Japan Essay

Japan Essay.

Project Analyze It Japan growth and expansion today. Japan began its growth after World War II. Environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations, because of this environmental pollution was widespread from 1950 1960. Finally in the 1970’s the government introduced several environmental protection laws. Due to the lack of resources the oil crisis of 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy.

The issues of today are urban air pollution, waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management, and international co-operation for conservation (8) Japan is one of the worlds leaders in development of new environmentally friendly technologies, and they are ranked the 20th best in the world in the 2010 Environmental Performance Index.

Japan created a treaty called the Kyoto Protocol, and in doing so are obligated to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and to more steps to curb climate change (8,9).

The Edo Period helped to develop the structure of the growth Combs 2 of Japan’s economy. They made the transport routes, by road and water.

They made future contracts, and banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers. In 1868 Japan expanded economically with the embrace of the market economy. Many of today’s enterprises were founded at that time. Japan came out as the most developed nation in Asia. The real economic growth came from the 1960s and 1980s this time is called the Japanese post war miracle (9).

During the 1990s the growth slowed down because of the aftereffects of the Japanese asset price bubble and domestic policies that was intended to wring the excesses from the stock and real estate markets. They tried to recover the markets but they couldn’t because of the global slowdown in 2000. But in 2005 five they finally started showing signs of a recovery (9). In 2011 Japan is the third national economy in the world after the United States and China in terms of nominal GDP. It is the fourth largest in national economy in the world in purchasing power purity.

In January of 2011, Japan’s public debt was more than 200% of its gross domestic product, the largest of any nation in the world. (9) Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronics, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods. Agricultural Combs 3 businesses in Japan cultivate 13 percent of Japan’s land and Japan accounts for nearly 15 percent of the global fish catch, second only in China. In 2010 Japan’s labor force was consisted of 65. 9 million workers.

It now has a low unemployment rate of 4 percent. In 2006 0ne in every six or 20 million people lived in poverty. Housing in Japan is limited by the land supply in urban areas (9). Japan’s main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels food (beef in particular), chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries. (9) They are the leading nation in scientific research, particularly technology, machinery, and biomedical research. Japan is a world leader in fundamental scientific research, having produced 15 Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry, and medicine, three fields medalist and one Gauss Prize laureate.

Japan specializes in electronics, automobiles, machinery, earthquakes engineering, industrial robotics, to name a few and they lead the world in robotics production and use, possessing more than half the world’s industrial robots (10). In 2008 46. 4 percent of the energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 21. 1 percent from coal, 16. 7 from natural gas, 9. 7 from nuclear power, and 2. 9 percent from hydro power. But in 2009 25 percent of the power was nuclear power. However in 2012 all nuclear power plants were taken offline (10).

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Japan Essay

Case: 7-Eleven Japan Co. Essay

Case: 7-Eleven Japan Co. Essay.

Question 1:

A convenience store chain attempts to be responsive and provide customers what they need, when they need it, where they need it. What are some different ways that a convenience store supply chain can be responsive? What are some risks in each case?

A convenience store can be more responsive by doing exactly what Seven-Eleven Japan is doing; many locations, rapid replenishment, appropriate technology deployment, and an equally responsive supplier (vertical integration for many of their SKUs). The risks associated with this system are the costs coupled with demand uncertainty.

If demand patterns change dramatically, or the customer base changes, then Seven-Eleven is left with an operation that is not needed. Offering variety of services in the case of this case study Seven Eleven offered attractive services to customers such as ski lift voucher pass, payment of mail order purchases, internet shopping, a meal service delivery, automatic teller machines installation in each store, pick up online services, electronic money service that allow customers to prepay and use a card or cell phone to make payments etc.

on the other hand, a short coming might result due to the failure of one or more information system due to failure or break down.

Question 2:

Seven-Eleven’s supply chain strategy in Japan can be described as attempting to micro-match supply and demand using rapid replenishment. What are some risks associated with this choice?

Question 3:

What has 7-Eleven done in its choice of facility location, inventory management, transportation, and information infrastructure to develop capabilities that support its supply chain strategy in Japan?

Information infrastructure:

7-Eleven implemented a Total Information System through which the company could efficiently share its information thus making its supply chain responsive. The system was installed within each store, headquarters, suppliers and vendors. And also the system linked all the stores with each other. The Total Information System comprises of POS registers, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), Graphic order terminal, scanner terminal and store computers. The data related to the sales as well as the purchaser is collected through the POS register for analysis. For efficient management of the inventory, the graphic order terminal, scanner terminal and store computers are used thus assists in improving both the efficiency and responsiveness.

Inventory management:

The store owner or the manager makes use of the graphic order terminal to place orders so as to replenish inventory in order of their arrangement on the store shelf. The owner had access to analysis of waste, 10 day and 10 week sales trends SKU, sales trends of new products, sales analysis by day and time etc that help him in forecasting demand. On the other hand, the Scanner terminal receives products from a distribution center and therefore monitors inventory by checking whether the order received matches with the original order placed. The store computer helps in tracking store inventory.

Transportation:

Trucks are used to transport goods to the stores. 7-Eleven makes use of a flexible distribution system which means that it can alter the delivery schedules according to the varying customer demand. Also, the suppliers send orders via trucks to the distribution centers. The latter cross docks inventory from supplier truck to distribution trucks. Moreover, to maintain the quality of the products, the distribution trucks are temperature controlled of four categories for different types of products such as frozen/ chilled foods, processed foods etc.

Facility location:

The facility location of 7-Eleven comprises of two types namely, the distribution centers and retail stores. 7-Eleven follows a market or area dominance strategy through which it forms clusters of stores in the area where already a 7- eleven store exists rather than having a handful of stores dispersed over a wide geographical area. Among the clusters there’s a distribution center which is surrounded by 7-Eleven stores. Approximately, there are 50-60 stores in each cluster.

Question 4:

7-Eleven does not allow direct store delivery in Japan but has all products flow through its distribution center. What benefit does 7-Eleven derive from this policy? When is direct store delivery more appropriate?

7-Eleven has the policy of delivering its products to the retail stores via the distribution centers. Through these distribution centers, the replenishment cycles are reduced and a proper sales record can be maintained and monitored. Through the Point of Sale registers, signals can be transmitted to both the distribution centre and the supplier hence orders can be organized accordingly. Also, orders are sent directly to the distribution centre so that they can be allotted to the appropriate vehicle. A combined delivery system is used by 7- Eleven, in which four groups of temperature-controlled trucks are used to send fresh products. The trucks are sent several times a day during peak hours in order to avoid delays.

Also, confidence is maintained between the supply chain partners and an additional person is not needed while the load is being received and checked. The process reduces delivery time. However this system might require a number of daily deliveries, but the number of trucks needed is much lesser therefore it reduces the delivery cost and facilitates a more prompt fresh food delivery. And hence the stock is continuously replenished. This network process ensures flexibility in the sense that it can alter the delivery schedules due to any demand fluctuations. There is a twelve-hour limit upon the restocking of food items.

The disadvantages however include that the retail stores will have little control when the restocking takes place. Also, a number of stores rely on just one combined distribution centre. Also, if the system goes down while the delivery is at CDC, then all the stores can be affected and timely deliveries might not be possible. Hence accurate forecasts are needed. Direct delivery system might be a useful technique as the stores follow variant patterns. If the demand increases and a store require a greater number of deliveries then the demand can be met more efficiently as the deliveries can be made directly to the stores.

Question 5:

What do you think about the 7dream concept for 7-Eleven Japan? From a supply chain perspective, is it likely to be more successful in Japan or the United States? Why?

In February 2000, 7-Eleven established 7dream.com, an ecommerce company, the goal of which was to exploit the existing distribution system and the fact that stores were easily accessible to most Japanese Stores served as drop-off and collection points for the customers and proved successful as 92% of their customers preferred to just pick up their goods from the local convenience store which they ordered online rather than have them delivered to their homes. This was understandable given the frequency with which Japanese customers visit their local convenience store. 7dream hoped to build on this preference along with the synergies from the existing distribution system as the company required an effective and efficient supply chain to cater to the demand of the customers who ordered online and provide the company with a time frame for delivery.

From a supply chain perspective, it is believed that the 7dream concept is likely to be more successful in Japan than in the United States. The reason for saying so is that, the Japanese market is much smaller as compared to that of United State. In 2008, there were 12,071 stores in Japan where as the stores were nearly half the number in U.S that is 6,262. The density of stores in Japan was hence greater as the area of Japan is much smaller as compared to that of the U.S. and therefore, in Japan the company had a greater customer reach as 7–Eleven stores are easily accessible throughout Japan.

The ecommerce company itself could probably be a greater success in U.S. however; it would be a better idea if the orders are directly sent home rather than have them delivered to the nearest 7-Eleven store. In this way, the company can tap in to a bigger market that is the U.S. market but get the goods delivered to the customer’s doorstep would be a better idea. Also, the stores in the U.S. were replenished using direct store delivery (DSD) by some manufacturers, with the remaining products delivered by wholesalers. DSD accounted for about half the total volume, with the rest coming from the wholesalers. This meant that direct delivery is a more popular concept in the U.S.

Keeping into consideration the current strategy of the 7dream concept, it is more likely to be successful in Japan than in the United States. However, if the strategy is molded according to the U.S. market, it can become a greater success.

Question 6:

7-Eleven is attempting to duplicate the supply chain structure that has succeeded in Japan in the United States with the introduction of CDC’s. What are the pros and cons of this approach? Keep in mind that stores are also replenished by wholesalers and DSD by manufacturers.

After 7 Eleven acquired Southland Corporation they tried to improve their operations in America. The main improvement was an introduction of a new component in the supply chain completely novel to the US market. This component, the Combined Distribution Centers (CDCs), was however used in Japan at that time. Initially the stores in US used the Direct Store Delivery (DSD) in which stores were replenished by manufacturers accounting for half of the goods volume and the rest half was done by whole sellers. CDC delivered perishable products like bread, sandwiches and the rest of the bakery products. Pros

Using CDC all perishable -food items would be delivered by a single distributor which would increase overall efficiency. Having fresh-food items at 7-Eleven convenience stores helped in users getting variety of fresh food from convenient locations. Uncertainty of delivery times was minimized by systematic delivery system. The inventory costs were low as fresh food items cannot be inventoried. With daily replenishment of fresh-food items, the stock would be fresh and it reduced consumer concerns of stale items to a large extent. Centralization gave a greater control to the management and more processes were now under the supervision of the company hence improving efficiency.

Cons

There could have been a difference in quality delivered through CDC and DSD. DSD was a tested system so company might be unwilling to shift to the new system as there is always a reluctance to change. In US stores fresh products may not sell very well.

Training would be required for all the supply chain members as the new system tends to be more time sensitive. Manufacturers might not be willing to go with the idea of CDC’s as they might lose on their relative dollar revenues and with the loss in revenues they might also reduce control. As the new system would be very time specific, the supply chain might not be very responsive and if updates are required the company might lose on its sales.

Question 7:

The United States has food service distributors that also replenish convenience stores. What are the pros and cons to having a distributor replenish convenience stores versus a company like 7-Eleven managing its own distribution function?

With the outsourcing decision in mind an organization always tries to outsource activities that lie beyond their core competencies and their scarce resources are wasted in performing tasks that they are not specialized at. With outsourcing the organization tries to focus on activities that they can do best. The advantage is that managing the distribution is the sole headache of the distributor and with his specialized expertise it might be more cost effective. However outsourcing does have its repercussions as well. The control over the quality of items and the replenishment time might not be as effective as doing the distribution yourself.

With the outsourcing of distribution the communication gap can affect the replenishment distribution. However taking the advancements in communication and technology this statement may be rendered void. Convenience stores are successfully communicating with their distributors and make uninterrupted storage of data and information transmission from 3PL WMS to internal systems for real-time visibility of stock in hand and customer service. Moreover outsourcing decisions affect both the efficiency and responsiveness of the supply chain. A retail store can achieve improved efficiency by having a distributor replenish its stock, but he does not put his heart and effect they can have on their long term aims.

Case: 7-Eleven Japan Co. Essay

Small Is Beautiful Essay

Small Is Beautiful Essay.

The word ‘small’ represents what is minor or of minimum importance but small can also be beautiful. For instance ‘smile’ is a five letter word, a small word as you may see it, but is of great importance. Smile is a beautiful thing. It brings cheer and happiness in one’s life, it helps one to stay fit and healthy not only mentally or emotionally but physically too. Smile brings joy and tenderness in one’s heart amidst various amounts of sorrow, tension and turmoil.

Not only does it beautify life but it also beautifies one’s face and personality too. A smile can melt hearts, win them and steal them in no time. Though ‘smile’ is ‘small’ it brings amicability in our lives.

Let’s take up another example– Baby. They are little angels on Earth. They are considered as God’s gift and God’s grace. Like ‘smile’ they also bring joy in our materialistic lives. We can learn so many things from them.

They teach us how to be happy, how to handle problems in a relaxed way, they teach us how to grow up as parents, they help us to become more mature, in short they teach us how to live Life. Looked how the two are related? Babies are those ‘small’ things which bring ‘smiles’ to our faces. These two ‘smalls’ together indeed brings great differences in our world.

Another beautiful example of small yet beautiful is India. India is a small subcontinent of Asia. It is much smaller than other continents of West but it prospers in Tradition, Culture and Ancient Past. India though small has a culture of its own. Here, the parent-child bond is very strong, unlike the West where children are not much attached with their parents. India’s rich culture and heritage makes it more colorful on the canvas called world. India consists of various religions, castes, tribes and regions which results in various traditions, rituals, festivals and celebrations. Diversity in India is huge in contrast to the West. When I am talking about small countries then Japan cannot lag behind.

Japan occupies very little place on the Globe but still it is one of the most fast growing countries of the world. In the field of technology it has left the other big counties far behind. In 2011 Japan was struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami known as 2011 Tohoku Tsunami. In this natural disaster lakhs of people lost their lives, their loved ones, properties, possessions, dreams, aspects, everything. The tsunami also resulted in the destruction of nuclear plants which was a huge loss to the country. But the strong mindset, bravery and undivert goal of the people of Japan overtook the disastrous loss and very soon brought her on her legs, in track. The positive ambition in Japanese is an epitome. Thus Japan is a country from which we should learn how to proceed in life without stopping. The Japanese management is also far better than the Americans.

Any small things is very essential to make the big efficient. For making a house, every brick is essential; otherwise the house may not stand well. For making a painting every little color is of importance to give it a touch of perfection, for making a movie hit every little character and scene is vital, every little automobile part is essential for a car to run properly, every little flower together makes a garden beautiful, every small clip may make the hair look beautifully tied, every little nails help big pictures to hang on the walls gathering appreciations.

A small ‘bindi’ brings in a different beauty in a women’s face Likewise an industry is made up with many small companies. Every small company helps an industry to grow up and become successful. Every company of the industries adds unto its profit, it fame and its name. Small though spells as s m a l l, is not actually small. It is also essential. Every little duckling which is considered as ugly, grow up to be a beautiful Swan one day. Thus no things in this world is small or of least important. Thus not only Big but Small is also beautiful.

Small Is Beautiful Essay

Was the Meiji Period a Restoration or Revolution? Essay

Was the Meiji Period a Restoration or Revolution? Essay.

The Meiji restoration occurred during the last half of the nineteenth century in Japan. This period is one of the most important events in Japanese history as it brought about significant transformations to Japan’s social and political structure. This explosion of change began with the adoption of Western ideologies which had previously been shunned in Japan. With the flood of new technology and other important ideas, Japan was able to reshape itself into a much stronger, country ready to take on the world.

To catapult Japan into a position of power and recognition among other countries, the lords of Choshu and Satsuma decided to adopt the technology and secrets of the West. First they forced they forced the resignation of the Shogun in 1867. The lords of Choshu and Satsuma then restored the emperor, named Mutsuhito, back to power. The revolution occurred in years that spanned both Japan’s Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji Era. Meiji Era is known as enlightened peace because of the influx of knowledge that created a “better” Japan.

The Meiji restoration was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan’s political and social structure. The roots of this sudden change in ideology can be attributed to the arrival of Commodore Perry’s American naval squadron in 1853, appearing to open Japan but in actuality the country had exploded from within. None the less the success of Perry’s expedition triggered a collapse of Japan’s self-imposed isolation and the fall of the feudal shogun government. This allowed for a complete overhaul of the country creating a Japan in 1912 that faintly resembled itself forty-five years prior.

Though throughout the Meiji period, conflicts arose over how much Japan should emulate or borrow from the Western powers. Just as opinions divided between kaikoku (open the country) and jôi (expel the barbarians) after Commodore Perry landed in 1853, tensions continued throughout the Meiji period regarding Japan’s policy toward foreigners and foreign ideas. Within a short time after 1868, the majority of Japanese went from xenophobia to xenophilia. Not only did the Japanese adopt many outward aspects of Western civilization such as ballroom dancing, men cutting their hair, and beef eating, they also adopted many Western ideas and institutions as the Meiji oligarchs pursued a policy of fukoku kyôhei (rich country, strong military) to catch up with Western countries and to gain national strength and wealth.

When the Meiji emperor was restored as head of Japan in 1868, the nation was a militarily weak country, was primarily agricultural, and had little technological development. The country was controlled by hundreds of semi-independent feudal lords. The Western powers–Europe and the United States–had forced Japan to sign treaties that limited its control over its own foreign trade and required that crimes concerning foreigners in Japan be tried not in Japanese but in Western courts. When the Meiji period ended with the death of the emperor in 1912, Japan had a highly centralized, bureaucratic government, a constitution establishing an elected parliament, a well-developed transport and communication system, a highly educated population free of feudal class restrictions, an established and rapidly growing industrial sector based on the latest technology and a powerful army and navy.

It had regained complete control of its foreign trade and legal system, and, by fighting and winning two wars (one of them against a major European power, Russia), it had established full independence and equality in international affairs. In a little more than a generation, Japan had exceeded its goals, and in the process had changed its whole society. Japan’s success in modernization has created great interest in why and how it was able to adopt Western political, social, and economic institutions in so short a time. This political revolution “restored” the emperor to power, but he did not rule directly. He was expected to accept the advice of the group that had overthrown the shogun, and it was from this group that a small number of ambitious, able and patriotic young men from the lower ranks of the samurai emerged to take control and establish the new political system.

The new installed emperor still had much influence though, as his first major act, the Meiji emperor created the Charter Oath — five promises to the people of Japan to bring fundamental change to the political system. Although the promises were general and vague, the Charter Oath became the foundational document that effectively set the government’s course for the rest of the Meiji period. The Charter Oath of 1868 compiled by Ryusaku Tsunoda, Wm. Theodore de Bary and Donald Keene, served as the key document to set the model of the new government system. This document originated in 1868 when a small group of Meiji leaders decided what they had hoped to create in the new Japanese society.

The purpose of The Charter Oath of 1868 was to illustrate the goals of the nation and to provide a loose framing for the constitution and laws. This document can be considered Japan’s first constitution. It exemplified the adaptability of western ideologies to other countries However, it failed to capture the needs or wants of the public merely the aims of one small group leading the country. The Meiji period is often called a restoration which can be rationalized through one singular, though major, event. This key event is the restoration of the emperor to authority in place of the throne abdicated by the shogun. This is the only reason that the reform is called a restoration.

To truly be a restoration the country would have had to been prosperous and powerful as it was in the early twentieth century before the shogun came to power, but this is not the case. There is also a change in ideologies within the newly installed government, in the past Japan had been isolated from the western world and its philosophies, but during the Meiji period western ideologies were adapted and utilized in the rebuilding of the country. So initially the Meiji period resembles a restoration (to bring back to a former state) but as it progresses this view changes. This restoration was in response to weakening foreign relations and Western influence in Japan. Also the reform can be viewed as a restoration because the governed that overthrew the shogun had no other governing body in mind at the time of rebellion but decided on one after the abdication occurred.

The Meiji period can be seen as a revolution (the overthrow of one ruler or government and substitution of another by the governed) in numerous respects. The most obvious is that the Tokugawa shogun was removed from power and the authority was given to Mutsuhito, the Meiji emperor. The revolution began when the lords of Choshu and Satsuma decided to adopt the ideas of the West and remove the failing government in place. These Western Ideologies were described to the lords by American Commodore Perry.

After the new emperor was in place the government also changed to an oligarchy made up of the senior members of the loyalist faction that had overthrown the shogun. Even though the loyalists gained support for their cause by promising to expel all foreigners, pragmatism quickly displaced impractical idealism. A total makeover of the government began promptly, on the model of a modern constitutional monarchy. Using the Charter Oath of 1868 as a framework The Meiji Constitution was written. This is very similar to the United States Revolutionary War.

After the new government was created the country underwent a great industrialization and economic boom. Zaibatsu (huge industrial and financial conglomerates), began to form in the Meiji period and were responsible for much of Japan’s rise to an industrial world power. Not only did the economic infrastructure, such as markets, banking, and transportation, develop rapidly during the Tokugawa period, the people also developed basic skills to allow them to support the rapid economic growth of the Meiji period. Merchants gained entrepreneurial and financing skills that would be valuable to economic growth in the Meiji period. These results after merchants were at the very bottom of the social structure only a few years earlier.

Millions of people were suddenly free to choose their occupation and move about without restrictions. By providing a new environment of political and financial security, the government made possible investment in new industries and technologies. They led the way in this, building railway and shipping lines, telegraph and telephone systems, shipyards, mines, consumer industries (making sugar, glass, textiles, cement, chemicals, and other important products).

Though the shogun was gone there was still a positive effect created by his policies. The educational achievements and the high respect for learning of Tokugawa in Japan played a large role in the country’s transition to the modern age in the Meiji Revolution period. With a large number of schools for both samurai and commoner children, the country had achieved a high general literacy rate by the beginning of the Meiji Restoration in 1868. The shogun supported “Dutch studies” (rangaku), which included the translation and study of Western works on science, geography, medicine, military science, and other subjects. These studies allowed Japanese to be exposed to Western technology and ideas, which facilitated the transition of Japan to a modern country in the Meiji period. Overall the revolution encompassed the entire country where as the restoration was just a rise to power. Difficult economic times in Japan, marked by increasing episodes of rioting, led to calls for social reforms.

In addition to the old taxes, interest rates, and high rents, the average citizen was now being billed for new taxes, military mobilization, and tuition for required education. The people needed more time for creative pursuits while still correcting social mistreatments of the past. To achieve these reforms, the old class system of samurai, farmers, artisans, and merchants was abolished by 1871. Even though old prejudices continued amongst the people, all citizens were equal before the law. Former samurai found new careers as bureaucrats, teachers, scholars, bankers, and businessmen. These occupations helped reduce some of the tension between the people of Japan.

Additionally, between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, and lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash. Undeterred by the resistance, the Meiji leaders continued to modernize the nation through government-sponsored telegraph cable links to all major Japanese cities and the Asian mainland. Still concerned about national security, the leaders made significant efforts at military modernization, which included establishing a small standing army, a large reserve system, and obligatory military service for all men.

Foreign military systems were studied, foreign advisers were brought in, and Japanese cadets sent abroad to European and United States military and naval schools. The Meiji Restoration accelerated every aspect of Japanese society. Japan was rapidly industrialized leading to the modern Japan currently known to the world. The Meiji reform can be seen as a restoration only in the instilment of the imperial power. The reform can be called a revolution in every aspect of Japanese society from 1868 to 1912. Based on the evidence gathered, Japan underwent a revolution similar to the French or American Revolution, after the restoration of a past power. Nearly, every aspect of Japanese society was changed during this period, so a revolution should be the proper way to refer to this period.

Bibliography
Akamatsu, Paul. Meiji, 1868; Revolution and Counter-revolution in Japan. Trans. Miriam Kochan. New York: Harper & Row, 1972. Craig, Albert M. Choshu in the Meiji Restoration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967. Harootunian, Harry D. Toward restoration; the growth of political consciousness in Tokugawa Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970. Marius Jansen. Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1971. Nagai, Michio and Miguel Urrutia. Meiji Ishin: restoration and revolution. Tokyo: United Nations University, 1985. Totman, Conrad D. The Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1862-1868. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1980. Toson, Shimizaki. Before the Dawn. Trans. William E. Naff. Honolulu: University of Honolulu Press, 1987. 339-383. Walthall, Anne. The weak body of a useless woman : Matsuo Taseko and the Meiji Restoration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Was the Meiji Period a Restoration or Revolution? Essay

Japan’s Westernization Essay

Japan’s Westernization Essay.

Although the 1890s saw a reaction against the onslaught of Western influence, naturalists argued in favor of the best that was Japanese, but they did so in a thoroughly Western frame of reference and could identify little of exclusive value aside from the physical beauties of Japan, especially Mt. Fuji. Thus, Japan came to be under western influence.

Due in part to the western influence, Japan has received many effects, both good and bad. In the same way that various cultural influence has helped countries such as the United States to gain perspective and broader its horizons, so has western influence helped to expand the cultural viewpoints of Japan.

Also, western influence has opened the minds of the Japanese people, allowing them to accept new ideas and concepts. Some of these ideas include music, movies and even fashion. Perhaps it is due to western influence that the country of Japan possesses the technological importance that it holds today.

However, despite the many positive effects of western influence on Japan, negative effects have also surfaced.

Although western influence did broaden Japanese horizons, it destroyed a good portion of the countries individuality. Keep in mind that the Japanese possessed a fairly unique culture, and the loss of that culture is a great blow to the individuality of the world. Also, with the following of the new ways, the Japanese people may easily have forgotten their traditional ways.

This is what the Samurai tried to prevent. They did not want Japan to lose the focus of the past, and all of the things that had allowed the country to come so far and stay in power for so long. The Samurai were deeply rooted in tradition, and perhaps this dedication to tradition is shown more than anything else throughout the film. However, at the same time, we must be careful that we do not come to rely too heavily on tradition, this will lead to failure in the same manner that forgetting the lessons of the past eventually will.

The culture of Japan, like the culture of any country has become varied over time. Change is a never a bad thing, in fact, it has helped the country of Japan to become the diverse and varied place that it is today. Although the process of change can, itself, often be painful, if one does not change, and if nations do not adapt and evolve in the modern world, they will not be able to remain either influential or even relevant.

Although the relative extinction of the Samurai is a difficult feat to watch, perhaps we can watch it knowing that this extinction paved the way for the modern world, and even in doing so, taught the world that there are always things worth fighting for, and that change and betterment should involve forgetting the past, no matter how great or how important that change may one day be.

Japan’s Westernization Essay

Doing Business in Japan Essay

Doing Business in Japan Essay.

As a result of learning about the geography, climate, history, religion, cultural rituals, politics, education system, and the role of the family; it will allow a business or business person the insight needed to understand how society functions and the method in which business is conducted. Geography & Climate Japan is an island nation that is located across the Japanese Sea. Japan consists of the islands of Hokkaiodo, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu (Yamada & Kurashige, 2003). The landscape of Japan is seventy-one percent mountainous (“Population Demographics,” 2007).

Japan is a small country that is situated in the northern temperate zone. Japan experiences the four seasons similar to that of North America. Japan experiences typhoons which are a lot stronger than their sister hurricanes in the Atlantic (Yamada & Kurashige, 2003). Religion Over eighty-four percent of the people in Japan observe Buddhism, Shinto or a combination of both. Confucianism from China added loyalty and hierarchy to the mix, and Taoism gave order and sanction to the system of government.

The introduction of Buddhism brought contemplative religious aspects and helped to develop their culture of art and architecture.

With the addition of Christianity, western ideas most importantly social justice and reform were infused into society (Long, 1994). Religion is not a large part of the Japanese society, but people will usually practice such holidays as birthdays, weddings and funerals (“Japan,” 2007). Recent History Japan went through major change during the World War II, when most of their cities and infrastructure was damaged or destroyed. After the war, they drafted a new constitution and the population of Japan began rebuilding the country. In only a few decades, Japan become the second largest economy in the world.

In the 1990s, Japan suffered and economic down turn because of scandals and over-investment. The Asian economic crisis of 1998 caused Japan to experience its worst recession since World War II (“Japan: History,” 2007). From 2003 onward the economy has been improving, even surpassing at one point, that of the United States and E. U. (“Economy of Japan,” 2007). Current Issues in Japan Political Issues All foreigners entering the country are to be fingerprinted and photographed in a recent effort to fight terrorism. Also, airlines and ships must provide passenger lists before arriving in the country.

Some may be very reluctant to have their photograph and fingerprints taken. Passenger lists may be time consuming and costly for cruise lines or freight vessels that wish to enter the country. There is pressure from the United States, for Japan to resume refueling of foreign vessels in the Indian Ocean, however there is much opposition within the Japanese government. This opposition may lead to tension between Japan and the United States. This could lead to some negative consequences for United States-Japan trade. (“Chief,” 2007).

The Japanese government has sent a senior foreign minister to Iran to inquire about the kidnapping of Satoshi Nakamura, a Japanese student, more than a month ago. The Iranian Government is ignoring Japan, forcing the Japanese minister to Pakistan to ask for help in this matter (“Official release,” 2007). This will only negatively affect Iranian-Japanese relations. Social Issues Twenty percent of Japan’s population is age sixty or older. At the same time, the country has had a declining birthrate for a few decades. The population of Japan peaked in 2004 and started to decrease afterwards.

The reasoning given is that that more women are working and they do not see it necessary to have children. (“Japan fertility,” 2005). One blogger notes that women may be insecure about having children (Coco, 2006). The shortage of labour will force more older men to stay in the work force as well as force more women into the business world. Economic Issues Japan’s declining birthrate is a major concern for the Japanese economy. The country needs to maintain a healthy population to keep its economy strong; this is proving very difficult (Atsumi, 2007).

One foreseen problem of the low fertility rate is that the already suffering social pension fund could be crippled further (“Japan fertility,” 2005). The Tax Commission has found that taxes must be raised in order the finance the growing social welfare costs. People in Japan are purchasing portable technology, and the Japanese market is showing a sharp decline in purchase of home computers. With the high costs of home computers and the advances in technology could mean a shift in how people use and access the internet.

The companies that produce home computers are now shifting their focus to the developing world (“PCs,” 2007). Social Organization Family Japanese families moved away from their traditional family structures after World War II when the occupying American forces created a new, Western, family ideology. The father still remains the head of most traditional families in Japan, but there are shifts in how a Japanese family is organized. Women, who would have remained at home to manage the household affairs, are now obtaining employment outside of the household.

Since more Japanese women are entering the workforce, the men are being required to take on more of the household and child raising responsibilities (Long, 1994). Another change that has occurred in Japanese society is the idea of the multi-generation family living together. Although common at one time, many elderly people are not living with their families anymore (“Family,” 2007). Roles of Men and Women Japan was traditional a male centered society. However, shortly after World War II women were legally given equal rights as men. A great change came when women started to work outside the household.

Companies in Japan were, and still are, desperate for skilled workers, and with participation of women in the workforce, it helped companies fill their need for workers (Matsui, 2007). Workplace In the workplace, as in other areas of the Japanese collectivist culture, they view themselves as part of a group. Workers are expected to show the utmost loyalty to the firms they work for. Leadership in Japan is not based on a Western values of assertiveness or quick decision making. A good leader in Japan is expected to take the interests of his subordinates into account and create consensus among the group.

Seniority within a group is determined by age and length of service, rather than by individual effort and initiative (Genezberger & et al. , 1996). Their system of group management rewards the team effort and rarely the individual. Often accomplishments are credited to the entire group and not the individual. Individuals are motivated to participate in group activities and maintain harmony. The pride of the individual or the group is expressed through competition with similar groups in the company or other companies (Long, 1994). Proper Etiquette for Doing Business in Japan

Perception of Westerners The Japanese have some common preconceived notions about Westerners. Japanese see Westerners as lacking patience, often interrupting, and being bad listeners. They often see Westerners as being unable to work in teams. They may seeWestern expressions of friendship as insincere. Japanese may sometimes perceive Westerners as being selfish. Business Etiquette & Protocol In Japanese culture personal space is highly respected, they are not a tactile people, and they dislike being crowded. In Japanese culture they try to avoid direct eye contact with other individuals.

When yawning, coughing, or using a toothpick, they cover their mouths. The pointing of feet at another person is considered to be rude, and is therefore important to sit with correct posture. Criticizing and disrespecting authority openly, and being impatient are seen as disrespectful. In business, the personal relationships are far more important than the business itself. In order to do business with a company in Japan formal introductions, patience, flexibility, and respect are vital. Business cards are very important in Japanese business culture, and business people often carry many business cards.

When meeting a business contact for the first time it is important to bow, or shake hands, then exchange business cards. When presenting or receiving a business card one is expected to use both hands and put it in a pocket, above the waist, after carefully reading it. For foreigners, it is common practice to have a Japanese translation on the back of the card (Genezberger et al. , 1996). Men and women are expected to wear are dark and expensive suits. Business women are encouraged to wear conservatively. Business meetings must be scheduled far in advanced.

Before the meeting, Westerners should mail or fax a detailed list outlining what is to be discussed. One must establish relationships with middle and junior level managers or they may resent the person for having bypassed them and feel they have been insulted. When visiting a Japanese company it is customary to remove one’s jacket immediately upon entering and putting it back on as soon as one leave. The leader of the group should introduce each of the group members in descending order of rank. Visitors are to exchange business first with the Japanese executives and then with subordinates in descending order.

In the Japanese culture there is an expectation of receiving a gift at the first meeting. The presentation of the gift can be as or more important that the actual gift itself. Gifts must be given with both hands, and are often rejected a few times before they are accepted. Gifts are not opened when they are received. Certain flowers or potted plants do not make suitable gifts because of the meaning the Japanese associate with them. It is recommended to inform that one informs they are giving a gift beforehand (Roberts. 2007). Socializing ; Eating

Japanese extend their affinity to their groups by socializing outside of work (Long, 1996). Japanese men and women are considered heavy drinkers. Incorrect behaviour while drunk is often forgiven. In Japan it is not expected for one to leave a tip for their servers. In restaurants, where sitting on the group is required, is common practice for men to sit cross-legged and women to sit on their legs or with their legs off to one side. Communication High context High context and low context are two terms used to describe broad differences between cultures.

High context cultures are those where the main aspects of the culture are vague and not explicit. Generally collective cultures tend to be high-context, where much of what is being said is non-verbal, and the level of understanding depends on your relationship with the other party. Japan is a prime example of a high context culture (Beer, 2003). “Face” Saving face means preserving your or someone else’s dignity, self-respect, or good reputation. In cultures that are high-context “face” is a major characteristic. There are many ways that a person might cause the other individual to lose face.

Derogatory remarks, reveling of personal inadequacy, or being forced to compromise a cherished value are ways in which “face” is broken (Face, 2007). Avoiding a loss of “face” generally means never saying “no,” and being politely evasive when conveying disagreement (“Face,” 2007). Greetings When conducting business in Japan, it is very important to know the proper amount of respect owed to individuals. Japan has a very formal and ritualized culture. Bowing is the Japanese custom greeting. How far you bow depends on your relationship with the other individual (Genezberger ; et al. , 1996).

If you were to be greeted for the first time in Japan, it is recommended that one waits to be introduced, since it can be seen as being rude to introduce oneself. Foreigners may be only expected to bow their head slightly or shake hands (“Doing Business,” 2007). Practical Considerations Immigration In an effort to counter terrorism, all foreigners will be finger printed and photographed when entering the country. Japan has an agreement with some countries where only passports are required to enter. Foreigner tourists are required to carry their passports at all times. A visa required if one plans on extending their stay over 90 days.

It usually takes about two days to a week to obtain a Visa, depending on the situation at the embassy you are applying. A single visa costs 3000 yen to obtain. Certain countries have exemptions from paying fees. (“A Guide,” 2007). Travel When traveling in Japan it is recommended that one does not travel long distances, because of cost. However, traveling long distance one can travel by train, highway bus, airplane, or long distances ferries. Renting a car is another possibility for travel. Accommodations For single travelers the prices of hotel rooms will vary depending on the traveler’s budget.

The price range for inexpensive business hotels would cost between 3,500 and 7,000 yen per day. For more expensive business hotels, or Western style hotels the prices can be from 7,000 yen and above. Adaptation and Survival Public washrooms rarely have toilet paper, so one should bring their own. It is important to ask for a “toi”, short for “toilet,” not a “bathroom,” otherwise one may be directed to a room for bathing. When traveling, it is polite to store your backpack or luggage out of the way of other travelers (Haslam, 2002). Heath ; Emergencies All households are required to have a survival kit in case of an earthquake. “Japan Travel,” 2007). English speaking hospitals and services may not be covered by Japanese national health insurance, and could end up costing visitors money (Rogers, 1994). Conclusion Japan is a very collectivist culture and it very apparently in everyday business dealings. To a Western business person business protocol and etiquette may seem very unusual. It is important to understand that their traditions and customs are deeply rooted in their history. However, Japanese people view Western business practices just as unusual, but they are very accommodating to foreign business people. References

Doing Business in Japan Essay

Business Capstone Essay

Business Capstone Essay.

Their majority products are Aluminum, Copper, Diamond &Mineral, Energy, Iron Ore to sell for bored range of industries. Rio Tinto Japan is a liaison office contact with headquarters and they are buy-sell operation in Japan, they sell majority product in Japan for many industries, customers are based in Japan. (Rio Tinto, 2013) 2. 0 Issues In 2011, Japan had a strong earthquake direct damage to the Tokyo city where Rio Tinto Japan are located.

Company had face to an unexpected emergency issues. It had a serious impact to business and employees.

The major issues for company would be reformer the business environments, as we know the earthquake were too strong, the business office had actually damage and not running properly. No power system and office are such a mess. It will direct affect for few major issues, such as contact headquarter and follow up with clients.

The other issue might occur will be follow up with customer and report to headquarter, but if work environment not in a stale and stable situation, it might face issue of customer complain and lost.

For the ethical issues, staff will be the major consider, such as how they get home, is it safe to travel all the way home, will Tokyo lack of food or water, safety and healthy will be the main issues for staff. And also how they get to work. 3. 0 Causes The earthquake had damage the whole Tokyo city, to causing those entire problems for people and business.

Lack of food, water, gas, power and the train cannot run properly, it had force Rio Tinto to a seriously situation, as the work environment not working efficiency, staff cannot contact clients and their headquarter, it might lost clients and the confident from the clients as well. Company should finish up and follow up clients contract, to make sure to satisfy clients to be the first priority. However, for the staff issues, company should appease staff emotion, as this is natural disaster, staff might had hard feeling of facing the situation, such as death, and missing their family.

For Rio Tinto Japan, staff will had the major role of contact with customer, if they are not in a stable emotion, it might impact to the business as well. Rio Tinto Japan customer base in Japan, as the earthquake are too strong, so Rio Tinto had to reorganize the product and need to be deliver on time, to make sure customer are still satisfy with the our company. 4. 0 Reference Rio Tinto. 2013. About us. Accessed April 25, http://www. riotinto. com/index_aboutus. asp

Business Capstone Essay