Universal Human Values in Islam Essay

Universal Human Values in Islam Essay.

Human values have long been considered a definition of how individuals live life. These are considered to be foundations for good living, and should therefore be respected and protected. In Islam, the basic human values consist of life or al nafs, reason or al aql, descent or al nasab, property or al mal, and religion or al din. These Islamic values are further categorized into three hierarchical levels: necessities or dharuriyyat, convenience or hajiat, and refinements or kamaliat. It is an established ideal of life for Muslims to realize these values in acquiring their necessities (al dharuriyyat).

This is complemented by recognition of the importance of their needs (al hajiyyat) and its added embellishments (tahsiniyyat) (Akgunduz). Concepts on good and evil are universally understood by all, regardless of religion. It is human nature to have a sense of what is right or wrong; and this is inherent in all mankind. As the holy book of Islam, the Quran, states:”” Allah has revealed to human nature the consciousness and cognition of good and evil (91:8).

It is also standard, not only in Islam, that good is desirable and evil is the opposite.

It is cited in Islam101’s last paragraph that the Quran that good is Marif (well-known) and evil is Munkar (unknown). Islam guides human beings on how to determine the good and the evil way of life. It does not base the knowledge of evil and virtue on one’s own reason, intuition, and experiences because these bases constantly undergo changes. This therefore can not provide constant standards of morality where values arise. Islam instead provides an objective source which is the Divine revelation.

This is a book revealed through the Prophets and prescribes a standard of moral conduct. This is permanent, universal, and is applicable in every culture and every stage of life. Islam’s moral code contains even the smallest details on how to live individually and how to interact with others to contribute to international progress (Shaikh). Islam imposes five basic values for humanity which should be strictly followed. Individuals are advised to respect and preserve these values for mankind, as Islam teaches, can not leave without these basic values (dharuriyyat) (Akgunduz).

Professor Akgunduz teaches that one of the universal human values of Islam is life (al nafs), which deals with physical self. This includes a person’s basic needs in order to survive, and is practically the same as those of non-Muslims. Food, clothing, shelter, and health are examples of these, which should be acquired to have a healthy body, which would in turn lead to a purposeful life. Islam also gives high esteem to the human soul and considers violence against an innocent man a grave sin. This is stated in the Quran: …

“whoever kills a human being/ it shall be as if he had killed all mankind, and whoever saves the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all…” (5:32). This encompasses the values of all other religions wherein all human beings should be treated equally regardless of color and race (Akgunduz). Diseases which deteriorate an individual’s health and crimes which violate morality are globally occurring and obviously difficult to control. They freely penetrate a country, a society, or a culture and individual effort can not minimize their effects.

Islamic human values on life are negated by these occurrences (Akgunduz). Islam101 also states in “The Islamic Concept of Life and Morality” that it is the duty of man to live his life according to the will of Allah and to follow the Him with perpetual obedience. This is the right path of life which will prepare an individual to the hereafter or the universally known life after death. A human being’s stay on earth will be assessed based on his conduct by his Creator who records all his actions and even his innermost intentions.

These beliefs provided the basis for formulating the human values as a guide through life, for following them would mean obeying the will of their Master, who in the first place, gave them life. Islam has a concept that man’s existence in the universe should serve for the pleasure of Allah. This concept is the rule of life for the Islamic community. Their mode of actions is judged based on the compliance of this standard. In mystic Islam or Sufism, ardor is the medium to get in touch with God. It teaches that the driving force of creation of life is love and mercy of the Creator Himself.

It is this divine love that leads Sufi followers to enlightenment. A Sufi longs for an intimate experience of the divine presence which is believed to bring her into direct contact with the true, fundamental nature of being. It a Sufi’s goal in life is to love every life as your own. This means that to achieve a mature spiritual life, one must also be socially engaged in promoting the goodness of other people’s life. Caring for one’s self should be hand-in-hand with caring for other individual’s well-being.

Community ethics arise in this belief which focuses on service for the improvement other’s life also rather than focusing on one’s life alone. This would also aid in achieving justice and equality (Shaikh). Knowledge or intellect is another Islamic universal human value. This refers to man’s ability to reason (al aql). This value is given high regard by Islam and is even classified into two, depending on its foundational aspect. Every individual should possess basic or fundamental knowledge while only a few can acquire specialized knowledge (Akgunduz).

In Sufism or mystic Islam, a person cannot be taught until he is in a state in which he can perceive what he is learning. This is why Sufis do not speak about profound things to people who are not prepared to enhance their power of learning. Like the universal adage, it is also a Sufi saying that: “Ignorance is pride, and pride is ignorance” (Shaikh). Family or descent is also considered a basic human value in Islam. Professor Akgunduz also stated that the family is the heart of a society. This is also followed by non-Islamic communities where family is considered to be the core of a society.

Whenever values are violated by an individual, the family or the individual’s descent (al nasab) may also be regarded to be in danger of deterioration of values. It is hence important that this value be maintained from generation to generation (Akgunduz). How an individual deals with wealth (al mal) is a fundamental Islamic human value. This also applies to other religions or groups, and is constantly being threatened by greed and corruption. The distribution of global wealth is being inclined more to a single side.

This is proved by the existence of jobless and poor people and worldwide poverty. Since there is overlapping of the universal human values, wealth definitely has a huge effect on all the others. Education to acquire knowledge may be unattainable for the poor, family relations and health may be destroyed, and wealth-related crimes can wound the human conscience (Akgunduz). Convenience (hajiat) of life refers to all activities and things which are not vital to preserve the human values. Its main purpose is to eliminate the difficulties life can bring.

Professor Akgunduz cited the enjoyment of things that man can do without as an example, such as having a car to avoid the difficulty of transport and travel. On the other hand, refinements (kamaliat) refer to luxurious items or way of living which are beyond those for convenience. Refinement is distinguished from convenience in that it functions not only to remove difficulty but to promote comfort as well. An example, in relation with the first, is having both a car for ease of transport and a chauffeur for an even more comfortable travel (Akgunduz)

Universal Human Values in Islam Essay

Comparing Freedom of Expression in the Statutory Law and the Sharia Law Essay

Comparing Freedom of Expression in the Statutory Law and the Sharia Law Essay.

Getting in touch with media law during the first semester of my Masters gave me a sense of the importance of law in general because it consists of acts and articles which organise most issues in the human’s life in a way that protects ethics and morals. Regardless of the hypocrisy and double-standards of the countries which raise high the slogan of Human Rights, I liked the Human Rights Conventions that were laid down by these countries. Therefore, I decided to research some points in these conventions that are related to my study in order to nurture my knowledge in this great field of the human sciences.

Then, I thought deliberately about the benefit of exerting much effort to get such knowledge since it is existed, well-explained and well-organised, in handy books. But after looking by historical and religious study as far back as some centuries ago, I found that my own culture, Islam, had plenty of law provisions that helped its people not only to protect their ethics and morals, but also to spread them all over the world.

Through deliberate and objective study, I found that many of the social reformers, whose thoughts led to the emergence of the modern criteria of human rights, were originally affected by the roots of the Islamic ulture. I also found a lot of those old and even modern reformers who praised the old provisions of the Sharia Law and they also praised the prosperity which was an outcome of implementing it. The Western writer Patricia Crone (2005: p. 218-219) said referring to how those old provisions of law were true bases of a moral society: “Medieval Muslims did not write utopias in the sense of imaginary travel accounts or other descriptions of ideal societies which do not exist, … they were not given to seeking ideals outside their own civilisation at all.

But they did place a golden age right at the beginning of their own history, and their numerous accounts of this age add up to a detailed utopia of great emotive power… It was a time when the Muslims had all the virtues of tribesmen and none of their vices, for thanks to Islam there was no feuding, no factionalism, and no disorder, just austerity, solidarity, and total devotion to the truth. Therefore, I decided to look for the provisions of that old law which are related to my study and compare them with their counterparts in the modern human rights’ conventions. In order to limit my research, I decided to take the articles related to my study, media law, in the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) of the British Law to represent the leading international human rights conventions. Part one: Preface Main Argument In this dissertation I am going to explain how both the HRA and the Sharia Law deal with the concept of freedom of expression.

As long as such argument is new and uncommon because of the lack of references that studied it, which resulted in an ambiguous perception in the minds of people towards the Sharia Law and its sources, there must be a kind of primary definition of the Sharia Law, its sources and how the Sharia scholars (Sharia Jurists) deal with these sources to regulate law items. Sharia Law This expression is going to be referred to as a theological-historical concept since the Sharia was revealed through a prophet, this makes it a theological subject matter, and it is 15 centuries old, this gives it a historical background.

Sharia (sari? ah) is all religious rituals that Allah (SWT) has imposed on Muslims, via his Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) regarding beliefs, rules and day-to-day life among Muslims themselves, and between Muslims and non-Muslims. It is “designed to govern the relations of Muslims with non-Muslims, whether inside or outside the territory of Islam. ” Mahmoud Kamali says that Sharia is “the Islamic law as contained in the divine guidance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Yet, the expression Sharia Law is modern if compared with the word Fiqh, which historically used to mean “the awareness of Islamic rules from its sources by true inference. ” Kamali defined the word Fiqh: “Islamic law as developed by Muslim Jurists. The term is often used synonymously with Sharia. ” Therefore, like other contemporary researchers of similar topics, I am going to use the expression Sharia Law to mean the old word: Fiqh. Sources of the Sharia Law

There is no difference between any of the Muslim scholars that the main sources of all information, not only about the details of the life of mankind, but also about the details of the whole universe are the Holy Qur’an, then, the Holy Sunnah. In addition, it is a matter of a universal belief among Muslims and many of non-Muslims that the Holy Qur’an in the hands of people is the real book revealed by Allah (SWT) to his Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) fourteen centuries ago. The same is the 100% authenticity of certain books of Hadith, i. e. Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim.

These references are not considered comprehensive works; however, I feel that they could draw raw guidelines for me in my research in two ways: * They give me hints about how this issue is being taken by researchers who are not specialists in Sharia studies, but they are lawyers or journalists; like me. * They draw raw guidelines of the comparative methodology of research between articles of the Sharia Law and those of the statutory law.

Throughout this dissertation, I am going to take articles of the British Media Law and compare them with the related provisions of the Sharia Law, giving enough examples in order to be able to make clear-cut conclusions about the main question of this dissertation which is: (The question of the dissertation) Can the modern Islamic movements, who are apparently going to rule the Arab countries after the Arab Spring, implement the Sharia Law and achieve the absolute justice which they raise as a slogan for their revolutions and electoral campaigns?

Or would they worsen the already worsened situation of media law? Of course, regarding the other part of this dissertation, which is the statutory law, libraries are full of texts of law articles starting from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789, passing through the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ending with daily huge volumes of books, journals and articles studying new amendments and proposing new laws regarding recent details of the life of people in general and the work of media specifically. Terminology

In order to have a good understanding for the real meaning and connotation of the Sharia Law concepts and cases, they have to be denoted by their names. Therefore, it is necessary here to have a list of the original names of the Sharia concepts and their definitions. The Holy Qur’an: defined previously. Surah: one complete chapter from the Holy Qur’an. Sowar: the plural of Surah. Sowar are different in length. Some are 1/3 a page and others exceed 40 pages. Aya: one verse from the Holy Qur’an. Ayat: a plural of aya. The Holy Sunnah: defined previously.

Hadith: a verified saying for the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). Ahadith: a plural of Hadith. Tafseer: the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an and the Holy Sunnah by professional credible Muslim scholars. Fatwa: a certain judgement on a certain case by a Sahaba, Tabe’een or confident Muslim scholars in a certain time or place. Plural is Fatawa. Ibada: the act of worshiping Allah (SWT) whether by heart or body. Any act of heart or body needs to start with intention of solely worship for Allah in order to be a true Ibada. Da’wah: the flow of activities Muslims do in illuminating the teachings of Islam.

Dhimmi: the name of a non-Muslim citizen in the Islamic State. Ahludhimmah or Dhimmiyeen: plural of Dhimmi. Jezyah: the name of the religious tax for non-Muslims in the Islamic State. It is equivalent to the religious tax taken from Muslims, but Jezyah is a lesser amount of money that has many exceptions. Part Two: The Situation of Freedom of Expression Historical Background It is very important, before starting writing about the situation of freedom of expression in the statutory and the Sharia Law, to explore the general historical climates which preceded the emergence of both laws.

That will give a kind of understanding of how much the improvements on the situation of freedom of expression both laws have achieved. * A Glimpse on Freedom of Expression in the West before the Renaissance The period which preceded what is known in Europe as the Renaissance was full of conflicts among the different castes of the European communities in general. That conflict took several forms. A prime one was the conflict between the Church and scientists and that between authority and people.

Howard Turner describes a side of such conflicts: “The Middle Ages in Europe had long been dominated by an unending conflict between Church dogma and a kind of humanistic and individual quest for intellectual liberation. ” Church and authority used to be allies and each institution worked for the protection of the other at the expense of people’s lives. They used to impose restriction on freedom of expression and there used to be no respect for people’s privacy. There was also a kind of blackout on external knowledge, fearing that it might undermine their power or alliance.

The Thirteenth century was an “age in which kings and barons reacted to an insult by lopping off the offending tongue- or head… The crime of ‘scandalum magnatum’ expressly protected ‘the great men of the realm’ from any statements that might arouse the people against them. ” In France, for example, the king used to say “I am the state” and gave no space for people to have control in running their own or private life. The Church used to control science. Therefore, knowledge it saw as right, used to be spread, and that it saw as wrong, used to be damaged.

A blockage was imposed on scientists and thinkers. In 1614, Galileo was accused of heresy by the Church for his scientific theories. Eighteen years later, in 1632, he was sentenced to life imprisonment which was reduced to permanent house arrest after he had been obliged to withdraw his theories before the public by the Church. That time was the worst for women’s freedom. Women were inferior to men, troubled with Eve’s sin. They were subject to the authority of their fathers or their husbands. Violence in marriage did occur and was even encouraged. ” The dark life of that age pushed people to seek a kind of salvation through knowledge, especially, after the appearance of new thinkers affected by the Muslims’ civilisation. According to Turner, the “Christian West” inherited the “scientific legacy from Islam. Thanks to increasing cultural traffic with Muslim lands via the busy Spanish and Sicilian gateways, the thriving routes of Mediterranean and overland commerce, and the contacts left over from the Crusades. People sought to reinforce the principles of freedom and justice, which was clear in the slogan of the French revolution which was: liberty, equality and fraternity. The revolution in real freedom of expression has been from the Renaissance until today. However, there are still some issues which emerge from time to time that necessitate amendments of the existing laws or constituting new ones. * Freedom of Expression in Arabia before the Sharia Law In Arabia, there used to be kind of freedom of expression, but there was no justice.

For example, men used to sit with each other and think about issues related to their tribes. But that right to give an idea or express an opinion was only for masters. Societies there used to consist of three castes: masters, subjects or alliances and slaves. In addition, that right among the masters was only for men. Women used to be suppressed and were not allowed to share opinions either in public affairs or even in family affairs. Women were used in the same way as goods. There used to be a diversity of religions. Arabia included pagans, Jews and Christians.

But the most common was paganism. Surely, that kind of diversity hints at a kind of freedom of religion, but the opposite was the norm. Paganism, represented in worshiping idols, was the religion of the mainstream Arabs in Arabia and they used to keep an eye on those who converted to other religions. If they were young, they used to be fought; if they were old, they used to be left free since they could not affect others. Of course, chiefs and masters of tribes used to be happy with that kind of life because it helped them keep strong control over their subjects.

However, suppressed castes needed any kind of powerful justice to liberate them from the chains of the different forms of slavery. From amongst that darkness, the message of the Sharia was revealed to the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) to spread the justice and freedom among people. It is widely known among historians that a reasonable number of the people who joined the Da’wah at the early stages were from the ordinary people or alliances and slaves. Some of the masters asked the Prophet (PBUH) to dismiss them from around him if he wanted them, the masters, to join the Da’wah.

Of course, ordinary people always lead reforms. A group of Muslim emigrants fled the persecution of their relatives in Mecca to Abyssinia and there was a short dialogue in the court of Abyssinia’s king, who was a true Christian. Their representative described the situation of Arabs before the Sharia and what the Sharia came with: “O king! We were plunged in the depth of ignorance and barbarism; we adored idols; we lived in unchastity; we ate dead animals, and we spoke abomination. We disregarded every feeling of humanity, and the duties of hospitality and neighbourhood. We knew no law but that of the strong.

At that time, God raised from among us a man of whose birth, truthfulness, honesty and purity we were aware, and he called us to the Unity of God and taught us not to associate anything with Him. He forbade us to worship idols and enjoined us to speak the truth, to be faithful to our trusts, to be merciful, and to regard the rights of neighbours. He forbade us to speak ill of women and to eat the substance of orphans. He ordered us to flee from vices, to abstain from evil, to offer prayers, to render alms, and to observe the fast. ” Constituted Rights to Freedom of Expression * Freedom of Expression in British Media Law

As I have mentioned from the beginning, I am going to take the British law as an exemplar to represent the statutory law in this research. Therefore; I see that I have to propose an overall look at the British law and to see the situation of freedom of expression through it. British Law Unlike other countries, Britain does not have a written constitution. Referring to Britain, Tom Baistow says: “This country is the only one in the EEC without a written constitution and the only one without the press laws that form one of the most important guarantees of freedom of expression. However, it has a good record regarding the respect of freedom of expression. It got this reputation throughout historical fights of the British nation to attain freedom and adopt democracy. And as an ideal example of the fight to reach this situation, journalism in Britain “went through a brave battle against constitutional restrictions on publishing in the 19th century and could extract the right to comment and publish. ” Freedom of expression became one of the most respected freedoms as a kind of a social norm among the British people.

It is believed in Britain that free speech is a significant pillar of a free democracy. The Royal Commission on the Press in 1977 defined freedom of expression “as that degree of freedom from restraint which is essential to enable proprietors, editors and journalists to advance the public interest by publishing the facts and opinions without which a democratic electorate cannot make responsible judgement. ” This definition shows how the British believe in the vital role that freedom of expression plays in educating the public to be able to take right decisions in elections.

It means that it is the main guarantor of a free democracy which is the main principle of a free State. Therefore, Solaiman Saleh described the situation of freedom of expression in Britain, despite the lack of a written constitution, saying: “The principle of a free press is reinforced in the collective conscience of the British. That forms a better protection which outweighs any written constitution. ” Saleh continued explaining that it became a part of the British understanding of freedom of speech that the government does not have the right to interfere in the workflow of mass media.

It cannot issue warrants, for example, to close any news platform, have pre-publishing restrictions/instructions or suggest amendments in the administrative systems or editorial policy. This is how James Curran portrayed the British press after the Second World War: “The press became fully independent of political parties and hence government. ” The independence of the press gave it a great deal of space for free speech as well as unlimited power against governments.

This was clear when the best wartime leader, British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, demanded an immediate closure of the Daily Mirror over its coverage of the conduct of war. That decision was followed by rough debates in the House of Commons and huge popular protests in Trafalgar Square and London’s Central Hall that pushed Churchill’s government to withdraw the decision against the Daily Mirror and, even, lift a ban previously imposed on the Daily Worker. Mass media regulation is only the role of the Parliament and Judiciary.

In reply to the argument that the parliamentarian majority which forms the government may adopt any law suggested by it, Saleh argues that people who believe in the concept of freedom of expression will protest against the parliament and oblige it to stop the new law or to dissolve. The incident of the Daily Mirror mentioned above is a very clear example of that. The main pressure was represented by ‘organised protests’ in Trafalgar Square and London’s Central Hall.

In addition, Hanna and Banks say in McNae’s Essential Law for Journalists: “Section 19 of the Human Rights Act created a requirement that a Minister introducing a Bill into Parliament must declare that its provisions are compatible with the European Convention, including thereby a commitment to freedom of expression. ” Despite all the facts mentioned about the battles towards the freedom of expression in the English society, a sufficient protection for that freedom, which keeps up with the public-interest journalism, “from attacks for discomfiting the government or the judiciary or the wealthy private litigants” was not completely guaranteed.

It is guaranteed by the adoption of international treaties, in which English writers and lawyers took a big part in constituting them, into the British law. Since then, clear articles of these treaties have become legal codes in the British law that guarantee a better freedom of expression. Throughout these facts, I can come to a conclusion that freedom of expression in Britain has certain principles that are clear. The main three principles could be summed up as following: 1. Government has no power against mass media.

Robertson and Nicol explain how a government official does not have any privilege over the public in this regard. They say that if any official wanted to stop a news story, he has to go to the court the same as the public do. It means that government cannot control or suppress the voice of any single person directed to the public via any medium. It is believed that this is a sign of a free democratic State, but not in an arbitrary sense. Therefore, mass media have to be credible, and offenders should not escape punishment.

John Whale quoted Sir William Blackstone, the eighteenth-century jurist, saying: The liberty of the press is indeed essential to the nature of a free State; but this consists in laying no previous restraints upon publication, and not in freedom from censure for criminal matter when published. ” 2. Mass media are owned by the private sector and, therefore, it represents citizens before the government. However, citizens are stronger than the government in the democratic regimes; it means that mass media can publish any kind of opposite opinions without fearing suppression or oppression of the government. 3.

Mass media turn to the public to face censorship. Robertson and Nicol say: “The best antidote to censorship is publicity. ” When the government wishes to practice a kind of censorship, journalists can publicise that practice and the government does not have any power to punish them. The incident of the Daily Mirror mentioned above is a clear example on the three points mentioned. It shows how mass media are stronger than governments, how mass media speak on behalf of the public and how the public exerted pressure through protests that pushed the government to retreat from the closure warrant against the newspaper. Freedom of Expression in the Sharia Law The most prominent characteristic of the Sharia Law is that it is a religious law. It means that it has more emphasis, in all branches, on religious and moral values than other laws. Mohmmad Kamali says: “This can, perhaps, be clearly seen in reference to the Sharia rules pertaining to blasphemy, heresy and disbelief, where the dominant concern is to defend the dogma and belief-structure of Islam. ” Muslim scholars and thinkers believe that this characteristic of the Sharia Law gives it a spiritual power, which is effective to keep stability of societies.

Based on his understanding of the Islamic beliefs and to confirm that defending the dogma and belief-structure of Islam achieves social stability, 20th century Muslim thinker and reformer Sayyed Qutb, who interpreted the Holy Qur’an, says: “Social, economic and religious organisation goes side by side with a true ethical code and dogmatic belief… in a complete, comprehensive, balanced and precise way. ” Regarding freedom of expression and to show how much positive effect religion has on it, the Western writer, Patricia Crone, shed light on the way Muslim thinkers understand the relationship between freedom and religion.

Patricia Crone reported Al-Ghazali, a famous medieval Muslim philosopher and reformer, explaining freedom in the Sharia as “no humans had the right to impose obligations on other humans, whether they were rulers, masters, fathers or husbands, or for that matter prophets; only God could do so. ” Of course, Al-Ghazali’s understanding of that concept of freedom was based on the Holy Qur’an and the Holy Sunnah. Allah (SWT) asked his Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), in the Holy Qur’an, to tell people that he is a human like them.

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Comparing Freedom of Expression in the Statutory Law and the Sharia Law Essay

A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words Essay

A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words Essay.

“A picture is worth a thousand words”, is a common saying that rings true. Which is why many newspapers decide to compliment their articles with visual elements such as photographs, drawings, or political cartoons. However, many people feel that some of the images newspapers decide to print are in bad taste.

Huge Hewitt, an Evangelical Christian, compared a political cartoon of Muhammad with a bomb for a turban, to a drawing of Jesus with a crown of TNT atop his head at an abortion clinic.

Because both cartoons are equally distressing and offensive, wether you are Muslim or Christian, I doubt that a newspaper in the United States would print either image.

On the other hand, if I was the editor of a newspaper I would print both pictures. After the terrorist attacks of September 11th there was a huge backlash on the Muslim culture and its people in this country. The cartoon of Muhammad with a bomb as a turban illustrates, literately, how ignorant and insensitive we are to Muslim beliefs.

As editor, I would add an article to the cartoon explaining how it is not created out of malice or hatred, but it is a form of satire. It was drawn to grab your attention and inspire you to ask questions about the Muslim world, what is currently happening there, and how are we, as a country, involved.

As editor, I would treat the cartoon of Jesus with a crown of TNT the same way. The accompanying article would clearly state that the image in no way mocks the Christian belief system. The picture does, however, raise questions about how God, or Jesus, would view the bombing of an abortion clinic, wether the life of a fetus is more important than that of its mother, and so forth. As I have stated previously, the cartoons are satire, not actual opinions or suggestions. The drawings are to be viewed as debate starters or to help you to create your own opinions about what is being portrayed.

Furthermore, under the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, freedom of the press is clearly stated. These pictures, however disagreeable they maybe to some, the newspaper has its right to print them and the readers have the right to view them.

In conclusion, I do not feel that any form of imagery is too bold to be printed in a newspaper, least of all a political cartoon of Jesus with TNT as a crown. As long as the readers do not take the picture for face value and can read deeper into the topic being presented, then there is no problem. As for offending people, they can just buy another newspaper if they don’t like the pictures in mine.

A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words Essay

Entrepreneurship Reflection Essay Essay

Entrepreneurship Reflection Essay Essay.

1. INTRODUCTION

From this reflection, I am glad that I came to this talk because this kind of discussion taught me a lot on how to be a good and excellent entrepreneur. Maybe before I came, the first think we will think after being an entrepreneur is of course the profit that we gained. We never think about the responsibilities as a Muslim to do the job properly and wisely. Sometimes the entrepreneur itself forget to donate the money, to give zakat and others.

We only think that the profit that the business can give us. But we forget that everything come from Allah and everything is his’. We do not absolutely own every single money that we earn. But of course if we earn it by ourselves the money is ours, but if we do not give zakat, the money is nothing to us as a Muslim.

2. REFLECTIONS ON KEY LEARNING POINT

2.1 Islamic entrepreneurship

There are secrets to be a successful businessman which is following the way from the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

There are 10 qualities of Prophet Muhammad in being a successful person in business. First is honesty. Undoubtedly, no one can be more truthful and honest than the Messengers of God. Of course we must be honest on doing works to get barakah from Allah on what are we doing.. Second is trustworthy. Trustworthiness further enhances the integrity and sound moral conduct that is inherent in the notion of honesty. Being trustworthy implies being honest, fair in dealings and punctual as well as honoring trusts and keeping promises and commitments. The third one is flexibility. He always observed justice and equity while he was trading and avoided telling lies and fraud, which was the practiced by many tradesmen. Prophet Muhammad was never strict in his business dealings with others. Sa’ib ibn al-Sa’ib relates: During the age of ignorance, I was his [the Prophet’s] trade partner, and I found him the best of the partners in every respect.

He neither argued with anyone nor was he obstinate and nor did he blame anything on his partner. Fourth is his consciousness of responsibility. In a hadith reported by Abdullah b. Omar Prophet Muhammad said: “We are all shepherds and we are all responsible for those who are under our hands (i.e. in our flocks). Fifth is good manner with his companions. The prophet was very close to his companions, and this is well known when one reads the detailed reports about the prophet’s biography. The sixth one is prophet Muhammad always seek his companions to consult with them. The Prophet (pbuh) would consult his companions, and take their opinions and points of view into consideration in issues and matters for which no textual proofs were revealed. The prophet (SAW) was concerned about his companions and would make sure that they were well. If he was told about a companion who was sick, he would rush to visit him with the companions that were present with him.

Seventh is Prophet Muhammad would serve himself such as washed his own clothes and milked his sheep. The Prophet’s excellent manners, not only made him serve himself; rather, he would serve others as well. Next is he recognizes his companions’ skills. A good leader is one who sees the positive traits of his team members and invests in them. This is exactly what the Prophet (pbuh) did with his companions. There are many examples that show how the Prophet (pbuh) discovered where his companions excelled and how he utilized their potentials and wisely invested in them. The second last is correcting his companions’ mistakes.

Correcting people’s mistakes is a Quranic guidance. The Quran has many references to situations in which a certain conduct is blamed and corrected. These situations apply to Muslims in general and to the Prophet (pbuh) himself. Last but not least is the gentleness of Prophet Muhammad. Gentleness is a key quality of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). When he wanted to teach his companions, he used a very wise method which involved both respect for the recipient of such knowledge without embarrassing him.

2.2 Personality Type That Suit to Your New Venture

There are 4 types of person after lots of researches has been done. First is sanguine. Sanguine is a sociable person. They laugh for the hard days, wise words when squeezed by the burden, creative, enthusiasm, and always have the energy to start. Sanguine love to be popular. They have a lot of friends. They love to talk, to perform, and help each other and they always curious. Sanguine love to be children forever. Second is choleric. Choleric is a strong person. They have a strong leadership. They are faithful, brave, and have the freedom to be on one’s own. They all forced and always want to make a change. Strong-willed and assertive, goal oriented, well organized, and they don’t really need friends.

They always be the superior one in the emergency time. Next is melancholic. Melancholies is a sensitive person. Depth to see the heart and soul of life. Artistic to appreciate the art. They are thoughtfully, analytical, serious, and have a talent. They are perfectionist, so they love details. Last but not least is phlegmatic. Phlegmatic is a peaceful person. They always stable, patient, and have a compassion for the other. They always keep calm, when the other was in confusion. They are humble, silent, controlled, good listener, and always happy with their life. They always be the mediator, and easy to get along with.

2.3 SALES AND MARKETING

For sales and marketing, there are 4 marketing techniques that can boost up our business. First is product. In the case of services, the “product” is intangible, heterogeneous and perishable. Moreover, its production and consumption are inseparable. Hence, there is scope for customizing the offering as per customer requirements, and the actual customer encounter therefore assumes particular significance. Second is price. Of all the aspects of the marketing mix, price is the one, which creates sales revenue — all the others are costs. The price of an item is clearly an important determinant of the value of sales made. In theory, price is really determined by the discovery of what customers perceive is the value of the item on sale.

Next is place. Place is concerned with various methods of transporting and storing goods, and then making them available for the customer. Getting the right product to the right place at the right time involves the distribution system. The choice of distribution method will depend on a variety of circumstances. The last one is promotion. Promotion is the business of communicating with customers. It will provide information that will assist them in making a decision to purchase a product or service. The successful promotion increases sales so that advertising and other costs are spread over a larger output. Though increased promotional activity is often a sign of a response to a problem such as competitive activity, it enables an organization to develop and build up a succession of messages and can be extremely cost-effective.

3. CRITICAL FINDINGS

3.1 Islamic Entrepreneurship

Islam is a complete way of life. There is no separation between business and religion. Islam has its own entrepreneurship culture and guiding principles based on the Al-Quran and Al-Hadith to guide business operation. The aim of the group is to highlight the guiding principles of entrepreneurship in Islam, especially in the Arab heritage, by Al-Quran, Al-Hadith and the entrepreneurial ethics based on example of conducts from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). In business, entrepreneurs has to have objectives and targets but these are subservient to the ultimate objective of acquiring the blessing of Allah s.w.t. In Islam, to indulge in business is to perform an obligatory duty (fardhu kifayah). Profits gained from the business by entrepreneurs are merely incidental in the fulfillment of the fardhu kifayah.

In business we must have a role model so that their actions can guide us in our development stages of life and more so, they help us make meaningful decisions. Many children grow up imitating their role model’s behavior, for example, if they see their role model smoking, then they are likely to smoke. We as Muslims have our own role model that can’t be changed even in another life none other than Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). There is no community has been without its righteous guides and teachers to help its people towards the truth and to lead them from the depths of darkness to the light of Islam. Aristotle believes that we learn to be moral (virtuous) by modeling the behavior of moral people.

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has maintained the best characteristics in his roles as father, husband, friend, ruler, governor, teacher, statesman, protector of the weak, widows, and poor, a guide to the rich, a guardian of the orphans, and a servant of Allah. No one could ever equal the Prophet (pbuh) in the whole history of mankind and no one ever will, insha Allah.

3.2 Personality Type That Suit to Your New Venture

As for me, I would like meet new people, having works with bunch of friends so that we would not feel the works is burdensome for us and we also find that doing work in group is fun. As we know the more the merrier. Meeting new people will teach me to handle every kind or every type of people. I think the type of personality suits me best is sanguine. This is because I am a person who is very talkative an also extrovert. I am not good for keeping things inside. In the future I have planned to work not only in the office but have opportunities to meet new people so that I can increase the number of friends. I also like to socialize instead of having works in front of the computer for the whole day. I also tend to enjoy social gatherings. From the research, they state that sanguine personality is affected by chemical called dopamine, which makes these people intensely curious and creative. Their curiosity can be expressed in their love for reading and different kinds of knowledge and they usually possess high amounts of energy, so they may seem restless and spontaneous.

Some findings also stated that if you have a sanguine business personality, your strengths lie in your interpersonal relationships. You’ve got people skills that are out of this world. People warm to you quickly and you understand how to make a good first impression. Your business relationships are solid and effective; social media and networking come easily to you. You’re probably very popular in your workplace amongst your co-workers as well as your clients. Even though like that, everyone must have their own negative sides in their own way. For sanguine we need a little help in the non-social aspects of owning a business. ‘On Your Own’ we may have trouble focusing when you’re working alone or you may find solo work boring and tedious. Timeliness Sanguine tend to be chronically late. You may have trouble getting in on time or keeping up with your appointments. Like any other bad habits, the first step is admitting that you’ve got a problem time management.

Sanguine also often struggle with leadership positions if they’re too concerned with how their employees see them. Of course it would be some good sides of a person and some bad sides. But, with such an extroverted business personality, we should not be afraid to focus on networking and building strong customer relationships. Just make sure that we’re not losing sight on the other aspects of your business; though your social interactions may have built your business, it’s the legwork that keeps it running. Your personality type might affects everything in your life. It is how we interact with others, how we spend our free time, how we build relationships. It even affects how we do business. This is why we need Islam in our life so that we do not go astray from what we should do. And this is one of the reason why we must have to make Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as a role model so that we know why we do all of this on this earth.

3.3 SALES AND MARKETING

For IIC marketing and sales, they also follow the rules of marketing which are 4Ps.

1. Product

This year (2013)2 certificates, 10 diploma programs and 2 degree programs are offered. For December 2013, online executive diploma program will be opened. Next year additional 2 certificate, 1 foundation, 7 diploma programs and 3 degree programs are offered for registered students. IIC also is IIUM branding which is apply Islamic values and also Intensive English classes.

2. Place

IIC is placed at Taman Batu Muda, Batu Caves, Kuala Lumpur. Batu Caves is a center of Malaysia. This is because Batu caves is one of the most popular temple in the world. So people might be easy to know the place of IIC by searching it in the internet. This place also easy access by public transportation.

3. Promotion

There are some promotions has been held by IIC which are advertisements in newspapers and radio stations, participating in educational exhibitions locally and internationally and road Tour while conduct briefing and interview session nationwide. IIC also promotes using telemarketing and Facebook. They also held some programs with school counselors to persuade the students to join IIC. Registered agents also has been practiced in IIC promoting actions.

4. Price

Certificate — RM5,580Diploma — RM14,260-RM18,400Degree — RM42,000 (3 years), RM28,000 (2 Years)Registration fee of RM440/RM975- Cert/DiplomaRegistration fee of RM1,000/RM1,500- DegreeHostel Fee of RM250 per monthFrom the talk we can see that the sales and marketing part for IIC has been given as listed above. It follows everything from the 4Ps.

4. ACTION PLAN

After the speech given by the speakers, we can tell that IIC is a good high education institute because it is near to residential area and lots of facilities around the campus. This will ease the student of the institute to get the essential needs. As for me I will promote the institute to others as it offers the course that widely needed in this global industries. This campus also offers a very conducive environment of studies to help the students to develop their critical and logical thinking as well as develop their creativity and good personal traits.

I also thinking about joining the road tour with IIC so that I can get some experience about marketing and promoting. From the road tour, IIC will distribute goody bags to provide all the information needed for the customers. I also will help to promote IIC using social network as we can see internet is the fastest to spread the information all over the cyber community.

5. CONCLUSION

From the talk we can see that everything that has been discussed is important. First is they let us know that the qualities to be the best business man is we must have our role model which is Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) so that we will not go astray from what we should do and from we should be. They also taught us about the personality types exist so that we well prepared for anything happen in the future on how to overcome our emotion and our greediness and so on. Next is the 4Ps which are the most important things in marketing and entrepreneurship. 4Ps stands for product, price, promotion and place. Every aspect must be clear before we run any business so that we know what exactly going on to our business.

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