Intlligence Defnition and Measure Essay

Intlligence Defnition and Measure Essay.

Defining and measuring intelligence remains just as controversial as it was when the first very first intelligence test was developed and administered. Over the years, various instruments have been developed, but intelligence ultimately remains undefined. In this paper, the writer will critique the major definitions of intelligence and determine the most appropriate definition for each intelligence and achievement instrument. The writer will consider the ethical implications of utilizing intelligence and achievement tests in educational settings. Lastly, the writer will compare and contrast the selected achievement and intelligence measurements.

Intelligence Definitions

The Merriam -Webster online dictionary defines intelligence as: (1). the ability to learn or understand to deal with new trying situations, (2). the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (tests). Cohen and Swerdlik (2010), notes that intelligence manifest itself in the following abilities: acquiring and using knowledge, logically reasoning skills, effective planning, perception, judgment making, problem solving attention, visualizing concepts, intuition, and coping, adjusting, and dealing with situations.

However, theses abilities do not absolutely define intelligence, instead, they provide an outline of characteristics in which intelligence can be measured.

Francis Galton, Alfred Binet, David Wechsler, and Jean Piaget are considered the most influential contributors in developing, defining and understanding intelligence. Galton is known for making the first serious attempt to develop measures which would assess a person’s intelligence. Galton proposed the intelligence was merely a combination of the right genes. He believed that there was a correlation between intelligence and physical development of the brain and body.

Wechsler defined intelligence as “the aggregated or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment” (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, p. 280). He further reasoned that each that no two individuals share the same intelligence, thus, intellectual abilities should be uniquely measured. Unlike the others, Piaget does not actually define or explain what intelligence is; rather he explains how it is developed (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). Piaget proposed that intelligence starts developing in early childhood. He believed during this stage, children learned essential cognitive skills to assist in adaptation. Binet developed an important intelligence measure known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. However, he did not define intelligence. Instead, he outlined components of intelligence, such as “reasoning, judgment, memory and abstraction.” (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, p. 280).

Intelligence and Achievement Measures

The two intelligence measures selected for evaluation are the Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales – Fifth Edition and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition. The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale, fifth Edition is also referred to as the SB5. There have been various editions over the years, but this assessment has undeniably become known as the standard for intelligence measurement. The assessment was originally developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. The SB5 is considered an assessment for all ages. The test comprehensively measures five factors of cognitive ability: (1) fluid reasoning, (2) knowledge, (3) quantitative processing, (4) visual-spatial processing, and (5) working memory.

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition is also referred to as the WAIS. The test is designed to measure intelligence of individuals between 16-90 years old. The most recent version of the test is composed of 10 core subtest and five supplemental subtests. Previous versions included the verbal/performance subscales, but those subscales have been replaced by the index scores in the WAIS-IV. The General Ability Index was included (GAI) which consists of the Similarities, Vocabulary and Information subtests from the Verbal Comprehension Index and the Block Design, Matrix Reasoning and Visual Puzzles subtests from the Perceptual Reasoning Index (Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia, 2010).

The two achievement measures selected for evaluation are the Stanford Achievement Test, Tenth Edition and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test is an extension of his definition of intelligence. The test is composed of 16 subtests and was developed with the intent to assess each person’s intelligence differently. The Standford achievement test is also referred to as the SAT. This test is administered to high school students. The test assesses developed reasoning. It was initially devised as an instrument to identify gifted students from underprivileged backgrounds. It was presumed to measures aptitude rather than knowledge students acquired through school.

Reliability, Validity, Normative Procedures, and Bias

Reliabilities for the WAIS are considered to be “very good.” Additionally, the Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) is commonly small. The subtests have test-retest reliabilities between .81 to .94, with a few falling lower. As to practice effects over a one to three month time, Verbal IQ increased about 3 points, Performance IQ about 6 to 7 points, and Full Scale IQ about 4 or 5 points. Inter-rater reliability is also rather good (Niolon, 2005).

According to Niolon, content validity is determined by expert judges who review the items (2005). Criterion Validity was determined by correlating WAIS-R and WAIS III. The WAIS III is also correlated with other measures to include the: SB4, the WISC-III, and the WIAT. Construct validity was established through factor analysis. Studies found that g was supported, and that verbal subtests correlated better with each other than performance subtests. The same was true for performance subtests verses verbal, but not as strongly (Niolon, 2005). The normative procedures consisted of a sample size of 2200 participants. There were 200 examinees per age band for ages 16-69 and 100 examinees per age band for ages 70-90. The national sample was stratified by: sex, education level, ethnicity and region (Pearson, 2008).

The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales were measured for reliability using the interscorer agreement, the split-half method, and the test-retest method. Normative data for the SB5 was collected from 4,800 individuals between the ages of 2.0 and 85 + years. According to Roid, the normative sample closely matches the 2000 U.S. Census (2003). Bias reviews were conducted on all items by considering the following variables: ethnicity, cultural, region, religion, gender, and socio-economic status. This test was co-normed with the Bender-Gestalt Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, 2nd Edition. Reliabilities for the test have been reported as “very high.” Reliabilities notably range from .95 to .98 (average internal consistency composite reliability, across all age groups) (Roid, 2003). For the factor indexes, reliability range from .90 to .92. The ten subtests have consistently measured between .84 to .89 for reliability However, concurrent and criterion validity data is established by using other measures such as Stanford-Binet Form L-M, Woodcock-Johnson III, WAIS III etc.

Compare and Contrast Intelligence and Achievement Assessments Goals

The primary objective of the WAIS IV is to demonstrate updated foundations, improve the developmental appropriateness, make the test more accessible by approving user friendliness, increase developmental appropriateness, boost clinical use, and improve psychometric features (Wechsler, 2008). The primary goal of the Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition is to be a valid and comprehensive assessment tool of which measures intelligence and cognitive abilities (Roid, 2003).

The objective of the SAT, Tenth Edition is to assess academic progress and to indentify those with special needs. Finally, the main goal of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition is to “provide more in-depth academic assessment and intervention recommendations particularly for students who may have specific learning disabilities” (Pearson, 2009, para.

1). Uses

The Wechsler Intelligence Scales should be administered by trained professionals within a 90 minute time frame. The test has many versions which assess children, adolescents, and adults. There are several subscales, but the verbal scales specifically measure: general knowledge, memory, language, and reading. The performance scales assess spatial reasoning, problem solving and sequencing (IUPUI, 2011). The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales assess verbal and nonverbal abilities. The assessment generally administered between 15 to 45 minutes considering which areas are measured (Roid, 2003).

The SAT is an educational assessment usually administered by pencil and paper. This assessment is untimed and facilitators do not require specialized training. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests has been revised to accommodate individuals between 4-50 years old. The test can last as long as two hours and is administered by pencil and paper.


The Wechsler Intelligence Scales are used for the following purposes: identifying learning disabilities, determining suitability for school placement, identifying intellectual giftedness, and assessing intellectual development. According to Roid, The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales are used for clinical assessment, neuropsychological assessment, early childhood assessment, placement in special education classes, career assessment, and indentifying developmental delays (2003).

The purpose of the SAT is to measure educational progress in individuals ages 5 to 19. They are tested on their ability to learn and retain course materials, and to determine if they meet criteria for special education, honors, or remedial courses. Finally, the purpose of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test is to determine academic level of individuals and to determine if individuals have any specific learning qualities (Pearson, 2009).

Ethical Considerations in Education

As with any form of testing, there are certainly ethical implications with intelligence and achievement testing. Major concerns include: labeling, segregation based on scoring, and privacy violation. According to Denmark, standardized tests must effectively gauge student achievement without giving certain students an advantage over others. Some researchers suggest that the way the tests are composed causes a particular group to be more likely to misinterpret information due to cultural background, language/dialect inference and gender (2013). Other ethical issues include: gender bias, linguistic bias, test security and alternative assessment.


Intelligence and achievement tests come in many different forms. Test administrators are left with a tedious task of identifying which assessment best measures the populations needs. In addition, ethical elements must be considered. With all the assessments, there is still no one test which measures intelligence in its totality. The instruments do in fact help professionals identify giftedness or intellectual disability. As a result, individuals are afforded a better learning environment with specific tools designed to help them successfully meet their needs.

Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2010). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurement (7th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Denmark, Bonnie (2013). Ethical Issues in the Preparation of a Standardized Test. Retrieved from: on February 4, 2013. Merriam-Webb Online Dictionary. Retrieved from: on February 4, 2013. Niolon, Richard (2005). Introduction to the WAIS III. Retrieved from: on February 4. 2013. Pearson. (2009). Wechsler Individual Achievement test-Third Edition. Retrieved from Mental Measurements Yearbook.

Roid, G (2003). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition. Retrieved from Mental Measurements Yearbook.

Intlligence Defnition and Measure Essay

The Only Place Where Succes Comes Before Work Is in a Dictionary Essay

The Only Place Where Succes Comes Before Work Is in a Dictionary Essay.

We were born to work. We must achieve something great in a limited time. This is our duty – a duty that every man or woman should bear. Depending on how this duty will be beard, we may say whether this person was successful or not. In a book the world “success” was defined as a favorable result or wished for ending through the achievement of goals. That is, if one attains a desired goal through achievement, he or she can be considered as a successful one.

And the only way to achieve your goals is through hard work. Many people define the word “success” as being rich, which means having a great amount of money and owning valuable materials. Nowadays this definition of success is thought of as not the most appropriate because there is more to success than just being wealthy or popular.

I think success means to laugh often and much, to win the respect of intelligent people and the affection of children, to earn the appreciation of honest crities and endure the betrayal of false friend, to appreciate beauty, to find the best in others, to leave the world a bit better, whether by a healthy child, a garden patch or a redeemed social condition, to know even one life has breathed easier because you have lived.

Success does not just miraculously happen, but you have to put quite a lot of effort into enabling yourself or your projects to reach such a point. It is therefore true that the word “success” starting with “s”, will only be before “work” starting with “w” in an alphabetically-ordered place like a dictionary.

The Only Place Where Succes Comes Before Work Is in a Dictionary Essay

Intelligence Essay

Intelligence Essay.

Intelligence quotient, or IQ, is the defined as the ratio of mental age to chronological age. The movie, I Am Sam, raises an important question; does an individual’s IQ have an affect on whether they can be a good parent? Many theories have been developed to better understand and measure intelligence. The Single Factor Theories, Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory, and Gardner’s Theory, along with Baumbrind’s theory on parenting styles can all be used to analyze the characters in I Am Sam.

The movie questions the relevance of IQ score and its impact on the ability to parent.

If a person has a high IQ does that mean they are a good parent, and if a person has a low IQ does that mean they are a bad parent? The Single Factor Intelligence Theories determine IQ through standardized tests. The first intelligence test was developed by Binet in 1905, and determined IQ as being a person’s mental age divided by their chronological age multiplied by 100.

Over the next few years the test was modified by others. In 1937, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test was created. This test stated that 2/3 of all children, ages 8-18, score between 85 – 115.

This test claimed that a child that scores 130 or above, is a gifted child, but a score of 70 and below indicates the child is retarded. Later, David Wechsler created a more modern test, and which has become more commonly used today. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC – IV) is arranged by ten different areas of problems to be solved, starting with the easiest and working towards the more difficult. It calculates the score with a verbal and non verbal scale. These intelligence tests show a direct correlation between IQ score and school performance.

They are designed to measure what you know, but abilities in areas such as reading and creativity can not be separated from known facts, and can provide an incomplete picture of a person’s mental capabilities. Also, these tests can be economically biased and do not take into effect the person’s home environment or stress levels on the day of the test. The character Sam, from I Am Sam, has low intelligence according to the Single Factor Theories. He is in his mid-thirties, but has the IQ of a seven year old child. He also has been deemed mentally retarded as per court records.

Sam struggles to raise Lucy, his daughter, after she is abandoned immediately after birth by her mother and left with him. When he first brought Lucy home, Sam did not know he had to feed a baby every few hours, nor did he know how to change her diaper. During Lucy’s first year of school, Sam was able to help her with her homework and reading, but as Lucy grew older, Sam began to struggle. It became more difficult for him because his reading capability is of a low level, so when Lucy brought home reading assignments, he was unable to read at her level eventually.

Sam’s low IQ correlates to the fact that he can not help Lucy with her homework past that of first or second grade level. Sam works at Starbucks as a bus boy and is paid not much more than minimum wage, therefore he struggles financially and only can afford to live in a very small one-bedroom apartment. He cannot afford the things Lucy requires for school, such a shoes and clothes. Lucy is taken out of Sam’s care by Child Protective Services because they feel that Sam is unfit parent because of his low IQ and he will hinder Lucy’s learning capabilities.

According to the Single Factor Intelligence Theory, Sam is not intelligent. Rita, Sam’s lawyer in the movie, is considered to be intelligent according the Single Factor Theories. To become a lawyer it takes many years of schooling and the ability to speak ‘intelligently’. As a partner in her law firm, it shows years of dedication, hard work, and motivation. She is able to afford to live in a large beautiful home and drive an expensive car. She has been successful life because she has normal intelligence and has a higher IQ. According to Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, Sam is not intelligent.

He lacks componential intelligence, because he is unable to think abstractly as he has difficulty thinking concretely. Sam struggles to interpret information effectively, he scores low on an IQ test and has the IQ of a seven year old. Sam does show some signs of experiential intelligence, but those are quite limited. When Lucy is taken away from Sam, the length he goes to see her shows his creativity.

He rents a new apartment close to the neighborhood her foster family resides in, and becomes employed in a dog walking business so he is able to see her. Sam lso flies paper airplanes near her so she is aware that he is nearby and still watching over her. He also has the creative ability to make origami, in which he constructs a wall in his apartment towards the end of the movie. Although Sam has a difficult time expressing his thoughts in his words, he often attempts to give his opinions and insight. Sam tells Rita she must leave her husband, and even though he does not completely tell her why, he clearly sees that Rita’s home life is not good and offers her his insight. His words may be limited but his thoughts are clear.

Sam does not however react well to new stimuli. Lucy persuades him to try a different diner for breakfast instead of going to their weekly place of IHOP. When Sam places his order with the waitress, he insists on ordering pancakes French style (the order he places at IHOP each week). When the waitress explains they do not serve that kind of pancakes and attempts to coerce him into ordering something from their menu, Sam refuses and creates a scene. He was reluctant to try the diner to begin with. Sam does not show signs of contextual intelligence.

He does not have ‘street smarts’ which is shown when he is solicited by a prostitute, and is completely unaware of her meaning. The police arrest him because they believe him to be trying to buy the prostitute’s services, and he tries to tell the police he did not know in which he truly does not. His lack of street smarts is also evident when Lucy tricks him during one of his supervised visits. She tells Sam that they were given permission to go to the park unsupervised, but this was not true and Lucy was just trying to run away together with Sam.

He believes her and keeps Lucy out really late into the night. Sam gets into trouble for taking her and breaking the visitation rules. Based on the three components of Sternberg’s Theory, Rita is intelligent. She is high in componential intelligence. She is a partner in her law firm and has a lot of education. She demonstrates experiential intelligence as she is able to synthesize information. Being a lawyer, she must able to gather information from various areas and put it together to help the case she is presenting. She is able to manipulate the truth with this ability without lying.

Her contextual intelligence is high and this is represented in her personal life. She is able to adapt to her environment. Her marriage is falling apart because her husband is never home and is cheating. She avoids the situation by trying to ignore and pay little attention to it. She is able to maximize her strengths by being a powerful lawyer as she minimizes her weakness of being lonely. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences states that all have multiple intelligences and some have strengths in one area over another. It lists seven different types of intelligence.

The first type is Logical / Mathematical intelligence which is the ability in logical problem solving. Next is Musical intelligence, this is the ability to appreciate music. Spatial intelligence is part of the making of and appreciation of various forms of art, such as sculptures or video games. Bodily kinesthetic is the ability to use one’s body in a skillful way. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to perceive other peoples and understand them, the ability to read people. Intrapersonal intelligence is the understanding of yourself, your emotions and strengths.

The last is Naturalist Intelligence, which is the ability to recognize various types of plants and animals, and even understand the weather patterns. According to Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Sam is intelligent. Even though Sam does not display intelligences in most of the areas, he does display musical and spatial intelligence. Musical intelligence is shown when he relates life and events to The Beatles. For example, Lucy (Lucy Diamond) is named after The Beatles song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds”. He relates many experiences, especially when under stress, to John Lennon, Yoko Ono, and Paul McCartney.

Sam’s neighbor in his old apartment building played the piano and he also notes that she plays well and is able to play a little himself. He shows spatial intelligence when he created the room full of origami and stacked them on top of each other to create walls. Rita is also intelligent according to Gardner. She displays logical and interpersonal intelligences. She is a problem solver. She has to think logically about cases and determine what will get her the outcome she desires from the judge or jury. She is able to determine an outcome in advance and know how to manipulate it.

She also represents interpersonal intelligence as a lawyer. She has to understand her clients (i. e. Sam), the judge (or jury), and any other individuals involved in her case (i. e. Child Protective Services). She has to be able to read them to figure out what kind of approach and tactic to use in order to win. Diana Baumbrind, in 1972, developed a theory which identified fours aspects of family functioning and parenting styles. The four aspects of family functioning are: warmth or nurturing; clarity and consistency; maturity demands; and communication between parent and child.

Baumbrind’s Parenting Style Theory suggests that there are various types of parenting styles and identified four: authoritative; authoritarian; permissive indulgent; and permissive indifferent. Parenting style is a set of attitudes toward the child that a parent transmits to the child to create an emotional climate surrounding parent-child exchanges. Authoritative parents display a warm, accepting attitude toward their children while maintaining firm expectations of and restrictions on children’s behavior.

Open communication between parent and child is facilitated within this emotional climate. Long-term outcomes for children and adolescents of authoritative parents are more favorable compared to outcomes for children of authoritarian or permissive parents. The authoritarian parenting style is characterized by a harsh, rigid emotional climate combined with high demands and little communication. Permissive Indulgent parents display warmth and acceptance toward their children but do not place demands or restrictions on children’s behavior.

Permissive indifferent parents do not display any warmth or control with little communication, and places low demands on small children but very high demands on older children. According to Baumbrind, Sam is a permissive indulgent parent. He is not mature mentally himself, therefore he has low maturity demands of Lucy. He cannot grasp maturity beyond his own level. Sam is also low in his control over Lucy, because he has little control of himself and his own actions at times. Sam cannot illustrate his thoughts into words and therefore can not clearly communicate rules or expectations.

Lucy becomes more of a parent to Sam, than Sam is to Lucy. He is also low in effective communication because he cannot express himself with words effectively, and he is not able to have deep thoughtful conversations when he himself does not understand. Sam is high in his nurturance and warmth. He clearly loves Lucy, and this can be seen with his constant hugging and holding her. He also nightly reads a bedtime story to her, takes her to the park, and goes to any length he can to gain custody of her back.

Even though children of permissive indulgent parents can become less independent and take little responsibility, this does not make Sam a bad parent. Rita has an authoritarian style of parenting. She is low in her warmth and communication because she constantly is yelling at her son, Willy, and even when he gets upset and when Lucy hugs Rita, she does not pay any attention to his reaction. Willy also ignores her back when she tells him that it is time for bed, but he continues to ride his scooter around. She is high in her control as she is constantly telling Willy what to do and that he should listen to her.

She tells him she hates him at the moment and to get in the car when he will not do as she says. She is high in her maturity demands also, as she expects Willy to be able to handle the fact that both she and his father work a lot and do not spend much time with him. In fact he is still just a child that needs his parents for stability and guidance. Rita is not a good parent according to Baumbrind. Therefore, when looked at collectively, a person does not need to be intelligent to be a good parent. Intelligence may or may not relate to parenting styles.

Sam is not considered intelligent according to the Single Factor Theories and Sternberg; however his parenting style is not the most negative as defined by Baumbrind. Rita is intelligent, but is not a good parent. Her parenting style is the most negative. Even with a lower IQ, Sam’s is considered to be the better parent. The movie, I Am Sam, shows the difficulty people have separating intellect from other areas of people’s lives, such as parenting. In retrospect to the movie, we cannot conclude that the two are related, a person does not need to be intelligent to be a good parent, and having a high IQ does not always make a good parent.

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Intelligence Essay

Multiple Intelligence Theory Essay

Multiple Intelligence Theory Essay.

Many students choose to attend APUS because the University fosters differing educational styles and empowers the students through education. The Student Handbook states, “The University System fosters an environment that promotes a life of learning for its constituents and uses feedback from its participants and supporters to improve the quality of its teaching, learning, and support… The University System anticipates and adapts to its changing environment and responds to the needs of the organization and its constituencies in manners both appropriate and timely.

” In the beginning of College 100, students are introduced to the different learning styles and the theory of multiple intelligences. By becoming familiar with other students learning styles and exploring the multiple intelligences students became more tolerant towards others and were able to strengthen their learning power. Being familiar with multiple intelligence theory, knowing the different learning styles, utilizing appropriate classroom methods, and exploring the interdisciplinary classroom will empower students towards a lifetime of learning.

Recognizing the multiple intelligence theory is the first step in capturing the different learning styles.

“Howard Gardners multiple intelligence theory (Gardner, 1993) proposes the idea that we all have various levels of intelligence across a range of intellectual areas” (Pritchard, 2008). The concept that people learn in different ways, and perceive and learn by different methods is what makes up the theory of multiple intelligences. There are at least nine different intelligences in which people display in varying ways (Pritchard, 2008). The styles are as follows: linguistic, logical/mathematical, musical, spatial/visual, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential (Pritchard, 2008). Student’s particular academic strengths have a direct impact on how effective their learning will be for their overall education. When applying multiple intelligences to the classroom, it is very important to cater to all the types of learning styles.

When discussing learning styles in the forums of College 100, every student had a different way of learning that especially worked for them. If every single assignment or activity in a classroom is slanted towards visual learning, then the students who are auditory or kinesthetic learners will be at a serious disadvantage. These students will not be able to express themselves or be able to conform to the teaching style if their learning needs are not met. “In planning for multiple intelligences, teachers consider the range of activities related to the content of the lesson and the intended learning outcomes will give a range of opportunities to the children’s different intelligence strengths” (Pritchard, 2008). It is very important for a teacher to introduce a range of activities and presentations in order to make the most out of multiple intelligences.

A learning style is reflected by a students preferred method of learning, which is a direct result of their type of intelligence. It is irresponsible for a teacher to assume that all of their students will learn in the same manner. The four main styles of learning are visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and extrovert. Every style has strengths and weaknesses. It is crucial in the educational environment to exploit the student’s strengths and protect the weaknesses. A student’s self-worth and esteem can be very much tied up with their learning capability. Teachers must exhibit a range of teaching styles, so that their students learning styles will be compatible. “Diverse personalities impact relationships, motivation, and ease of learning in classroom and work environments.

Where there are diverse personalities within groups, people generally prefer and choose to be with others who are similar to themselves; individuals may even dislike those who have different attitudes and behaviors from their own” (Richardson & Arker, 2010). What Richardson and Arker are implying is that people of different personalities and learning styles tend to stick in the same groups. It would be to the benefit of everyone if individuals of different personalities and persuasions were put together in one group, that way the group will be more powerful and will benefit greatly from the input of everybody. A truly good teacher will ensure that they have designed their curriculum in such a way so that students learning needs are met. Classroom arrangements can be made so that individuals of similar temperaments are brought together in what is called compatibility scheduling. This arrangement will enhance the overall productivity of students as well as teachers” (Richardson & Arker, 2010).

As multiple intelligence theory has developed, advances in classroom methods have also been made. There are at least three different methods that combine multiple intelligence theory with learning styles in order to better the classroom environment. “Brain-based education supports the need to differentiate instruction” (Richardson & Arker, 2010). Some studies in brain research have shown that there is such a thing as a left-brain and a right-brain. People can be left or right brain dominate, which largely determines the individuals learning style. “Collaborative learning is a method of teaching and learning in which student’s team together to explore a significant question or create a meaningful project” (Educational Broadcasting Corporation, 2004).

This type of classroom learning will serve to help the entire group. The students and teachers will be able to pick out the roles that suit them best, thus serving the group to the best of their ability. Another method that is similar to collaborative learning is cooperative learning. In cooperative learning, “Students work together in small groups on a structured activity. They are individually accountable for their work, and the work of the group as a whole is also assessed. Cooperative groups work face-to-face and learn to work as a team” (Educational Broadcasting Corporation, 2004). Cooperative learning is becoming a very popular method. It uses individuals best qualities for the betterment of the group. By using these methods in the classroom learning becomes an active process and engages all types of learning styles.

The Western world has divided education into blocks, and then further divided the blocks into disciplines. While convenient on paper, it is clear that education and disciplines overlap, the world is a fluid place. Interdisciplinary education is an approach that blends different disciplines and utilizes multiple intelligence theory and varying learning styles. “The exponential growth of knowledge in the twentieth century revealed how disciplinary cultures and perspectives could discourage inquiries and explanations that spanned disciplinary boundaries. Disciplines, it now seems clear, are powerful but constraining ways of knowing” (Lattuca, 2001). By breaking down the walls of the disciplines, students are empowered to use their differing learning styles. This will result in students having positive experiences with education. Students will then seek out a lifetime of learning, and encourage other to seek knowledge.

Recognizing the theory of multiple intelligences and defining each student’s learning style will lead to success in education. By utilizing methods such as brain-based learning, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning teachers can empower students by giving them the educational method that works best for each individual. Combining all of these aspects yields the concept of interdisciplinary learning, leading to a lifetime of successful education, teaching, and learning.

Concept to Classroom: Course Menu. (2004). THIRTEEN – New York Public Media. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from Lattuca, L. R. (2001). Creating interdisciplinarity: Interdisciplinary research and teaching among college and university faculty. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. Pritchard, A. (2008). Ways of Learning [electronic resource]: Learning Theories and Learning Styles in the Classroom. Hoboken, NJ: David Fulton Publishers. Richardson, R., & Arker, E. (2010). Personalities in the Classroom: Making the Most of Them. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 46(2), 76-81.

Multiple Intelligence Theory Essay

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence Essay

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence Essay.

Many years ago it was quite common to label someone with a high IQ as a “genius” or as being more intelligent than others. Albert Einstein is one of those men who were labeled as a genius because of all that he had accomplished at such a young age. Undeniably, Einstein’s smarts were extremely remarkable, but records show that he was not the best student. Although Einstein scored extremely well in areas like Math and Physics, it has been noted that in areas like linguistics, he did not excel (Albert Einstein, 2005).

Does this make Einstein, any less of a genius? According to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, a person’s intelligence isn’t necessarily measured in standardized testing or school grades. Gardner identifies that each person’s learning style is different, so the intelligence could excel in any of the eight styles: Linguistic, Musical, Logical, Naturalistic, Visual, Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, and Intrapersonal (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). This means that someone like Ludwig van Beethoven who may not have been as scholarly as Albert Einstein, can still be considered a genius due to his musical intelligence.

The eight different intelligences described by Gardner are what he believed to be the eight strengths in which a person can learn. Gardner believed that because everyone can learn in one of these eight different styles, then they could excel in any of the respective fields. A person who possesses a linguistic intelligence is described as someone who uses words and communication effectively. A person with linguistic intelligence would have excellent auditory skills, and translates everything into words or speech. On the other hand, someone who possesses the learning style of spatial intelligence would be most comfortable with graphics, physical imagery, and visuals (Campbell, 1992). However, someone with a preference to the kinesthetic style of learning would be most comfortable with being hands on.

They learn by doing, touching, and anything that involves physical activity, therefore their intelligence might look more like acting out, or role playing. Another learning style of multiple intelligences described by Gardner is naturalistic. Someone who possesses a naturalistic style of learning is more in tune with their surroundings, and focus a lot with what nature is giving them. The naturalistic intelligence was not added to the multiple intelligences until much later. Gardner’s theory was introduced to naturalistic in response to the nature versus nurture debate, in which a person learns from their surroundings, or environment in which they are in (Sulaiman, Hassan, & Yi, 2011). One of the bigger learning styles in Gardner’s theory is that of intrapersonal and interpersonal. Intrapersonal is that in which a person learns from themselves. Someone who keeps to themselves and does not get socially involved (Campbell, 1992). On the complete different spectrum, is the interpersonal learning style.

Like a social butterfly, interpersonal refers to someone who works well with others, enjoys working in teams, center of attention, and just like they seek attention of others, others seek their attention as well. I personally identify with the interpersonal school of learning the best out of all of the intelligences in Gardner’s theory. I mostly work well when accompanied by others. I am a team player, and team leader. Others usually seek to me for advice, and I tend to deliver my best results, when working with others. This is the intelligence that is mostly credited with the slang term of “street smarts” (Sulaiman, Hassan, & Yi, 2011). Having played sports for a big part of my life, I tend to carry my thoughts as a team. I carry the team and make sure to understand everyone on the team. I always think of others first, and having that one on one interaction is most important to me. Throughout my career, I have found myself to be in leadership roles quite frequently, because many others who are not strengthen by the interpersonal intelligence feel as if I can lead better due to the emphasis I put on team work, and my adequate level of communication with the entire team. In the work place I have found this quite helpful, and it has helped me become very successful.

The two other intelligences outlined in Gardner’s theory are that of musical and logical, or mathematical. Musical intelligence is referred to a person when they can relate everything to a rhythm, or sequence. Someone who possesses musical intelligence is also aware of the sounds and music space in their surroundings. Someone with musical intelligence would be aware of dichotic listening, and understand the importance of noise (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Music is a very big part of my life, what I do, and how I do it. I can remember growing up and not being able to go to sleep until music was playing in the background. I find myself being almost allergic to quite. I tend to do my best work when either I have music playing in the background, or if the TV is on. While in school, I usually found myself while studying, to be singing. I tend to associate rhyme and rhythm to a lot of the new things that I learn. According to Gardner, someone who possesses a musical intelligence is sensitive to sound, and could hear music, or find the rhythm to anything, even before the words are spoken (Campbell, 1992). The last intelligence in Gardner’s theory is logical intelligence, or most commonly known as mathematical intelligence (Sulaiman, Hassan, & Yi, 2011).

Someone who occupies the logical intelligence are said to think abstractly. They mostly need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details. They calculate results, enjoy working the mind in the way that really uses the prefrontal vortex more than any other intelligence. Someone with logical thinking is believed to be someone who takes their time to analyze all possible circumstances, and work the problem for an answer. This type of person likes puzzles and word games to stimulate the brain. I identify myself as being a logical thinker due to the fact that one of my strengths is to be analytical. Albert Einstein was believed to belong in this intelligence field, due to his work in mathematics and physics. I find my intelligence to not be at the level of Einstein by any means, but I do relate to his earlier work being proficient in the math field over the linguistic (Albert Einstein, 2005). Since English is not my first language, growing up in the United States, going to school was very difficult for me, but numbers became my safe haven.

Having learned numbers at a very young age (according to my teachers, I knew how to add and subtract by the time I was 3) I find myself most attracted to professions in which analytical thinking is required. Having worked as a District Investigator, it was required of me to look at paperwork and identify the fraud, or identify the theft by finding the patterns, or the number sequence. A big part of my job was to analyze transactions, and compare them to video images. Things are always better explained to me if broken down into patterns. Although Gardner divided the intelligences into eight separate categories, his theory believed that a person does not just dominate one intelligence, but rather takes a bit from all of the intelligences collectively.

Just like it could be clearly identified that Albert Einstein that dominated the logical intelligence, his work shows that he might have possessed the intrapersonal intelligence as well as the spatial intelligence (Campbell, 1992). Gardner believed that the intelligence of someone could not necessarily be measured, by testing, but mainly by teachings, and learning styles. I feel as if I most identify with musical intelligence, logical intelligence, and interpersonal intelligence. My career thus far would suggest that these fields have brought me much success, but in my recent career change from Criminal Justice to Psychology, I will most likely learn to domain in the linguistic and spatial intelligence.

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence Essay

The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Its Strength and Weaknesses Essay

The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Its Strength and Weaknesses Essay.

Most learning institutions generally focus education on the linguistic and mathematical intelligence. Children in pre-school are first taught to know their ABCs and to count from one to ten. Those who can recite the alphabet well are considered bright students. Learners who can do addition at an early age are placed on the honors list. It had been the norm that intelligence is measured using IQ tests. The higher the IQ is the smarter the person is. But the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, proposed by Howard Gardner in the year 1983, states otherwise.

The theory basically implies that other than linguistic and mathematical competence, there are other or multiple aspects of the learning that should be considered as intelligence also.

Likewise, the theory points out that standardized IQ tests is not a sufficient measurement of smartness or dumbness of a person. Gardner’s theory stirred the psychological and educational communities. It received varied reactions. Some were impressed and readily accepted the theory as it explains the differences of each students.

Yet, some raised their eyebrows and issues sprouted as questions of validity and empirical evidences of the theory may not sustain the claims of the theory.

There have been a lot of debates pertaining to multiple intelligences. Several writers have also expressed their varied opinions regarding the topic. Indeed the theory proves to be an interesting milestone in the study of human learning and cognitive sciences. It also gives a lot of insight on how education in the future would affect the different abilities of each person. This paper hopes to discuss in detail the strength and weaknesses of the theory. For the purpose of this research, several papers and opinions on the topic will be cited. The theory, which is more than 20 years old, is already accepted and even integrated in some school but at the same time still in the middle of scrutiny.

About Howard Gardner

Howard Gardner was born in 1943 in Scranton, Pennsylvania. His parents were originally from Nürnberg, Germany. They went to the US in 1938 with their three-year old son Eric. Before Gardner was born, Eric died in a sleighing accident. These were not known to Howard during his childhood but have a fairly significant impact upon his thinking and development. He was discouraged from trying risky physical activities and was rather encouraged to develop his creative and intellectual abilities. As he began to find out his family history, he realized that he was different from his parents and friend. (Smith, 2002)

For his education, he went to a preparatory school in Kingston, Pennsylvania against his parents wish to send him to Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. After that, Gardner attended Harvard University and took up a course in history in preparation for a career in law. In Harvard he was able to study under scholars like Eric Erickson, sociologists David Riesman and cognitive psychologist Jerome Burner. The experience helped him set the course on investigating human nature and how humans think. His interest in psychology and social sciences grew. He graduated summa cum laude in 1965.

A year after he took up a doctoral program in Harvard and subsequently became part of the Project Zero research team on arts education which up to the present he is still part of. In Project Zero, he worked with children as he studies their cognitive development. At the Boston University he also studied stroke victims suffering from aphasia, a result of brain damage where in the patient cease to understand or produce words. (Gilman, 2001) He finished his doctorate in 1971. He is currently a Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and also a professor of neurology at the Boston University School of Medicine. His involvement in the Project Zero research team gave way to his book Frames of Mind (1983) where his Theory of Multiple Intelligence was first stated in full length. (Smith, 2002)

Multiple Intelligence Theory

Before the advent of this theory, it was generally believed that human beings are born with no innate mental content or in epistemological term, a tabula rasa. Humans are to learn everything from scratch and that anything can be learned as long as there is an opportunity and experience gradually builds up a person’s knowledge. Intelligence was initially believed to be a single entity or what psychometricians call general intelligence or g. General intelligence is measured by standardized IQ tests, or other “purer” method like reaction to flashing light or presence of certain brainwaves (Gardner, 1998).

With his exposure to studying the development of children in Project Zero and his study on aphasic stroke victims, he started to be interested in exploring human intelligence in a more diverse aspect which included various field of studies such as psychology, biology, neurology, sociology, anthropology, and the arts and humanities (Gilman, 2001). He saw that the individuals he is studying has certain strengths and weaknesses and that a certain strength or disability can co-exist with different profiles of competence and inability. With that he arrived at a firm intuition and quoting Gardner (1998):

“Human beings are better thought of as possessing a number of relatively independent faculties, rather than as having a certain amount of intellectual horsepower that can be simply channeled in one or another direction.” This contributed a lot in his formulation of the Theory of Multiple Intelligence. He also gave a new definition to intelligence:

“Intelligence is a psychobiological potential to process information so as to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in at least one cultural context.” With that he proposes eight different kinds of intelligence. He also came up with a set of criteria that is required to be called intelligence.

The theory has two strong claims. First, “all human beings possess all of these intelligences” and second “no two individuals have exactly the same amalgam of intelligences, foregrounding the same strengths and weaknesses.” This can be attributed to the fact that individuals have different experience through out their lives.

Gardner’s Criteria for the Multiple Intelligences

Before a certain human capability is considered a kind of intelligence, Gardner proposes a set of criteria. These criteria were derived from his experience and interest with brain-damaged patients, prodigies, savants, geniuses, developmental psychology, cross-cultural comparisons and neurobiology (Morris, 2006)

Potential of isolation by brain damage

Before a kind of intelligence is considered there must be a certain part of the brain that corresponds to that intelligence and is dissociated with the other intelligences. Meaning a lesion on that part of the brain would only affect that intelligence. This is manifested in stroke victims who lose the ability for speech and body-kinesthetic because they are paralyzed but are still able to recognized musical patterns and relate to other people in some ways. This suggests that since a kind of brain damage tends to affect a certain kind of intelligence while sparing others then the two intelligences are independent from each other.

Existence of savants, prodigies, and other exceptional individuals

The existence of these individuals allows researchers such as Gardner to observe the human abilities in extreme cases. There are autistics that are much more adept in dealing with numbers, dates or sometimes music. But at the same time are not so much as social persons. There are also child prodigies that an early stage have mastered playing a certain kind of instrument, suggesting that that intelligence is more developed in that child than others. Again this suggests the independence of each intelligences.

An identifiable core operation or set of operations

According to Gardner, a core operation is the basic knowledge in the brain that takes a particular kind of input or information and processes it. The eight intelligences all have a set of core operations that shows how a person can manifest that intelligence (Veenema, Hetland, Chalfen, 1997). Linguistic intelligence has the core operations such as syntax, phonology, semantic and pragmatics or in other words, recognition and production of speech. Musical intelligence has the ability to recognize pitch, rhythm, timbre and other components of music. Logical-Mathematical intellect uses numbers, categorization and relation as its set of core operation.

Spatial intelligence has core operations of accurate mental visualization and mental transformation of images. Bodily-kinesthetic is able to control one’s own body to its advantage. Interpersonal intelligence has awareness of other’s feelings, emotions, goals and motivation as its core operation. Same goes for intrapersonal intelligence only that it pertains to one’s own feelings and emotions. Naturalist intelligence is the recognition and classification of objects in the environment.

Support from experimental psychological tasks

Each of the intelligences has been observed by cognitive psychologists to have tasks that indicate which skills are related to one another and are not. Individuals are asked to carry out two kinds of activities at same time to determine if those activities rely on the same type of capabilities or not. A person reading a magazine is less likely to converse with someone at the same time. Both activities rely on linguistic intelligence. But a person would be able to walk and talk at the same time since it involves bodily-kinesthetic and linguistic intelligence.

Support from psychometric findings

Even though Gardner opposes the use of standardized test to measure one’s intelligence, he still includes this for reliability and validity. According to him “batteries of tests reveal which tasks reflect the same underlying factor and which do not.”

A distinct developmental progression with an expert “end-state” performances

According to Gardner, each of the intelligence should have a history of clear development in how humans were able to learn these capabilities. Thus, there is a level of mastery of the intelligences where there is an “end-state” or the level where the intelligence is performed at its highest level.

Evolutionary plausibility

The intelligences should have a place in the evolutionary development of human beings. This is manifested in presence of archeological artifacts, cave drawings, spatial ability of early humans as they survive in their surroundings and other abilities that can be traced to see how these intelligences evolved with the human species through out the years.

Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system

This means that the intelligences can be made into a symbol system. Examples would be maps, language, logical expression and arithmetic, paintings, musical scores.

These symbols are the manifestation or the outcome of the intelligences that are developed to convey information that can be understood in different cultures.

The intelligences must posses all these criteria in order to be considered as one. From these eight criteria, Gardner came up with multiple intelligences.

Multiple Intelligences

In the year 1983, Gardner concluded seven kinds of intelligence. But still open to new possibilities and plausible intelligence, Gardner continued to explore different human capabilities that may be a candidate for intelligence. He considered three other kinds of intelligence, Naturalist, Spiritual and Existential intelligence. The latter two were a bit problematic. Spiritual intelligence concerns with religion and the spirituality of the individuals.

This includes the truth value and cultural implications that may vary with each individual. Existential intelligence pertains to “ultimate issues”. This candidate for intelligence lacks empirical data and is a very subjective capability that it would be hard to measure in terms of psychometric tests. Thus in 1995, Gardner added Naturalist to the list of multiple intelligence as it manifest all of the criteria.

The eight multiple intelligences will be defined as follows (Veenema, Hetland, Chalfen, 1997):

Linguistic Intelligence

This involves individuals who communicate and make use of words to express themselves and also to understand their environment. Poets, writers and individuals who know their way with words are example of those who exhibit this intelligence.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

This includes individuals who use and appreciate abstract relations. They are good with numbers, detecting patterns, analyzing problems and giving logical explanations. Scientists, mathematicians and philosophers exhibit this intelligence.

Musical Intelligence

These are individuals who are attuned with the sounds of their surroundings. Musically inclined people excel in recognizing at ease different pitches, tones and rhythm. Aside form musicians and composers, people who exhibit this intelligence are those who consciously or unconsciously make sounds like tapping the table or their feet.

Spatial Intelligence

Visually stimulated individuals are examples of those who manifest this intelligence. They are able to identify spatial information and transform or remember such information and recreate those images. Architects, engineers, sculptors depend greatly on this intelligence. Individuals who appreciate lectures with visual aids because they understand more from seeing graphs and charts can be included in this group.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

This intelligence utilizes a part or the whole body to create an output or solve a certain problem. Individuals who rely greatly on the coordination of their body parts manifest this intelligence. This includes athletes, dancers, surgeons, dentists and crafts people. Students who appreciate school projects and gym classes rather than the classroom setting are also examples.

Intrapersonal Intelligence

These are individuals who are in tuned with their inner selves. This is manifested in the way a person realizes his own feelings, emotions, strengths, weaknesses and dreams and utilizes this information in making decisions about their lives. Although it is hard to pinpoint exact examples of individuals who exhibit this intelligence, there are researches that there are individuals who know their selves better than other. They know how to capitalize on their strengths, recognize their weakness and are more careful on the decisions they make.

Interpersonal Intelligence

This intelligence allows individuals to relate well with other peoples’ feelings and emotions. They are usually called “people persons”. They know how to talk and relay their intentions in a way that would make the other person relate to what they are saying. Good speakers such as politicians, teachers, salespeople, psychologists and some parents manifest this kind of intelligence.

Naturalists Intelligence

This intelligence is manifested in farmers, botanists, biologists, geologists and any other profession that has something to do with the environment around them. They can distinguish and use the different features of nature to their advantage. They are also very keen on the details of their surroundings.

Strengths, advantages and benefits of the theory

Gardner’s theory opposed the generally accepted fact that there is but one kind of intelligence and that this can be measured by scholastic standardized IQ tests. The time before his theory, people were ranked on the basis of their smartness with these tests. His theory opened up a whole new area for exploring the human process of learning. It can be said that his theory proves to have certain strengths and benefits to the education community.

Neurobiological basis

In Morris’ article on the theoretical basis of Gardner’s theory, in the 1960’s Roger Sperry of Caltech University proposed the left-brain/right-brain model of thinking. It states that the left cerebral hemisphere of the brain is responsible for the verbal, logical or analytical processes of the brain. While the right cerebral hemisphere deals with the artistic and sensible side of the human nature. In recent studies it was discovered that the brain, aside from the dichotomy of the left and right hemisphere, have other parts that corresponds to other capabilities of human beings. This became a basis for Gardner’s theory that the brain can accommodate and develop multiple intelligences and not just the linguistic and logical part that have been always emphasized.

Recognition from educators

The multiple intelligence theory was readily accepted by most of the educators around the world. The theory affirms the fact that students are smart in different ways. Students think and learn differently from one another. And those parents of students with low aptitude in language or other subjects need not to worry because those students may excel in a different kind of intelligence. The theory also helps in boosting the self-esteem of students who seems slow in the traditional classroom setting. Educators were able to re-conceptualize their way of teaching, the curriculum and assessment of the learner’s development.

Resulted to new ways of teaching and assessment

Standard tests usually include just the language and mathematical assessment of the students. They are tested on how well they can read, memorize dates in history, spell, count and add up numbers. The advent of this theory brought forth the development of new curriculum, approaches and manner of assessment that might better cater to the needs of different students. School projects were considered for those who are more adept in building models, posters and dioramas. Educational field trips encouraged teachers to let the students experience the lessons in real life rather than just reading these from textbooks.

As for the assessment of how well the learners are progressing, Gardner gives a few suggestions. According to him, “the purpose of assessment should be to obtain information about the skills and potentials of individuals, and provide useful feedback to the individuals and the community at large”. Assessment should determine the capability of an individual in actual performance rather than substitute kind in the form of tests which eliminated the contextual experience of the situation.

For example, rather than naming the parts of a drawn microscope, students could benefit more in having an actual microscope in front of them as they label their parts. Teachers could also ask students to deconstruct the microscope and build it up again. This kind of assessment veers away from traditionally just memorizing the parts and purpose rather than knowing how to really operate a microscope. Gardner also states that assessment and intervention should be sensitive to the differences of each individual and their own developmental levels.

Criticism, flaws and issues regarding the theory

Just as the theory has its followers, there are also those who oppose and scrutinize the theory of multiple intelligences. Most came from psychologists and some are even educators too. Criticisms, flaws and issues were thrown at Gardner. He was able to answer back to some of them but there are still persistent critics that just wouldn’t wholly accept this theory.

Theory or just a bunch of opinion

Other psychologists believe that Gardner’s theory is more of a result of his own intuition rather than based on empirical research. His set of criteria, for example, is questioned for its relevance, application and involvement with the symbol systems. (Smith, 2002) Basically, they are questioning the lack of concrete evidences for the formulation of this theory.

Intelligences or plain talents

There are some who argues that some of the multiple intelligences can be passed of as just talents and not a specific cognitive construct. Sternberg, as cited by Morris, calls the theory “a theory of talents, not of intelligences”. He also questions why Gardner include some of the human abilities as intelligence while disregarding other human abilities. For example, musical and bodily-kinesthetic are more of human talents or skills that don’t normally need to adapt to life’s demand.

The personal intelligences, namely interpersonal and intrapersonal, can be viewed as just skills. There is no specific way to measure one’s aptitude in interpersonal and intrapersonal aspect. These two seems to be more of the functions of one’s intuition about other’s or one’s own feeling and emotions. Gilman (2001) cites Sternberg in her paper when he said that the naturalistic intelligence is a “psychometric nightmare”. Measuring performance and assessment is hard to acquire, objectivity is a bit questionable and there’s still the problem of cultural bias.

Incompatibility with the general intelligence

There were other theorists that have their own version or take on the multiple intelligences. Raymond Cattel and John Horn categorized two kinds of intelligences which they call Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence. Gardner strongly believes against the notion of general intelligence as the single measure of a person’s intellect. His theory was indeed beneficial to schools and teachers who cannot explain why there are students who simply cannot do well in the classroom. But some educators feel that the general intelligence or g should not altogether be dismissed. His rejection of the existence of the general intelligence is one of the main criticisms of the theory and brought up a lot of issues.


Gardner (1998) claims that the Multiple Intelligence theory be thought of more as a tool rather than an educational goal. The eight kinds of intelligences are not to be viewed as something to be taught simultaneously. It is just an explanation that answers why individuals have their own fortes in life. Gardner’s theory encourages people to find ways of how they can view the world and contribute to society in their own strength. Just as his theory has strengths, it can’t be avoided that it would receive just as much scrutiny. His theory also has weak points that raised questions about the theory’s validity. But there is always room for improvement and future researches would most likely answer or dispute all these issues.

Annotated Reference List:
Gardner, H. (1998). A Multiplicity of Intelligences: In tribute to Professor Luigi Vignolo. Scientific American
This paper is authored by Howard Gardner himself where he discussed how he formulated the theory. He also addressed some of the issues surrounding the theory as well as gave a few suggestions on how to utilize the theory.

Gilman, L. (2001, Fall). The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Human Intelligence. Retrieved January 19, 2007 from
This site includes biographical profiles of people who have influenced the development of intelligence theory and testing, in-depth articles exploring current controversies related to human intelligence, and resources for teachers.

Morris, C. (2002). Some Critiques of Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory. Retrieved January 19, 2007 from
This article compiled and summarized most of the issues and criticisms that Gardner’s Theory received from various psychologists, educators and theorists.

Morris, C. (n.d.). Howard Gardner’s Theoretical Basis for his Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved January 19, 2007 from
This article discusses the eight criteria Gardner proposes as his basis for formulating the Multiple Intelligences Theory. It has a comprehensive explanation of each of the criteria.

Shafer, B. (n.d.). Multiple Intelligence Overview. Illinois Loop. Retrieved January 19, 2007 from
This article is a brief synopsis of the theory. It explains the theory in a nutshell, including some of the concerns surrounding the theory.
Smith, M. K. (2002). Howard Gardner and the multiple intelligences. The encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved January 19, 2007 from
Infed is an open, independent and non-profit site put together by a small group of educators. This article discusses in detail Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory and including its appeal as well as issues and problems of the theory.

Veenema, S., Hetland, L., & Chalfen, K. (Eds.). (1997). Multiple Intelligences: The Research Perspective, A Brief Overview of the Theory. The Project Zero Approaches to Thinking and Understanding. Harvard Graduate School of Education and Project Zero.
This paper is from Project Zero, a research team concerning multiple intelligences which Gardner is part of. It is a brief and easy to read overview of the theory.

The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Its Strength and Weaknesses Essay

Le Petit Chef Essay

Le Petit Chef Essay.

I believe she should take on the projects that have visible differentiation and also take on the high-end microwave oven with the fuzzy intelligence. It is apparent the competing companies are utilizing technologies that are cheaper and are still maintaining their success. Le Petit Chef products are perceived as quality products, which is something that the executives know and something their current customers know.

Despite the company’s low returns, I still believe Gagne should go forward with the new high-end microwave oven because it will enhance the ease of use with minimal incremental costs.

This microwave oven can also solve the problem with the variation in food quality, which should entice Gagne to go forward with the project. As far as other projects, they need to develop other projects that are all different from each other, which are visible to the retailer and potential customer.

As far as handling the executive meeting, Gagne needs to tell them that she is scrapping those several projects in order to free up more funds, allowing more money to be used in other projects and enabling them to differentiate their line.

Le Petit Chef’s poor performance can be attributed to a few things. The competition of the other companies developing products that directly competes with them such as Electrolux and Bosch-Siemens.

Both companies have developed low-end microwave ovens that are seemingly very attractive to potential customer because of their brand recognition and the price of the products. Another explanation for their poor performance is the company’s lack to differentiate their lines. It is important to have visible differentiation for products so the retailer sees the difference of their products.

If a product has a lack of visible differentiation, the retailer and potential client will question what is different with the product and why it is more expensive than the previous model. In order for the company to remedy the situation I feel they need to implement the 18-month project for their high-end microwave oven with fuzzy intelligence technology and further advertise and market the glitches that have been fixed. Further, they need to develop differentiated products in order to promote to their retailers and potential clients of their differences.

Le Petit Chef Essay

Factors affecting intellectual development Essay

Factors affecting intellectual development Essay.

-Whichever has a bigger influence remains a debate until now because some studies proved that heredity has a bigger influence on intelligence while some studies showed the opposite. The important point is that the interplay of both heredity and environment is essential for maximum development of the intellectual abilities of the individual. Other factors affecting Intelligence:

1. Culture
Different cultures foster different patterns of ability. For instance, students from Sri Lanka showed higher score in verbal ability than the Americans.

-This can be explained by the fact that in Sri Lanka, the philosophers and the poets were admired rather than the scientists or engineers.

2. Sex

It is not true that males are more intelligent than females. However, studies show that boys excel girls in spatial ability, in problem solving, and numerical ability whereas girls excel boys in memory, reasoning, and fluency.

-The difference is not due to solve problems since they will be the heads of the families. Girls have been trained to do light work since they will be the homemakers, anyway.

3. Health

Studies have shown that high IQ goes with healthy condition of the body.

-In school; healthy children have better chances of learning, they can concentrate better in their studies and they are often active and enthusiastic about classroom activities. 4. Race

No one race is endowed with better intelligence than others. -Differences in achievement of races are due to better opportunities and facilities found in developed countries. 5. Socio-economic status

Studies have shown that children from higher socio-economic scored higher in intelligence tests.

-Again, greater opportunities and money account for this. The rich can send their children to better schools and can provide stimulating environment to their children. However, there are geniuses and idiots among them as there are among the poor.

You may also be interested in the following: personal factors affecting child development, factors affecting moral development

Factors affecting intellectual development Essay

Cia Research Paper Essay

Cia Research Paper Essay.

Account of the work of the CIA, discussing in some detail the nature of the relationship between the intelligence-gatherer and the policy-maker. Since the 1970s the CIA has provided intelligence to Congress as well as to the executive, so that it now “finds itself in a remarkable position, involuntarily poised nearly equidistant” between them. It has not however abused this freedom of action, probably unique among world intelligence agencies, so as to ‘cook’ intelligence. CIA deputy director. Robert M.

Gates, a career intelligence officer, is Deputy Director of Central Intelligence.

He served on the National Security Council staff from the spring of 1974 until December 1979. Tweet Close Style: MLA APA Chicago More Sharing Services Over the years, public views of the Central Intelligence Agency and its role in American foreign policy have been shaped primarily by movies, television, novels, newspapers, books by journalists, headlines growing out of congressional inquiries, exposes by former intelligence officers, and essays by “experts” who either have never served in American intelligence, or have served and still not understood its role.

The CIA is said to be an “invisible government,” yet it is the most visible, most externally scrutinized and most publicized intelligence service in the world. While the CIA sometimes is able to refute publicly allegations and criticism, usually it must remain silent. The result is a contradictory melange of images of the CIA and very little understanding of its real role in American government. Because of a general lack of understanding of the CIA’s role, a significant controversy such as the Iran-contra affair periodically brings to the surface broad questions of the proper relationship between the intelligence service and policymakers.

It raises questions of whether the CIA slants or “cooks” its intelligence analysis to support covert actions or policy, and of the degree to which policymakers (or their staffs) selectively use—and abuse—intelligence to persuade superiors, Congress or the public. Beyond this, recent developments, such as the massive daily flow of intelligence information to Congress, have complicated the CIA’s relationships with the rest of the executive branch in ways not at all understood by most observers—including those most directly involved. These questions and issues merit scrutiny. II

The CIA’s role in the foreign policy process is threefold. First, the CIA is responsible for the collection and analysis of intelligence and its distribution to policymakers—principally to the president, the National Security Council (NSC) and the Departments of State and Defense; although in recent years many other departments and agencies have become major users of intelligence as well. This is a well-known area, and I will address it only summarily… About CIA The Central Intelligence Agency was created in 1947 with the signing of the National Security Act by President Harry S.

Truman. The act also created a Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) to serve as head of the United States intelligence community; act as the principal adviser to the President for intelligence matters related to the national security; and serve as head of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 amended the National Security Act to provide for a Director of National Intelligence who would assume some of the roles formerly fulfilled by the DCI, with a separate Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.

The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency and reports to the Director of National Intelligence. The CIA director’s responsibilities include: •Collecting intelligence through human sources and by other appropriate means, except that he shall have no police, subpoena, or law enforcement powers or internal security functions; •Correlating and evaluating ntelligence related to the national security and providing appropriate dissemination of such intelligence;

Providing overall direction for and coordination of the collection of national intelligence outside the United States through human sources by elements of the Intelligence Community authorized to undertake such collection and, in coordination with other departments, agencies, or elements of the United States Government which are authorized to undertake such collection, ensuring that the most effective use is made of resources and that appropriate account is taken of the risks to the United States and those involved in such collection; and •Performing such other functions and duties related to intelligence affecting the national security as the President or the Director of National Intelligence may direct. The function of the Central Intelligence Agency is to assist the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in carrying out the responsibilities outlined above. To accomplish its mission, the CIA engages in research, development, and deployment of high-leverage technology for intelligence purposes. As a separate agency, CIA serves as an independent source of analysis on topics of concern and also works closely with the other organizations in the Intelligence Community to ensure that the intelligence consumer—whether Washington policymaker or battlefield commander—receives the best intelligence possible.

As changing global realities have reordered the national security agenda, CIA has met these challenges by: •Creating special, multidisciplinary centers to address such high-priority issues such as nonproliferation, counterterrorism, counterintelligence, international organized crime and narcotics trafficking, environment, and arms control intelligence. •Forging stronger partnerships between the several intelligence collection disciplines and all-source analysis. •Taking an active part in Intelligence Community analytical efforts and producing all-source analysis on the full range of topics that affect national security. •Contributing to the effectiveness of the overall Intelligence Community by managing services of common concern in imagery nalysis and open-source collection and participating in partnerships with other intelligence agencies in the areas of research and development and technical collection. By emphasizing adaptability in its approach to intelligence collection, the CIA can tailor its support to key intelligence consumers and help them meet their needs as they face the issues of the post-Cold War World. Posted: Dec 19, 2006 02:07 PM Last Updated: Jan 10, 2013 08:09 AM Last Reviewed: Dec 30, 2011 12:36 PM History of the CIA The United States has carried out intelligence activities since the days of George Washington, but only since World War II have they been coordinated on a government-wide basis. President Franklin D.

Roosevelt appointed New York lawyer and war hero, William J. Donovan, to become first the Coordinator of Information, and then, after the US entered World War II, head of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in 1942. The OSS – the forerunner to the CIA – had a mandate to collect and analyze strategic information. After World War II, however, the OSS was abolished along with many other war agencies and its functions were transferred to the State and War Departments. It did not take long before President Truman recognized the need for a postwar, centralized intelligence organization. To make a fully functional intelligence office, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947 establishing the CIA.

The National Security Act charged the CIA with coordinating the nation’s intelligence activities and correlating, evaluating and disseminating intelligence affecting national security. On December 17, 2004, President George W. Bush signed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act which restructured the Intelligence Community by abolishing the position of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) and Deputy Director of Central Intelligence (DDCI) and creating the position the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA).

Cia Research Paper Essay

Problem-centered approach Essay

Problem-centered approach Essay.

This approach is based on a curriculum design which assumes that in the process of living, children experience problems. Thus, problem solving enables the learners to become increasingly able to achieve complete or total development as individuals. This approach is characterized by the following views and beliefs:

  1. The learners are capable of directing and guiding themselves in resolving problems, thus they become independent learners.
  2. The learners are prepared to assume their civic responsibilities through direct participation in different activities. 
  3. The curriculum leads the learners in the recognition of concerns and problems and in seeking solutions.

Problem-centered approach Essay