may not be the identical as other characters’.

For example, Jack sees his role as the town sheriff, though the Bride, and now Scratchy, sees him as the husband. With more of the story having been written, we maybe would have seen that the people of the town share Jack’s understanding of his role as the sheriff. The bride sees herself in a different way as well. She, having come from a different scenery with a different role before she got married, feels out of place, while Jack has more confidence in her, and sees her simply as his wife, and not to cook.

“It was quite apparent that she had cooked, and that she expected to cook, dutifully”. (254). The way each character views their role defines much of the way the story carries out.

The idea that the other characters have of another character’s role determines quite a bit of how they interact with each-other. We see this in the final section of the story, when Scratchy’s determined idea of Jack’s being ‘the sheriff’ is torn down and exchanged with his understanding of Jack as a married man. The difference, even if only in his mind, is drastic, and completely changes the way he interacts with Jack. In this story, the “glittering” parlor car symbolizes the transformation in the Bride’s life. It contrasts with her “plan, underclass countenance” (254) and represents her new life as a wife instead of a cook. But it also creates a mood of anxiety or worry. The Bride is not yet at ease in her new lifestyle and role, and she projects it outside and inside. Inside, she views other people as judging her, making her nervous, and therefore, on the outside, she looks misplaced, as she ‘twisted her head to regard her puff sleeves…

They embarrassed her” (254). The last sentence of the story has far more meaning than is comprehended at first glance. This very distinctive finale plays many roles in the final mood of the story, and resolves many struggles very quickly. When examined carefully, it is visible that the ending is ironic. This means that in the story, the sentence sums up the ironic fact that Scratchy has been defeated, and not by sword, but by the woman. The sentence also generates an ironic ending for the story, as it is an unexpected ending, contradicting the expected outcome of a shootout or fight or sorts.

Instead, the hero raises not a hand, and the villain surrenders without putting up a fight. By using the unique, descriptive ending that Crane does, the unexpectedness of the outcome with “funnel-shaped tracks” (261), it brings out the irony that the anticipation and eagerness the story has “geared up” is then just shot down, with no shots fired at all. Cranes characters fit into the town because they fit together with themselves. Each one has a place, or role, and they carry it out without conflicting with another’s role. Cranes unique approach to this story was different.

The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky Essay

The Hero’s Journey—Kung Fu Panda Essay

The Hero’s Journey—Kung Fu Panda Essay.

Many people believe in heroes, who are selfless and willing to sacrifice themselves to benefit others. Heroes also exist in different cultures, and they usually represent courage and adventurous. According to Joseph Campbell’s theory, heroes in stories undergo a process called “The Hero’s Journey”, which is the classic plot structure of heroic stories, in order to achieve great deeds. Kung Fu Panda, a movie by the DreamWorks, demonstrates the theory of Hero’s Journey. The movie is about fat and lazy panda calls Po, who always dreams of being a kung Fu master, is unexpectedly chosen to fulfill an ancient prophecy.

Po’s dream comes true when he starts to learn Kung Fu from the greatest Kung Fu master and becomes friends with his idols, the Legendary Furious Five—Tigress, Mantis, Viper, Monkey, and Crane.

Finally, he protects the whole valley by defeating Tailung (the antagonist) by using what he learns and terns his dream of being a Kung Fu master into reality.

This movie represents the process of the hero’s journey, by showing the separation of hero’s ordinary life, the initiation in his adventure, and his return after the deeds. In the movie, separation of the ordinary world and the extraordinary world after the hero is called to the adventure, and overcomes his struggle through being inspired by a mentor. As the movie starts, it first tells about the ordinary world of our hero, the panda. By introducing the protagonist, who is also the hero, audiences get to know the normal life of Po before his adventure: working in noodle restaurant with his dad, dreaming of becoming a kung Fu master everyday.

However, Po doesn’t want his life to be like that, he still wants to learn Kung Fu. The eager of learning Kung Fu, therefore, leads him to the adventure, and take him away from his ordinary world. As Master Oogway announces his vision of Tailung’s return, it is time to call for a Dragon Warrior, who can be granted the secret power of dragon scroll to defeat Tailung. Desperate to witness the Dragon Warrior be chosen, Po accidently crashes into the middle of the arena at the moment when Oogway is to point out the Dragon Warrior. Surprisingly, Po becomes the chosen one, and he is called and summoned to the adventure. At this moment Po is facing the challenge of entering the extraordinary world, and he is preparing for it as well. However, the decision of Oogway angers Master Shifu, and the furious five; they make fun of Po and dislike him. Master Shifu even describes him as “fat and flabby”.

He not only dissatisfies Shifu and the furious five, he also failed in all his training. Po loses his confidence and begins refusing the call to adventure: maybe I should just quit and go back to making noodles”, says Po. Po is now frustrated and he rethinks he decision of being the Dragon Warrior. When Po is losing his mind and about to give up on Kung Fu, he meets the mentor who encourages him and helps him to gain back confidence. Po encounters Master Oogway at the peach tree of wisdom, Oogway tells him that he understands Po’s feeling and he knows that Po is upset. He encourages Po by telling him an old saying: “Yesterday is history, tomorrow is mystery, and today is a gift.” Thus, Po is inspired by Master Oogway, and he finally makes up his mind of being consist to his decision. Lastly, our hero crosses the threshold and steps in the world of extraordinary.

Po starts to make efforts; he trains himself by waking up early and stretch on his own. He also claims that the real dragon warrior never quit. Therefore, he now has taken his very first step towards the adventure and has accomplished the separation of ordinary and extraordinary world; next, he is going to reach the beginning of his adventure. Moreover, after leaving the ordinary world, initiation begins. On the way to adventure, Po meets some people; they may be his allies, friends, or they may possibly be his enemies. Hence, the first thing to do to get prepare for the challenge, is to identify his allies, and build up friendship with them. Po gradually gains trusts of the furious five, by showing his determination. When he is injured and hurts by in the training, Mantis and viper tries to help him relief his pain through acupuncture. In return, Po makes noodles for them and they finally start to accept him.

Also, the antagonist, Tailung, is introduced to the audience: His history of being one of the students of Shifu, and how he turns evil later on. At the same time, Tailung breaks the prison and he is on his way back to the valley where Po and everyone else live. He is coming back to get revenge on Mater Shifu, and also to get the Dragon scroll. The enemy of our hero is introduced as Po is getting ready for the challenge. Then, the approach occurs when the furious five try to defeat Tailung together. It’s the first attempt and first time the good side and the evil side combat. However, they failed stopping Tailung’s attacks. Meanwhile, Po continues to train himself to be the Dragon warrior. The ordeal he must undergo before receiving the power of dragon scroll, is the tough training. Luckily, Shifu figures out a new strategy of training that suits Po, which is using food as lure to evoke Po’ s potential. The hard works pays off.

Even though he has to endure a lot of pain and hardship in training, he finally improves and makes great effort in learning Kung Fu. As the reward, Po is granted the dragon scroll, which hides the unlimited power of Dragon warrior. The reward symbolizes Po’s progress, and it also proves that Po is worthy to be chosen as Dragon warrior. Through the effort Po has made in the tough training and getting along with his allies, he is awarded the Dragon scroll which can make him the greatest Kung Fu master. Also, after the reward, Po is about to face the major challenge in his adventure and take his journal back to his ordinary world. Although he is given the Dragon scroll as his reward for his hard working, he starts his returning to the ordinary world.

First, he finds that the mystery Dragon scroll is actually empty, and the unlimited power doesn’t exist at all. Despair and hopeless, everyone gives up on defending the attack of Tailung. Po goes back to the valley he used to live in. Citizens in the valley are preparing to evacuate to safe places. Po goes back to his restaurant, and gets ready to leave with his dad. Now Po has returned to his ordinary life and gives up on his life as the Dragon Warrior. However, the resurrection of the hero happens when Po is inspired by his dad. His dad comforts him by telling Po his secret formula of the noodle. Just like the Dragon scroll, the secret formula doesn’t exist, either.

“If you want to make it special, you have to believe that it is special.” says Po’s dad. Thus, Po is encouraged by his dad, and decided to go back and face Tailung instead of hiding from him. The final challenge for Po is coming. Po rushes back to the palace where Shifu lives, and he realizes that Tailung has arrived. When Tailung is about to kill Shifu, Po arrives to fight with Tailung and saves Shifu’s life. After a long time of fighting, Po finally defeated Tailung by using the “WuXi Finger”. Now, our hero has finished his final challenge, and starts his “return with elixir” of his journey. After defeating Tailung, Po’s adventure has finally completed. People in the valley see Po defeating Tailung, and start to call him “Master”. Po has fulfills his quest, and brought peace and security to the valley.

Everyone in the valley shares the success of Po. In brief, the movie clearly and accurately presents the three stages of Hero’s Journey (separation, initiation and return) and it shows the audience how the protagonist grows and improves to be the hero. Po is once a daydreamer, who refuse to face the reality and enjoys dreaming about being a Kung Fu master. Learning Kung Fu seems irrelevant to him at first, but his passion and consistence lead him to encounter the chance of making his dream come true. However, the hero’s journey to success is not very easy.

Po undergoes the separation of his ordinary world, to enter the adventure, and he adapts to the extraordinary world in order to get prepare for the challenge. During the training, he has hesitated, and considered giving u; nevertheless, he is inspired and encouraged to regain his confidence and refuse giving up. After overcoming all the difficulties, his hard works pays off and he finally achieves his goals. Through analysing this movie, I learn that people are not born to be hero; just like Po, he is just a normal panda who is totally irrelevant to Kung Fu; but through training and hardworking, he can become a Kung Fu master, and make his dream come true. Therefore, I recognize that everyone has the potential to be a hero, and if you try your best to approach to your goal, you will achieve it someday.

The Hero’s Journey—Kung Fu Panda Essay

Ellen DeGeneres Essay

Ellen DeGeneres Essay.

Does everyone have a hero? Someone they look up to at all times, in times of happiness or agony? Heroes commonly influence someone for better or worse. Some well known heroes include Martin Luther King Jr., a revolutionary leader, and Henry Ford an inventor of the first model T car. A hero can be a person who has risked their life while exhibiting courage or simply someone that displays morally desiring characteristics.

There is always that one person, which someone looks up to when someone is reflecting on their life or actions.

No one has ever saved me from a burning building, or saved my life. But there is one person that makes me laugh everyday. One of my heroes happens to be the well known comedian, Ellen DeGeneres. Comedians remind you to never take life too seriously.

The average day hero can be a person fighting for our country, a well known figure, or even a parent. Heroes have the nobility to influence people by doing chastely things.

My hero is simply a comedian. Ellen DeGeneres entertains people with her humor in a benign way. Laughter can be the easiest method to access a person’s emotion. Laughter can help you remember the good times or help you forget your troubles. Comedians have the ability to access a person’s emotion without necessarily trying. The Ellen DeGeneres show is a witty comedy show that entertains the viewers. DeGeneres was named Showtime’s Funniest Person in America in 1982.

Ellen DeGeneres has also won twelve Emmys and numerous other awards for her work and charitable efforts; including the Wyler award for publicizing the ethical decision to avoid using animal products. DeGeneres also launched the Small Change Campaign to benefit Feeding America. Ellen has donated numerous times to natural disaster causes, and put her fame to good use.

Joseph Campbell once said “A hero is someone who has given his or her life to something bigger than oneself”. Ellen DeGeneres is a benevolent and humorous person that continually makes impacts in the world. My definition of a hero is someone I can look up to at all times when reflecting on myself. A hero does things you would like to do, and is someone you aspire to be.

Ellen DeGeneres Essay

What Makes Someone a Hero Essay

What Makes Someone a Hero Essay.

Heroes of today lie in ones beliefs. It doesn’t take super powers to be a Hero. The common recognition of heroes in our day to day lives can be anyone starting from the firefighters, police, military, ambulance crews, teachers, doctors, parents and more. A person cannot be considered a Hero based on their profession. Many people think that all the soldiers or firefighters are Heroes. But it is not always true. Heroism lies within a person and rises to the occasion.

If a person is benefiting somebody else with no cost to him cannot be considered heroic. For example, when a building is at fire the firefighter may act a Hero and enter the building to save lives knowing that he might not come back is considered Heroic or he might try hard to save lives from outside the building fearing his life to enter into the building cannot be considered heroic.

He might have saved lives standing outside the building but we cannot call him a Hero because he just did his duty for which he is being paid.

A person can never be a Hero without Sacrifice. Apart from Sacrifice there must be certain qualities in a person that are considered to be heroic and makes him a hero. The qualities are honesty to pursue justice, patience and dedication to pursue goals, courage to face adversity, trustworthy for faith and conduct, endurance to tolerate pain in hardship. A hero should be willing to sacrifice their own life for greater good. He must have the ability to focus towards a particular purpose; for what he believe is right.

A hero has to take the initiative to solve a problem or help someone out. A hero doesn’t always fight crime or always have an opposition. They don’t even have to work with people; they could be designing a product that helps many people. The idea of how a Hero should be or what qualities in a person can be considered heroic has changed over time. These days the term “Hero” is being misused all the time. People playing cricket, baseball or other games are being called as heroes. But as the matter of fact they are just players that are being paid for their game. They are not sacrificing anything for anyone. For example, we can consider a player as a Hero when he sacrifices his kidney for someone who needs it, knowing that he probably might never play again makes him a Hero.

According to me Mother Theresa who sacrificed her whole life to serve others, Marie Curie who invented Radium which ultimately led to her death are Heroes. It’s not that they haven’t left with any choices that they have to sacrifice their lives. They made the choices and came forward to do what they believed, out of which many people were helped. A true hero always inspires and influences people around him, they give the proof that nothing is impossible if you just dream, believe and achieve with conviction and perseverance.

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What Makes Someone a Hero Essay

The Origin of Individual Heroism Essay

The Origin of Individual Heroism Essay.

As a matter of fact, there are important relations between individual heroism and American history. In 1929, the historic far-reaching Great Depress emerged in the US, which resulted in the global economic recession. And the development of American animated movies also just started off from this cold winter of economy, and passed through terrifying waves to a “golden age”. Owing to the quick economic recession, large quantities of enterprises bankrupted, and tens of thousands of labors lost their jobs, which led to the whole society developing in a downturn.

Economic recession as well as the outbreak of World War? after this, caused the audience to have a spiritual demand for escaping the real life. There is no doubt that American animated movies became a comfort for American citizens at that time. People at that time experienced extreme panic in the first period, bitter struggling in the middle period and despair and helplessness in the last period. Living in the despaired situation, they could only entrust their hope to a hero, especially the hero with super powers.

They regarded heroes as the embodiment of ideal personality and desired the heroes to save the society and inject vigor for their country again. During war and economic recession period, hero complex, as the psychological hopes and pillars of the integrity and development of human beings spirit, led to a desire for peace, and expectation for future life. Just at that time, out came the superman. In the 1930s or so, superman animated movies were quickly fashionable throughout the US, during which individual heroism was further presented.

In 1950s, the US international status rose up again, and the richness of material life made people feel they did not need a superhero to save the world, but the hero complex lasting for many decades would not vanish at once, on the contrary, they appeared in front of American people in another form—that is what we can often see, ordinary hero. Different from superheroes, ordinary heroes do not have to own strong bodies or outstanding super abilities, but to be more close to the real life.

They are just ordinary people before they become heroes. But when it is concerned with the crisis of homeland and even the world peace, they will be endowed with the mission to save the world. How to settle the crisis and how to be great in the ordinary life are a universal demand of the society, and then series of animated movies images of ordinary heroes emerged. At the end of 1990s, with the further development of capitalism, American animated movie ndustry transformed from the traditional 2D to 3D, under the support of three dimension technology, the hero’s personalities in the animated movies began to have more levels and looks. And their images were not only constrained in the scope of ordinary people, but focused on the “grassroot heroes” who were even tinier than ordinary people. Such unimportant persons more or less have some different defects. They may be lazy, conceited and impetuous, but these defects can not prevent them from becoming heroes who save the masses from dangers through growing and self struggle.

The Origin of Individual Heroism Essay

Jeffrey Wigand Essay

Jeffrey Wigand Essay.

Jeffrey Wigand is the whistleblower and alleged hero who was a top-level executive at Brown & Williamson Tobacco in the late eighties and early nineties who illegally breached two separate confidentiality agreements Tobacco in the late eighties and early nineties who illegally breached two separate confidentiality agreements by leaking trade secrets to a television network (CBS) and the federal government. Wigand is the son of a mechanical engineer, a dad who stressed independence; he grew up in a strict Catholic home in the Bronx, the oldest of five children.

A gifted student, he flourished in the quiet atmosphere of science labs and planned to study medicine, until he exploded at home and announced that he was dropping out of college to join the Air Force.

In 1961, Wigand was posted to Misawa, an American base in Japan where he worked in the base hospital O.R. He learned Japanese and, a jogger at college, became acquainted with martial arts. Back in the States, he continued his education at the University of Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, earning his doctorate with distinction.

He began work at a health-care company. He met his wife, Lucretia, in 1981 at a sales conference at Ortho Diagnostic Systems, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, where he was a director of marketing. They married in 1986. Wigand moved up the corporate ladder into more responsible positions and work stress. A perfectionist, his tendency to say what was on his mind did not endear him to management.

 After 17 years in the health-care field, Wigand went to work for Brown & Williamson, the tobacco company, in December 1988 with an initial assignment of developing a new, healthier cigarette to put into a competitive market. His department budget was more than $30 million and he had a staff of 243. Wigand found his lab outdated and saw no evidence of health standards in the tobacco research. Even in the ’60s, documents were beginning to claim that cigarettes were addictive and caused cancer but Wigand claimed he did not learn of these studies until later. Wigand soon learned that in the tobacco-patter, “increased biological activity” was code for cancer and other diseases. Notes were not allowed at certain meetings and status reports that included medical findings were screened.

The litigation department had a budget in the millions to keep any case from proving that a smoker was damaged from the use of the product. The B&W personnel kept closed ranks and Wigand soon learned to trust no one. In 1991, his evaluation at work read that he had “a difficulty in communication.” He was becoming a problem with his questions and criticism. In late 1992 he objected to the use of coumarin in cigarettes when it was proven to cause cancer in rats and mice and was told that the removal would impact sales. His anger began to focus and take shape, and Wigand concentrated his research on the properties of additives. On 3/24/1993, Wigand was fired and escorted from the building, with his diary and papers confiscated.

Wigand’s daughter suffered from Spina Bifida and he needed insurance coverage. In order to get his severance benefits, he signed a confidentiality agreement that he would not divulge company policy. In September, B&W sued Wigand and suspended his health insurance and severance benefits, contending that he violated his confidentiality pledge by discussing the terms of his severance with another company executive. They were aware that Wigand had been called to testify as part of a 1993 U.S. Justice Department investigation into Philip Morris’ “fire safe” cigarette program.

They tightened their hold by insisting that Wigand sign a tougher agreement of nondisclosure. A producer of “60 Minutes,” Lowell Bergman met with Wigand while producing a story on Philip Morris’ “fire safe” cigarette. Bergman asked Wigand to help him interpret secret internal Philip Morris documents anonymously sent to him in late 1993. On 2/28/1994, ABC’s newsmagazine, “Day One,” broadcast a story contending that Philip Morris “spiked” the nicotine content of its cigarettes. On March 27, “60 Minutes” aired its story on the Philip Morris’ research, the full impact of which was killed by Philip Morris for fear of negative legal ramifications. During the course of the story’s production, Wigand was reportedly paid an estimated $12,000 for his time and expenses as a consultant.

In July, The Justice Department opened a criminal investigation into possible perjury by seven top tobacco company executives who testified at April 14 congressional hearings that “nicotine is not addictive.” Wigand was named as an expert defense witness for ABC. On August 3, after a summer of indecision, Wigand and his wife agree to an interview with Mike Wallace on “60 Minutes.” On August 21, ABC News agreed to a carefully worded apology for the “Day One” report on 2/28/1994 that said Philip Morris and R.J. Reynolds controlled and manipulated nicotine levels to addict smokers.

ABC also agreed to pay all legal fees – an amount that totaled some $15 million, rather than face a libel suit that would cost a great deal more. Parts of the Wigand transcript leaked to the New York Daily News. Wigand reportedly said that B&W Tobacco Corp. had vetoed plans to make a safer cigarette and continued to use a flavoring in pipe tobacco known to cause cancer in lab animals. Moreover, he supposedly said the company’s former CEO Thomas Sandefur was guilty of perjury when he told Congress that nicotine was not addictive.

Wigand agreed to speak to The Wall Street Journal as an anonymous source, which printed essentially the story that “60 Minutes” found too hot to tackle, that internal reports showed that leading U.S. tobacco companies enhance nicotine delivery to smokers by adding ammonia-based compounds to cigarettes, chemicals that increase the potency of the nicotine inhaled. In 1996, the Journal won a Pulitzer Prize for this story. At the request of anti-tobacco plaintiffs’ lawyers, Jeffrey Wigand provided a deposition in a civil action against tobacco manufacturers brought by the state of Mississippi.

The state sought reimbursement for the cost of treating smoking-related illnesses over the years. Wigand supported previously publicized contentions that Brown & Williamson lawyers improperly controlled research programs in an effort to limit potential liability in injury lawsuits filed against the company. By 1994, Wigand was out of work and being threatened and slandered. He was drinking heavily and his marriage was suffering badly from the fallout of his public battle as well as the illness of his daughter. Wigand and his wife both blame B&W for placing an unbearable strain on their marriage, one that led to a later divorce. In 1995, Wigand took a job teaching Japanese at a fraction of his former salary.

He moved into a two-bedroom apartment in Louisville and appeared content. Brown & Williamson sued Dr. Wigand, accusing its former vice president of theft, fraud, breach of contract and other offenses. The lawsuit was dismissed as a condition of the 6/20/1997 historic settlement between the Attorneys General of 40 States and the tobacco industry.  Wigand has received numerous awards and public recognition for his action in revealing tobacco company research and marketing practices. He continues his efforts to reduce teen tobacco use through a non-profit organization he formed, Smoke-Free Kids, Inc.

While Wigand’s efforts may have created some positive results, the question remains whether or not Wigand was ethically right in exposing his employer. Wigand’s motivation must be explored; it appears that many of his actions were retaliations to actions of B & W. Wigand broke the law by breaking his confidentiality agreement. Much of the information he supplied was not new information, instead he appeared to be vindictive against his former employer and trying to harm them. I do not believe Wigand’s actions were altruistic he was working for the best interest of Wigand, not the general public.

Brown & Williamson sued Wigand for breach of contract for disclosing details of his separation agreement and wanted to take away his medical benefits. Wigand reluctantly settled and signed a life-long confidentiality agreement. Wigand got in touch with Lowell Bergman, senior producer for CBS “60 Minutes.” Word started to filter out that Wigand was telling CBS secrets about Brown and Williamson. That’s when an FDA agent called Wigand, asking him if he would help the agency find out about tobacco companies activities. Industry-paid detectives were following him and he was facing a lawsuit from Brown & Williamson for breaking a confidentiality agreement.

The Insider movie

For over 30 years, the CBS news program “60 Minutes” has broadcast thousands of probing stories on every topic imaginable. Now one story they hesitated to air is the subject of a new film and a renewed controversy. Actor Al Pacino, This guy is the ultimate insider. “The Insider” tells the story of “60 Minutes” producer Lowell Bergman, as portrayed by Al Pacino, and the tobacco company executive and whistle-blower Jeffrey Wigand, played by Australian actor Russell Crowe. In 1995, Bergman convinced Wigand to break a confidentiality agreement with his former employer and reveal the inner workings of the tobacco industry to “60 Minutes.”

But CBS executives, fearing a multibillion-dollar lawsuit from the Brown & Williamson tobacco company, Wigand’s former employer, pulled the interview before it was broadcast. After several months and much public embarrassment, “60 Minutes” finally aired the Wigand interview on Feb. 4, 1996. Producer Bergman sees the film as a tale of corporate media setting survival above principle. “60 Minutes” Executive Producer Don Hewitt, in a November 1998 interview with the “News Hour,” defended himself and his program against the charge that they knuckled under to corporate demand. Broadcast the story.

They said it’s their transmitter, it’s their network. However, the movie paints Hewitt as little more than a tool of CBS management. Criticisms of the film have centered on Director Mann’s acknowledgment that he compresses time in the film, combines some actual events, and invents others. The film still adheres to the larger truth of the story. If something is not faithful to what occurred or not faithful to the truth or events, it deserves to be condemned, but the picture is not. The picture is faithful to what happened. Lowell Bergman quit. He quit “60 Minutes.” He had a contract that he could have renegotiated to his great advantage. He scooped the Unabomber, he had gotten the show on the air and he would not work there anymore.

Bergman accusingly points out to CBS management that CBS is being sold to Westinghouse, and that the top brass are expecting million dollar payoffs and thus cave in to Tobacco to protect their stock. Bergman’s power comes from his ability to manipulate, from the inside, the connections which control the mouthpiece of capital, that is, the mass media. His bold physical presence is merely one expression of self for he is always using other media to extend and multiply himself to exercise power across town or across the world. He is himself a medium, outmaneuvering his opponents through a more sophisticated utilization of media pathways.

Westinghouse electric co. the profitable Monroeville-based subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels could be sold by the British government, the company’s chief executive said yesterday. But Steve Tritch, who also is president of the nuclear power company, said if a sale were to happen, it would not be as traumatic as its 1999 divestiture from the former Westinghouse Electric Corp. The former Pittsburgh conglomerate shed its industrial remnants after changing its name to CBS it later merged with Viacom and moving to New York. There are people in the (British) government considering whether Westinghouse ought to continue to be part of BNFL or whether Westinghouse ought to have a new home. Tritch told a breakfast meeting of the Pittsburgh Technology Council.

“From my customers’ point of view and from my employees’ point of view, we’re not nearly as worried about that as we were in 1999, when we were no longer going to be part of the big Westinghouse conglomerate”. Since its acquisition by BNFL, Westinghouse has grown, aided by the absorption of BNFL’s fuel manufacturing facility in the United Kingdom and the nuclear business of Swedish-Swiss engineering and technology giant ABB. Annual revenue stands at about $2.1 billion, up from less than $1 billion when Westinghouse was acquired, and it employs about 8,500 worldwide, including about 3,000 locally. Its principal businesses are servicing, building and providing fuel for nuclear plants.

Tritch said the experience of the last several years made it clear to him that ownership matters. Once freed from management that was more interested in faster-growing broadcast properties than the sluggish industrial arena, Westinghouse grew. For one, the name still holds an honored place in the nuclear arena about half of the world’s 434 operating commercial nuclear plants use Westinghouse technology.

Moreover, it is a vibrant business with only two major competitors in the world, General Electric and the French nuclear group Areva. Growth has occurred mostly outside the United States. Perhaps the company’s best hope of getting contracts to build new power plants lies in China, which hopes to build 30 nuclear reactors between now and 2020. Westinghouse has a bid in to build the first four and should know the results of the contest by year’s end.

The most obvious difference between print and electronic media is the way people retrieve the news. Print can be read at leisure in a busy waiting room or on a long bus ride. However, television and radio news may be more scheduled. Scripts for news anchors and reporters are written to get to the heart of a story without as much mention of details. In print the writer can incorporate specifics like some ones’ full name and title, or a complete address when writing about a particular location. In a brief news segment a reporter wants to keep the audience interested without giving too many boring specifics.

A journalist working for a television or radio network may do just as much probing and research as a writer for the news paper. Yet the journalist must present the news in a straight forward and unbiased fashion while a columnist has more freedom to express a certain view point on a particular topic. The motive of a reporter for radio is to inform or educate the public based on reliable information.

A reporter has the tedious task of finding out what the people want to know and then delivering the news as an objective professional. Newspaper writers often chose to write about a particular story because they want to use print as a way to reach and influence their readers whether it be political or otherwise. Both types of journalists must base their findings from sound sources. However, a columnist may manipulate the presentation of info to reflect their own opinion or one accepted by the paper they write for. The only time electronic media can manipulate the truth to illicit a certain way of thinking, is by leaving out details.

Vanityfair Comarchives

It was never Jeffrey Wigand’s ambition to become a central figure in the great social chronicle of the tobacco wars. By his own description, Wigand is a linear thinker, a plodder. On January 30, when he went at the sports bar at the Hyatt Regency in Louisville, he is in the first phase of understanding that he has entered a particular American nightmare where his life will no longer be his to control. His lawyer will later call this period “hell week.” Wigand has recently learned of a vicious campaign orchestrated against him, and is trying to document all aspects of his past. He is deluged with requests for interviews.

TV vans are often set up at DuPont Manual, the magnet high school where he now teaches. In two days Wigand, the former head of research and development (R&D) at the Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. Wigand is trapped in a war between the government and its attempts to regulate the $50 billion tobacco industry and the tobacco companies themselves, which insist that the government has no place in their affairs. Wigand is under a temporary restraining order from a Kentucky state judge not to speak of his experiences at Brown & Williamson (B&W). He is mired in a swamp of charges and countercharges hurled at him by his former employer, the third-largest tobacco company in the nation, the manufacturer of Kool, Viceroy, and Capri cigarettes.

In the bar, Wigand sits with his security man, Doug Sykes, a former Secret Service agent. Wigand is worn out, a fighter on the ropes. He has reached that moment when he understands that circumstances are catapulting him into history, and he is frightened off his moorings. He wears silver-rimmed aviator glasses, which he takes off frequently to rub his eyes. Investigators called Jeffrey two am in the morning he is becoming a rational figure. He is going to lose economically and going to lose his family. All through dinner, Wigand keeps his cellular phone on the table. It rings as he and his friend is having coffee.

He explodes in anger into the receiver: “Why do you want to know where I am? What do you want? What do you mean, what am I doing? It’s 10 o’clock at night. What do you need to connect with me for? I am not a trained dog. You are going to have to explain to me what you are doing and why you are doing it so I can participate”. Wigand narrows his eyes and shakes his head at his friend as if to signal that he is talking to a fool. He is beyond snappish now. He realized that jeffrey is speaking to one of his legal investigators, who has been putting in 16-hour days on his behalf, mounting a counterattack against his accusers.

“You can’t just drop into Louisville and have me drop what I am doing. No, you can’t! I am not listening. Wigand slams the telephone on the table. “Everyone on the legal team is pissed off because I am in Louisville. You know what the team can do! If he was going to come down today, why didn’t he tell me he was coming?” They walk out of Kunz’s and trudge back through the snow toward the Hyatt. Across from the hotel is the B&W Tower, where Wigand used to be a figure of prestige, a vice president with a wardrobe of crisp white shirts and dark suits. “I am sick of it sick of hiding in a hotel and living like an animal.

I want to go home,” he says with desperation in his voice. Jeffrey Wigand and his friend met at an anti-smoking-awards ceremony in New York on January 18. Wigand was receiving an honorarium of $5,000, and former surgeon general C. Everett Koop was going to introduce him. Wigand radiated glumness, an unsettling affect for a man who was in New York to be honored along with such other anti-smoking activists as California congressman Henry Waxman and Victor Crawford, the former Tobacco Institute lobbyist, who died soon after of throat cancer. “I am not sure I should be here,” Wigand told him moments after they met.

“Something terrible has happened to me. Brown & Williamson has gotten private records from the Louisville courthouse. A local TV reporter has come to my school to ask about my marriage. They are trying to ruin my life. When I get back to Louisville, I may not have a job. A public-relations man in New York named John Scanlon is trying to smear me. I have five sets of lawyers who are representing me, and no one can agree on a strategy.” Then he said, without any special emphasis, “If they are successful in ruining my credibility, no other whistle-blower will ever come out of tobacco and do what I have done.”

One hour later he was on the stage accepting his award and giving a halting history of his conflict with B&W. “My children have received death threats, my reputation and character have been attacked systematically in an organized smear campaign,” he said his voice breaking. When he saw Jeffrey Wigand for the first time in Louisville, he was at the end of one crisis and the beginning of another. We had been scheduled to meet for our first formal interview that evening, and he waited for jeffrey to call him. Out of necessity, Wigand has become a man of secret telephone numbers and relayed phone messages; there is an atmosphere of conspiracy around any meeting with him, with tense instructions and harried intermediaries.

By the time Wigand decided to move temporarily into the Hyatt, it was 10:30 P.M. His friend walked downstairs and knocked on his door. He was surprised by the change in his appearance in just one week. He leaned against the TV on the wall, diminished and badly shaken. “I have lost my family. I don’t know what I am going to do,” he said. The anti-tobacco forces depict Jeffrey Wigand as a portrait in courage, a Marlon Brando taking on the powers in on the Waterfront. The pro-tobacco lobbies have been equally vociferous in their campaign to turn Wigand into a demon, a Mark Furhman who could cause potentially devastating cases against the tobacco industry to dissolve over issues that have little to do with the dangers of smoking.

According to New York public-relations man John Scanlon, who was hired by B&W’s law firm to help discredit Wigand, “Wigand is a habitual liar, a bad, bad guy”. It was Scanlon’s assignment to disseminate a wide range of damaging charges against Wigand, such as shoplifting, fraud, and spousal abuse. Scanlon himself, along with B&W, is now the subject of an unprecedented Justice Department investigation for possible intimidation of a witness. For First Amendment specialist James Goodale, the charges and countercharges B&W has attempted to level against Wigand represent “the most important press issue since the Pentagon Papers” Goodale who represented The New York Times.

It has become a dramatic convention to project onto whistle-blowers our need for heroism, when revenge and anger are often what drive them. There is a powerful temptation to see Jeffrey Wigand as a symbol: the little guy against the cartel, a good man caught in a vise. However, Wigand defies easy categorization. As a personality, he is prickly, isolated, and fragile “peculiar as hell” in Mike Wallace’s phrase but there seems to be little doubt about the quality of his scientific information.

Wigand is the most sophisticated source who has ever come forward from the tobacco industry, a fact which has motivated B&W to mount a multi-million-dollar campaign to destroy him. National reporters arrive in Louisville daily with questions for Wigand. How lethal are tobacco additives such as coumarin? What did B&W officials know and when? And what does it feel like, Dr. Wigand, to lose your wife and children and have every aspect of your personal life up for grabs and interpretation in the middle of a smear. According to The Journal of the American Medical Association, 3 million American’s under the age of 18 consume one billion packs of cigarettes and 26 million containers of snuff every year.

For a cigarette company, the potential for profits from these sales illegal in all 50 states is immense, more than $200 million a year. Wigand came to feel increasingly that there was “no sense of responsibility” on the subject of teenagers and smoking. At 60 Minutes, the on-air personalities were involved in six or seven stories at the same time and took a deserved share of the credit for the show’s singular productions, but the staff was well aware that the producers actually did the backbreaking reporting.

In most cases, the producers had complete freedom to develop stories, and it was they, not the correspondents, who were in hotel rooms in Third World countries at all hours bringing along reluctant sources. Later, the correspondents stepped in. Only rarely did correspondents know the explicit details of stories other teams were developing. n late November, the litigator Stanley Arkin, one of more than a dozen lawyers working for B&W to head off the Justice Department’s investigation into the tobacco industry, recommended that B&W hire public-relations man John Scanlon and Terry Lenzner, the former Watergate deputy counsel who is the head of Investigative Group Inc., a firm that specializes in legal work for corporate takeovers.

Since his days as a liberal Republican lawyer, Lenzner has traveled philosophically from being someone who out of principle forced the Nixon administration to fire him to being an ambitious investigator in his 50s who would like to compete with Jules Kroll, a leader in the field. Like Arkin, Lenzner is attracted to the game of big-time corporate litigation, but, according to several former partners, his business has suffered recently. Lenzner’s assignment was to prepare a lengthy dossier that B&W could use to torpedo Wigand’s reputation with Jimmie Warren, the innovative Justice Department prosecutor running the investigation into the tobacco executives at Central Justice, the elite unit of the Justice Department which monitors national policies.


Wigand, Jeffrey. “About Dr.Wigand”.  2000.

“Smoke free kids”. 22 Sep 2005.

Enrich, David. “Jeffrey Wigand”. PBS: 22 Sep 2005.

Wigand, Jeffrey. “The Inside that blow smoke at big tobacco”. Truth tellers. 2004.

US news and World reports. 24 Sep 2005.

Moyer, David. Wall Street Journal. 26 Jan 1996.



Jeffrey Wigand Essay

My Favorite Place: Home Essay

My Favorite Place: Home Essay.

My home is a place where one would expect such pleasure and enjoyment. This could be experienced as one would enter the front door of the home. As one enters, you would start to hear the sound of Disney XD shows such as Good Luck Charley or Ant Farm. Every television in the home will be turned up extremely loud with some type of kid show. It is then that one will understand and know, my home is occupied by children who may be under the age of 15.

The first thing that could be observed at my home is the collection of super hero action figures that is occupying the right corner of the great room. The hardwood floor of the great room is covered with super hero action figures which include Superman, Spiderman, Green Lantern, The Hulk and Batman. For each super hero action figure, the corner also includes a Bat cave for Batman, a Warehouse for Spiderman, a Nuclear Plant for the Hulk, and a mobile vehicle for Superman, just to name a few.

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Also in the great room, there is a large television sitting inside a cherry wood entertainment center. This flat screen television is normally on Comcast channel 68, Disney channel. On top of the entertainment center are trophies for softball and basketball of my 9 year old daughter. This collection displays all the first and second place trophies that he has been earning since the age of three. There is also a very large trophy that includes a beautiful queen on top of it and a very large tiara wrapped around it. This is the trophy and tiara that my 9 year old earned when she won her first Little Miss Byhalia Beauty Pageant at age 5. This room also include a tan and brown sofa and love seat with red pillows that makes sitting in the great room while the fire place is burning, very cozy.

To the left of the great room, one can admire the large open kitchen area. There are all black appliances in this area with oak cabinets. The cabinets are arranged in an “L” shape that makes moving around this room very easy. The kitchen and dinning area are attached and it includes a bay window that makes eating on those sunny mornings a great site for enjoying the beautiful outsides. The oak diner table matches the cabinets and is accessorized with red table decor.

To the right of the great room is a hall leading to two bedrooms and a bathroom room. This hallway is complete with hard wood flooring that shines as the large window allows the sunlight to shine through. Bedroom number one is covered with posters of teen groups such as One Direction and Mindless behavior. The white twin bed bedroom set is full of bright colors such as pink, green, red and yellow. The closet door is usually open to display the array of clothes that are only worn by teens. Bedroom number two includes a steel bunk bed set with Dallas Cowboys stars displayed throughout the entire room. This room also includes more Super hero action figures, remote control cars, a scooter and a number of cars and trucks that would make any little 4 year old boy excited.

The last room to explore is that room attached to the back of the great room. This room is the master suite that includes a huge queen size bed with huge posts. The cherry wood color combines well with the gold and burgundy comforter set. The gold and burgundy color continues on to the masters suite bathroom that has a huge Jacuzzi tub to the left end of the bath and a walk in shower to the right. Also the Jack and Jill vanity makes it easy for both my wife and me to be there at the same time.

My home is really my favorite place to be. The sounds of the different kids shows that are constantly on one of four televisions at all time. The smell of lavender from air fresheners and Gain’s laundry detergent and the site of my family relaxing on either the couch or one of the beds really makes each day here in it worth every second.

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My Favorite Place: Home Essay

Heroism Definition Essay Essay

Heroism Definition Essay Essay.

When asked to describe what a hero is, more often than not people would use movie characters such as The Amazing Spider­Man, Superman, Batman, or Captain America to provide examples of what best reflects the character traits of a hero. By definition, a hero is a person who is admired or idealized for courage, outstanding achievements, or noble qualities. This being said, these movie characters are very good examples of a hero. However, heroes can also be found among everyday people such as you and me.

Being a hero involves risk and it is initiated without the expectation of any material gain. In the book Grendel by John Gardner, Beowulf is the ultimate hero to the Geats because he is selfless in character and goes out of the way to serve the needs of others.

The ultimate hero is a person who leads by example and puts the needs of others before his or hers, no matter the cost. The most heroic person in my life is my mother.

She does not give me everything in the world, but she gives me what I need and that is enough. She leads by example and has taught me how to be content with who I am and the things that I have, and to make the most of each opportunity I am given. Without her guiding me throughout my life, I fear that I would be helpless and would not truly value the gift of life.

Heroism Definition Essay Essay

Heroism Essay Introduction Essay

Heroism Essay Introduction Essay.

What makes someone a hero? Is it saving lives, acting in a moment, speaking out, or sacrificing your life to fight for others? Can it be a superhero or can it be more common such as your relatives, friends or pets? Some people can be kind and courageous but only some get credit for it. This makes it hard to identify what a true hero is. True heroism is when someone is courageous, charitable and understanding of others.

True heroism involves someone being courageous.

Being courageous is not being afraid to stand up to help others. For example, Gandhi, a peaceful Indian protestor stood up for the Indians when they were rebelling against the caste system. This was a system when there was higher and lower classes. There was even a class called the “Untouchables” who did all the upper class’s dirty work. Gandhi found this unfair because it doesn’t matter what class you were born in, it is the character that you develop over time.

Officers arrested Gandhi for protesting against the caste system, their usual daily life. Gandhi showed courage when he stood up for what he believed in, even if it gave him a criminal record. If you are a cowardly person, then you can’t have the courage to stand up for what you believe in. This quality is necessary if you want to be a true hero.

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Heroism Essay Introduction Essay

Departure, Initiation, and Return Essay

Departure, Initiation, and Return Essay.

Departure, Initiation, and Return in Jorge Luis Borges’ “The Garden of Forking Paths” At first glance, Jorge Luis Borges’ short story, “The Garden of Forking Paths,” tells the tale of a Chinese agent for the Germans against the English during the first World War. In this short story, Yu Tsun (the spy) learns that a fellow agent has been eliminated. This means that he will undoubtedly be the next to be arrested and killed. This will probably happen before the end of the day.

Yu Tsun has a mission that must be performed: send the name of the city containing the English air base to Berlin without the message being intercepted before he is captured. Yu Tsun, although a flawed hero, is the story’s hero nonetheless, and the story outlines his attempt to fulfill his mission. Borges’ short story follows a mythological structure using Joseph Campbell’s three main stages of the hero’s journey: departure, initiation, and return. Along the way, Yu Tsun, quite by accident, discovers a tale of multiple paths, labyrinths both physical and metaphorical.

He learns of the concept of how multiple choices can lead to multiple realities. Even so, at the end, it appears that his fate has already been determined, and he has reached the last fork in his life’s path. Jorge Luis Borges uses this simple wartime spy story as a frame to tell a tale of philosophy, multiple worlds, and inescapable destiny. The story’s narrative begins with what turns out to be a spy’s confessional. The surface story tells of his mission and how he seeks to accomplish it in the face of obstacles. A mythological analysis says that the story has a hero’s departure.

It also says that the story has a call to adventure or “call to some high historical undertaking” (Campbell 51), a brief refusal of the call, a starting point when the call is accepted, and guides on the journey’s path . The story goes on as the spy departs for another location to carry out his mission. Time is running out and there is no way of escape. A deeper look into the story shows the initiation that takes the flawed hero to a different dimension (metaphorically). It also shows the hero as he seeks to capture the great prize (in his case, obtained by performing a seemingly impossible task).

At the end of the story, the pursuer of the spy finds the spy’s whereabouts. The spy is ultimately captured even as he completes his mission. Metaphorically, there is a return, the leaving of the other world and the bringing back of the prize. These are performed by the hero with (in a variation) unwitting help in the form of an opposing force. In the story, Borges tells of paths that diverge and converge, “diverse futures, diverse times which themselves also proliferate and fork” (267). So, too, a mythological critical analysis of the story reveals a multi-layered path.

The author of “The Garden of Forking Paths” converges the story’s multiple threads throughout the tale by use of the three main features of the hero’s journey. In spite of its unorthodox structure, the application of the simple mythological pattern of the hero’s adventure is evidenced in the story’s tripartite divisions into departure, initiation, return in “The Garden of Forking Paths” by Jorge Luis Borges. Yu Tsun is alerted to the fact that Captain Richard Madden, “[a]n Irishman at the service of England,” is in Viktor Runeberg’s (a fellow agent) apartment (263).

This telephone call metaphorically serves as a herald that a change is on the horizon, “Madden’s presence in Viktor Runeberg’s apartment meant the end of our anxieties and… also the end of our lives”(263). In this instance, while the adventure has already started in one sense (he is already an agent), he reaches the threshold of something different. He is certain that the end is near, and “it seemed… to [him] that that day… should be the one of [his] inexorable death” (263). He becomes depressed “in the midst of [his] hatred and terror,” not seeing anyway to fulfill his mission (264).

He says that he “must flee,” but what can he do in the short amount of time he believes he has left (264)? At this moment, the situation seems hopeless; he appears helpless and unable to complete his mission. However, “[s]omething—perhaps the mere vain ostentation of proving [his] resources were nil—made [him] look through [his] pockets”(264). He finds, among other things, a “revolver with one bullet”(264). This gives him the idea that “a pistol report can be heard at a great distance”(264). The “something” could be related in a mythological sense to supernatural aid.

While atypical because there is no form (of either flesh or spirit), it is help from a source outside of his conscious thought (264). He looks in the telephone book for a name and formulates a plan that is not immediately revealed to the reader. He sets out on his journey and goes to the train station. He gets in his seat and the train begins to move when he sees “[a] man whom [he] recognized running in vain to the end of the platform” (264-265). The man is his pursuer—Captain Richard Madden. Yu Tsun is frightened and “shrank into the far corner of the seat, away from the dreaded window” (265).

On the surface, this may look to be merely a narrow escape, but a mythological perspective takes a deeper look. This could be viewed as a parallel to crossing the first threshold and going into the unknown past a hostile guard. In The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Joseph Campbell says that, “[t]he adventure is always and everywhere a passage beyond the veil of the known into the unknown; the powers that watch at the boundary are dangerous; to deal with them is risky; yet for anyone with competence and courage the danger fades”(82).

This is not a perfect parallel, for the battle with the gatekeeper (who in this case is also the hero’s main adversary) is only won by the hero’s punctuality, not his skill and cunning, and the danger does not fade but is only delayed until the next train. As Yu Tsun gets to his seat, he notices his fellow travelers. They include “a few farmers, a woman dressed in mourning, a young boy who was reading with fervor the Annals of Tacitus, a wounded and happy soldier” (264). There is nothing interesting at face value. But, in this story, nothing should be aken at face value. Rene de Costa, a professor of romance languages at the University of Chicago and the author of Humor in Borges (Wayne), says, “This last qualifier is momentarily in tension with the first, but only until we realize why the wounded soldier is “happy. ” He is happy to be still alive. Indeed, for this soldier, the war is happily over. The traveling widow probably collects a pension, and the student at leisure is handily avoiding military service by dutifully studying the cyclical dynastic wars in imperial Rome.

The overall thrust of this story is not comic but ironic” (Costa). He gets off the train at the Ashgrove station. A boy at the station asks if he is “going to Dr. Stephen Albert’s house,” and then he tells him he “won’t get lost if [he] take[s] this road to the left and at every crossroads turn again to [his] left” (265). For Yu Tsun, these directions brings to mind that “such was the common procedure for discovering the central point of certain labyrinths” (265). This gets him to thinking of his ancestor Ts’ui Pen, “who renounced worldly power in order to write a novel… nd to construct a labyrinth in which all men would become lost” (265). He goes on with these thoughts until he comes to the house. Dr. Albert meets him at the door, and addressing Yu Tsun “in [his] own language” assumes that he “no doubt wish[es] to see the garden” (266). Yu Tsun learns that the garden Dr. Albert refers to is “the garden of forking paths” of his “ancestor Ts’ui Pen” (266). Yu Tsun follows him inside, and decides that his “irrevocable determination could wait” (266). This scene could be viewed metaphorically as a brief refusal of the call, if for only a few minutes.

While this is not the usual place to find a refusal in the sequence of events (showing the story to have an unorthodox structure), Campbell says “[t]he myths and folk tales of the whole world make clear that the refusal is essentially a refusal to give up what one takes to be one’s own interest” (59-60). This instance certainly falls under that category. Dr. Stephen Albert, “a Sinologist” brings his guest inside and they sit down together (266). Yu Tsun hears of his ancestor, Ts’ui Pen, and his choice to “close himself up for thirteen years in the Pavilion of the Limpid Solitude.

When he died, his heirs found nothing save chaotic manuscripts. His family… wished to condemn them to the fire; but his executor—a Taoist or Buddhist monk—insisted on their publication” (266). Yu Tsun is already aware of this, and says that he and the other descendants “continue to curse that monk… The book is an indeterminate heap of contradictory drafts… in the third chapter the hero dies, in the fourth he is alive” (266). The heirs of Ts’ui Pen look at the surface of events and see only confusion.

Yu Tsun goes physically through the complicated path to Albert’s house and began his journey into a world of unfamiliar ideas. Metaphorically, this can be related to the beginning of the initiation stage of the hero’s journey. Campbell says, “[o]nce having traversed the threshold, the hero moves in a dream landscape of curiously fluid, ambiguous forms” (97). Albert then says that the missing labyrinth is “of symbols… [a]n invisible labyrinth of time” (266). Albert points out that “no one in the vast territories that were his came upon the labyrinth” so, “the confusion of the novel suggest[s] to [him] that it [is] the maze” (266).

Albert has “questioned… the ways in which a book can be infinite” (266). Albert’s thoughts turn to “that night which is at the middle of the Thousand and One Nights when Scheherazade (through a magical oversight of the copyist) begins to relate word for word the story of the Thousand and One Nights, establishing the risk of coming once again to the night when she must repeat it, and thus on to infinity” (267). This instance in the Thousand and One Nights corresponds to the complexity woven into “The Garden of Forking Paths. Both stories have an unorthodox structure with a frame story, and stories within the main story being told. Evelyn Fishburn, author of “Traces of the Thousand and One Nights in Borges (Iowa),” et al, says, “[i]n a traditional labyrinth you have to turn, and turn, and turn again until you find the centre (or the way out). These turns are diversions (Latin divertere) which mean both to amuse and to turn aside. The “Nights” mission was to draw attention away from a serious concern (diversion) through entertainment (diversion)… For Scheherazade… t is a life-saving operation; her tales are what delays the moment of her execution”(Fishburn). Albert is also delaying Yu Tsun from his objective with his tale, although in this instance the delay is unintentional. Albert then shows Yu Tsun “a fragment of a letter [he] discovered” (267). The words left by Ts’ui Pen are “I leave to the various futures (not to all) my garden of forking paths” (267, italics). This passage illuminates for Albert that “ ‘the garden of forking paths’ [is] the chaotic novel;… ‘the various futures (not to all)’… the forking in time, not in space” (267).

Departure, Initiation, and Return Essay