While some states passed protective legislation business owners fought back claiming that such laws deprived them of their property. Courts often sided with businesses and ruled that social legislation violated a workers freedom of contract. Labor unions joined progressives to improve work conditions. Closed shop: a workplace where all employees must be a union member. Open Shop: nonunion workplace. Most workers and labor unions did not want to eliminate capitalism and the American way of life. They just wanted to improve how workers were treated.
Some workers did not want to change capitalism and they favored socialism.
Socialism: government owns most factories, transportation and utilities. Progressivism #81 The major labor union was the AFL led by Samuel Gompers. Only included skilled workers as the union felt that skilled workers could create the greatest potential for change in the workplace. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)-known as the Wobblies. Radical group of workers that wanted to overthrow capitalism. IWW welcomed the unskilled workers, women, and minorities.
Yet their radical views, strikes, sabotage, and boycotts caused many Americans to fear them, and government largely used force against them until they finally collapsed.
Reforming the Cities By 1920, for the first time, 50% of Americans lived in cities. Cities were overcrowded from immigrants arriving for jobs in factories. Progressivism #82 Cities could not provide adequate water, lighting, fire & police protection, or sewage treatment. Dirt, noise, stench, & inadequate bathing facilities were found in most cities. Disease was wide spread, especially the White Plague which was tuberculosis. Tenement-crowded apartments in the cities. Families of 8 or more would crowd into a one room apartment. There would be a bathroom for an entire floor of a tenement.
Cities and states began to spend more tax revenue to improve water delivery, lighting, police protection as a result of progressive efforts. 1 bathroom for every 3 rooms was required. New hospitals were built which helped reduce the White Plague. Progressivism #83 Progressives believe that clean and beautiful cities would produce better citizens and instill patriotism in immigrants. City planning movement developed in many cities in U. S. Led by Daniel Burnham. City planning created parks, playgrounds for city children, building codes, and sanitation standards. Examples of city planning are the Mall in Washington D.
C. And Central Park in New York City. Moral Reform Progressives wanted to clean up immoral behavior along with cities. Many believed that social problems such as crime and family break ups were due to alcohol and saloons. Many called for Prohibition-ban on the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcohol. Progressivism #84 Some businesspersons such as Henry Ford prohibited his workers from drinking. Colleges often prohibited students from using alcohol and school textbooks often taught the dangers of alcohol. Yet many immigrants were used to drinking. The saloon was similar to the pub in their old homelands in Europe.
They were raised around beer and wine. The saloon to many immigrants was a place to meet friends and find information about jobs. The Anti-Saloon League and Women’s Christian Temperance Union led the crusade against alcohol. Carrie Nation became famous for taking her hatchet into saloons and busting kegs open. In WWI the Navy banned alcohol and people were called on to avoid beer to save hops and barley. Progressivism #85 It became patriotic not to drink. Congress passed the 18th Amendment. 18th Amendment-banned the sale, manufacture and transport of alcohol. Progressives also sought to control movies.
The Great Train Robbery was the first real movie in U. S. By 1910, millions of Americans were going to Nickelodeons (movies which cost a nickel). Movies were cheap entertainment for the entire family. Yet some progressives believed that romance movies were immoral and sources of temptation. They wanted censorship though such censorship was limited. Progressives focused their energies on the poor and not on the discrimination of African Americans and Native Americans who did not benefit greatly from progressivism. Progressivism #86 W. E. B. DuBois-first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard.
Believed that African Americans should strive for education and be political active fighting for racial equality. Later became a Communist. Cofounder of NAACP. Booker T. Washington-African American who believed that African Americans should focus on education and not fight discrimination. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)-organization formed to end racial discrimination. NAACP won their first struggle in Guinn v. US and outlawed the grandfather clause that the South used to prevent African Americans from voting. National Urban League-formed to improve racial equality in employment and housing.
Progressivism had mixed results for immigrants. They helped city life but also criticized immigrants for drinking, gambling and supporting political bosses. They wanted to Americanize the immigrant. Native Americans were largely left out of Progressivism. Formed Society of American Indians. Progressivism #87 Reforming Government Progressives wanted government to be more responsive to the people. 17th Amendment-allowed for voters to elect U. S. Senators. Before this, each state legislature chose the U. S. Senate. Initiative-allows voters to introduce legislation.
Referendum-With enough signatures on a petition, voters can cause a law passed by the legislature to be put before the people for a vote. Recall-voters can remove an elected official from office by calling a special election. In 1900, McKinley wins Presidency with Theodore Roosevelt (Teddy or TR) as VP. When McKinley was assassinated Teddy became president. Teddy had been governor of New York and was a strong Progressive creating many reforms. Youngest President ever at 42, he believed the President should use government to cause change, not to keep a hand-off approach. Gave the White House its name.
Progressivism #88 150,000 coal miners went on strike for recognition of the union (United Mine Workers) and higher pay. Some wanted TR to have the government take over the mines. TR called for Arbitration-a third party settles disputes between two opposing sides. Workers received a shorter day and better pay but mine owners did not have to recognize the union. Everybody received something and TR called it a Square Deal which became TR’s campaign slogan in 1904. Tr’s Square Deal called for limiting the power of trusts and monopolies, promoting public health and safety, and improving working conditions.
TR believed big business was essential to the nation’s growth but should be regulated a big business could be irresponsible. Progressivism #89 Trusts-large corporations that combined resources to create monopolies and control markets. TR believed some trusts were bad in that they competed unfairly, sold inferior products, and corrupted politicians. Elkins Act-forbade shipping companies from giving rebates in return for business. Hepburn Act-authorized the ICC to set railroad rates and regulate interstate commerce. Food and drug companies often sold dangerous products.
Chemists would add ingredients such as skim milk to spoiled butter to make it look fresh. Drug companies sold medicines containing alcohol, cocaine, and morphine. Progressives wanted the government to pass laws requiring pure ingredients in products. Progressivism #90 The Jungle-bestselling book by Upton Sinclair about the unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry. Beef would be allowed to spoil, rats would nest on stacks of beef, and saliva from workers would contaminate the beef. Workers often worked in ankle deep body fluids, sometimes with open sores.
The book created a public outcry so TR and the progressives encouraged passage laws. Meat Inspection Act-required federal government to inspect meat. Pure Food and Drug Act-Forbade the manufacture, sale, or transport of food and medicine containing harmful ingredients and required labels of ingredients. TR and progressives were also concerned about the environment. Progressivism #91 Natural resources were being overused by business. Lumber companies would destroy vast areas of timber, ranchers grazed cattle on federal lands and consumed most seedlings, while miners would strip the surface soil for minerals.
TR set aside 150 million acres of forest reserves. Congress created national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, the first being Yellowstone National Park. TR believed that future generations should experience nature and the expanse of the West. Reclamation-making damaged land productive again. In 1908, TR does not seek reelection but supports William Howard Taft, his secretary of war. TR believed Taft would continue the progressive reforms. Democrats ran William Jennings Bryan. The right of citizens outside the legislature to originate legislation. Progressivism #92
Taft won and did continue progressivism with 90 antitrust suits against big companies (TR had 44), expanding power of ICC to regulate telephone and telegraph companies, set aside more land for conservation, reforms for workers and child labor, 8 hour workday for companies doing business with federal government. Also created Dept. of Labor. 16th Amendment-first permanent income tax in America. Yet Taft was different from TR. He lacked experience, did not enjoy the publicity of the presidency, and did not want to exceed the authority of the presidency.
Taft lost support of progressives when he allowed tariffs to be raised and some public lands to be sold. TR came back from a year on safari to find that Taft had weakened progressivism. Progressivism #93 TR decides to run for president again with the campaign of New Nationalism which called for tougher laws to protect workers, public health, and regulate business. Yet Taft gets the Republican nomination and TR forms his own political party, the Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party) Republicans are split and the Democrats with Woodrow Wilson, professor and governor of New Jersey, won the election.
New Freedom-tariff reduction, bank regulation, wage benefits, and antitrust legislation. Wilson wanted to help small business. He believed that government should be the agent for change but not be too strong to hurt individual freedom. Wilson lowered tariffs and raised income taxes. 20,000 1%, 50,000 6% Progressivism #94 Banks often failed when depositors became nervous and withdrew their money. Banks had nowhere to borrow in times of emergency. Federal Reserve Act-created the Federal Reserve Board to oversee 12 Federal Reserve Banks which could lend money to small banks to prevent bank failures.
Clayton Antitrust Act-Further limited power of monopolies by forbidding companies to sell products below cost and preventing businesses from buying a competing company’s stock to create a monopoly. Federal Trade Commission (FTC)-investigate and punish corporations engaged in fraudulent business practices. The last Progressive measure was women’s suffrage. Anti-Suffragists-opposed women’s right to vote. Strong opposition as businesses feared if women had the right to vote they would require better pay. Progressivism #95
Liquor interests for years had feared women would vote for prohibition, while many men feared the vote would rob women of their beauty and charm, making them less feminine. National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA)-leading force formed by Carrie Chapman Catt with 2 million members led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. NAWSA adopted a local strategy getting the vote passed in individual states. In the West, where women were more self-sufficient, more states gave women the right to vote in state elections. National Woman’s Party-led by Alice Paul who was more radical. Adopted a national strategy.
Women contributed greatly in volunteer efforts in WWI and this helped the cause for Women’s Suffrage. 19th Amendment-granted women the right to vote in 1920. Imperialism #96 Imperialism-quest for colonial empires. Imperialism arose from the desire for new markets for products, raw materials, and power. Countries such as England, France, Germany and the Netherlands expanded their influence in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to find markets for their products as industrialized countries produced more than they could consume. Expansionism became links to imperialism. Imperialists-those who supported expansionism.
Anti-imperialists-those who opposed expansionism. It was felt that the U. S. Should expand to protect our economy by finding new markets for our products and to strengthen our military. Alfred Mahan-proposed that the U. S. Needed a strong Navy to protect our economic interests in foreign markets. Manifest Destiny- (our duty to) spread Democracy, Christianity, and Social Darwinism. Imperialism #97 A large Navy needed overseas bases, like colonies for repair and rest. Besides expanding for new markets, expansion would spread American ideals of democracy and Christianity to weak and poor countries.
Hawaii was important due to its location as a perfect place for a Navy to refit and refuel. Hawaii (Sandwich Islands) were united under King Kamehameha. The islands were also valuable for sugar cane, pineapple, and whaling. U. S. Missionaries arrived and taught the Hawaiians Christianity and English but also brought disease which reduced the population from 300,000 to 40,000. U. S. Investors began to dominate the sugar and pineapple industry and bringing in Japanese laborers as the Hawaiian population declined. A new treaty allowed Hawaiian sugar to be sold to the U. S.
Duty-free in exchange for Hawaii promising to not let any other country interfere in Hawaii. Imperialism #97 Hawaiian King Kalakaua was forced to sign a treaty (Bayonet Treaty) which gave complete control of Pearl Harbor to America. The U. S. Then withdrew the special duty-free status of sugar cane for Hawaii which severely hurt the Hawaiian economy. King Kalakaua died and his sister Liliuokalani became Queen. She sought to overthrow the Bayonet Constitution and return control of Hawaii to the Hawaiians with a new constitution. Americans who wanted to annex Hawaii to the U.
S. Then surrounded Iolani Palace and Queen Liliuokalani was arrested and forced to give up the throne. She was kept prisoner in Iolani Palace. A new government was established with Sanford Dole as President. He petitioned President Cleveland for annexation of Hawaii. Cleveland did not like the way Hawaii was taken and ordered an investigation which recommended that Queen Liliuokalani be placed back as Queen. Imperialism #98 Before this could happen, William McKinley became President and he approved annexation. Hawaii was annexed in 1897 despite opposition from most Hawaiians.
Hawaii remained a territory of the U. S. Until 1959 when it became the 50th state. Queen Liliuokalani remained in Hawaii and died the last royal in 1917. In 1993 the U. S. Congress apologized for the U. S. Role in the overthrow of the Queen. Hawaii was also valuable because of its location to trade in China with it’s huge population. Japan had attacked China making it weak. England, France, Germany, and Russia all carved out spheres of influence. Spheres of Influence: Regions where a particular country has control over mines, railroads, and trade. The U. S. wanted to participate in this trade with China.