Hazrat Ali Essay

Hazrat Ali Essay.

Amongst the descendants of Hazrat Ibrahim A.S., Hazrat Ali A.S. belonged to the line of Quraish.

He was the son of Abu Talib R.A., son of Abdul Muttalib of the distinguished tribe of Bani Hashim. Only one step above his lineage coincided with that of the Prophet S.A. of Islam. The latter being Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib and the former Ali bin Abi Talib bin Abdul Muttalib. It was his father Abu Talib who had nourished and brought up the Prophet (PBUH) His mother Fatima bint-e Asad was also a noble lady belonging to the tribe of Bani Hashim whom the Prophet (PBUH) regarded as his own mother.

Birth Date & Place

When the Prophet (PBUH) of God was thirty years old, Ali (A.S) was born on 13th of Rajab in the 30 year of Aamul Feel inside the sacred Kaaba. Family Background Amongst the descendants of Hazrat Ibrahim A.S., Hazrat Ali (A.S) belonged to the line of Quraish. He was the son of Abu Talib, son of Abdul Muttalib of the distinguished tribe of Bani Hashim. His mother Fatima bint-e Asad was also a noble lady belonging to the tribe of Bani Hashim whom the Prophet (SAW) regarded as his own mother.

His Upbringing

The responsibility for bringing him up devolved directly on Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) who devoted all his time and attention towards nurturing. It was owing to his inherent merit and capabilities coupled with the privilege of being brought up by the exalted personality of a guardian like the Prophet (SAW) that when the Prophet (PBUH) announced his Prophet hood Hazrat Ali (A.S)., though only ten years old, became his foremost follower and testifier of his claim.

Marriage

The first thing that the Prophet (PBUH) did on his arrival in Medina was to solemnize the marriage of his only daughter, Fatima Zahra with Ali A.S. The Prophet (PBUH) deeply loved his daughter and had so much respect for her that whenever she came to him he used to stand up in reverence. It was in the first year of Hijrah when the Prophet (PBUH) chose Ali A.S. for this honor. The wedding rites were performed with utmost simplicity. (a) He got three sons (Hasan, Husain and Muhsin), and two daughters (Zainab & Umm-i-Kulthum) from her. The youngest son, Muhsin died in childhood. After the death of Hazrat Fatimah he married a number of wives from time to time: (b) Umm al-Banin bin Hizam from whom he got ‘Abbas, Ja’far, ‘Abdullah and Uthman. All of these except Abbas were martyred at Karbala. (c) Saila bint Mas’ud who gave birth to ‘Ubaidullah and Abu Bakr. They were martyred at Karbala. (d) Asma bint Umais who gave birth to Yahya and Muhammad Asghar. (e) Sahba bint Rabi’a who gave birth to Umar and Ruqayyah.

(f) Amamah bint Abil ‘As: She was daughter of Zainab (R.A.), daughter of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi we Salaam). Hadrat Ali got Muhammad Aswat from her. (g) Khaulah bint Jalfar who gave birth to Muhammad ibn

(h) Umm-i-Sa’id who gave birth to Ummul Hasan and Ramlah Kubra. (i) Mahyah bint Ummul Qais, she gave birth to a daughter who died in childhood. Jihad In first battle of Islam, which is known as the battle of Badar Hazrat Ali had his first experience of fighting a battle? At that time he was He was only twenty-five years old. There were important battles of Uhud, Khandaq, Khaibar and lastly Hunain in which Ali A.S. accompanied the Prophet (SAW) and exhibited his incomparable valor as a warrior. Almost in all these battles Ali (A.S) held the office of standard-bearer also. In all these battles he exhibited indomitable valor and steadfastness. In these engagements, as in others, he showed utmost firmness, tolerance and nobility of character.

Title

Because of his bravely Hazrat Ali was popularly called “Asadullah”(The Lion of Allah). He was also known as Al-Murtaza, Al-Amir-ul-Mo’mineen. As Caliph Hazrat Ali (RA) was elected as Fourth Caliph after, the martyrdom of Hazrat Usman (RA), at a time when the world of Islam was in great turmoil In 35 A.H. the Muslims offered the office of Islamic Caliph to Ali (A.S). At first he refused, but when the insistence on part of the Muslims increased, he accepted it on the condition that he would rule strictly in accordance with the precepts laid down in the Quran and the Sunnah (practice) of the Prophet (SAW) without favor and partiality towards anybody.

He was the greatest Mujtahid and jurist of his time and one of the greatest of all times. Justice was part of his soul and spirit and was attached to his heart. His administration steered clear of partisanship, favoritism or nepotism. * He was particularly severe on his Governors and kept a regular watch on their actions. * He reprimanded his own friends, governors and employees even if they accepted bread as bribe. * To him wealth was for the use of other needy persons and not for himself and his family. * He never hid his earnings because the purpose of his earning was to help the needy and the oppressed and to save them from the exploitation of the tyrants and to make their lives happier.

His Services

Besides participating in Jihad he was never averse to do anything for the sake of the Prophet S.A. and Islam. The tasks that he had to perform were of diverse nature. He was responsible for writing down treaties and letters. He was also the custodian of the recorded portions of the Quran. Besides, he was deputed to Yemen by the Prophet (SAW) for the propagation of Islam. As a result of his successful preaching, the entire Yemen embraced Islam.

Martyrdom

Alas, this protagonist of peace, equality and Islamic values could not escape the malicious designs of the worldly people. In the morning of 19 of the month of Ramadan 40 A.H. while offering prayers in the mosque he was fatally wounded by a sword dipped in poison. Ali A.S. spent two restless days on his sick bed in extreme pain and distress. Eventually the poison spread all over the body and he breathed his last on 21 of Ramadan at the time of morning Prayer. Hasan A.S. and Husain A.S. performed the funeral rites and that prince of humanity was buried at Najaf at the back of the city of Kufa.

Distinguishing Publications NAHJAL BLAGHA AL- SAHIFAYE ALAVIYA The two mentioned books consist of sermons, letters, and sayings of Hazrat Ali (A.S). Nahj al-balaghah comprises various issues that cover major problems of metaphysics, theology, tafsir, hadith, prophetology, imamate, ethics, social philosophy, politics, administration, civics, science, literature, etc. Most of the discussions about various theological issues and philosophical notions in Islam have their origin in very book. The book not only reflects the spirit of early Islam and the teachings of the Quran and the Prophet (saw) in the proper perspective, but also serves as a guide to traverse the future in the light of these teachings.

The importance of the Nahj-ul-Balagha lies in two dimensions. First, it speaks about the fundamental of Islam such as the matters concerning God, the human being, Islamic views of humanity, prophet hood and its position in human history a means of understanding Islam and thus necessary for us to study. Secondly, the Nahj-ul-Balagha refers to the social problems of a hypocritical society with which we deal today. Accordingly, this book can be a source of Inspiration for us as regards to the social and political problems of life and the possible solutions to them. It is a matter of regret that Nahj al-balaghah was not properly utilized by the Muslims as a source book of Islamic philosophy, kalam, fiqh, and ethics due to misconceptions about its attribution to Hazrat ‘Ali (A.S) In the presence of strong and sufficient evidence in support of the contents of the book being authentic, it was sheer prejudice and lack of the spirit of inquiry that was responsible for neglecting such a reliable source of Islamic ideas.

Thoughts on Principal Subject Hazrat Ali’s letter to Malik-e-Ashter throws light on the importance of the principles of administration and justice as dictated by Islam. The following instructions in the form of a letter were written to him by Hazrat Ali, when he appointed him as Governor of Egypt.

Highlights

It (the letter) deals with the duties and obligations of rulers, their chief responsibilities, the question of rights and obligations, dispensation of justice, control over secretaries and subordinate staff. In it Hazrat Ali advises Malik:

* To fight corruption and oppression amongst the officers; to control markets, imports and exports; to curb evils of profiteering and hoarding and of cornering and black marketing. In it he has also explained stages of various classes of society, the duties of government towards the lowest class, how are they to be looked after and how are their conditions to be improved. * He has also commented upon the rights of rulers over the ruled and of the ruled over the rulers. * There is a main central idea running all through these instructions, it is that of the Creator. The government is of God, the governors and the governed are both the creatures of God, their respective duties are laid down by God. * In short this letter is on the one hand the gospel of the principles of administration as taught by Holy Quran; a code to establish a kind and benevolent rule throwing light on various aspects of justice and mercy. On the other hand it is a thesis on the higher values of morality.

Hazrat Ali Essay

Islam Worldview Analysis Essay

Islam Worldview Analysis Essay.

INTRODUCTION

The topic of Islam never fails to deliver passion from those who attack it, as well as fierce support from those which practice Islam. This passion results in dogmatism within the Muslim community and fear from those that do not understand its teachings. Unfortunately most Americans and Christians only associate beheadings and burka clad women with Islam. This paper will go beyond these stereo types and provide an objective summary of this worldview, review the flaws inherent in its practice and how to most effectively share the gospel with a Muslim.

BASIC SUMMARY

While the religion of Islam is a direct result of Abraham’s lack of faith by conceiving Ishmael through Hagar, after Jehovah had promised a son to he and Sarah, the history of Islam is not nearly as old as the Abrahamic covenant. Ron Carlson writes in Fast Facts on False Teachings that, “According to Muslim tradition, the angel Gabriel came to Muhammad. And they take this as a sign that Muhammad was a prophet to the Arabs.

” Muhammad lived in the 6th century and most people, Muslims included, are unaware that according to Carlson, Muhammad was a camel driver until he was 25 years old and that he was illiterate. The significance of this lies in the fact that he was not educated yet the founder of a worldview religion. Information like this does not put a good light on the final prophet, according to Islam, and tends to be lost in obscurity. Islam’s influence on the world, goes beyond religion and can be seen on the news daily.

John Ankerberg identifies that it is important to follow because of its nearly one billion followers comprised of two schools, Sunni and Shi’ite. The world economy, along with the financial influence, outside of countries considered to be Muslim, are two other reasons Ankerberg believes Islam deserves to be watched closely. The belief still exists, in spite of the facts above, that Islam poses no threat to Western countries. This is dangerous and all would be wise to consider what Muslims are on record as stating. In January of 2010, the Hizb ut Tahrir, an Islamic apologetic periodical, stated that Muslims have enjoyed financial blessings from oil in the Middle East as a result of Allah providing these resources. It also pushed the belief that the influence it provides would be used by the Khilafah, heads of Islamic states, to begin the transformation of a brave and creative people into a leading world power. This thirst for power is veiled in a passionate practice of religion.

Ergun Caner identifies that Islam is based on five pillars; the creed, prayers, alms, fasting and a pilgrimage to Mecca. In the creed the new convert confesses that there is no God but Allah. The prayers are to be made five times daily while facing Mecca. The alms amounted to one fourtieth of the believer’s income. Fasting is accomplished throughout the year some lasting as long as 30 days. The pilgrimage to Mecca, termed hajj, has resulted in military service members calling Muslim members of the opposing force “hajis”. This pilgrimage is only required once in the believers lifetime and are described as follows. “As traveling four camels abreast, which are all tied one after the other, like as in teams. The whole body is called a caravan, which is divided into several cottors, or companies, each of which has its name, and consists, it may be, of several thousand camels; and they move, one cottor after another, like distinct troops.”

Manners & Customs of the Bible

These five pillars seem harmless enough on the surface, but a closer look into Islamic teaches reveals a flaw the Christian cannot afford to ignore.

THE MAJOR ISLAMIC FLAW

Working the pillars in reverse reveals that the pilgrimage to Mecca is harmless in and of itself. The fasting taught in Islam is a physical demonstration of an inward belief practiced by many religions. The alms collected are used to help many people in need and are a worthwhile religious practice and the prayers are to be commended and the practice is common in many religions. What makes Islam dangerous is found in their creed. Richard Jansen does a great job of identifying the similarity yet distinction when he wrote, “Muhammed claimed to be the latest and indeed the last, prophet of the covenant God made with Abraham and, in addition, claimed that Abraham was Muslim as indeed were all the Jewish patriarchs and Jesus as well. Muhammed gave the name Allah to God and claimed that Allah was the Muslim God before he was the Jewish and Christian God because, in Islamic belief, the Koran existed since the beginning of the world, i.e. predated the Bible. ”

G Richard Jansen It is an error with eternal consequences to try and align the god Muslims pray to, Allah, with the God of Christianity Jehovah. In an effort to be accepted it is not uncommon for an apologist to yield this ground ignorantly. After speaking with a Muslim, a Christian apologist may be led to believe that Muslims are praying to the same God of Christianity. This is an error on the part of the Islamic believer and unrecognized due to ignorance on the Christian’s part.

SHARING THE GOSPEL WITH THE ISLAMIST

When evangelizing a Muslim the Christian must be careful. Religious discussions are acceptable on both parties accounts and discussing the similarities between the two are a great starting point. It is critical that the apologist understands that Ergun Caner got it right when he stated that “Islam didn’t get it partially right but completely wrong” The terminology between Christianity and Islam can be eerily similar when using English as the common language. If God is discussed, the Muslim will be in agreement, all the while understanding god to be Allah.

The division between the two apologists always occurs when Jesus is brought up. Muslim’s concede that Jesus was a prophet but refuse to acknowledge Him as God incarnate as well as part of the Trinity. Jesus Christ as the Messiah is the mountain that needs to be scaled to evangelize a Muslim. Most Muslims are ignorant of their own faith, but are unwilling to hear this criticism. Instead of pointing out the failure of Islam the Christian should approach the Muslim in such a manner that they are accepted personally in order for them to be open to reading the Christian’s Bible. After all, relying on Scripture is the best weapon to accomplish salvation for anyone.

CONCLUSION

Using a non-traditional approach, this paper identified Islam in its most basic form as a religion practiced by many and abused by some in a quest for power. Without over simplifying Islam in its summation it also identified the major flaw found, specifically that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Recognizing the principle that Jesus is the narrow gate, this paper advocated exposing the Islamic believer to scripture and relying on the Power of the Holy Spirit to reveal Jesus Christ as He truly is. The author successfully implemented this strategy in leading his personal translator to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ. The reader would do well going forward to interact and have religious discussions with those of the Islamic faith, using this exposure as a personal laboratory to understand that they are people and without Jesus will spend an eternity in Hell.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ankerberg, John, and John Weldon. Fast Facts on Islam. Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 2001. 1-3. Print.

Carlson, Ron, and Ed Decker. Fast Facts on False Teaching. [S.l.]: Harvest House Pub, 2003. 93. Print.

Freeman, James M. ; Chadwick, Harold J.: Manners & Customs of the Bible. Rev. . North Brunswick, NJ : Bridge-Logos Publishers, 1998, S. 72

Hindson, Edward E., and Ergun Mehmet. Caner. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics. Eugene, Or.: Harvest House, 2008. 277-81. Print.

Jansen, G. Richard. “Abraham, Jesus, Muhammed.” Lamar.ColoState.EDU. 1 Aug. 2006. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://lamar.colostate.edu>.

Unknown. “If It Is Not Now Time for Khilafah, Then When?” Hizb Ut Tahrir. Web. 21 Apr. 2011. <http://hizb-ut-tahrir.org/EN/>.

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[ 1 ]. Carlson, Ron , and Decker, Ed. Fast Facts on False Teachings. [S.1>]: Harvest House Pub, 2003. 93. Print [ 2 ]. Ibid, 94
[ 3 ]. Ankerberg, John, and John Weldon. Fast Facts on Islam. Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 2001. 1-3. Print. [ 4 ]. Unknown. “If It Is Not Now Time for Khilafah, Then When?” Hizb Ut Tahrir. Web. 21 Apr. 2011. . [ 5 ]. Hindson, Edward E., and Ergun Mehmet. Caner. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics. Eugene, Or.: Harvest House, 2008. 277-81. Print. [ 6 ]. Freeman, James M. ; Chadwick, Harold J.: Manners & Customs of the Bible. Rev. ed.]. North Brunswick, NJ : Bridge-Logos Publishers, 1998, S. 72 [ 7 ]. Jansen, G. Richard. “Abraham, Jesus, Muhammed.” Lamar.ColoState.EDU. 1 Aug. 2006. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. . [ 8 ]. Caner, The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics, 280

Islam Worldview Analysis Essay

Five Pillars of Islam Essay

Five Pillars of Islam Essay.

The First Pillar is the believers’ confession of faith, reduced to a few words that every member of the faithful from every continent and background can understand, from the illiterate nomadic herdsman in the deserts of Northern Kenya to the sophisticated trilingual businessman of Paris or Riyadh. The Second Pillar is the central act of righteous in Islam, the very essence of the life of a Muslim. The Third Pillar Islam is a significant presence in one hundred or more countries all around the world, and the majority religion in over forty.

There are almost a billion believers.

By the year of 2020, if present trends continue, half the world would be Muslim. Islam is an Arabic word meaning submission or commitment to the God. Islam is the humble recognition of the relationship between man and his divine creator and resonates with the familiar words from Judaism and Christianity. The fourth Pillar is the fasting. A Muslim must fast for the month of Ramadan.

During the fasting month, one must refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset. The fifth and final Pillar is where a Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca.

Every adult Muslim who is physically and financially able to do so must make this pilgrimage at least once in his or her lifetime. The history of Islam begins with Muhammad and the Quran. The low level of importance given by Muslims to the events before Muhammad is illustrated by the Arabic term for the preceding century, the Time of Ignorance. Muhammad never claimed to be anything but mortal. For a non-Muslim with no knowledge of Arabic, is an exasperating, punishing read, apparently without order, narrative or conclusion. The magic of classical Arabic, in a modern example, was a strong element in the extraordinary power.

In the Commonwealth of Medina, Muhammad was prophet, lawgiver, and prayer leader, commander of the army and head of state. So when he died, leaving only one surviving child, his daughter Fatima, and without providing for a successor or clarifying beyond doubt the method by which successor should be appointed, the ummah fell into dissention. The unity of Islam would never recover from the events that were to follow over the next two decades and no satisfactory answer would ever be found to the question of the legitimacy of subsequent Muslim rulers.

There is no mystical ritual in mainstream Islam; there are no human intermediaries of divine interceders between man and God. There are no sacraments to be administered by the ordained few to the supplicant many. If God in the Muslim version forgave Adam for his transgression at the time, then man cannot be inherently evil, or born in original sin. So, like Adam, all men can be forgiven their sins directly by God without the need for intervention by any third party, whether a Redeemer on a cross, a virgin with child, or a priestly delegate operating through the medium of a confession box.

The early history of Shia has moulded the character and faith of the sect into a form substantially different from Sunni Islam, even though the two branches both practise the Five Pillas and shares a common belief in the divine nature of the Quran. In order to penetrate the differences between the two, there is a rough parallel to be explored between Shia and Catholicism on the one hand and Sunni and Protestantism on the other. The comparison may be superficial and not always a perfect fit, but for an observer from a post Christian culture, the analysis is revealing nevertheless.

Even though America is probably the most religious country in the Western world, with about 85 percent of the population professing belief in a god, religion was not considered a forming part in American culture. Religion in America is considered to be entirely contained within the word freedom the basis of the United States Constitution which does not once mention the word god. Faith for Americans is a free personal choice and therefore, in theory, has no place in the group activities of national politics and culture.

Even school prayer is banned by a long-standing Supreme Court interpretation of the Constitution. In practice, of course, US elections are won and lost through religious support, as if the President’s job description included Chaplain-in-Chief. And a low-level battle rages constantly in US courts and legislatures between secularists attempting to uphold the strict separation of church and state, and religious groups intent on government funding for religious schools and faith-based initiatives.

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Five Pillars of Islam Essay

Review of “Peer-E-Kamil” Essay

Review of “Peer-E-Kamil” Essay.

Pir-e-Kamil (SAW) meaning The Perfect Mentor, is one of the fiction novel written by well known and famous Pakistani writer Umera Ahmed. The book was firstly published in 2005 in Urdu language and later on in 2011 the book was published in English language too. I have decided to write review on this book because I found the book an extraordinary attempt by the writer Umera Ahmed. I have selected this book for review because the facts shown in the book were heart & soul shaking.

Many among us don’t think about these facts and coming life but only consider it as to have the luxuries and to relax after working hard for gathering as much luxuries as they can. The only right path starts from ALLAH and ends at his beloved last Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) but unfortunately not as many of us thinks about it.

Umera Ahmed was born on December 10, 1976 in Sialkot. Umera Ahmed completed her masters in English literature from Murray College,Sialkot.

She began her writing career in 1998 with her initial stories published in monthly Urdu digests. She has written 16 books, ranging from complete novels to compilations of short stories. Her most popular book is the current book of which I am presenting the review Pir-e-Kamil (SAW). This book became identity for Umera Ahmed. Later she became an English language lecturer for the students of O and A levels at Army Public College, Sialkot. However, she left the job a few years back in order to devote her full attention to writing. Her novels and her plays have been adapted for television. Umera Ahmed is one of the most widely-read and popular Urdu fiction novelist and screenplay writer of this era. Her stories revolves around many social, domestic and spiritual issues and consists of colours of true love, friendship, suspense and tragedy. What differentiates her from others is her ambition of bringing light on certain controversial issues of modern era.

Pir-e-Kamil, is our Prophet (S.A.W) someone the whole Muslim Ummah loves. The story of ‘Pir-e-Kamil’ is about a girl named ‘Imamah’ who went through many changes in her life because of her love for Allah and His Messenger S.A.W. Pir-e-Kamil is a story of Imamah Hashim, who belongs to a family of Qadiyanis. Qadiyanis are a group of people who choose divergence from true Islam by selling their faith and these are considered non-believers by Islamic Law and according to the Law of Pakistan too. Imamah grews up in that family but feels something to be missing in her life. She found what she was looking for in Islam. Her conversion to Islam brought some serious and difficult challenges to her life, and faced rejection and harsh behavior of her family on becoming a Muslim.

Her family planned her wedding with her cousin “Asjad” who was also a Qadiyani. As It isn’t permissible for a Muslim woman to marry a non-Muslim, so she asks for her Muslim neighbors, Salar’s help. Salar was one of those special people who have 150+ IQ level and amazing memory. This book is also about the story of Salar Sikander, a very different and complicated character, who was living a sinful and worse life like the life of anyone in the world but not that of how a good Muslim should live. He had tried to commit suicide a few times just because he wants to feel the pain. After that story the book is about the hardships these characters face in life. The book tells us that Any success in this world and in the next World, is only granted for the love of Holy Prophet (SAW) and beyond that there is nothing that a person requires. Nothing.

The writers expressive style does justice to the wonderful plot and by the end of the novel you cant help but at least think over the lessons and morals in the book. The novel’s plot, facts expressed in the novel, the scenes hence, everything was heart touching, heart shaking and perfect. It is not just an ordinary novel, but Pir-e-Kamil will let you examine your own life and see if the lives we are living are in accordance with what Allah (God) wants us to live like in this World. The story of the book is such a great one that no one can sit without admiring it. It shows the people who love Allah and His Messenger (SAW) and how people have changed by the will of Allah through other people. It is spiritual story. I’m sure that there are many people who go through such phases in their lives, infact I think everyone gets a chance at least once in their lives.

It also depends on who want that change. Surely, Allah listens and knows what’s in our hearts. One of my favorite parts was when Salar was in a “fishy” area and hears the name Imamah and the way Umera described his reaction was just superb and fabulous. Great characterization shown by Umera Ahmed in this book. Your heart totally went out for Salar even when you knew he wasn’t a good guy – what a great way to craft a character in the book. It is really a masterpiece of Umera Ahmed and no doubt the book has a magic spell .Although it is totally a fiction novel but after reading this you will just think that may be Salar Sikandar exists or Imamah exists in this World. The concepts , the characters , the dialogues every single thing in book was amazing. Personally the character of Salar Sikandar left me totally mesmerized. I loved the transition of his characters the way he changed is quite interesting.

Overall this book is a Masterpiece from the Author. I will surely recommend this book to all people. It is such a type of book which have everything In it and once reading it no once can be restricted from appraising the work of author. A surely recommended book to everyone. I highly recommend this book to everyone because it has got to be one of the most amazing novels ever. It is definitely worth reading.

“‗In life, at sometime or another we come to a point where all relationships cease—where there is only us and Allah. There are no parents, brother or sister, or any friend. Then we realise that there is no earth under us nor is there sky above, but only Allah who is supporting us in this emptiness. Then we realise our worth – it is not more than a grain of sand or the leaf of a plant. Then we realise our existence is only confined to our being. Our demise makes not a whit of difference to the world around us, nor to the scheme of things.” ― Umera Ahmed, Peer-e-Kamil

Review of “Peer-E-Kamil” Essay

The Spread Of Islam Across The Globe Essay

The Spread Of Islam Across The Globe Essay.

Inadvertently, there is no doubt that Islam is one of the widely spread religion in the world, with followers spanning across the globe. There are more Christians converting to Islam than there are Muslims converting to Christianity. The pattern and the rapidity with which Islam spread over time has been a point of interest to most scholars with all manner of theories being in the fore to explain this phenomenon. Looking at how Islam is mapped out indicates that in addition to other factors, environmental determinism and communication played a major role.

The spread of Islam can be traced back to the death of Prophet Muhammad. His death prompted the rise of the Arab empire and later the creation of Muslim dynasties spanning over the Middle East, North and West Africa. Indeed a study of the initial spread of Islam is compounded by the lack of proper objective documentation and also the divergent theories being fronted by scholars. However, many recognize that the spread of this religion took place in phases.

The first phase was during the fist century of Islam as spread by Muhammad.

This was an era characterized by Muslim conquests of the existing empires which were reoriented towards Islam. History has it that the initial spread of Muslim ideals was not emphasized on conversion but rather on subordination of the polytheistic societies; “at the outset, they were hostile to conversions because new Muslims diluted the economic status advantages of the Arabs. ” (Ira, 2002, 200) However, Islam became instantly popular as it was offering a new societal order; it was providing an alternative to the existing political and religious identity.

The formation of the Arab empire in addition made Islam an attractive venture to the “elements of the former Byzantine and Sasanian aristocracies, including soldiers, officials, landlords, and others” (Ira, 2002, 200). With time though, the notion that Islam was an exclusive Arab affair would be diminished by the formation of a religious doctrine, this opened the doors to mass conversions. Mosques and schools were built popularizing the religion and building a competitive front to the Christians and the Jews. The second phase was characterized by the formation of Islamic disciplines, establishing a body of Islamic philosophy and law.

It is this era that would witness the spread of Islam to Africa and also in central Asia. From here, Islam would spread gradually to the rest of the world. Theories abound over the rapid spread of Islam across the globe. The most prominent theory and which has been largely discredited forceful conversion. This theory was informed by the early days of the spread of Islam which were characterized by Mohammed forming an army of Muslims to conquer medina. It is also formed by images and stories of an Arab horseman wielding a sword and a Quran.

Indeed, the conquest of North Africa was a result of militarization. Due to its proximity to the Middle East, North Africa had been mapped out as a possible territory where Islam could be spread barely a few decades after the death pf Mohammad. Before its conquest, North Africa was largely under the Christian Byzantines. The Arabs made their inroads by establishing military bases in Tunisia (then referred to as Qayrawan). Islam from here was spread to the native Berbers. The conversion of the Berbers meant that the Arab forces were strengthened and used to conquer Spain as well as some parts of France.

The existing institutions of the Byzantine Empire were removed after the conquest of the Constantinople. From here, the Arab forces progressed to Iran and Asia conquering the existing empires and although they did not establish permanent residents, they instated societal changes that were conducive to the survival of Islam. It is important to observe that these early campaigns were carried out by the Umayyads, under Umar, the second caliph having taken over from Abu Bakr who was the immediate successor of Mohammad.

The Umayyads are seen as having played a major role in the early expansion of Islam through what is referred to as jihad. Their main aim was to conquer, plunder and establish as system of taxation that would benefit the Arabs. It is these incidences that have continued to fuel criticism against Muslims especially by western scholars who maintain that the spread of Islam has been as a result of violence (Frances, 2009, 37). It is important to point out that the theory of forced conversion has largely been discredited. This is not to mean that history is not rife with other incidences of forced conversions.

Christianity and Islam are two religions that have been recognized as at one moment in their history propagated the use of violence to spread and defend the faith, this has remained a controversy and also a contradiction as the two religions are deeply anchored in the ideals of peace and condemnation of violence. The spread of Islam in Bengal has aroused much interest with most leaning towards forced conversion as the reason behind it. The spread of Islam across north and West Africa is also seen as having been fuelled by violence meted out against the locals in the bid to establish a new political order.

Razia (1992, 2) has critically examined this observing that “the ‘sword theory” can only be a partial explanation of an extremely complex process that has resulted in the spread of Islam. ” The initial process of the spread of Islam lay on the “breakdown of the social and religious structures of non-Muslim communities in the tenth to the twelfth centuries. ” (Ira, 2002, 200). This was created animosity and hostility between the Muslims and the non Muslims, leading to the destruction of the existing social and communal organizations.

The resultant collapse of order in the society would see Muslims leaders initiate reconstruction schemes that would see the rise of a new societal beliefs and identities. Major aspects of the spread of Islam are environmental determinism and communication. Environmental determinism is a theory propagating the idea that culture is determined by the physical conditions and not by social conditions as had priory been believed. This was a conclusion that was reached by a cross examination of different cultures, the behaviors and attitudes of those people in relation to physical factors such as climate and topography.

It is a similar line of thinking that has been used to analyze the spread of Islam globally, as Holt et al (1977, 443) observes; “there is a closer relationship between Islam and its geographical setting, than that of any other of the great monotheistic religions. ” A critical analysis of the spread and expansion of Islam reveals one succinct feature; it has largely been laid out in the arid zones and along the major sea routes. As scholars have observed, the rapid spread of Islam can be seen to have occurred along trade routes. The spread of Islam to major parts of Africa has been closely looked into.

Due to its geographic proximity to the Middle East, a few decades after the death of Muhammad, Islam had been expanded to the northern Africa; this would be followed by a push into Spain resulting to Islam spreading across three continents globally. This fast spread has been credited to trade and geographic positioning more than to anything else. The initial spread of Islam was done through military conquest but the later expansion was done through frontiers. A look at the medieval era indicates that the major sea and land routes were in the preserve of the Muslim merchants.

There is evidence that Islam was spread along those routes, as Michael has concurred, “at the time, the leading edges of this expansion were rapidly moving southward along both the east and west coasts of Africa, northeastward into central Asia, and southeastward through India into the Indonesian archipelago. ” (2004, 24) North African traders are credited for having spread Islam to West Africa and later to the south of Sahara. The spread of Islam to Africa took place in three phases. The first phase saw the growth of Muslim communities that lived along the trade routes.

Then, there was a clear correlation between Islam and distance trade. There were clear incentives given to the merchants that enabled them to carry out trade better than the non Muslims. The 12th century saw increased spread of Islam in Africa due to the increased contacts between the two. Merchant scholars were fast becoming advisors in some of the African kingdoms and integration between Africans and the Muslims was taken to a higher level. In the second phase, Islam would cease to be confined in the shores of the Indian oceans and along trade routes into the interior.

The early interactions of the Muslim scholars with the some of the African kings led to a fast spread of Islam. There is evidence of a number of empires that fully embraced Islam and lorded over their subjects. The Mali Empire is a distinct example of this. Initially, Islam, for it to be acceptable to the natives had to be blended with the local traditions. The third phase of the spread of Islam in Africa was through a holy war, a jihad initiated by the Muslims to conquer the waning influence of the pagans.

This led to the growth of communities that fully embraced Islam. The nineteenth century in West Africa was characterized with jihads; this was an era that would see the emergence of strong African Muslim leaders such as Samouri Toure. By the time colonialism was being instituted, Islam had already gained roots that not even the anti slavery campaigns could reduce the growing influence. One factor still remains in Africa; Islam remains the main religion in areas that acted as the major trade routes, which coincidentally were along the ocean shores.

In Africa, as well as in the Middle East, areas dominated by Islam are seen as containing similar geographic and climatic features. Communication is also a major factor that fuelled the rapid spread of Islam. This is in terms of the use of Arab as the main language of Islam thus enhancing interaction and integration of the various converted groups. A look at the history of Arabic reveals that before the onset of Islam, it was regarded as a minor group of the Semitic language. Currently, Arabic is the holy language through which Islamic message was delivered.

The use of Arabic has led to the fast spread of Islam as it has seen the converted being inculcated into the ways and culture of the Arabs. The power of communication can also be seen in the way that the initial Muslim frontiers carried the message across. Unlike the Christians who formed associations and movements to propagate their Christian beliefs, Islam relied on “informal processes such as the formation of business partnerships and political affiliations, as well as through intermarriage.

” (Michael, 2004, 24) This meant that the Muslim frontiers formed tighter ties with the locals enhancing the further spread of Islam. The power of the message passed across was also a major factor in the rapid spread of Islam. Before the coming of Islam, majority of the societies had loosely organized political systems with individuals being locked in their own tribal cocoons with no prospects of interaction with the outside world. Islam however sought to establish a new order; the growth of successful states in the Middle East was being used as a good enough reason to advocate for the spread of Islam civilization.

Islam hence was being seen holding the key to civilization and was soon being identified with leaders and the elites in the society. As Ira has mentioned, “Islam became the religion of tribal peoples and merchant group seeking economic integration, and state elites seeking consolidated political power. ” (2002, 205) Islam presented new ideals, a shift from the past and would see the quest for the formation of new states and the shift from animistic and polytheistic traditional religions to modernity which became characterized by modernism.

Islam was seen as bringing in a new social identity. Indeed, the rapid spread of Islam is a major a topic drawing various views from scholars and pundits. The traditional held view that it was through violence and coercion that the faith has been able to expand globally has been long disputed. Though there is evidence especially in the medieval era when the holy war was used as an instrument of conquest, there is more to this as Christianity also used crusaders in its expansionary mission. Environmental determinism and communication are seen as major factors.

A look at the spread of Islam indicates a certain pattern, though it is globally spread, it is mainly concentrated in middle east, some parts of Europe, central Asia, northern and western Africa. These are areas that border the Middle East and are situated along the major trade routes. The geographical factor of the spread of Islam has remained a key interest. The use of a common language and the propagation of Arabic as the holy language through which the holy message was delivered is also a major factor as it has eased communication and integration of Muslims worldwide.

References

Razia A. B. (1992) Islam in Bangladesh. BRILL. Michael F. (2004) Islam in world cultures: comparative perspectives. ABC-CLIO, Timothy I. (2003) The archaeology of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge University Press, Holt P. M et al. (1977) The Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press, Ira M. L. (2002) A history of Islamic societies. Cambridge University Press, Frances O. (2009) History of Islam. The Rosen Publishing Group,

The Spread Of Islam Across The Globe Essay

The Five Pillars of Islam Essay

The Five Pillars of Islam Essay.

Islam is one of the fastest growing religions in the world. It also has received a lot of criticism from Christians and others who perceive it as a bed for terrorism. Many people don’t realize however that this religion is much like Christianity. Christianity was built upon the words of many prophets with Jesus Christ being the most prolific. Islam was built on the words from Muhammad who the Muslims view as their most prolific prophet. Muhammad spoke the words of the Qur’an, or Islam’s holy book.

It is because of him that Islam has become what it is and the Muslim people praise him for it. Through his teachings came the principles in which the Muslim people follow and has been what I believe its reasons for growing so fast. Christians believe that the 10 commandments are their guide for living a good moral life. The Muslim people however follow the Five Pillars of Islam. These pillars are Shahadah, Salat, Saum, Zakat, and Hajj.

These pillars are the path of every Muslim in order to live a good life in complete surrender to God.

The first of the pillars is Shahadah, or their confession of faith. The Shahadah is the creed that every Muslim states and is the most important of the pillars. The creed is “there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is prophet. ” (Smith 160) This phrase emphasis’s Islam’s monotheistic belief in that there is only one God and that is the only God that should be worshipped. The second part solidifies the Muslim’s view that it is through Muhammad that God or Allah as God is said in Arabic, conveyed the last and final revelation. (carm. rg, “Five Pillars”)

Since Allah made Muhammad speak these words he is portrayed as the Greatest Prophet. This pillar is most important because it allows people to enter Islam through this creed. This creed allows people to become Muslim as long as they believe those words. This is also important because it takes away the differences in people and unites them. A regular man like Muhammad was chosen to speak the words of Allah, which means there is no one better person and these words allow them to see that. The second pillar of Islam is Salat or prayer.

Prayer is extremely important in Islam because it is a direct link to God. The Salat is performed five times a day and is always in the direction of the Ka’ba shrine in Mecca. The first of the prayers is the Fajr or Morning Prayer. This prayer can be performed at anytime between the breaking of the dawn and sunrise. The second prayer is the Zuhr and is performed after the sun declines from its zenith until it is about midway from setting. Asr is the third prayer and begins soon after the time for zuhr prayer ends and extends to just before sunset.

Maghrib is the fourth prayer and begins just after sunset and extends to a period of an hour and a half. The fifth and final prayer is Isha. Isha begins an hour and a half after sunset and extends to dawn. (“Prayers”) Each of these prayers contains verses out of the Qur’an and is said in Arabic. Muslims are encouraged to worship together but cannot always do so, so they may pray wherever they are. The prayer should be performed on a sajjada or prayer mat. The focal prayer of the week is the midday prayer at the mosque on Friday.

Islamic prayer begins in a standing position and moves through several simple postures until the person is kneeling. There are specific recitations that are said through each position. The salat is a Muslims way of making sure God is always at the center of their life and by performing it so frequently they are showing their surrender to Him. The third pillar of Islam is Zakat or alms giving. Zakat is a Muslim person’s way of showing that all things belong to God. There are two kinds of charities in Islam “the obligatory and the voluntary. ” (Alislam. rg “Zakat”) The obligatory charity is called zakat and the voluntary charity is called sadaqah.

The zakat is the amount of money that every adult, mentally stable, free, and financially able Muslim, male and female, has to pay to support specific categories of people. “The category of people is defined in surah at-Taubah (9) verse 60. The alms are only for the poor and the needy, and those who collect them, and those whose hearts are to be reconciled and to free the captives and the debtors, and for the cause of Allah, and the wayfarers; a duty imposed by Allah. Allah is knower, Wise. (Islamicity. com “Zakat”)

The zakat is only obligatory when a certain amount of money, called the nisab is reached or exceeded. It is up to each person to determine how much they give but it is typically 2. 5 percent of their total capital and is paid at the end of one lunar year, or approximately 355 days. Should a person decide to contribute more than the 2. 5 percent then they are performing sadaqah and are done at their own discretion and typically in secret. The fourth pillar of Islam is siyam or fasting. The Holy Qur’an mentions fasting in 2:183 “O ye who believe!

Fasting is prescribed to you, as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may (learn) self restraint. ” (“Siyam (fasting)”) This fasting takes place during the month of Ramadan and requires all Muslims to fast during daylight hours, drinks included, and abstain from bodily pleasures like sex or other forms of sensual abandon. “Those who are sick, elderly, or on a journey, and women who are pregnant or nursing are permitted to break the fast and make up an equal number of days later in the year. If they are physically unable to do this, they must feed a needy person for everyday they missed. (Islamicity. com “Five Pillars”)

The purpose of the fasting is to bring focus on humility, spiritual oneness with God, and a social oneness with the Islamic community. Fasting shows a Muslims willingness to submit to God and show they love and respect Him. The hunger and suffering they feel is worth it because they know Allah is watching. This suffering also unites the Islamic community by showing they are all the same. This allows Muslims to understand how the hungry and less fortunates feel. They also are encouraged to come together to break the fast which helps unite their community.

The fifth pillar of Islam is the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. Every Muslim is expected to at least once make the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Hajj begins in the twelfth month of the Islamic year, which is lunar so it may fall in winter or summer. The pilgrims are stripped of all clothing and made to wear simple garments that strip away distinctions of class and culture, so that all stand equal before God. (Islamicity. com “Five Pillars”) This allows the people to unite with each other and allow them to get to know others from all over the world. There are three pillars of Hajj.

The first is to enter into a state of “ihram” and have the intention to perform the pilgrimage. The second is to stay at the field of “Arafat” on the ninth day of Dul-Hajj. If this is not done then the person will not have completed the pilgrimage and will have to repeat it again the next year. The third pillar is additional circling of the Ka’ba that is done after the stay at the field of Arafat and performed from the tenth of the month. (“Hajj”) The rites of the Hajj are Abrahamic in origin and include circling the Ka’ba seven times, and going seven times between the mountains of Safa and Marwa.

Once this is complete the pilgrims stand together on the plain of Arafa and join in prayers for God’s forgiveness. The close of the Hajj is marked by the festival, Eid al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers and the exchange of gifts in Muslim communities everywhere. The Hajj is extremely important in a Muslims life because this is where they get to see members of their community from all over the world. Social status and class are stripped away so all members of society come together to help each other during this journey.

It is a remarkable experience for members of the Muslim community. The Five Pillars of Islam play a significant role in each Muslim’s life from the moment they enter Islam until their death. These pillars are their guidelines for living and without them the community would not come together as it does. It is remarkable how much these pillars dominate a Muslims life and that they incorporate them into everything they do. It would not be uncommon to see Muslims stop what they are doing and perform the salat when the call to prayer sounds.

This just shows the discipline and love that the Muslim people have for God and that they are willing to drop everything for Him and His love. If each member of the Christian community would live their lives more in line with the 10 Commandments maybe we would be able to accept the Muslim community more for what they believe in than what we have them stereotyped as. I love that this religion incorporates these pillars into all they do and it has given me the desire to learn more about my own Christian faith and what I can do to incorporate it more in my daily life.

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The Five Pillars of Islam Essay

Concept of Maqasid Al-Syariah Essay

Concept of Maqasid Al-Syariah Essay.

1. In directly meaning Maqasid Al-Syariah can be define as the objectives of Islamic law. However, in linguistic meaning Maqasid is define as follow, a goal or as an inspiration meanwhile Al-Syariah is define as the law that God reveal to Muhammad involving all aspects of life such as family institution, in finance or it can say the way of a Muslims live their life.

In together term Maqasid Al-Syariah carriers the meaning based on its constituent part, of the goal and objectives which are reason for legislation of the rule of Islam.

As we known all law in Islam has wisdom behind them and not randomly legislated or without purpose. These terms are back bone to this concept. They are Illah and Hikmah.

Illah; in linguistically has two meaning. A sickness and a reason or causes. In definition Illah is a law that exist because of the reason or it impact in bad ways. As an example is prohibition of drinking alcohol is due to it give bad effects to our health and mental stability.

Allah prohibits us to drink Alcohol in order to avoid us losing our insanity and doing something immoral without our awareness.

Hikmah; in linguistically means wisdom or intend. This mean Islamic law has it intend even though it is not clear why Allah make a rule like that. There are some rules in Shariah for which the reason for their legislation is not clear or apparent. We do not say that there is no reason, rather which it is hidden from us and Allah with His wisdom chose not to disclose it. As an Example prayer five times daily. That not to say there are no benefits. Only Allah knows best.

2.Sources of Islamic Law

Several of sources Islamic law used by Islamic jurisprudence to clarify the Shariah. There are two main sources that can be consider as the core of Islamic law which is Al-Quran and Sunnah.However in some circumstances of jurisprudence different methods are used to judge the level of authencity which is comprise of Ijtima’ and Qias.

The Quran

Muslims believe the Quran to be the direct words of Allah, as revealed to and transmitted by the Prophet Muhammad. All sources of Islamic law must be in essential agreement with the Quran, the most fundamental source of Islamic knowledge. When the Quran itself does not speak directly or in detail about a certain subject, Muslims only then turn to alternative sources of Islamic law.

The Sunnah

Sunnah is the traditions or known practices of the Prophet Muhammad, many of which have been recorded in the volumes of Hadith literature. The resources include many things that he said, did, or agreed to — and he lived his life according to the Quran, putting the Quran into practice in his own life. During his lifetime, the Prophet’s family and companions observed him and shared with others exactly what they had seen in his words and behaviors — i.e. how he performed ablutions, how he prayed, and how he performed many other acts of worship. People also asked the Prophet directly for rulings on various matters, and he would pronounce his judgment. All of these details were passed on and recorded, to be referred to in future legal rulings. Many issues concerning personal conduct, community and family relations, political matters, etc. were addressed during the time of the Prophet, decided by him, and recorded. The Sunnah can thus clarify details of what is stated generally in the Quran.

Ijma’ (consensus)

In situations when Muslims have not been able to find a specific legal ruling in the Quran or Sunnah, the consensus of the community is sought (or at least the consensus of the legal scholars within the community). The Prophet Muhammad once said that his community (i.e. the Muslim community) would never agree on an error.

Qiyas (analogy)

In cases when something needs a legal ruling, but has not been clearly addressed in the other sources, judges may use analogy, reasoning, and legal precedent to decide new case law. This is often the case when a general principle can be applied to new situations. (See the article Smoking in Islam for an example of this process at work.)

3.Type and categories of riba and gharar

The Islamic economic system as part of spiritual activities obtains its general rules from Al Qur’an and Sunnah. Therefore, its values consist of what is allowed and leaves out what is forbidden. Some values that are forbidden in Qur’an and Sunnah are Riba (Usury) and Gharar (Uncertainty). These values are the biggest differences between Islamic economics and Capitalism and Socialism economic systems. The following is the explanation of Riba and Gharar: A. Riba (Usury)

Riba is literally translated from the Arab language and means ‘an increase, growth, augmentation or accretion,’ (Khir, Gupta, & Shanmugam, 2008, p.28), and ‘addition and expansion,’ (Al-Harran, 1993, p.16) although not all of increasing is forbidden in Islam. And as syari’ah term, it means ‘the premium’ that is paid by the borrower to the lender together with the principal of loan due to some condition and because of its addition time to maturity (Chapra, 1992). According to this definition, many scholars agree that the riba refers to ‘interest’ used commonly in economic conventional system. Types of Riba:

Scholars have divided riba into two types: 1. Riba Duyun.

This type of riba occurs in a loan or debt. Any kind of addition or increase above the amount of principal whether the addition or increase are inflicted by the lenders or willingness of the borrowers. Riba Duyun is divided in two types:

a.RibaQardh

This is all increments above the amount of the principal of the loan whose amount is imposed proportionately at the beginning of the lending agreement. The addition above the amount of the principal and is due in a certain amount of time based on the loan.

b.Riba Jahiliyyah

This occurs when the increment of the principal increases as the time of loan increases. At first, there is no such fix increment, but when the borrowers want to postpone the loan or to extend the time to maturity the lenders will compel the increase of the loan. However, this addition is due to the time of maturity and can also happen along with the riba qardh above. According to this explanation riba qard and riba jahiliyyah refer to ‘interest’ because they are associated with the ‘addition or increase’ and the ‘extension’ of time to maturity. For example: Loans from the banks, credit card etc.

1. Riba Buyun

Riba buyun occurs in trading transactions. This kind of riba occurs in trading of two of the same product but in unequal amounts; or the same product in equal amounts but there is a postponement in delivery.

Types of Riba Buyun are:

a. Riba Fadhl

Riba fadhl is products that are exchanged in different amounts, number, measurement or weight without the postponement in delivery of the product or the payment. According to Khir, Gupta, & Shanmugam (2008) it is also called Riba of Excess (p.31). Riba fadhl can happen in the purchase and sale of different products, but the quantity or the amount of products that is exchanged are different. The difference in the quantity or the amount is unjust and dishonest which is prohibited in Islam. Riba fadhl can be avoided if the goods exchanged are equal in amount, number, quantity, and measurement.

b. Riba Nasi’ah (Riba Yad)

According to Khir, Gupta, & Shanmugam (2008), this is a kind of riba happens in trading in same weight, measurement and number of products, but the delivery of products, or the payment of money are delayed. However, Chapra (1992) stated that Nasi’ah come from nasa’a means ‘to postpone, defer, or wait’ (p.35), and refers to the time the borrower returns the loan with the addition. And he argues that this is interest in a conventional system. Although there are some explanations and definitions about types of riba, basically the meaning is same; because in concluding knowledge, scholars is usually referred to as Ijma’ Ulama (the teaching from Scholars who have well known about their knowledge in Islamic Jurisprudence).

Motivation in prohibition of Riba: Islam is very concerned with human prosperity. Therefore, it would not forbid something without any explanation for the prohibition. Although riba does not just refer to interest, but the term of riba is used to explain interest. The following is the reason why riba is prohibited in Islam:

1. An interest based system damages equity. Interest will force the borrowers to pay additional money above the principal; while the borrowers do not have a positive profit from their loan used in business. Therefore, the interest rate will increase the money of rich people.

2. Interest based systems dissuade people to open a new business. Interest rates will cause people to hesitate in finding something new or in opening a new venture because the new business does not yet have a positive return. On the other hand, the owner must pay definite payments to the lenders.

3. Interest based systems set profit to one side and ignores the other side. Much like banks, they are just concerned about their returns and don’t care about loss or profit of the borrowers.

4. Interest based systems depress investment activity. Interest will increase investment costs.

5. Interest based systems add securities to the lenders rather than participate in development. For example: For safety lending reasons, banks tend to provide loans to the most profitable business or company that have been in existence for a long time and are less concerned with small enterprises that are new in the market.

Concept of Maqasid Al-Syariah Essay

Islam Essay

Islam Essay.

1. The word “Islam” is derived form the Arabic root “asalama” which literally means peace, purity and submission. Thus Islam means “surrender to the Almighty” and Muslim means “one who is in a state of submission”. It is understood that this submission is to the Will of God, as is laid down in the Quran. This tenet is unequivocally accepted by all sects of Islam be they Shia, Sunni or Sufis.

2. Islam is an unerringly monotheistic religion. It enjoins the existence of one God, his prophet Muhammad who is the Last Prophet (khatam-in-nabiyin) in a long line of prophets sent throughout time and to every civilization, and the Quran as the Word of God revealed to Muhammad through the angel Jibrael.

Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of life is to worship him and to adhere to his word, as laid down in the Quran, and in Sunnah (the normative practices of the Prophet), as closely as possible.

They believe that Islam is the final, completed and universal version of a faith (Deen-e-Ibrahimi) revealed too many prophets before; most notably Abraham, Moses and Jesus, but whose message has now been distorted.

3. The practices of Islam are based on the ubiquitous “Five Pillars”. These are, in order of importance, Shahadah or acceptance of One-ness (Taw hid) of God, Salat or five daily Prayers, Saum or Fasting in the month of Ramadan, Zakat or obligatory Alms-giving, Hajj or Pilgrimage to the Kaabah (House of God) at least once in a lifetime, for those able to afford it. These five “Pillars of Faith” are incumbent upon every Muslim and form the basis for his belief. Some scholars say that the pillars in Shia Islam involve an additional four points in addition to the principal ones. Namely, Nabuwah or Prophet Hood of Muhammad, Jesus, Moses etc., Imamah or Leadership of the Tweleve Imams, Qiyamah or Day of Judgment and Adel or Justice.

4. The fundamental goals of Islam are a complete submission to God and adherence to the teachings of the Quran and the example of Sunnah. When a child is born he is “ordained” into Islam by reciting the Kalima (the verses outlining Tawhid) into his ear, and thereby giving Shahadah i.e. acknowledgement of the One-ness of God. Muslims must perform the ritual of prayer five times a day, fast and give alms in the month of Ramadan, and perform the pilgrimage to the Kaabah if he is of sound mind and body and is able to afford it.

The principles of the Promotion of Virtue (amr bil-maaroof) and Prevention of Vice (nahi an-al-munkar) are long-standing and Muslims are expected to inculcate them in their dealings with others. As Islam enjoins peace and harmony with mankind and with nature there is a great emphasis placed on community. Indeed, the Muslim brethren at large are considered one community (Ummah), irrespective of political, cultural or physical barriers. A Muslim is encouraged to perform good deeds for the community (masawaat) and to call people to worship the One God (Dawah).

5. Authority in Islam remains with God. His injunctions, as laid down in the Quran, and the practices and teachings of the Prophet, Sunnah are to be followed in establishing a political structure. Traditionally the concept of political leadership was embodied by the “Great Caliphs” (Khulfa-e-Rashiduun), who succeeded Muhammad in leadership of the nascent Islamic Empire. This political set-up personified adherence to the Shariah, duty of the rulers to seek consultation or Shura and of censuring unjust rulers. It is widely believed that the “Great Four”, the four to succeed Muhammad in succession, were the only ones in practice true to the cause of Islam and subsequent rulers fell victim to dynastic politics and greed.

With the fall of the Ottoman Empire there was an abolition of the Caliphate, no matter how symbolic, and closure of the traditional Islamic political setup. Shia Islam has a theological concept of the Imamate. This term is often used interchangeably with the Caliphate but has very different connotations. The Shia believes that it is a divine institution succeeding the Last prophet and the Imams divinely chosen. The chosen Imams take up the mantle of religious, political, social etc. leader of all the Ummah. Traditionally Shia followers and scholars have shown political aloofness or activism against what was viewed as an increasingly corrupt caliphate.

6. The legal ideal in Islam resides with God. His injunctions form the basis for Islamic Law or Shariah. Shariah derives from two sources: divine revelations set forth in the Quran, and the normative practices of the Holy Prophet, Sunnah, as pertained to everyday matters. Fiqh or Jurisprudence extends on matters not directly touched upon in these primary sources. The foundations for Fiqh come from Ijma or consensus of learned scholars and qiyas, analogy from quran and Sunnah. Shia jurisprudence replaces this with aql or “reason”. Shariah law is not widespread, and even in Muslim countries there are often parallel justice systems. In countries where it enjoys official status Shariah is upheld by the qadis. Shariah has widespread implications; from matters of politics and economics to diet and personal hygiene. Shia scholars employ a different tack. According to them sources of law (usul-e-fiqh) are: Quran, Sunnah, the practices of the Twelve Imams and aql (reason).

7. Islamic philosophy and theology have more or less a harmonious perspective. Theology in Islam centers on six main articles of belief; Belief in One God (Tawhid), Belief in the Last Prophet (Nabi) and all the Messengers of God (Rasul), belief in Angels (Malaika), books sent by god (kutub), judgment (qiyamah) and predestination (qadar). Islamic philosophy as produced in an Islamic society is not exclusively concerned with religious matters nor is it wholly Islamic in origin; rather it has grounds in Hellenistic and Pre-Islamic Indian traditions. The golden age of Islamic philosophy is centered on the 8th to 12th centuries and exemplified Averroes and Avicenna.

The first aspect of theology is Kalam which deals with theological questions and the other is Falsafa based on Aristotelianism. Kalam centers on ijtihad or using thought to investigate the doctrines of the Quran, while Falsafa was mainly concerned with the translation of Greek and Hindu texts and expounding them to the community at large. It is quite possible for a Muslim to hold separate philosophical and theological beliefs; believing on the one hand in the Aristotelian principle that the existence of the world is not only a possibility but also a necessity, and also valuing the fact that existence of the world in due only to God. The Shia school of thought differs only in what it considers purely theological matters i.e. Roots of religion (Usul e-Din) and Branches of Faith (Furu-e-Din)

8. By the end of the 12th century, the Islamic Empire was a vast entity. Stretching from beyond the shores of the Mediterranean to much of India. Thus Islamic art and architecture shows wide and varied themes, each influenced by the culture and climate of the particular land. The principal Islamic architectural styles are the mosque, tomb, fort and palace and from these an idea of the recurring themes may be gleaned. Soon after Muhammad, a recognizable style of architecture emerged comprising interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome and decorative arabesques.

The great mosque of Samarrah in Iraq, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, and the Hagia Sofia in Turkey are prime examples. The conquest of the Persian Empire in the 7th century introduced large arcades and arches. Moorish architecture is perhaps the most familiar example in the western world. The Great Mosque (Mezquita) in Cordova, the Alhambra and the fort of Granada introduced wide breezy interiors and decorative foliage and Arabic inscription motifs. Mughal architecture has built a class of its own.

Perhaps the most famous is the Taj Mahal, built in white marble entirely in symmetry with large minarets and cupola domes. The Mughals also introduced gardens as a relevant theme in their architecture, most famously the Shalimar Gardens. While theology does not have a very significant impact on Islamic architecture a recurring theme is the absence of human or animal imagery, widely considered to be forbidden by the Prophet. Instead calligraphic inscriptions of the Quran and geometric patterns replace as decorative influences.

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Islam Essay

Taliban vs Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Essay

Taliban vs Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Essay.

Afghanistan is a mountainous land-locked country, which is one of the central Asian countries. In addition, it is an Islamic country that Islam religion has played a significant role in governing it. In Afghanistan Many governments had been changed in past several decades. For instance, the Kingdom of Amanullah Khan, the Kingdom of Mohammad Nadir Shah, Mohammad Zahir Shah, The Communist Regimes, the Islamic State of Afghanistan, Taliban Regime, Interim Government, Transitional Government, and the Islamic Republic Governments.

As most of us agree that the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan changed very much in contrast to passed governments, especially Taliban Regime.

This piece of writing concentrates on similarities and differences of Taliban Regime and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The similarities are fewer among the mentioned governments; however, the differences between them are several. First the similarities will be discussed; secondly the differences will be pointed. The first similarity between these two governments is that in Taliban Regime laws and regulations of Islam was implemented and maintained in according with Sharia’s laws.

It always tried to carry on the Islamic laws on people and disputes. There were three types of courts such as, Primary Court, Appealing Court, and Supreme Court. In a similar way, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is also trying to implement Islamic rules and regulations. It is also seeking to help people by solving the disputes by carrying on the rules of Islam. For solving the cases and disputes, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is structured three types of courts, for instance, Primary Court, Appealing Court, and Supreme Court.

Another likeness between Taliban Regime and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is the centrality of government in Kabul. From the first invasion that Taliban did, they had the plan take the control over Kabul, after capturing the Kabul City, Taliban decided to establish their central government in Kabul City. For all of their time in government, their central government was located in Kabul. Similarly, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, from the beginning of its government, the central government organizations are located in Kabul City.

The third similarity between those two mentioned governments is the patronage of some foreign countries of both governments, Taliban Regime and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. When Taliban came to the power, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and reportedly United States of America were the strongest supporters of Taliban Regime. The first country that supported them was Pakistan. Pakistan always announced their support of Taliban Regime. Furthermore, it also provided the Taliban Regime an enormous amount of money and military equipments.

Likewise, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is also supported by some countries, such as, USA, some European Countries, Japan, India, Turkey, and many others. They all give any kinds of support for the government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The most obvious difference among these two governments is in education. For example, in Taliban Regime, there were no education facilities for females. Females were not allowed to attend schools and universities. They were all far from education.

Taliban’s thought was that if a girls or a woman go to school, they would learn not Islamic principles. In contrast, in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, females are allowed to join schools, universities and other education centers to have education. Moreover, the government is also trying to provide opportunities for both males and females to get educated and even to complete their educations outside Afghanistan. The next very important difference between these two governments is entertainment. In Taliban Regime there was not any kind of entertainment for pleasure and enjoyments.

There was just one TV and one radio station by the name Islamic State TV and Radio Station that showed and played just all the fundamental issues of Islam. There were no music, movies, cinemas, and parties. Even in wedding and other parties if someone played music, he or she would be punished and sent prison. On the other hand, In the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, there are more than twenty TV channels and almost eighty radio stations that bring enjoyments and pleasure in people’s lives. People can have music in their weddings and parties.

They can play music, watch TVs, and listen to radios. Another distinction between these two mentioned governments was the governing system of each. For example, in Taliban Regime, the government was just over several provinces. They did not have control all over Afghanistan although they had a central government in Kabul. Their government was always in risk that one day it would be collapse. Some of the important offices were not run properly. There was not good management in ministries. Corruption was in most ministries, especially in courts.

Instead, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan contains a good and proper governing system. It is trying to offer chances of development for its employees and offices. It has got line by line authority of command. It is a selective government. There is National Assembly of Afghanistan. Furthermore, members for National Assembly of Afghanistan are selected by people. There are appropriate procedures of doing something in government offices. The other difference between Taliban Regime and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is that in Taliban Regime women were not allowed to get out of their houses lonely.

And they were not allowed to walk lonely in the markets and streets. If a woman found alone in anywhere in the city, one of her family member would be punished. Conversely, there is no one that people would afraid of them in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan women are free to go anywhere like restaurants and markets. The economical perspective is another difference among Taliban Regime and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. In most of the provinces of Afghanistan during the Taliban period were wars happening. Therefore, people lift their homes and went to other countries.

There were no farmers, no engineers, no doctors, overall no professionals that could help Afghanistan’s economy to develop. The government income was very less but the prices for goods were so high. No one invested in Afghanistan because being insure about the future of government. In contrast, in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, countries are hardly trying to invest in Afghanistan’s infrastructures. The government by itself is seeking to provide job opportunities for Afghan people. Professionals who lifted Afghanistan in Taliban Regime are coming back to their country to bring new ideas of development.

In conclusion, it is now clear to most of us that Afghanistan had a very old history. Furthermore, the above facts show and indicate that Afghanistan passed a very difficult situation. The hardest situation that Afghanistan crossed through is the Taliban Regime. Although, some people are in support of Taliban Regime in past, but now some people are against them because of some difficulties in compare to this government, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Although there are some similarities between these two governments, but there are several differences between them.

Taliban vs Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Essay

Unity of Muslim Essay

Unity of Muslim Essay.

Muslim world, with almost a billon and a half population, and so many features of climate and geography, and natural and human resources, can establish a great and united society.  The pocket of Western colonialism is continuously getting filled from this region for over two hundred years; whether in the colonial era, the neo-colonial era, or in modern era, this zone has served the political goals of arrogant world, which America could be considered as the top leader of them.

If the Islamic nation obtains its unity, if Islamic power shows his true meaning, if actual independency in this area is realized, the economical and political and cultural dominance of the enemy will be stopped.

Enemies do not like this, and they are trying to prevent this phenomenon from happening with all their power. The trick that they have found is to make a schism and unfortunately this disease has penetrated inside the Islamic world body. I seriously ask you to consider this issue and think about it.

• Hard periods of the Islamic Ummah (Nation)

Islamic nation has passed hard periods and has seen many ups and downs in the history; and today it has reached to a decisive point. Today, if Islamic Ummah arranges an acceptable attempt, it can choose a way to revoke lags and problems and hardships and sufferings of the Islamic world. If the directive motion of officials and elites; and their decisions in the entire Muslim world, is delayed, even for one day, the Islamic Ummah will get wronged. Today is the day of unifying the Islamic world.

You see the enemy investment to discompose the current poor unity .consider Iraq Also other Islamic regions deal more or less with the same conspiracies, they try to make schism between Islamic tribes, Islamic sects and Islamic nations by various excuses, to make people of one side kill the people of other side and vice versa, these people spite those people, and those people spite these people reciprocally, and the consequences is that they remain unaware of the real main enemy of the Muslim world and designers of domination over this area of the world.

If the Muslim world is united, Palestine should not remain lonely today; the government that has chosen by votes of the Palestinian people should not be under pressure, and should not be threaten to cut aids, if not deterred from its principles. The Muslim world should declare its support of Palestinian people and Palestinian officials with unique word and unique sound.

If this idea is considered, those persons that are themselves cause of misfortune of Palestine nation and government could not speak as a creditor. This is due to disintegration of Islamic world; this is due to egoism of elites and politicians of Islamic world.


Special situation of Islamic world

Dear brothers and sisters! Today the Islamic world is in special situation. It can be said that for many centuries, Islamic world has had no opportunity the same or alike today. Today we have a great opportunity. Islamic nations have been awakened and this has been developed to the borders of Islamic world. Islamic nations have recognized their rights and many of Islamic leaders-though make pretence- are full of spite and enmity of arrogant world, and we see this.

In many Islamic countries, leaders and politicians are against America and arrogant powers behaviors. This is great opportunity for Islamic world and we should use it. Politicians have a duty. Religious and intellectual leaders also have a duty and this second duty is not less important than the first.

Islamic Ummah under various threats and disrespects

Now, Islamic Ummah is under various threats and disrespects. The heedless arrogance with leadership of America and with help of Zionist as a middlemen and warmonger regime, takes the most abuses from segmentation and dissociation of the Islamic nations.


Day of initiative action of Muslims

Today is the day that Islamic nations and governments can take the initiative actions and start a great task. Supporting the oppressed Palestinian nation, supporting the Iraqi people, safeguarding the stability and independency of Lebanon and Syria and other countries in this region; are public tasks and duties of the political and religious and cultural elites, national gentlemen, academics and youths are heavier than others . Unity and sympathy among followers of Islamic religions and avoiding sectarian and ethnic differences should be most prominent slogans of the elites. Scientific endeavor, political liveliness, cultural effort and mobilization of all forces in the main arenas should be on top of their efforts.


Islamic nations must be awake

Islamic nations should awake and they should not consider the enemy conspiracy as an insensible matter, and they should maintain their watchfulness. Today is the day of unity and sympathy of the Islamic nations and governments. Here, I would like to warn our nation, Iraqi nation, nation of Pakistan and other Muslim nations and ask them to suppress and restrain religious differences and conflicts between Shiite and Sunni. Today I see that there are plannings to making war between Shiite and Sunni.

Killings and explosions that occur in mosques, Hosainiehs, the congregational prayers and Friday prayers, indeed there is the evil hand of Zionism and arrogant regimes in them. It is not done by Muslims. Today, In Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and also in all other countries, Muslims have a duty to pay attention to their own unity. (For all Muslims) Monotheism, God, prophecy, Resurrection, the Koran and Most of the provisions of Islamic Sharia are the same; all of these are common but enemy comes over and puts a finger on the dissociation points and makes the hearts full of hatred to one another. He does so to reach his goals. .

Our great Imam was emphasizing on the unity of all Muslims, because he saw this risk and recognized it. In our country and other Muslim countries, British and its intelligence agencies make dissociation between Shiite and Sunni. They have extensive experience in this work; all must be careful. Today Zionist assistances also interfere in these actions. Our information show that the evil hands of Zionists and enemies of Islam elements are interfering, directly or indirectly, in all events around the Muslim world.

• The Duties of political and cultural officials

The tasks of political authorities are heavy. The cultural officials, writers and scholars should avoid from divisive discussions; the Sunni and Shiite must all emphasize on this alliance point and this expectation remains existent that scholars and political elites understand the current risks, understand the importance of unity of Muslims and understand the plotting of enemies to break the unity and empathy. •

Unity; the most important issue of Islam world. From our viewpoint, the most important issue of the Islamic world is unity. If this alliance is done, our scientific development can be reached. You can see the enemies of the Islamic world pressure on Iran’s nuclear program.

They know that we are not seeking atomic bombs. Scientific development in this country, technological development in an Islamic country upsets them. An Islamic country that has indicated that it is not under policies of America; has shown that it is not afraid. This Islamic country must be equipped with most important technology of the world – the nuclear technology.


The unity of Muslims is an actual need of today

Dear Brothers; dear sisters! Today, unity for Muslims is an actual need. • Unity in word is the key of victory of the Islamic Ummah In general, the key of victory of the Islamic Ummah is the word unity. If the Islamic nation wants to obtain development in fields of science and material, and dominate its destiny, and be released from alien dominations, and obtain of inner and outer prosperity, these can be obtained by having the word unity. Imperialistic centers are using every factor to consolidating its power over the world. They have tried to use everything to break down and divide the Islamic world, and unfortunately they have been succeeded sensibly.

If today the Palestinian people suffer such a bitter fate; if today the body of the Palestinian people is bloody, and the tragedy of this nation has influenced the humans, it is because of the difference in the word between Muslims. If the word unity existed, this situation did not exist. If the Islamic Iraq has been under military march of the invaders, it is because of the difference in the word between Muslims.

If the Middle East countries today are directly be threatened by proudly screams of America, it is because of the difference in the word between Muslims. If Muslims want to be survived of this disgrace, and if they want to save Palestinians, and if they want to stop the enemy from bothering Muslims in Iraq and Afghanistan and other Islamic countries, the unity of word, unity of nations & governments and slogans is necessary. The day of Eid ul-Fitr is the day of unity.


Holding the rope of Allah is the duty of every Muslim.

Quran says: “Hold the rope of Allah and do not straggle”. Holding the rope of Allah is a duty for every Muslim, but the Quran, in addition to order us to hold the rope of Allah, tells us that this holding should be in the form of groups (All); creating this community and alliance is another obligatory task.

So besides that Muslims should hold the rope of Allah, they must do it with other Muslims. We should just believe it correctly and do it. Verse of the Quran says: (he who disbelieves in the idol and believes in Allah has grasped the firmest tie). This describes the mean of rope of Allah. How is holding the rope of Allah? (It is) Belief in Allah and disbelief in the idol.


The holy prophet (PBUH) is the unity point of Muslim world

Holy prophet and messenger, Mohammad (PBUH), is the most important point to create unity, And the Islamic world can be jointed with each other at this point and it’s a place is a place where the emotions of all the Muslims are concentrated there; here is center of love in the world of Islam. Now you see the writers who take money from the Zionist, to focus on this center and they are scorning it to eliminate the importance of insulting the Islamic Ummah gradually.

This is a main point; Politicians, academic and cultural elite, writers, poets and artists should focus on this point, all Muslims to get united on this point. They should not consider the disputed cases, not to accuse each other, not to excommunicate each other, not to dispossess each other from religion. The hearts of Muslims will be refreshed by remembering the holy Prophet and his love. All of us are his lovers.

• Meaning of Islamic unity is not to struggle

Meaning of Islamic unity is not to unify the different religions and beliefs of Islam. Discussions about religions, beliefs and theological opinions should be done in the scientific, juridical field, and having different juridical opinions could have no effect on the Life and political realities. Our meaning of the unity of the Muslim world is not to make conflict, (do not conflict because you will be weaken).


Excommunicating the idolatrous is a need

In many parts of the Islamic Ummah, Allah is believed, but the Excommunicating the idolatrous does not exist. Excommunicating the idolatrous is necessary. Holding the rope of Allah without excommunicating the idolatrous is not possible. We do not invite countries and governments and nations to the war against America; we ask them not to cooperate with enemies of Islam and Muslims. One way to do so is to refuse their temptations about the unity of the Islamic Ummah and to maintain its unity.

• The nature of arrogance

Today, all advertising organizations related to arrogance and colonialism and their assistants have cooperated with each other to break the unity of the Islamic Ummah in this Islamic region by advertisement.

Islamic scholars must be careful. You must be careful of these inventive and false religions that are violating the unity. Be careful of petro-dollars that are used to create division. These filthy hands try to break the unity of Muslims. You should encounter them. This requires interest of unity and following the path of Islamic unity. It is impossible without this.

• Arrogant world is afraid of Muslim unity

In campaign among right side and wrong side and arrogant powers, Islam will be the main victor. Muslims unity and the formation of the Islamic Ummah are very dangerous and worrying for greedy arrogant powers. So today in addition to Britain, American and Zionist intelligence systems also try to prevent the unity of Muslims. Some other serious concerns of imperialistic powers are: the spread of Islam Jihad, Islam of independence, dignity and identity of Islam, and Islam against the domination of foreigners in Iran to different parts of Muslim world and; thus creating tension between Iran and other Islamic countries, is one of the serious goals of the Islam enemies.

Despite all these ads, Ideas of the Islamic Revolution of Iran have developed to all parts of the Muslim world, and common awakening, movement and Islamic identity among Muslims today, are not comparable with the last twenty years.

Against the Vitality and progress of Muslim world, America has got weaker than twenty years ago, and does not have former grandeur and power, while America and its followers now are involved in the vortexes that as time increases, they sink into these vortexes more and more, and a dangerous future is predicted for them. All these facts indicate that, according to Divine traditions, the wrong side that the America is at the head of it, will be defeated in current campaign between right side and false side without any doubt.

All Muslims should be responsible and with tireless efforts, continue to their political, cultural, social and advertising efforts and strengthen their alliance. Call of Ahlul Bait (PBUH) followers is the call of unity, dignity and spiritual and wise life. The true teachings of Islam, which is manifested in Ahlul Bait (PBUH) ideology, is in fact spirituality without isolation and spirituality with politics, mysticism, along with social activities, and supplication with jihad, and today the world needs such spiritualism.

One of the current important issues is to avoid mixing religion educations with superstition. Scholars and notables should prevent prevalence of superstitious issues by explaining the correct Ahlul Bait (PBUH) educations.

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Unity of Muslim Essay