Merneptah Stele Essay

Merneptah Stele Essay.

The Merneptah Stele is an enticing inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah discovered in 1896 at Thebes by Flinders Petrie. The inscriptions are put down on a ten foot high piece of black granite. The text contained in these inscriptions is mainly an account of the king’s victories in battle during the last decade of the thirteenth century B. C. E. It is of important archeological significance due to the last few lines in the inscription which is the first known non-biblical reference to Israel.

Some scholars believe that it is significant in that it shows where Israel was and what type of people they were, whereas other believes it “reveals little other than that it locates Israel somewhere in the vicinity of Palestine” (Miller & Hayes 4). Due to the conventions of the time, specific hieroglyphic symbols placed next to the descriptive factors of Israel within this text identifies Israel as a people, not necessarily a place.

Whilst there is a lot of scholarly debate on the exact meaning of the inscription, it is believed that perhaps too much is being read into this inscription and it is really just an account of Pharaoh Merneptah’s victories and that the scribe mentioned to Israel people to add extra weight to these victories.

Despite these variations in opinion on the validity of the inscriptions historical significance, the Merneptah Stele does suggest some interesting details about early Israel. Part of the inscription reads “Israel is laid waste, his seed is no more” (Rainey 63).

It has been suggested that, according to other writings of the time, “seed” normally refers to grain (not descendants) which therefore suggests that these people had agricultural skills. It may also be possible that the Israel refers to in the stele are the twelve Israelite tribes referred to in the bible. Within four generations of the twelve sons fleeing the famine in Egypt they were 600,000 men of fighting age (Wylen 18-20) and could have presumably encountered Pharaoh Merneptah’s armies.

If it is believed that ‘Israel’ indicates a nation and not just a people, the above reference is very telling. It indicates that at the time of engraving, the nation of Israel held enough significance to be included by name among the other major city-states which were defeated by Merneptah in the late 13th century B. C. This implies that Israel was a major player in the region during the late 13th century, serving to corroborate to a degree the biblical narrative.

Much archaeological evidence indicates that the people of Israel appeared in the central hill country around Palestine in a complex process that began not before 1200 BC. The Merneptah Stele witnesses a significant population group that was well established by 1209 BC. This raises the question- where in the archaeological record are the Israelites that Merneptah fought? This is just one of the many questions raised in this ongoing debate. Another debate which has developed around the Merneptah stele is whether the Israel people where hill people or valley people.

Within the Karnak reliefs (Hieroglyphs found in the Karnak temple on the opposite side of the Nile from where the Merneptah stele was discovered) there are a people (presumed by some to be people from the Israeli nation) depicted riding chariots. This type of transport would not have been used by people who lived in hilly regions. Also the fact that they are skilled in agriculture would suggest that they would more likely be living in open plains within the lowlands, not the hills.

This contradicts some scholars who believed the Israeli people to have come from the hills and belong to the same nation as the Canaanites. Overall the Merneptah stele has prompted more questions than it has answered. Interesting ideas can come from interpreting the inscriptions, as long as the context in which they were inscribed are taken into account and the interpretations drawn out are dealt with in a way in which reflect the complexities which exist in trying to interpret such minimal information.

Merneptah Stele Essay

Lebanon Vs. Egypt Essay

Lebanon Vs. Egypt Essay.

Every country is unique in its civilization, culture, and morals. Lebanon and Egypt are two of the most majestic countries, not only in the Arab world, but also worldwide. Comparing and contrasting those two countries will help us understand and get to know the Egyptian and our culture more. These two Arab countries have several differences, as well as some similarities. These two countries are the primary contributors to the 20th century of intellectual renaissance. Thus, we will compare the climate, art and politics of these countries.

The first point to compare is climate. Both Lebanon and Egypt have a Mediterranean climate. This is approved by having the two countries lying on the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, the climate in both countries leads to high rates of tourism, which was a turning point to both countries’ economy. Some researches had shown that the rate of tourism in Egypt and Lebanon reached 12.8 million and 15 million tourists respectively. Unlike Egypt, Lebanon has a null daily range of temperature.

This is shown by studies where there is a maximum of four degrees between day and night. Furthermore, there is a difference in the number of seasons that both countries have.

Lebanon has four seasons, a rainy winter, a fall that lowers the temperature, a spring and a hot and humid summer. On the other hand, Egypt has only two seasons. It has a very hot summer which usually lasts from May to October and the average temperature is 95 degrees Fahrenheit, and a very mild winter season. Winters are warm with temperatures ranging from 55 to 70 degrees. Those winters last from November to April. The average winter temperature is 48 degrees Fahrenheit. Finally, we can approve that climate doesn’t only affect only our economic sector, but also our politics and art.

The other aspect to compare between Lebanon and Egypt is its history and politics. In order to compare this aspect we can go way back to history. Both countries have imperial historical stories. This is shown by the Pharaohs in Egypt, which is the most attractive thing due to its creativity, which in turn nourished astronomy and the medical field. On the contrary, Phoenicians in Lebanon had a central achievement, where they created the alphabet that spread all over the world. Moreover, Egypt is considered one of the countries that are ruled by a totalitarian system. If we look into the Egyptian political life from 1958 until our days we can have an idea about the nature of the Egyptian regime, where only four president ruled Egypt for 54 years. Those presidents where Jamal Abdel-Naser from 1958 till 1970, Mohammad Anwar Al Sadat ruled from 1970 till his assassination by the Islamic extremists at 1981, Hosni Mubarak was in authority from 1981 till 2011, and lastly Mohammad Morse.

On the other hand, Lebanon has a political life that is characterized by its liberty, and democracy is its priority. Finally, both countries have a bright history regardless to their difference in the political view. The third aspect to compare between those two countries is art. To begin with, the Lebanese and Egypt culture are famous by their music. This is shown by Lebanese artists who resided in Cairo after the civil war, and made a common bridge between the two cultures like Gergi Zaidan, Khalil Motran and Rosel Youssef.

The merging between the Egyptian and Lebanese cultures made the music field very common between them, where even some musical instrument are the same like oud, the tablah, the daff and the nay. Well, we can’t talk about music without mentioning our extremely known artists who worked to maintain their culture stable like Fairouz, Sabah, Majida El Roumi, Marcel Khalife, Ziad Rahbani, Wadih el Safi and Nasri Shamseddin who made the Lebanese culture richer. In addition to Egyptian artists like Umm Koulthoum, Mohammad Abdel Wahhab, Abdel Halim Hafez and Zakariyya Ahmad. To end with, art and culture go hand in hand in the sense that they both contribute to each other’s enrichment and refinement in a reinforcing manner.

Even though some countries might have matches in cultures concerning different aspects as discussed in the essay, special features and characteristics of one country remain carved in souls of residents and history of a country. This is because the people are the ones who shape the culture of the country. People of Lebanon and Egypt differ because of religion, political regimes, technological development, economic conditions and geographical location. This culture lasts as long as there are new generations that hold and nourish it.

Lebanon Vs. Egypt Essay

Evaluation of Shylock as a Tragic Hero Essay

Evaluation of Shylock as a Tragic Hero Essay.

We Are Witnesses: Five Diaries of Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust by Jacob Boas Rescue: The Story of How Gentiles Saved Jews in the Holocaust by Milton Meltzer Hiding to Survive: Stories of Jewish Children Rescued from the Holocaust by Maxine B. Rosenberg Parts of the Book Report: Title Page Actual Book Report Contents of Book Report: 1.

Discuss the setting of the book. 2. Give a summary of the book by discussing the real person’s/people’s life/lives. 3. Discuss the character/person’s traits and support them with examples from the book.


Discuss the theme – the message of the book and some interesting facts you learned from this book. 5. Give your opinion of the book. Include the answers to the following: *How would you rate the book? Why? *What part of the book affected you and in what way? *Do you think the book gave an honest account of the personOs life? *Do you admire any of the people in the book? Why? Book Report: Fiction Kris’s War by Carol Matas Lisa’s War by Carol Matas Parts of the Book Report: Title Page Actual Book Report Contents of Book Report: 1. Discuss the setting of the book. 2.

Give a summary of the book by discussing the real person’s life. 3. Discuss the main characters’ traits and support them with examples from the book. 4. Discuss the theme – the message of the book. 5. Give your opinion of the book. Include the answers to the following: *How would you rate the book? Why? *What part of the book affected you and in what way? *Do you think the book gave an honest account of a person’s life during the Holocaust? Hint: Follow guide sheets for book report for the four elements of a book; there is one more thing added this time – your opinion.

Evaluation of Shylock as a Tragic Hero Essay