Changes to Transport in 1750 Essay

Changes to Transport in 1750 Essay.

In this essay, I will be explaining how transport changes how they helped British People during the Industrial Revolution. I will be writing about three types of transport: Roads, Canals and Railways.

At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, in 1750, it was very difficult to travel on roads as there were a lot of holes that were full of water, which meant there was no drainage. This waster filled up all the ruts. All of the rough roads made the carriages break down.

Plus, they were not able to carry large, bulky or fragile goods, or otherwise the roads will break!

This image shows the development of roads during the Industrial Revolution. However, after 1750, there WERE some improvements. Like, turnpike trusts were set up. Turnpike trusts were toll roads where people had to pay money to use them. Businessmen/women needed flat and hard roads to allow bigger carriages make use of them safely. These toll roads allowed this to occur.

All the roads were straightened and levelled, there were also bridges built where streams/rivers were. All of this led to an argument. People were still angry with roads as they STILL couldn’t carry large, bulky or fragile goods from town to town. Also they were complaining because they had to pay money for a road that had previously had been free to use.

Afterwards, a new transport was invented by James Brindley. He had invented the Canal for the Duke of Bridgewater so his people can transport more goods easier to different areas of the country. It was opened in 1761 by its inventor. Factory owners needed to get raw materials like cotton and iron to their factories. Canals to a long time to build, for example, the first canal took two years to build. This is one of the Bridgewater Canal’s.

Some advantages were that animals were allowed to travel on canals. They were deep enough to carry forty tonnes of weight and they did not cause any congestion on rivers. All of the canals were sold AND bought as there was a huge success in England to travel and transport goods to different countries. Also, they were able to carry large, bulky and fragile goods.

Some disadvantages were that canals were breaking down due to heavy instrumental goods which sank it. They could freeze up in the winter and dry out in the summer if they were not topped up with water daily. Foods rotted quickly as refrigerated units were still to be invented. They were to slow and couldn’t carry daily newspapers as they were delivered two-three days after the newspaper’s date. Also, factory owners had to wait a long period of time for the goods to be transported to them.

When the invention of railways came, the use of canals slowly declined. Some canals closed down as a result of the development of railways. This would be problem as the people who owned Canal’s would be poor. In the Industrial Revolution, steam trains were the best transport. This was because they had a lot of advantages. One of them was that they could also carry large, bulky AND fragile goods. They could deliver fresh goods to factory owners and give out daily newspapers. They were faster than canal’s and they were cheap to use. More jobs were created for people as they needed someone to run the railways.

In conclusion, I think the changes to transport 1750-1900 did benefit British People because each change had an impact to the people in Britain. They each had shorter travelling time over longer distances and they each helped business people get more money and to seek different markets in different areas of Europe. They all carried goods and raw materials and transported them town to town. Some of them even helped the transport goods to different countries in the world aswell.

Changes to Transport in 1750 Essay

The Domestic System Essay

The Domestic System Essay.

The Domestic System was in occurrence from around 1720 to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1750. The way the Domestic System worked, was because each individual family worked for themselves, in their own home. Firstly, the businessman would buy amounts of wool from sheep farmers. He would then go on to give poor families the wool and the necessary machinery such as looms. The idea was that the family would make the yarn and then subsequently, cloth/textile and then sell it back to the businessman.

Next, the businessman would sell the cloth of textile on to the clothiers, so that they could make clothes out of it, as the name suggests.

However, as peasants’ cottages had a limited amount of working space, it was usually the case that it took several different families to produce the final product. For example, the first family would clean the wool. They would then take the cleaned wool on to the second family, who would card the wool (carding is the process that separates the individual wool fibres from each other).

Once the wool was cleaned and carded, it would be spun into yarn by the young girls of the next family (these girls were often known as spinsters, and it was believed that if they didn’t marry at a young age, they would remain un-married for the rest of their life, hence the term today ‘spinster’). The final part of the process was the yarn being woven into cloths with a hand loom. Of course, these different parts of the process could be mixed around, so that it only took two families to make the cloth, or maybe three.

Advantages of the Domestic System:

The main benefit of the Domestic System was that the families could work at their own pace, and take breaks whenever they wanted to. This is because there was no one else but themselves in their home, to tell them when they needed to work, and how fast. Of course, they would have known they would’ve had to work at a particular pace so that they could get the job done, and therefore be paid. Another benefit was that because it was usually the women who did a lot of the work, there was always someone to be at home to look after the younger children, as this would not be the case in the future Industrial Revolution. And another final advantage of the system was that it was (mostly) fair. Because depending on how much the family produced, that was how much they were paid. So for example, if a family worked really hard and produced lots of cloth, then they would be paid more than another family who worked not as hard and didn’t produce as much cloth.

Disadvantages of the Domestic System:

The biggest disadvantage of the Domestic System was that there was a low production level. Especially as different parts of the process were done by different families, it took time to complete your own part, and then pass it on to another family who would then do their part etc. All this added up to, was that it took quite a long time for a small amount of cloth to be produced, which is, in essence, why the Industrial Revolution came about. The next disadvantage of the Domestic System was that many families were putting their young children into work – even as young as four years old. Because of this, many young children had their childhoods scarred by working alongside their family so that they could get by in life.

Of course, the Domestic System was easier on young children than the Industrial revolution ever was, as these children were with their families and in a familiar and (usually) safe environment, which brings me onto my next point. As the businessmen began to improve their production process, this meant that the machines in the households were getting bigger and bigger, and even more dangerous. As a result, the chance of having an accident whilst working became higher and higher.

Based on this information, I can conclude that the Domestic System was beneficial, in the sense that it was fairer than work was during the Industrial Revolution, and that the workers were able to work at their own pace, as they were working from their houses. On the contrary, the system meant that production of the cloth/textiles was slow, as the materials had to be moved from house to house, and the task itself was slow and laborious. Also, young children were being put into work, meaning that they were not able to enjoy life as a kid, but having to work for their keep. However, despite the various advantages and disadvantages, the Domestic System provoked the start of the Industrial Revolution, a time that has shaped our life today.

The Domestic System Essay

Industrial Products Essay

Industrial Products Essay.

Industrial products are those purchased for further processing or for use in conducting a business. Thus, the distinction between a consumer product and an industrial product is based on the purpose for which the product is bought. If a consumer buys a lawn mower for use around home, the lawn mower is a consumer product. If the same consumer buys the same lawn mower for use in a landscaping business, the lawn mower is an industrial product.

The three groups of industrial products and services include material and parts, capital items, and supplies and services.

Materials and parts include raw materials and manufactured materials and parts. Raw material consist of farm products (wheat, cotton, livestock, fruits, vegetables) and natural products (fish, lumber, crude petroleum,, iron ore). Manufactured materials and parts consist of component materials (iron, yarn, cement, wires) and component parts (small motors, tires, castings). Most manufactured materials and parts are sold directly to industrial users. Price and service are the major marketing factors; branding and advertising tend to be less important.

Capital items are industrial products that aid in the buyer’s production or operations, including installations and accessory equipment. Installations consist of major purchases such as buildings (factories, offices) and fixed equipment (generators, drill presses, larger computer systems, elevators). Accessory equipment includes portable factory equipment and tools (hand tools, lift trucks) and office equipment (computers, fax machines, desks). They have a shorter life than installations and simply aid in the production process.

The final group of industrial products is supplies and services. Supplies include operating supplies (lubricants, coal, paper, pencils) and repair and maintenance items (paint, nails, brooms). Supplies are the convenience products of the industrial field because they are usually purchased with a minimum of effort or comparison. Business services include maintenance and repair services (window cleaning, computer repair) and business advisory services (legal, management consulting, advertising). Such services are usually supplied under contract. Industrial product by individuals and organizations for further processing or for use in conducting a business.

Industrial Products Essay

Industrialization Speech Essay

Industrialization Speech Essay.

Good evening. I am the Prime Minister of Great Britain. I am here today to address you all regarding the current “state of the world” in terms of industrialization. Industrialization is defined as the development of industry of a massive scale. I would like to first start by explaining how industrialization came to be. Like many other movements seen throughout history, it can be traced directly back to agriculture. Advancements in agricultural techniques such as the use of large farms and fertilizer were both originated by the Dutch.

Great Britain also led to advancements in the field by determining that different types of soil can foster different types of plants more effectively and that planting crops in specific orders can yield a greater result.

The technology used in the field of agriculture also advanced. Jethro Tull of Great Britain invented the seed drill; a device that exponentially increased the speeds at which fields could be planted. Another new practice that increased farm productivity was the circulation of farm journals.

Farmers now had the ability to learn about what techniques worked, meaning they no longer had to experiment on their own. All of these new methods and technologies used together meant that more food was produced, which caused a large population boom. This surplus of people needed jobs, which meant that there was a workforce available.

While technological advancements were plentiful in the field of agriculture, they were not limited to it. New forms of energy such as steam and coal allowed for new forms of transportation. Thomas Newcomen invented the original steam engine, which was later improved upon by James Watt. The process of smelting iron is improved upon by Abraham Darby. All of these advancements allowed industrialization to begin.

The effects of industrialization are truly a double edged sword. While there are positives, there are just as many negatives. However, those problems are fixable. One of the major benefits of industrialization is the creation of jobs. The massive amounts of people caused by the advancements in agriculture need jobs if they want to survive. The creation of factories due to industrialization provides these people with the opportunity to have a job. Another benefit is the production of cheap mass produced goods. Owning clothing that was not hand made by either you or someone in your family is no longer restricted to people with money to spare.

Clothing is now produced cheaply so that they can be bought by more people. Yet another benefit of industrialization is the advancements made in transportation. Without the need to transport mass amounts of goods created in factories, George Stephenson would not have created the steam locomotive, and Robert Fulton would not have created the steam ship. New forms of communication have also been developed out of needs caused by industrialization. Samuel Morse invented the telegraph, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone, and Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio. None of those three inventions would be in existence had it not been for industrialization.

As I said earlier, the positives created are accompanied by negatives. While factories provide those needing jobs with jobs, they work long hours in unsafe conditions for miniscule pay. Not only that, but these workers face the constant threat of unemployment. The wages earned by workers are so low that children as young as five years old often have to work in factories to help support their families. Life does not get much better for these workers when the work day ends, as the many members of the working class live in harsh living conditions called slums. Whole families can sometimes be crammed into a single room.

While the problems are abundant, they can be fixed. Factory reforms that ensure safer working conditions, shorter hours, and higher wages can help to abolish these problems. If workers have higher wages, then they can afford to live in better housing then slums. In addition, if families are making more money, they would no longer have to send their children to work in factories. Children would once again be allowed to be children.

While we are already feeling the impacts of industrialization, I believe that they will extend far into the future. While factories currently produce a limited amount of things, I believe someday that almost all goods will be mass produced in factories. While the discovery of using coal and steam for energy is revolutionary, I believe that more sources of energy will be discovered that will be even more powerful. These new forms of energy might lead to other advancements, such as in transportation or communication. Maybe someday humans will be able to soar like birds. Perhaps one day we will be able to see someone when we are talking to them, no matter how far apart we are. The possibilities are seemingly endless.

Industrialization Speech Essay

Consequences of Industrialization Essay

Consequences of Industrialization Essay.

1.- Population and Economic Growth

One of the most important changes was the continuous expansion of the population and the economy. Most observers in the eighteenth century did not believe that expansion of the population and the economy could be sustained indefinitely.

The population had consistently expanded as the greater agricultural productivity permitted maintaining an adequate food supply. The industrial economy had been able to employ large numbers of workers. Industrialized nations continued to experience an increase in the gross national product and per capita income.

2.- Standards of Living

There has been much debate about the impact of industrialization on the working class. The optimists have pointed to the long-term effects of industrialization. Pessimists have emphasized the fact that improvements did not appear for several decades after the beginning of industrialization. Contemporary critics such as Friedrich Engels accused industrial capitalists of robbing the workers of their just wages. Social philosopher Karl Marx used Engels’ critique to call for workers to revolt and seize control of the means of production.

Pessimists also point to the early decades of industrialization, when people were forced to live in decrepit housing around the factories in polluted towns and cities (normally in terrible slum conditions). The monotonous and exhausting nature of factory work adds to the pessimists’ argument against the positive effects of the Industrial Revolution.

3.- Women, Children, and Industry

During the early Industrial Revolution, large numbers of women and children were part of the workforce. They were willing to accept lower wages and were more easily disciplined. The factory system changed family life. In the early years of the Industrial Revolution many families worked together in the factories and mines.

The British Factory Act of 1833 enforced restrictions against child labor. Women who did work were usually young and unmarried. The Industrial Revolution did not improve the status of women. Their pay was too little to give them financial independence or prestige, and they frequently were under the control of the male workers.

4.- Old and new social classes

Historians describe industrial society as divided into three classes based on the type of property they owned. The aristocracy owned land. The bourgeoisie owned capital enterprises and gained their wealth from profits. The working class owned only their labor and received wages.

5.- Industrial Landscape

The Industrial Revolution changed the landscape. Small towns grew into huge cities. In the countryside, bridges, viaducts, railroad lines, and canals were built to improve transportation. The destruction of the natural beauty of the landscape caused a nostalgic reaction that led to the romantic movement in art and literature.

GLOSSARY

Canal: An artificial waterway or improved river used for travel, shipping, or irrigation.

Factory system: A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building

Invention: A new device, method, or process developed from study and experimentation

Labor: Productive work, especially physical work, done for wages

Steam engine: An engine that converts the heat energy of pressurized steam into mechanical energy. This invention revolutionized transportation and was used to power trains and boats.

Slum: A neighborhood with overcrowded, dangerous housing

Consequences of Industrialization Essay

Industrial Revolution Summary Essay

Industrial Revolution Summary Essay.

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes that occurred in the period from about 1760 to some time between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and development of machine tools. The transition also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. The Industrial revolution began in Britain and within a few decades spread to Western Europe and the United States.

The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Most notably, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. In the words of Nobel Prize winner Robert E. Lucas, Jr., “For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth … Nothing remotely like this economic behavior has happened before”.

[2]

William Bell Scott Iron and Coal, 1855-60

The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians. Eric Hobsbawm held that it ‘broke out’ in Britain in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s,[3] while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830.[4] Some 20th-century historians such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts have argued that the process of economic and social change took place gradually and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among historians.[5][6] GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy.[7]

The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.[8] Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants.[9] The First Industrial Revolution evolved into the Second Industrial Revolution in the transition years between 1840 and 1870, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the increasing adoption of steam-powered boats, ships and railways.

Industrial Revolution Summary Essay

The Impact of Industrialization on Russia (1750-1914) Essay

The Impact of Industrialization on Russia (1750-1914) Essay.

In the late 19th century, Russia began its process of industrialization following its defeat at the hands of Western nations in the Crimean War. Russia’s Industrial Revolution was further helped along by its growing population and an increasing labor force. As the industrial process continued, it sprang forth new jobs in mining, factory work, and railroad construction.

This influx of jobs was taken by an influx of people, come from the country to work in the cities as cheap laborers, taking up dangerous, low-paying jobs.

In spite of all these changing times and circumstances, the tension between the upper and lower classes remained taut as a drum, building up under the fabric of society. Industrialization in Russia had an enormous, lasting impact that set Russia on the course for the troubles that would happen in the future.

The 1750 to 1914 period in Russia was met by a large increase in the available labor force. Coupled with an increase in population, Russia’s emancipation of the serfs freed many of Russia’s serfdom from perpetual slavery.

However, the emancipation process was planned so as to put the freed serfs deeply in debt to the original owners of the land. In fact, many of the serfs were so deeply indebted that they relocated to Russia’s cities in search of better work opportunities. When combined with the already growing population, the urban labor force swelled greatly. As a result of industrialization and the availability of labor, many job openings were provided to the urban labor force. Factories needed workers and maintenance, with huge amounts of factory-produced goods being produced and processed. Another source of jobs was in the mining industry.

The mining industry bloomed after the Russia’s industrial boom, with many raw materials needed by the factories in order to facilitate production. The mining (for materials like iron and coal) process was very dangerous, and many workers died working in the mines. Also, men were needed for the building of Russia’s extensive railroad network, the Trans-Siberian Railroad. This increased employment helped Russia’s economy rise from the agriculture-dominated economy of pre-industrialization to a wealthier, more well-rounded economy.

During the era of the serfs, the serfs worked for no pay, while their landlords became exceedingly rich off the serf’s labor. However, even after the emancipation of the serfs, the lower classes were still preyed upon by the upper classes. In factories, workers would soon observe the same patterns.

The workers lived and died in virtual bankruptcy, while the men on the higher tiers of the workplace management structure would get rich off of the workers’ hard labor. After this, the workers began pushing for reform to try and change the unfair stratification of the company income. This continued tension between the upper and lower classes were one of the major, if not the major factor that spurred the chain of revolutions and revolts that occurred in Russia in the early 20th century.

Industrialization did have a huge impact on both Russia as a nation and as a people. In the era of Russian revolutions, the upper vs. lower class struggle is really one of the main points surrounding the cause for rebellion. With the industrialization came the labor workers, and for the laborers, jobs were created. Industrialization helped make Russia a strong, independent nation, and set it on its way to find its government.

The Impact of Industrialization on Russia (1750-1914) Essay

Gilded Age DBQ Essay

Gilded Age DBQ Essay.

“The politics of the Gilded Age failed to deal with the critical social and economic issues of the times.”

Assess the validity of this statement. Use both the documents and your knowledge of the United States from 1865 to 1900.

Whether or not the politics of the Gilded Age failed in dealing with social and economic issues has long been debated by historians. Peeling away streaks of gold plastered on the deficiencies of the time, the cause of such problems can be unveiled.

In finding a blame for the corruption within the growing economy and its demands on a wavering society, all fingers point to the politics of the Gilded Age.

Heel to heel with the end of the Civil War, the Gilded Age was a baptism of sorts; it was freedom’s debut and moral consciousness’ rebirth. Slavery was well on its way to becoming a blemish of a freedom-loving country, and the practices of American citizens shifted like a street car on its rail.

The development of a leisure culture encouraged entertainment and play time amongst rapidly growing cities. Industrialization boomed with the encouragement of job-seeking immigrants, European financial support, the government’s nod of approval, and entrepreneurs’ wallets. As idealistic as the circumstance appeared to be- and seemingly close to being realistic- the lines of unspoken social and economic justices blurred. Control and regulation of the businesses and its laborers led to a political tug o’ war. The urbanization of the Gilded Age provides a basis for the understanding of the country’s progress in a court of law and the events to follow the era.

The compelling need to compete for jobs, as well as control of the business itself, was a driving force that had the potential to make or break the success of the times. James Bryce’s The American Commonwealth highlights the “neglect” of the details of politics and the strain it placed on people. With the end of the war came a sudden abundance of material production and development of the West. As quick as the rise of the economy came was as fast as the single breath of rest for the people went. Social reformer Henry Demarest Lloyd called for a “renaissance of [morals]” and a halt on materialistic desires. If the nation continued to expand without reflecting upon itself, the system would fail in dispensing its wealth. The tendencies of wanting to form a monopoly or control the formation of one created a spectrum, a distance between a choice of economic interests and social stability. By ignoring the country’s virtues in question, the government also ignored the well-being of its people.

Citizenship was encouraged through the approval of unions and busts of trusts, but nothing was done to encourage the minority’s rise on the class ladder. The burdens and weight of urbanization was dispensed on the shoulders of the working class. Long hours within factories weakened their physical health and positive perspective of the industrial system. Addressing the relations of labor and capital, it became evident that the success of the industrial system called for a sacrifice of the laborers. (Doc 1, Doc 2, Doc 6)

Money-stuffed business owners steered the government’s actions during the Gilded Age like their own private car. Neither existing government parties found it in their interest to rid of the “grievous wrongs…inflicted upon the suffering people.” Becoming a leading industrial world power, it was easier to refrain from heavy taxing in support of manufacturers. The government’s land’s worth would be increased while the poor’s room to move amongst class ranks decreased. The strategies of both parties focused on distracting the masses with a crisis of tariffs. A critical analysis of the corruption amongst national banks, rings, trusts, and that of capitalists would be ignored much to their delight. So long as the funds of millionaires were a priority in Congress- as the Senate saw to it- the minority was left in the dust of construction and expansion. (Doc 3, Doc 7) As the exploitation of the government came to light, Congress was forced to save face and demonstrate a neutrality towards businesses.

The Interstate Commerce Act of 1877 quenched the thirst for change because it regulated railroads and the pools being formed. It called for carriers to decline from offering “undue…preferences” to any particular person, company, firm, etc. Favoritism would be eliminated, but so would opportunity to advance competitively as exemplified in the act of legislature of 1888. Apprentices that had been indentured had a right to properly learning the skill of their practiced trade. However, as technological advances took control of factories, laborers lost relevance to production. They no longer needed to be mindful of operating machines considering the machine itself did most of the services.

Conclusion

A balance between employers and laborers was virtuously necessary, but concluded in a stalemate. (Doc 4, Doc 5) Despite the nation’s increase in wealth through urbanization and the façade of a prospering people, the fraudulency of the Gilded Age crippled the masses in their rise to security. The competiveness amongst laborers, a battle for control of trusts and their extermination, and the government’s favoritism for big businesses aided in the downfall of an era. What could have been an outwardly and inwardly gold time period merely became a sham. The disappointment of what was being disguised set the stage for the looming shadow of the Progressive Movement.

Gilded Age DBQ Essay