Ethical Decision Making and Ethical Leadership Essay

Ethical Decision Making and Ethical Leadership Essay.

To improve ethical decision making in business, one must first understand how individuals make ethical decisions in an organizational environment. Too often it is assumed that individuals in organizations make ethical decisions in the same way that they make ethical decisions at home, in their family, or in their personal lives. Within the context of an organizational work group, however, few individuals have the freedom to decide ethical issues independent of organizational pressures.

ETHICAL – ISSUE INTENSITY

The first step in ethical decision making is to recognize that an ethical issue requires an individual or work group to choose among several actions that various stakeholders inside or outside the firm will ultimately evaluate as right or wrong.

Ethical issue intensity, then, can be defined as the relevance or importance of an ethical issue in the eyes of the individual, work group, and/or organization. it is personal and temporal in character to accommodate values, beliefs, needs, perceptions, the special characteristics of the situation, and the personal pressure prevailing at a particular place and time.

Ethical – issue intensity reflects the ethical sensitivity of the individual or work group that faces the ethical decision – making process. Research suggest that individuals are subject to six “spheres of influence” when confronted with ethical choices – the workplace, family, religion, legal system, community, and profession – and that the level of importance of each of these influences wiil vary depending on how important the decision maker perceives the issue to be. Additionally, the individuals sense of the situation’s moral intensity increase the individuals perceptiveness regarding ethical problems, which in turn reduces his or her intention to unethically.

Moral intensity relates to a persons perception of social pressure and the harm the decision will have on others. The perception of ethical issue intensity can be influenced by managements use of reward and punishments, corporate policies, and corporate values to sensitize employees. In the words, managers can affect the degree to which employees perceive the importance of an ethical issue through positive and/or negative incentives.

INDIVIDUAL FACTORS

When people need to resolve ethical issues in their daily lives, they often base their decisions on their own values and principles of right or wrong. The generally learn these values and principles through the socialization process with family members, social groups, and religion and in their formal education. Research regarding individual factors that affect ethical awareness, judgment, intent, and behavior include gender, education, work experience, nationality, age, and locus of control.

Education, the number of years spent in pursuit of academic knowledge, is also a significant factor in the ethical decision-making process. The important thing to remember about education is that it does not reflect experience. Work experiences is defined as the number of years within a specific job, occupation, and/or industry. Generally, the more education or work experiences that one has, the better he/she is at ethical decision making.

Nationality is the legal relationship between a person and the country in which he/she is born. Age is another individuals factors that has been researched within business ethics. In other words, the older you are, the more ethical you are. However, recent research suggest that there is probably a more complex relationship between ethics and age.

Locus of control relates to individual differences in relation to a generalized beliefs about how one is affected by internal versus external events or reinforcements. In other word, the concept relates to where people view themselves in relation to power. Those who believe in external control see themselves as going with the flow because that’s all they can do. They believed that the events in their lives are do to uncontrollable forces. They consider what they want to achieve depends on luck, chance, and powerful people in their company. Conversely, those who believe in internal control believe that they control the events in their lives by their own effort and skill, viewing themselves as masters of their destinies and trusting in their capacity to influence their environment.

ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS

Although people can and do make individual ethical choices in business situations, no one operates in a vacuum. Indeed, research has established that in the workplace the organizations values often have greater influence on decisions than a persons own values. Ethical choices in business are most often made jointly, in work groups and committees, or in conversations and discussions with coworkers. The outcome of this learning process depend on the strength of each person personal values, the opportunities he or she has to behave unethically, and the exposure he or she has to others two behave ethically or unethically.

A corporate culture can be defined as a set of values, beliefs, goals, norms and ways of solving problems that members of an organization share. An important component of corporate, or organizational, culture is the company’s ethical culture. Whereas corporate culture involves values and rules that prescribe a wide range of behavior for organizational members, the ethical culture reflects whether the firm also has an ethical conscience.

Ethical is a function of many factors, including corporate policies on ethics, top managements leadership on ethical issues, the influence of coworkers, and the opportunity for unethical behavior.

Obedience to authority is another aspect of the influence that significant others can exercise. Obedience to authority helps to explain why many employees resolve business ethics issues by simply following the directives as superior.

OPPORTUNITY

Opportunity describes the conditions in an organization that limit or permit ethical or unethical behavior. Opportunity results from conditions that either provide rewards, whether internal or external, or fail to erect barriers against unethical behavior. Example of internal rewards include feelings of goodness and personal worth generated by performing altruistic acts. External reward refer to what an individual expects to receive from others in the social environment. Rewards are external to the individual to the degree that they bring social approval, status, and esteem.

An example of a condition that fails to erect barriers against unethical behavior is a company policy that does not punish employees who accept large gifts from clients. Opportunity relates to individuals immediate job context – where they work, whom they work with, and the nature of the work.

Opportunity also comes from knowledge. Major misconduct observed among employees in the workplace include lying to employees, customers, vendors, or the public or with holding needed information from them. The opportunity for unethical behavior cannot be eliminated without aggressive enforcement of codes and rules.

BUSINESS ETHICS EVALUATIONS AND INTENSIONS

Ethical dilemmas involve problem-solving situations in which decision rules are often vague or in conflict. The results of an ethical decision are often uncertain, no one can always tell us whether we have made the right decision.

An individuals intentions and the final decision regarding what action he or she will take are the last steps in the ethical decision-making process. When the individual intention and behavior are inconsistent with his or her ethical judgment, the person may feel guilty.

Guilt or uneasiness is the first sign that an unethical decision has occurred. The next step is changing one’s behavior to reduce such feelings. This change can reflect a persons values shifting to fit the decision or the person changing his or her decision type the next time a similar situations occurs. For those who begin the value shift, the following are the usual justifications that will reduce and finally eliminate guilt: 1.I need the paycheck and cant afford to quit right now.

2.Those around me are doing it so why shouldn’t I? they believe it’s okay 3.If I hadn’t have done this, I may not be able to get a good reference from my boss or company when I leave. 4.This is not such a big deal, given the potential benefits 5.Business is business with a different set of rules

6.If not me, someone else would do it and get reward

The road to success depends on how the business person defines success. The success concepts drives intentions and behavior in business either implicitly or explicitly. USING THE ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING FRAMWORK TO IMPROVE ETHICAL DECISIONS It bears repeating that it is impossible to tell you what is right or wrong; instead, we are attempting to prepare you make in framed ethical decisions. Although this chapter does not moralize by telling you what to do in a specific situation, it does provide an overview of typical decision-making processes and factor that influence ethical decisions.

The framework is not a guide for how to make decisions but is intended to provide you with insights and knowledge about typical ethical decision making processes in business organizations. Because it is impossible to agree on normative judgments about what is ethical, business ethics scholars developing descriptive models have instead focused on regularities in decision making and the various phenomena that interact in a dynamic environment to produce predictable behavioral patterns.

THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP AN A CORPORATE CULTERE

Leadership the ability on authority to guide and direct others toward achievement of a goal, has significant impact on ethical decision making because leader have the power to motive others and enforce the organization’s rules policies as well as their own viewpoints.

LEADRESHIP STYLE INFLUENCE ETHICAL DECISIONS

Leadership styles influence many aspects of organizational behavior, including employees’ acceptance of and adherence to organizational norms and values. Styles that focus on building strong organizational values among employees contribute to shared standards of conduct. The ethical leadership concept is not only for CEOs, boards of directors, and managers but can also be fellow employees. Ethical leadership by the CEO requires an understanding of the firm’s vision and values, as well as the challenges of responsibility and the risk in achieving organizational objectives. Six leadership styles that are based on emotional intelligence—the ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively—have been identified by Daniel Goleman.

1.The coercive leader demands instantaneous obedience and focuses on achievement, initiative, and self-control. Although this style can be very effective during times of crisis or during a turnaround, it otherwise creates a negative climate for organizational performance. 2.The authoritative leader—considered to be one of the most effective styles—inspires employees to follow a vision, facilitates change, and creates a strongly positive performance climate. 3.The affiliative leader values people, their emotions, and their needs and relies on friendship and trust to promote flexibility, innovation, and risk taking.

4.The democratic leader relies on participation and teamwork to reach collaborative decisions. This style focuses on communication and creates a positive climate for achieving results. 5.The pacesetting leader can create a negative climate because of the high standards that he or she sets. This style works best for attaining quick results from highly motivated individuals who value achievement and take the initiative. 6.The coaching leader builds a positive climate by developing skills to foster long-term success, delegating responsibility, and skillfully issuing challenging assignments.

Transactional leaders attempt to create employee satisfaction through negotiating, or “bartering,” for desired behaviors or levels of performance. Transformational leaders strive to raise employees’ level of commitment and to foster trust and motivation.

HABITS OF STRONG ETHICAL LEADERS

In particular, we believe that ethical leadership is based on holistic thinking that embraces the complex and challenging issues that companies face on a daily basis. Ethical leaders need both knowledge and experience to make the right decision. Strong ethical leaders have both the courage and the most complete information to make decisions that will be the best in the long run. Strong ethical leaders must stick to their principles and, if necessary, be ready to leave the organization if its corporate governance system is so flawed that it is impossible to make the right choice.

Ethical Leaders Have Strong Personal Character

There is general agreement that ethical leadership is highly unlikely without a strong personal character. The question is how to teach or develop a moral person in a corporate environment. White, a leading authority on character development, believes the focus should be on “ethical reasoning” rather than on being a “moral person.”

Ethical Leaders Have a Passion to Do Right

The passion to do right is “the glue that holds ethical concepts together.” Some leaders develop this trait early in life, whereas others develop it over time through experience, reason, or spiritual growth. They often cite familiar arguments for doing right—to keep. society from disintegrating, to alleviate human suffering, to advance human prosperity, toresolve conflicts of interest fairly and logically, to praise the good and punish the guilty, or just because something “is the right thing to do.”

Ethical Leaders Are Proactive

Ethical leaders do not hang around waiting for ethical problems to arise. They anticipate, plan, and act proactively to avoid potential ethical crises.44 One way to be proactive is to take a leadership role in developing effective programs that provide employees with guidance and support for making more ethical choices even in the face of considerable pressure to do otherwise.

Ethical Leaders Consider Stakeholders’ Interests

Ethical leaders consider the interests of and implications for all stakeholders, not just those that have an economic impact on the firm. This requires acknowledging and monitoring the concerns of all legitimate stakeholders, actively communicating and cooperating with them, employing processes that are respectful of them, recognizing interdependencies among them, avoiding activities that would harm their human rights, and recognizing the potential conflicts between leaders’ “own role as corporate stakeholders and their legal and moral responsibilities for the interests of other stakeholders.

Ethical Leaders Are Role Models for the Organization’s Values If leaders do not actively serve as role models for the organization’s core values, then those values become nothing more than lip service. According to behavioral scientist Brent Smith, as role models, leaders are the primary influence on individual ethical behavior. Leaders whose decisions and actions are contrary to the firm’s values send a signal that the firm’s values are trivial or irrelevant. Firms such as Countrywide Financial articulated core values that were only used as window dressing. On the other hand, when leaders model the firm’s core values at every turn, the results can be powerful

Ethical Leaders Are Transparent and Actively Involved in Organizational Decision Making Being transparent fosters openness, freedom to express ideas, and the ability to question conduct, and it encourages stakeholders to learn about and comment on what a firm is doing. Transparent leaders will not be effective unless they are personally involved in the key decisions that have ethical ramifications. Transformational leaders are collaborative, which opens the door for transparency through interpersonal exchange. Earlier we said that transformational leaders instill commitment and respect for values that provide guidance on how to deal with ethical issues.

Ethical Leaders Are Competent Managers Who Take a Holistic View of the Firm’s Ethical Culture Ethical leaders can see a holistic view of their organization and therefore view ethics as a strategic component of decision making, much like marketing, information systems, production, and so on. Although his company is called Waste Management, CEO David P. Steiner is as committed to renewable energy as just about anyone working for a multibillion dollar business. Steiner was selected as one of the 100 Most Influential People in Business Ethics by the Ethisphere Institute in 2007, and his company, Waste Management, was chosen as one of the World’s Most Ethical Companies in 2008.

Case study : Tyco International: Leadership Crisis

INTRODUCTION

On September 12, 2002, national television showcased Tyco International’s former chief executive officer (CEO) L. Dennis Kozlowski and former chief financial officer (CFO) Mark H. Swartz in handcuffs after being arrested and charged with misappropriating more than $170 million from the company. They were also accused of stealing more than $430 million through fraudulent sales of Tyco stock and concealing the information from shareholders. The two executives were charged with more than thirty counts of misconduct, including grand larceny, enterprise corruption, and falsifying business records. Another executive, former general counsel Mark A. Belnick, was charged with concealing $14 million in personal loans. Months after the initial arrests, charges and lawsuits were still being filed—making the Tyco scandal one of the most notorious of the early 2000s.

TYCO’S HISTORY

Founded in 1960 by Arthur J. Rosenberg, Tyco began as an investment and holding company focused on solid-state science and energy conversion. It developed the first laser with a sustained beam for use in medical procedures. Rosenberg later shifted his focus to the commercial sector. In 1964, Tyco became a publicly traded company. It also began a series of rapid acquisitions—sixteen companies by 1968. The expansion continued through 1982, as the company sought to fill gaps in its development and distribution networks. Between 1973 and 1982, the firm grew from $34 million to $500 million in consolidated sales.

THE RISE OF DENNIS KOZLOWSKI

In 1975, armed with a degree in accounting, Dennis Kozlowski went to work for Tyco, following brief stints at SCM Corporation and Nashua Corporation. He soon found a friend and mentor in then CEO Joseph Gaziano. Kozlowski was impressed by Gaziano’s lavish lifestyle—company jets, extravagant vacations, company cars, and country club memberships. However, Gaziano’s reign ended abruptly in 1982 when he died of cancer. Gaziano was replaced by John F. Fort III, who differed sharply in management style. Where Gaziano had been extravagant, Fort was analytical and thrifty. His goal was to increase profits for shareholders and cut the extravagant spending characterizing Gaziano’s tenure, and Wall Street responded positively to Tyco’s new direction. Kozlowski, who had thrived under Gaziano, was forced to adapt to the abrupt change in leadership.

Adept at crunching numbers, Kozlowski focused on helping to achieve Fort’s vision of putting shareholders first. Kozlowski’s largest acquisition was Wormald International, a $360 million global fire-protection concern. Integrating Wormald proved problematic, and Fort was reportedly unhappy with such a large purchase. Fort and Kozlowski also disagreed over rapid changes made to Grinnell. Kozlowski responded by lobbying to convince Tyco’s board of directors that problems with Wormald were a “bump in the road” and that the firm should continue its strategy of acquiring profitable companies that met guidelines.

KOZLOWSKI’S TYCO EMPIRE

After Fort’s departure, Dennis Kozlowski, then 46, found himself helming Tyco International. With a new lifestyle—parties and multiple homes in Boca Raton, Nantucket, Beaver Creek, and New York City—and an aggressive management style, he appeared to be following in the footsteps of his mentor, former CEO Joseph Gaziano. Kozlowski knew Tyco from the bottom up, and stated that he was determined to make it the greatest company of the next century. Among other things, he recognized that one of Tyco’s major shortcomings was its reliance on cyclical industries, which tend to be very sensitive to economic ups and downs. In 1997, Kozlowski acquired ADT Security Services, a British-owned company located in Bermuda. By structuring the deal as a “reverse takeover,” wherein a public company is acquired by a private company so as to avoid the lengthy process of going public, Tyco acquired a global presence as well as ADT’s Bermuda registration.

The majority of members had served for ten years or more, and they were familiar with Kozlowski’s management style. As directors, they were responsible for protecting Tyco’s shareholders through disclosure of questionable situations or issues that might seem unethical or inappropriate. Despite this, after the arrests of Kozlowski and Swartz, investigations uncovered the following troubling relationships among the board’s members: 1.Richard Bodman invested $5 million for Kozlowski in a private stock fund managed by Bodman. 2.Frank E. Walsh, Jr. received $20 million for helping to arrange the acquisition of CIT Group without the other board members’ knowledge. 3.Walsh also held controlling interest in two firms that received more than $3.5 million for leasing an aircraft and providing pilot services to Tyco between 1996 and 2002.

4.Stephen Foss received $751,101 for supplying a Cessna Citation aircraft and pilot services. 5.Lord Michael Ashcroft used $2.5 million in Tyco funds to purchase a home. Meanwhile, Jeanne Terrile, an analyst from Merrill Lynch who worked for Tyco, was not impressed with Kozlowski’s activities and Tyco’s performance. Her job at Merrill Lynch was to make recommendations to investors on whether to buy, hold, or sell specific stocks. After Terrile wrote a negative review of Tyco’s rapid acquisitions and mergers and refused to upgrade Merrill’s position on Tyco’s stock, Kozlowski met with David Komansky, the CEO of Merrill Lynch.

THE FALL OF DENNIS KOZLOWSKI AND OTHERS

In early 2002, Kozlowski announced Tyco’s split of its four divisions into independent, publicly traded companies: Security and Electronics, Healthcare, Fire Protection and Flow Control, and Financial Services. Kozlowski stated, “I am extremely proud of Tyco’s performance. We have built a 5 great portfolio of businesses and over the five years ended September 30, 2001, we have delivered earnings per share growth at a compounded annual rate of over 40 percent and industry-leading operating profit margins in each of our businesses. During this same period, we have increased annual free cash flow from $240 million in 1996 to $4.8 billion in fiscal 2001.

Nonetheless, even with this performance, Tyco is trading at a 2002 P/E multiple of 12.0x, a discount of almost 50 percent to the S&P 500.” Also in 2002, the New York State Bank Department observed large sums of money moving in and out of Tyco’s accounts. What made this unusual was that the funds were being transferred into Kozlowski’s personal accounts.

Authorities discovered that Kozlowski had sought to avoid around $1 million in New York state import taxes. In September of that year, Dennis Kozlowski and Mark Swartz, who also had resigned, were indicted on thirty-eight felony counts for allegedly stealing $170 million from Tyco and fraudulently selling an additional $430 million in stock options. Among other allegations, Kozlowski was accused of taking $242 million from a program intended to help Tyco employees buy company stock.

REBUILDING AN EMPIRE

After Kozlowski’s resignation, Edward Breen replaced him as CEO. The company filed suit against Dennis Kozlowski and Mark Swartz for more than $100 million. The SEC allows companies to sue insiders who profited by buying and selling company stock within a six-month period. Tyco stated, “To hold him accountable for his misconduct, we seek not only full payment for the funds he misappropriated but also punitive damages for the serious harm he did to Tyco and its shareholders.”

Ethical Decision Making and Ethical Leadership Essay

Transformational Leader – Rosa Parks Essay

Transformational Leader – Rosa Parks Essay.

Rosa Louise McCauley was born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama to proud parents Leona and James McCauley a teacher and carpenter respectively. After her parents’ separation, she went to live with her grandparents and attended a local school for African American children. Segregation was very prevalent during this time. Whites and Blacks had different churches, schools, stores, elevators and even drinking fountains. Places often had signs saying “For Colored Only” or “For Whites Only”. The bus system was set up where blacks would sit at the back of the buses while whites would sit at the front.

Blacks would have to give up their seats if whites came on the bus and there were no seats available.

Also, if there were seats available at the front blacks were not allowed to sit in them. Rosa was deeply affected by the unfair treatment of blacks and the unfair and rigid justice system that existed. Racism, dementia, the splitting up of her parents, being arrested and memories of her grandfather holding a shotgun when the KKK came up their street also impacted on Rosa.

In fact, she had to live with racism and was scared of the members of the KKK who had burned down black school houses and churches. Rosa and her husband Raymond were adamant that they had to do something about it. Consequently, they joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Crucial Experiences, episodes, pre-occupations and challenges

Fighting for Equal Rights

Rosa is known as the “first lady of civil rights” in American history.  Rosa and her husband believed that all persons should be treated equally irrespective of their colour and so knowing that the Freedom train was not supposed to be segregated she took a group on the train and had them join the same line as the white students. Even though, persons did not like it. Rosa, was determined to show that all persons should be treated the same.

Sitting on the Bus

On December 1, 1955 Rosa became famous. Based on the system, once the seats were filled, a black person would have to get up. Rosa refused to give up her seat to a white passenger after two other black persons gave in. Rosa was arrested and refused to pay the fine stating that the law was illegal.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. got wind of Rosa’s arrest and led a boycott of the city busses which were mostly utilized by blacks. This lasted for 381 days and is considered the largest boycott in history. The boycott impacted negatively on the bus company. However, the blacks were determined that it would not stop until segregation has ended. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the segregation laws in Alabama were unconstitutional and led to the laws being changed. After the Boycott, things got difficult for both Rosa and her husband. They both lost their jobs and received many threats. Martin Luther and many other civil rights activists’ homes were destroyed. Rosa and her husband had to therefore relocate to Michigan where she continued to attend civil rights meetings and became a symbol for equality and freedom to many African-Americans.

All Rosa wanted was freedom and as such she has been called “ The Patron Saint,” and “The Spark that lit the fire,” and the “mother of the movement. She will be remembered for the change of the nation for the freedom of the African Americans. ”

Personal attributes, competencies and types of influences she exerted on others.

An important part of leadership is being willing to take risks and taking the first step without fear. Rosa’s husband feared that she would have been killed for her actions. Instead, Rosa was driven by principles and values which drove her to create history as a result of her symbolic actions.

Leadership Qualities cont:

* She let her ACTIONS speak for her. Instead ranting and raving about things, she just quietly took action and gave new truth to the notion that “actions speak louder than words.” Long before her now famous action on the bus, she demonstrated her quiet strength in working to change things that were unjust for the sake of others. * She didn’t stop with one action. Rosa Parks spent a lifetime quietly going about using her influence for good. She stayed true to her convictions. Rosa Parks story is American history…her arrest and trial, a 381-day Montgomery bus boycott, and, finally, the Supreme Court’s ruling in November 1956 that segregation on transportation is unconstitutional …but moreover, her determination to work for others became the catalyst for change throughout her life. * She set the example of the power of feminine dignity. With an undeniable sparkle in her eye, she presented herself to the world with the beauty of dignity and grace. Always a soft, warm smile and understated elegance seemed to follow her presence whenever she showed up. It was a presence that commanded respect and attention without words…just by being a leader in her own right.

Parks stands for the triumph of freedom — of democracy over dictatorship, free enterprise over state socialism, of tolerance over bigotry. The nation was forever transformed by her refusal to give up her seat, advancing the journey toward justice and equality for all.

Parks was not an apolitical, middle-aged lady whose fatigue kept her seated. Both shy and militant, she was a committed activist enmeshed in racial politics — and their class and gender complications — wherever she lived.

Her desire to not give up her seat in the Montgomery Bus embodied the nonviolent overthrow of racism in America. She represents the best of Southern womanhood, a genteel contrast to those angry Northern black radicals clamouring for their rights. Her composure seems to indicate the correct way to bring about real change.

Her refusal and subsequent arrest inspired a 381-day Montgomery bus boycott that led to sit-ins, marches, campaigns and, finally, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The movement and laws it prompted wrought a revolution in American conventions of race and inaugurated Martin Luther King Jr. as the conscience of America.

The boycott’s success brought the national press to Montgomery. Parks, however, was not included in the triumphant photographs of King and other ministers sitting at the front of the bus. Nor was she permitted to make a speech (as King and other male movement leaders did) to the 15,000 people who gathered in support of the boycott. “Parks was to play a symbolic role and like other women in the movement, she was lauded by the crowd as their heroine but not consulted for her vision of the struggle and subsequent political strategy. This concreted her wishes to be known as a person who is concerned about freedom and equality and justice and prosperity for all people.

Finally the rules for riding the buses were changed. The new rules said: 1. Black and white people could sit wherever they wanted to sit. 2. Bus drivers were to respect all riders. 3. Black people were now allowed to apply for driver positions.

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Transformational Leader – Rosa Parks Essay

Richard Branson Leadership Essay

Richard Branson Leadership Essay.

Introduction

I have chosen to write the profile of a Business leader who I admire on Richard Branson. Branson is a English business magnate, best known as the founder and chairman of Virgin Group of more than 400 companies. According to Wagner and Hollenback (2009), leadership is ‘the use of non-coercive and symbolic influence to direct and coordinate the activities of the members of an organised group toward the accomplishment of group objectives. According to Clark (2010), there are three main leadership styles. These are autocratic, democratic and laissez faire.

In order to be an effective leader, managers should use all three leadership styles. A good leader should be able to judge which leadership style is most appropriate in a given situation. Research carried out by the University of Michigan and Ohio State University suggests that there are a number of behavioural and leadership theories.

These theories outline different aspects of a leader’s behaviour or leadership style which may differentiate those who are effective leaders from those who are not.

For example, the University of Michigan identified two general classes of supervisory behaviour. These are employee oriented and job production oriented behaviours. Research carried out by the Ohio State University is very similar to the above piece of research. They identify the two classes of supervisory behaviour styles as a considerate style i.e. employee oriented and an initiating structure style i.e. job production oriented. Similarly to the two above pieces of research, Fiedler identifies two different leadership styles.

These are relationship motivated leaders i.e. employee oriented/considerate style and task motivated leaders i.e. job production oriented/initiating structure style. Another piece of research conducted by House identifies four different behavioural styles. They are as follows: directive leadership, supportive leadership, participative leadership and achievement oriented leadership. In order for a manager to be an effective leader they must also be able to perform their roles effectively. A modern leader has fourteen main roles.

Richard Branson’s Profile

Richard Charles Nicholas Branson was born on the 18th of July 1950 in Blackheath, London. In his youth, Branson was not an impressive student. He was dyslexic and near-sighted, but he could always make things happen. When he was seventeen, attending school at Stowe, Richard and a classmate started a magazine, Student . When doing an interview with The Guardian he stated “ it was aimed at giving young people a voice on key issues such as the Vietnam War”. He sold £6,000 worth of advertising in its first edition, which was launched in 1966. The first run of 50,000 copies was disseminated for free, after Branson covered the costs with advertising. This was important business and sales experience for Branson and what he learnt during this time benefited him over time. While running the Student from a basement in London, Richard noticed that stores were not discounting records.

Richard began to run ads in the Student offering records at discount prices. The orders flooded in and record sales soon became more profitable than subscription sales. Richard quickly set up an office above an old shoe store and Virgin was born (http://www.lemonadestories.com/virgin.html). The name “Virgin” was suggested by one of Branson’s early employees because they were all new at business. It was from this point that the Virgin brand grew. Earning enough money from his record store, Branson in 1972 launched the record label Virgin Records with Nik Powell and bought a country estate, in which he installed a recording studio. Mike Oldfield, whose debut album Tubular Bells (1973) was Virgin Records’ first release and a chart-topping best-seller. Virgin Records had other notable artists such as “The Sex Pistols” and “Culture Club”. n 1992, to keep his airline company afloat, Branson sold the Virgin label to EMI for £500 million.

Virgin Atlantic had its inaugural flight in 1984 on its then only route between London and New York. After adding a route from Gatwick to Miami in 1986, Virgin Atlantic celebrated its 1,000,00th passenger in 1987. In 2011 Virgin Atlantic carried 5.3 million passengers, making it the eighth largest UK airline in terms of passenger volume. Branson has added other airlines to his Virgin empire such as Virgin Express which operates in Brussles, Virgin Australia and Virgin America. Not being one to shy away from a challenge Branson has had many other ambitious business ventures such as Virgin Vodka, Virgin Cola, the gay night club Heaven, Virgin Cosmetics, Virgin Money, Virgin Cars, F1 team Virgin Racing and most famously Virgin Galactic which plans to provide sub-orbital spaceflights to space tourists, suborbital launches for space science missions and orbital launches of small satellites.

He himself frequently states that all of these ventures are “calculated risks” which is hard to argue against seeing as Branson is the 4th richest citizen of the United Kingdom, according to the Forbes 2011 list of billionaires, with an estimated net worth of US$4.2 billion. Bransons ambitious and risky are not just limited to the business world as he has broke several world records and attempted many more, for example he completed the first balloon flight across the Atlantic in 1996. All these business and adventuring feats make Branson a truly admiral business leader role model.

Branson’s Career and Leadership Style

Branson’s career has been hugely successful from leaving school at 16 to go on to become the 4th richest U.K. resident is remarkable. Branson is clear in his book “Screw it, let’s do it” (2007) about how he has achieved this: “I have no secret. There are no rules to follow in business. I just work hard and, as I always have done, believe I can do it” With this being said he has combatted the tediousness of working hard by indulging himself in whatever he does, taking a genuine interest and having fun with it: “A business has to be involving, it has to be fun, and it has to exercise your creative instincts.” Bransons leadership style is undeniably democratic. Although a democratic leader will the final decision, he or she invites other members of the team to contribute to the decision-making process.

This is not only increase job satisfaction by involving employees or team meam members in what’s going on, but it also helps develop people’s skills. Employees and team members feel in control of their own destiny, such as the promotion they desire and so are motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward. Branson professes this in an interview with Kets De Vries (1998) : “: I’m absolutely certain that it’s a question of the kind of people you have, and the way you motivate them. I’m sure that’s what makes any company successful.

If you can motivate your people, use their creative potential, you can get through bad times and you can enjoy the good times together. If you fail to motivate your people, your company is doomed….If your employees are happy and smiling and enjoying their work, they will perform well. Consequently, the customers wiIl enjoy their experience with your com- pany. If your employees are sad and miserable and not having a good time, the customers will be equally miserable.”

In the same interview Branson says he often rewards employees: “We like to reward our key performers for their creative contribution… I suppose that we have made maybe 15 or 20 multimillionaires through this structure.” Branson applies this personal approach when assessing new business like when Virgin Money took over Northern Bank: “When we launched Virgin Money, I met with staff members at branches up and down the country. The insight those visits gave me were priceless.

If I ever needed convincing that investing in a bank was the right thing to do, well, the stories I heard that week confirmed it. To see so many employees enthusiastic and proud to be working for Virgin made me even more excited about the future of our bank. We very much wanted Virgin Money to be the start of something different, and it was great to see that everyone was onboard. I’ve found that if you ensure that your staff and customers are happy and that your product or service is of good quality, the finances often take care of themselves.”

What I could learn from Sir Richard Branson

Through my study of Branson I have took many snippets of advice which I hope to use during my career in business after I complete my studies. Branson is an avid ambassador for his democratic style of leadership: “Having a personality of caring about people is important. You can’t be a good leader unless you generally like people. That is how you bring out the best in them.’ This is definitely a characteristic I want to weave into my leadership fibre. This approach has served Virgin well over the years as in his book, Branson (2009), he mentions a positive outside perspective of working for Virgin which is echoed by the agreement of Virgin staff who enjoy working there. “Virgin people have told me that at the end of a tiring day, when they are off duty, having a drink in the pub, or a meal, they’re occasionally asked where they work. When they say, “With Virgin,” the enquirer usually replies, “Lucky you! That must be a great place to work!” Our staffs usually agrees.”

In addition to this extracted advice he gives open advice to anyone who wants to join him in being an entrepreneur. Forbes magazine (2012) pitched Sir Branson the question “What are your top three pieces of advice for young entrepreneurs?” to which he responded: “1. Create a strong culture of excellence – roll up your sleeves and work alongside your staff and take care of them. 2. Don’t be afraid to make a fool of yourself if it helps your business. 3. Find ways to equally prioritize people, planet and profits – because it CAN be done.” These three points offer up key things to take on board if you are to succeed. Have high standards to give you an edge over competition and if needs be work on the ground level with your staff to set an example of how you expect things to be done.

Take risks even if there is a chance it may make you look silly if it fails, it could help your business and you should lose your ego for the sake of your business. And finally your staff are your greatest resource, environmental and ethical procedures should be taken, Branson has become environmentally aware ever since a speech Al Gore gave him and he has even set up a green fuel business, and do all you can to ensure your business is running profitably. He insists these three things can be done together.Branson is a master marketer and communicator. Forbes (2012), When Richard Branson had the idea of launching Virgin Atlantic, he pitched it to his fellow directors who had no previous experience in the airline business. He delivered the idea simply, concisely, and effectively.

Branson offers leaders and entrepreneurs this advice: “It is vitally important to present a clear, concise plan that investors can easily understand and repeat to their own people. In the first meeting avoid overly complicated, numbers-laden presentations.” Presentations are supposed to be about getting your point across effectively, you could have the most statistical, graphically stunning and hilariously funny presentation to have ever been seen but if the people you are pitching it to don’t come out of that meeting 100% sure what the point you were trying to make was and interested in your idea then you have failed in your objective.As well as learning from Branson’s successes and teachings, there is equally as much to learn from his failings. He expresses this himself: “You don’t learn to walk by following rules.

You learn by doing, and by falling over.” Branson’s book “Business stripped bare” even has a whole chapter called “Damage Report”. One anecdote goes as follows: “I was nineteen years old and driving a shipment of records to Belgium when I stumbled on the fact that records bought in Great Britain that were intended for export were not subject to purchase tax. So I bought the records I needed, pretended they were export, and then sold them to British customers.

The whole ploy involved driving four Transit vans loaded with records to Dover, taking them to France, then returning on the next ferry with the records still on board. It not only was illegal, it was really pretty stupid. In May 1969, I was caught red handed by HM Custom and Excise… But I learned a very important lesson: never do anything that means you can’t sleep at night.” This is a huge piece of advice and something we can learn from and hopefully avoid from encountering ourselves. It cost Richard £60,000 and took almost 3 years for him to patch up such a loss. Illegal doings can almost certainly cost a business its existence and shouldn’t even be thought about.

Conclusion

Michael Walenius (2010) concludes in his analyses of Branson’s leadership that “Sir Richard has got a very high degree of consideration and participation in what he does, but at the same time he is very involved in the structure setting at the start of a new business. He is definitively a relationship-oriented leader who is good at aligning people and giving them emotional support and encouragement. He seems to fall into the segment of being a participative and consultative leader. His very strong charisma seems to make anyone listen and follow him.” I find it extremely difficult to disagree with this evaluation. Branson is an iconic leader who prioritises his employees and their well-being.

He follows his belief that a happy employee will work harder, create a happier and better working environment, infect customers with their pleasantness, resulting with a happy and loyal customer who then by word of mouth praise the business leading to increased revenue. He is extremely insightful with his advice on presentations, assessing business opportunities and acknowledging and learning from your mistakes. With an estimated wealth of £4.3 billion, 400+ companies under his name including the 7th biggest airline in the U.K., the first commercial space travel business and most importantly a well-respected name that’s held in high regard in the public eye Branson truly is the business leader who I most admire and most envy.

References:
Books:
Wagner, J.A. and Hollenback, J.R. (2009) Organizational Behaviour: Securing Competitive Advantage, Michigan: Taylor and Francis Richard Branson (2009) Business Stripped Bare: Adventures of a Global Entrepreneur. London. Virgin Books.Branson, Richard (29 March 2007). Screw It, Let’s Do It. London. Virgin Books Websites:

Clark, D. (2010) ‘Leadership Styles’ [online] (Cited 3 February 2012) Available from <http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html> Kets De Vries (1998) Charisma in Action: (online) (cited 2 December 2012) Available from < http://molar.crb.ucp.pt/cursos/2%C2%BA%20Ciclo%20-%20Mestrados/Gest%C3%A3o/2007-09/DGRH/Papers/Charisma%20in%20action%20PPP.pdf>

Richard Branson (2012) Richard Branson on How to Delegate Control of Your Finances (online) (cited on 2 December 2012) Available from < http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/224879> Carmine Gallo (2011) Richard Branson: The One Skill Leaders Need to Learn (online) (cited 2 December) Available from < http://www.forbes.com/sites/carminegallo/2011/06/29/richard-branson-the-one-skill-leaders-need-to-learn/> Michael Walenius (2010) The leadership style of Sir Richard Branson (online) (cited 2 December) Available from < http://michael.walenius.com/?p=141>

Richard Branson Leadership Essay

Leadership Essay

Leadership Essay.

A leader is a person who influences group of people towards the achievement of a goal. Leadership is about influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. Leaders are form various form of influence particularly persuasion and related to tactics that build commitment to ensure that the follower have the motivation and role clarify to achieve specified goals . Leaders also arrange the work environment such as allocating resources and altering communication patterns, so that employees can achieve organizational objectives more easily.

Biography of successful and unsuccessful leaders. One of successful leader is Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun. He is the Chairman and Chief Executive of Berjaya Corporation Berhad. He was born on 1952. He is from Batu Pahat, Johor. Before him going into business, he worked as clerk and insurance agent in 1980s. He purchased Malaysia’s Macdonald’s franchise and in 1985 he bought Sport Toto when the lottery agency was privatized by the government.

He has had close link with Mahathir Mohammad and his family, the ex-prime minister of Malaysia.

He also known as an owner of 7-Eleven Franchise in Malaysia, Crispy Creme Franchise Holder, Burger King Malaysian Franchise and UMobile Operator in Malaysia. On 23 February 2012, he retired from an active corporate role in Berjaya Corporation, the flagship of the Berjaya Group of Companies. Now, he is the current owner of Cardiff City F. C, which recently gained promotion to play in the English Premier League. He come from a poor family and could not even afford a proper tertiary education.

He became success nowadays because he know what it is like not to have a lot of things that the average person these days will take for granted. He therefore considers himself very blessed to be where he is today despite the difficult early days, and ever since he achieved financial success he have felt a sense of responsibility to help those who are less fortunate. He also believe that his wealth and material possessions belong to God and we are merely His stewards, and for this reason he have always felt compelled to use my resources for the benefit of others as well.

Next successful leader is Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow. He is founder of Public Bank, Tan Sri Teh is currently the Chairman of the Public Bank Group, apart from holding leadership in positions in various organizations in Malaysia and Singapore. He was born in Singapore on 14 March 1930. He attended his formal primary and secondary education at the Anglo-Chinese School in Singapore. He has been married to Puan Sri Tay Sock Noy since 1956 and they have four children which are three daughters and a son.

He began his banking career in 1950 as a Bank Clerk in Overseas-Chinese Banking Corporation ltd. nd rose in rank to officer within 5 years. He joined Malayan Banking Berhad as Manager in 1960. Later, in 1964, he was promoted to the position of General Manager at the young age of 34 then he had left the position of General Manager in 1966 to set up Public Bank. One of Malaysia’s wealthiest businessmen, Piow obtained three degrees at the unaccredited Pacific Western University and two phDs at Clayton University (also unaccredited) and University Malaya. His net worth is estimated by Forbes to be US$4. 7 billion, making him the 223rd richest person in the world and the 5th richest in Malaysia.

There are the eight lesson of success from his book which are title ‘Legacy of Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow’ which are as a leaders we have to know your purpose, be passionate about your chosen field be people-oriented persevere against the odd , be proactive in thought and action, practice professionalism, maintain prudence and try to be a be positive towards work and life Next, the unsuccessful leader is Alan Rajendram. He is an experienced and one of the business leader in Malaysia.

He has been Group Managing Director of Stanton Group of Companies since 1988. Mr. Alan Rajendram served as Chief Executive Officer of the Elrond and Kredin Group of Companies from 1983 to 1987. His served Executive positions at Rajendran & Co (Penang) from 1981 to 1982. International Harvester ltd since 1980 and also at Deloities (Melbourne) from 1977 to 1979. He serves as Executive Vice Chairman of Stanton Technologies Sdn. Bhd. He served as an Executive Chairman of Linear Corporation from December 26, 2006 to June 22, 2008. He is an Associate Member of the Malaysian Institute of Accountant and Malaysian institute of Taxation and a Fellow Member of the Australian Society of Certified Practicing Accountant.

He get his Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of Melbourne, Australia in 1997. He had failed his responsibility as a leader and become unsuccessful when he was fined RM300,000 and jailed a year for each of the four charges against him, with the prison terms to run concurrently. He had been charged with four counts of knowingly permitting the furnishing of false statements in relation to LFE Corp to Bursa Malaysia Securities Bhd in the unaudited consolidated income statements for all four quarters of its financial year ending Dec 31, 2007.

The offences took place on various dates in 2007 and 2008 at the Bursa Malaysia Securities headquarters in Bukit Kewangan here. Alan faced two charges under section 122B of the Securities Industry Act 1983 and two charges under section 369 of the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007. Thirty-five prosecution witnesses were called, with the defence calling four witnesses, including the accused himself. Lastly, another one of the unsuccessful leader is the famous politician Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim. He was born on 10 August 1947 in Cherok Tok Kun, a village on the mainland side of the northern Malaysian state of Penang.

He is currently the Leader of Opposition of Malaysia (Pakatan Rakyat), economic advisor to the state government of Selangor. He served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia from 1993 to 1998 and Finance Minister from 1991 to 1998 when he was in UMNO, a major party in ruling Barisan Nasional coalition. He is internationally renowned speaker on the subjects of democracy, freedom, governance, Islam and the need for accountability. He undertook his secondary education at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar.

He was educated at the University of Malaya, where he read Malay Studies. He is married to Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and they have four daughters and a son. His eldest daughter, Nurul Izzah Anwar, is also a Member of Parliament nowadays. He became unsuccessful leader when He was arrested on September 20, 1998. He was subsequently charged with corruption for allegedly interfering with police investigations into allegations of sexual misconduct made against him. In April 1999, following a trial widely believed to be unfair, Anwar was sentenced to six years’ imprisonment.

Two months later, he was sentenced to nine years’ imprisonment, which he was ordered to serve after he completed his six-year sentence for the sodomy case. In 2004, the Federal Court reversed the second conviction and he was released. In July 2008, he was arrested over allegations he sodomised one of his male aides, but was acquitted of the charge in January 2012. His trial and conviction were widely discredited by the international community. Amnesty International stated that the trial proceedings “exposed a pattern of political manipulation of key state institutions including the police, public prosecutor’s office and the judiciary”.

Many world leaders, including US Vice President Al Gore, called for his release from prison. His conviction was overturned by the Malaysian Supreme Court and Anwar was finally released from solitary confinement on 2 September 2004. While he was in police custody in 1998, Anwar was beaten by the then Inspector General of Police, Rahim Noor. Rahim was subsequently found guilty of assault and jailed for two months in 2000. He made a public apology to Anwar and paid undisclosed damages. Similarities and differentiation for successful leaders.

For the successful leader, there are three similarities between Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun and is Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow. Firstly, from the aspect of early career, both of them had been worked as a clerk before become the Chairman and Chief executive of their company. Such as Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun has been worked as a clerk during 1980 and Dato’ Sri Dr. Teh Hong Piow also had been work as a bank clerk at overseas Chinese-Banking Corporation ltd it 1950. This shows that both of them had successfully worked hard to achieve their position todays.

Mean that, from the lower level, they have become a listed of wealthiest person in Malaysia. Secondly, the similarity is their achievement in Malaysia Corporate sector. Both of them were listed as the most admired corporate leader in Malaysia because of their high achievement. That’s show that both of them are one of the people that Malaysian respect due to their spirit in achieves their goal. Both of them are very successful because they have striven a lot for success. Lastly from the aspect of their personality, both of them are very openness to experience.

They had achieve their goals by using all the experience that they got before become the CEO of the big listed company. Experienced from their early years was be used effectively and efficiently to strengthen their knowledge in their own field such a business for Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun and banking system for Tan sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow. Next, there are also a few of difference from Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun and Tan sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow. Firstly, one of difference is their position field. Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun is major in business field.

Instead become Chairman of Berjaya Corporation Berhad, Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun also have joined venture in business franchise such as he had become the owner of 7-Eleven Franchise in Malaysia, Crispy Creme Franchise Holder, Burger King Malaysian Franchise and U Mobile Operator in Malaysia. However today he has retired from become a Chairman of Berjaya Corporation Berhad and he currently is owner of Cardiff City F. C, which recently gained promotion to play in the English Premier League. However, Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow major field participation is Banking system.

He had appointed as in 1964 to the position of General Manager at the young age of 34 then he had left the position of General Manager in 1966 to set up Public Bank. His major knowledge is in banking system till he become a founder of public bank instead of Chairman of Public Bank Group. Secondly, the difference is from their ranking in the top ten richest people in Malaysia. The ranking shows that Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow was ranked in top six as his asset are estimated to RM 14. 93 billlion.. Besides Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun was ranked at top eight as his asset are estimated to RM 3. 97 billion.

That statistics show that both of them are difference in term of their wealthiest. That mean, Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow is wealthier than Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun in term of his assets. Lastly, both of them are difference in close link. That show by, Tan Sri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun has a close link Dr. Mahathir Mohammad and his wife. But Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow didn’t have any close link. Similarities and difference between the unsuccessful leaders For both of unsuccessful leaders, there are three similarities between them. One of that are both of them had been charges for corruptions.

Alan Rajendram who are the director of the Linea corporation berhad has been charges on fraud. He has transfer out the money without the approval of the board as much RM 36 million. He doing that for two times in the same company. Besides, Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim also had been charge on corruption during his position as finance Minister 0n 20 September 1998. He was subsequently charged with corruption for allegedly interfering with police investigations into allegations of sexual misconduct made against him. In April 1999, following a trial widely believed to be unfair; he was sentenced to six years’ imprisonment.

Next, the similarities between both of them are having the same knowledge on commerce. That reasons why both of them are appointed in position to accountable in manage their trustee company. Besides, they are responsible to manage the finance of their members. Lastly, the similarities between them are both of them are not honesty and not objectivity. They use the money that had been trusted to them for their own interest. Such a Alan Rajendram, he is not independence with his responsibility as an Director of the Linear Corporation. Besides, Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim also did not accountable for his fiduciary duties.

He has used the money for his interest and to hide from his mistake. Next, there are also a few of difference between them. One of that is their field of accountability. Alan Rajendram is a businessman and responsible towards the company that he was lead. However, for Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim he is the minister who is responsible as a whole in administer the finance of the company. Next, the difference is from their career. Alan Rajendram is a Director of the company that only led a company to ensure that the company will achieve their goals.

However, for Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim, he now become an opposite leader and he is fight for democracy for Malaysian and he became the representative of Opposite supporters. Lastly, the difference is from sex case. Alan Rajendram has never been related and charges for any sex misconducts. However for Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim, he was charges for sex cases which are in 2008, Saiful Bukhari Azlan has been make a police report claiming that he had been sodomised by that minister. However, there DNA test was unreliable and he was uncharged for that case. Theory of perspective in leadership

One of the perspective that are related with the successful of Tan Sri Vincent Tan and is competency perspective. This perspective show that personal characteristics that lead to superior performance in a leadership role such as their knowledge, skills and values. Tan Sri Vincent Tan is success because his knowledge in a business is very well such as in businessman and entrepreneur with a suite of interests in property development and investment, gaming, stockbroking, manufacturing, trading, hospitality, internet-related businesses, utilities, media, telecommunications, insurance and education.

Mean that, he understands very well the external environment of the business. Besides, Tan Sri Vincent Tan success also can be related to leader behavior perspectives. He practice the people oriented perspective which by showing the mutual trust and respect, concern for employees needs t to look out for employee well-being. At Berjaya Corporation group of companies, he believes in striking a balance between profitability and their social responsibility to the communities in which they operate. By the nature of their businesses, Berjaya companies come into contact with the lives of many in the community on a daily basis.

So, to increase the spirit of caring and sharing, he had always encouraged its staff to share their skills and talents in service of others by contributing their time and energy voluntarily towards the Group’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities. Next, the perspective that are related with the successful Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Dr Teh Hong Piow is leader behavior perspective. He more focuses on people-oriented behavior rather than task-oriented behaviors. In the public bank, the organization has a good environment.

He as a Director and leader, he had taking care of his employee welfare because he thinks that the welfare is an important care for his employee. He believe that the satisfaction of the employee will increase the performance of their group. Such an example, since 2005, he had provide the health services welfare to the Public Bank Group. Besides, he also promoting the well-being of its staff through attractive remuneration and by promoting good staff morale through proper staff training and development and provision of opportunities for career advancement. His successful also can be related to the competency perspective.

This shows by he is very successful in manage the public bank because he has knowledge for the banking system. Before he become a Chairman, in his early life he had work as bank clerk. So, from that he has a deep understanding of the environment in very well and use his experienced very well. Next, there are also a few of theory perspective for the unsuccessful leader. One of the perspectives that are related with Alan Rajendram’s failure is leader behavior perspectives. He is practice the path goal theory. This theory states that the leader is provide the structure to jobs that will carry out by the employee.

These theories more focus on task-oriented behaviors. Alan Rajendran are more focus on task rather than his employees oriented. Besides, he also make a decisions on his own opinion without obtain any opinion from his employees. This has been prove by when the company performance when there were no any correct procedures for projects to be ready and submitted for approval by the board of directors. He is more autocratic and always thinks that his ideas is very perfect. Besides, the theory perspectives that are related with failure of Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim is transformational perspectives of leadership.

Transformational leaders are a leading by changing the organization to fit environment. He is the politician with an opposite opinion in government. He fails to lead the government. This has been show by his loss in 13th General Election. Besides that, as an element in transformational leadership, he had been fails to be a model of vision. That’s is happened due to his hidden tape allegations, corruptions for hidden the sex tape charges, allegation for sodomy and so many other charges against him. He fail to become a role model to the people. That mean, from his charges, he fails to obtain the trust from the people who are the Malaysian.

Leadership Essay

Seven Ages of a Leader Essay

Seven Ages of a Leader Essay.

Each stages of leadership brings new crises and challenges. Every new leader faces the misperceptions and the personal needs and agendas of those who are to be led. The seven ages of leadership give a clear idea about the different stages of leadership. They are,

•The Infant Executive
•The Schoolboy with shining face
•The Lover ,with a woeful ballad
•The Bearded Soldier
•The General, Full of wise saws
•The statesman, with spectacles Nose
•The sage, second childishness

The initial stage of the leader says that the leader is like a child and he needs others dependency and support.

He do everything with the support of others. The next stage is like a school boy with shining face. In that time the leadership experience is an agonizing education like parenting. In the third stage the leader is the lover with a woeful ballad. One mark of the future leaders is the ability to identify. Today’s leaders would instantly recognize the young king’s predicament.

New comer or not , almost all leaders find themselves at some point in the position of having to ask others to leave the organization. In the fourth age of the leadership is like the bearded soldier. At the case of over time leaders grow comfortable with the role. This comfort brings more confidence to the leaders In this stage leaders may forget the true impact of their words and actions at that the leader think that there is no need for hearing what the followers said .

In this stage the leader acts very strictly and adopt a seriousness character The next age of leadership is like the general with full of wise saws. One of the greatest challenges faced by the leader is that the leader’s career is not simply allowing people to speak the truth but actually being able to hear it. In this stage the leader is with the feature of wise saws. In the fifth stage the leader is like a statesman , with spectacles. The leader in this stage is often hard at work he prepare something for the benefit of the organization. In the last age of leadership the leader is again go to the childishness this is called second stage childishness In this stage the leader acts as a mentor and he really know what he have achieved will not be lost.

Seven Ages of a Leader Essay

Leadership Character in a Famous Leader Essay

Leadership Character in a Famous Leader Essay.

Leadership is establishing direction and influencing a group of people towards the achievement of goal.World without leader would ceast to exist.A leader shows a ray of light in darkness and makes future brighter.He brings hope and happiness in life.

Mahatma known as great soul.Gandhi was the leader of the Indian nationalist movement against British rule.He is known as the ‘Father of Independence’ of his country.His non-violent protest to achieve political and social progress has been hugely influential.

Mahatma Gandhi had a vision for India, where there would no government, no army or police force.He wished that India would be as it was in the past with self-developing villages,only depending on agrarian economy(Mahatma Gandhi’s Vision for the future India,by Joseph S.Friedman)The essential qualities of leadership can be found in Gandhi are crebility,selfless and inspirational leader.

Gandhi had a credibility established through his work and movements in South Africa.

South Africa changed Gandhi dramatically,as he faced the discrimination. One day in court at Durban, the magistrate asked him to remove his turban. Other than that, Gandhi was thrown off a train, when he refused to move from the first class to a third class coach. These are the incidents have been known as a turning point in his life(Biography of Mahatma Gandhi, by Jennifer Rosenberg).People already had a great honor and hopes from him due to what he could achieve in South Africa, his non-violent were very well respected. In India, Gandhi established the credibility through example.He showed himself as a slave of the people of India.

Gandhi is a selfless leader in the history.His approach had nothing to do with his personal interest and in fact, he sacrificed his comfort and his family’s to bring about the change.On several occasions, he was humiliated, battered and kicked by the whites.He tolerated the insults and let go those who were unjust to him.He was never thought of revenge.All he wanted was discriminatory practices against the non-white to be stopped (Gandhi An Exemplary Leader, by Ashim Gupta,2008). Moreover, the lesser-known attributes of the great soul were humanity and service. He offered shelter to a leper and cared for him.He took two hours from his office work daily to monitor the leper in a hospital in Natal.Also,Gandhi is remembered by the poor more for his service than as an independence fighter.

Gandhi without a doubt could inspire many leaders, he could show the common man that even he can make difference and bring the English Empire down.It was possible since his leadership based on self-reliance and non-cooperation. Martin Luther King was greatly inspired by Mahatma.Gandhi’s non-violence was informal by not merely his Hindu background but by extensive study of other religious and moral traditions, including Christianity. Gandhi’s greatest contribution to history and the reason his was such a crucial influence on King was Gandhi’s contention was always that standing up for oneself, struggling against independence, living with dignity and integrity. Do not require any use of violence(Mahatma Gandhi Leadership-Inspirational Foundations, by Y.P Anand,2007).Besides,South African former president Nelson Mandela’s first inspiration was Mahatma Gandhi.Mandela is not the only student of Non-violence leader Mahatma Gandhi.There are some other famous leaders in world who follow him for that.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi,who is known as the ‘Father of The Nation’ was the key leader in the independence struggle for India.Although,to this day, India is the largest democracy in the world with an globalized economy that has absolutely nothing to do with Gandhi’s vision for his beloved country.However,his gentle approach to life is a proof to the fact that strength does not equal to physical capacity(Inspiring quotes by Mahatma, by Zoe B).Gandhi’s outstanding qualities which has proven that it is possible to remain gentle in spirit, yet simultaneously achieve a huge amount of strength and respect.

Leadership Character in a Famous Leader Essay

Assignment “Introduction to Leadership” Essay

Assignment “Introduction to Leadership” Essay.

Leadership styles: – When looking at leadership style I have to look at what as a manager I am good at and that has got me to the position as Manager and what I need to do to progress my team. Firstly I need to gain the respect of my team by treating everyone fairly. Leadership is defined as ‘the process in which an individual influences the group of individuals to attain a common goal’. The goal is attained by mutual cooperation and cohesive behaviour.

A leader infuses a sense of positivity and directs others to reach the specified goal. A leader is someone who stands not only for his cause but takes responsibility and motivates other individuals also. There is a clear difference between being a manager and a leader. A leader is a motivation for others and inspires individuals to aim high and attain that aim.

However a manager only supervises over his subordinates. Power naturally comes to a leader but that power is not a tool of leader.

To be a good lead I have to look at the managers around me and what in my opinion makes them good or bad leaders and also if these are traits that I can adapt and use or ultimately will they be out of character for me and be counterproductive for me. Using the Paul and Kenneth Blanchard model of Situational Leadership:- Telling: – this is where a person has low ability and low willingness maybe a new starter. This is the style I would use for a new starter who does not yet have the skills to operate independently. Selling: – this is where a person would have low ability but high willingness.

This style I would use on someone like Dave in the office he wants to do a good job but is of an age that he does not quite have the skills he needs but he more than makes up for that with his knowledge of the job. So I need to draw on his experience to help him achieve his goals. Participating: – this is for a person will high ability and low willingness. This leadership style I would use on Becca as she has the ability but when things are going against her tends to try and hide from difficult circumstances so i would have a discussion with her and give her the support needed to get the job done. Delegating: – this is for High ability and high willingness.

This i am more than comfortable using on Ann and Mel as they have shown that they can comfortably do the tasks i set them. I have also set them individual tasks looking at how we can improve our day to day activities and ultimately make our lives easier in the long run. After doing the test I came down as someone who was fairly evenly spread of tell, selling and participating but who does not delegate this is something I have known about and my team has told me and something I can now begin to address

Review of own leadership behaviour:-

I am relatively new in the role of Sales office Manager. I have progressed from a role within the factory by doing an excellent job as a traffic planner. I took all the information gain by talking to people and being in the loop within the factory. I took in account what the factory could do and what our customer expectations were which allowed us to plan what was needed and by when to meet what the customer actually needed. Being new to the sales role I have had to take myself out the information loop and learn a new role. I have had to learn a new computer system and at the same time be the role model for my team. Whilst doing this I have made myself available for any problems the team has but have tried to show that I can do the job and also help team members who have been doing it for years. I currently have a team of five people all with varying abilities. I have two long serving members of staff one part time and two that started at the beginning of the year.

With no two members of staff the same I have had to employ different leadership style i.e. with Dave he is coming up to retirement and I would say he was low on ability he has a high willingness to complete tasks set so with him I would employ the telling leadership style which was very similar with my two new starters but as the months progressed they both showed high ability but one was more willing to achieve than the other so with Becca I had to show a participating style of leadership and with Mel I am able to delegate more as she showed both high ability and high willingness. The factory as a whole is very unionised and whilst the majority of the staff are in the union they do generally like to get the job done and if this means working long stressful hours they do.

When we are in these situations I will change my leadership style to match the situation where it be acting on their behalf to speak to people who they have issue with (maybe another member of staff or even customers) or by re-enforcing procedures that are there to make the lives easier or by finding courses that will ultimately give them the tools to make their jobs easier in the long run. I have spoken to members of the team and other managers around the office and all have said I try to do too much and that I need to “learn to delegate” and whilst this doesn’t come naturally to me (my preferred leadership style was telling and participating) I have taken their comments on board and have started to delegate a lot more around the team and focused on other areas within the team that would help them to improve and grow.

I can improve myself as a leader by listening to others and taking advice and giving and receiving feedback and also by doing courses and re assessing myself to look at things from a different angle and point of view. Within the factory I am constantly being assessed and feedback given my goals are constantly moving but I personally need to delegate more to enable me to grow as a manager.

I have also started to meet other Sales office managers within the group so I know that the job I have been doing whilst not exactly the same as other sites is very similar and I haven’t been doing that bad a job but perception is everything so I have to look at promoting myself with the site and also more importantly to other sites what I have to say has value and I can bring a lot to the table but I also have to look at the individuals within my team and look at their maturity levels and adapt my leadership to what is needed to each individual and also learn to delegate more.

Assignment “Introduction to Leadership” Essay

Autocratic Leadership Style Essay

Autocratic Leadership Style Essay.

Can an authoritarian/autocratic/directive leadership style be appropriate in American companies currently? If yes/no, why?

It is first important to clarify what the term leadership means. According to Kinicki & Fugate (2012), “leadership is defined as ‘a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational goals’” (p. 364). This means leadership involves exercising authority at individual, group, and organizational levels.

Bass (2008) identifies positive leadership traits to include task competence, interpersonal competence, intuition, traits of character, biophysical traits, and personal traits.

With this basic understanding of leadership, it can be said that the appropriateness of an autocratic leadership style depends on the type of company and situation at hand—the idea of situational leadership (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012, p. 370). Even though the United States is a democratic country, an autocratic leadership style fits some but not all companies, depending on what the company wants to accomplish and what the company’s circumstances are.

A manager with an autocratic style of leadership typically does all the decision-making without getting input from his/her subordinates (Rao, 2010, para. 3). Therefore, the manager is the authoritarian while all the subordinates are to simply follow instructions without giving their own thoughts or concerns about the task given to them. A benefit of this style is it can help provide structure and discipline to an otherwise inexperienced team, and also help a team stay on top of strict deadlines. Since the manager makes all the decisions, there is no time “wasted” on decision-making if there’s a time constraint. This type of leadership is also helpful when the manager has the highest amount of knowledge and could therefore specifically guide the subordinates on how to complete a task (Cherry), or when a type of industry simply does not require much communication or creativity relative to other industries.

However, an autocratic style of leadership would be ill-fitting for many other types of companies, especially if the autocratic style is taken to extremes. As the textbook Organizational Behavior mentions, a bad leader would possess traits like being incompetent, rigid, or callous (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012, p. 366). Since a manager taking up an autocratic style of leadership is enforcing rigid rules, it could be potentially easy to become rigid as a person as well, which could lead to loss of respect from subordinates and ruin morale of the team. Cherry states that abuse of the style can make a person seem “controlling, bossy, and dictatorial,” and that this autocratic style of leadership prevents subordinates from producing creative solutions to problems.

Giving employees such a lack of influence in the company could cause them to feel resentful since their opinions are never heard (“Leadership Styles,” 2008, para. 3-4), which means valuable relationships cannot be developed, thus straining human and social capital. An example of where an autocratic style of leadership would not be appropriate is if all the subordinates are just as knowledgeable or skilled as the manager. It would make more sense to use a democratic style of leadership so that everyone can participate and have a sense of importance in the decision-making, and because of their contribution, would feel more committed and enthusiastic about the company’s goals.

Situational leadership theories suggest that “the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the situation.” This applies to how the appropriateness of the autocratic style of leadership depends on the company at hand. It is important to fully analyze the employee characteristics (locus of control, experience, task ability, etc.) and environmental factors (task structure and work-group dynamics) to decide whether or not an autocratic style of leadership would produce the most desirable results for the company (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012, p. 370-372).

References

Bass, B.M., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press. Cherry, K. Lewin’s leadership styles. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership Cherry, K. What is autocratic leadership?. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership Kinicki, A., & Fugate M. (2012). Organizational behavior: Key concepts, skills, and best practices.
Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Leadership styles: Autocratic leadership. (2008). Leadership-toolbox.com, pp. 3-4. Retrieved from http://www.leadership-toolbox.com/autocratic-leadership.html Rao, M.S. (2010). Is autocratic leadership relevant today?. Chief Learning Officer: Solutions for Enterprise Activity. Retrieved from http://clomedia.com/articles

Autocratic Leadership Style Essay

Leadership and Hilton Group Essay

Leadership and Hilton Group Essay.

INTRODUCTION

Internationalisation of the hotel industry has reached the top of corporate agendas and many hotel chains began to realise that the international business environment is going to be fundamentally different from that of the past and that their HRM strategies require attention. Organisational leadership are numerous, however, the hospitality sector has received a great deal of attention in these, in particular, the links between leadership and delivery of quality at the point of service. The hospitality sector face particular challenges with regard to motivating service staff, who are often working in less well paid positions but who are of vital importance for effective service delivery.

Motivational leaders can address this situation in a number of ways, in particular by:

* clarifying and promoting organisational goals;
* encouraging employees to work towards these goals;
* demonstrating excellent performance; and
* providing positive feedback to employees.

A large part of Hilton’s famous consistency springs from a global approach to training – with the online “Hilton University” a prime example.

This promotes a set of shared values which in turn creates a feeling of pride in working for the company. A lot of emphasis is placed on coaching General Managers to act as good role models for their staff.

Theories of leadership & Motivation: The transactional and transformational leadership theories and their related characteristics and behaviours are going to be explored to insure we have positive and successful data to guide future leaders in the hospitality industry. Transactional Leadership- Leadership through the rewards and punishment Transformational Leadership- Leadership through inspiration, passion, and vision. The transformational/transactional leadership dichotomy was introduced by Downton (1973) in his study of political leadership; to Downton, transformational leadership was characterised by a mutually-motivational relationship between leader and follower. Downton contrasted transformational and transactional leadership in his study of the differences among revolutionary, rebellious, reform-oriented and ordinary leaders. This distinction between transformational and transactional leadership orientations was later utilised by Burns in his seminal work.

Leadership which examined the political, social, and psychological dimensions of leadership and examined its moral dimensions using Kohlberg’s hierarchy of moral development. Transactional (ordinary) leadership is based on an exchange relationship in which follower compliance (effort, productivity, loyalty) is exchanged for expected rewards. Implementation strategy of firm established annual goals, policies need advice, to motivate and support staff that prepared the allocation strategy can be executed in the Hilton Group plc.

This strategy includes to implement ion of cultural support, creating an effective organizational structure, re-direct marketing efforts, preparing budgets, developing and information system and organizational performance, employee compensation uniting. The Hilton’s structure affects the behaviour of people and employee – between the units rivalry, competition for resources, collaborative spirit, teamwork, internal politics and belief system to all affected how people work, how they approach work and hard work will be of course, their performance. Factors that help in implementation of motivation and leadership Hilton are:

EFFECTIVENESS & EFFICIENCY

Efficiency and Effectiveness with which infrastructure work is effecting, but more importantly of The Hilton’s how-to organisation serves their customers to effective service. Towards disunity, lack of cross-integration of work and inconsistent behaviour of service customers’ perception will affect.

ORAGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Hilton’s organizational culture, basic assumptions, values and belief system of the organization as a whole. Various elements of the organizations own culture can be. That, or can display different valuation, in Conflict with corporate culture. The Hilton’s project team could culture their own informal group who may not fully joint with corporate culture.

NATIONAL (CORPORATE) CULTURE

The Hilton is a big organizational company so its corporate culture, basic assumptions, values and belief system formally includes the head of an organization coalition. Often this means senior officials and enterprise owners, but staff members (co-operatives) may include Trade unions and government. Basic beliefs, values and beliefs of the founder of an organization can affect an organization’s major coalition organization long after they have left.

ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT FOR HILTON GROUP PLC FOR MOTIVATION: The Hilton’s Organization development research we could considered Kurt Lewin’s 3-step model. In this model demonstrated the most effective group norms and consensus decision-making to separate and organisational behaviour. This model it can be also research programmes included load indicators and the effect of group discussion and commitment in changing eating habits.

The process of change comprises of three stages:

· Unfreezing: create the initial motivation to change by convincing staff of the undesirability of the present situation; · The change process itself: mainly concerned with identifying what the new behaviour or norm should be. This stage will often involve new information being communicated and new attitudes, culture and concepts being adopted. · Refreezing or stabilising the change: implying reinforcement of the new pattern of work or behaviour by rewards (praise etc.). Develop the belief that the changed situation satisfies organisational and personal values. 1. We can show steps include in plan revolution processes.As a cyclical process of an Organisation Development research change is shown. Round circle working with clients and representative of change recruited by the work begins with a series of planning.

A primary diagnosis of the main component of this stage, data collection, outcome feedback, and added combine action plan. In the language of systems article, this step contribution, the customer systems as yet unknown is alert of the problems, shows the effect of changes required to help output, maybe the problem-solving and agency process is with the ordinary stock. 2. The second stage of (OD) action research plan, or changes, phase. Related to the studying process at this stage and planning and implementing behaviour change in client organizations, add the action.

The category of reply shown by a response Loop will be taken and plan to change the past with the actual of well recognize the impact of changing customer systems will transport to educational activities 3. The third part of the (OD) research production, or outcome, stage. The platform includes real change in reaction. If any resulting from corrective action ratio taken the next second stage. Data collected from customer systems again can be set so that progress and modification may be needed in the learning activities.

LEADERSHIP MOTIVATION THEORY FOR THE HILTON

Hilton’s build a two dimensional factor build on employee behaviour of his work. They can be also added in there company policy, supervision, salary and working condition rather than motivators. As per his theory the absence of the factor creates a job satisfaction but their present doesn’t match there. In that case Hilton Group also find out a five motivate element were strong job satisfaction.

1. Achievement
2. Responsibility
3. Advancement
4. Preconisation
5. Work it self

Critically evaluate theories relating to managing cultural diversity for Hilton group of hotels? Hilton International Group is a leading global hotel brand and the company, with an expanding portfolio of hotels, mainly Hilton Brand, Conrad and Vernon Hotels. The company operates 380 hotels worldwide and is represented in 66 countries. Its 80,000 strong workforce looks after an average of 8 million guests every year. The quality of the Hilton brand is such that customer service and operational excellence is higher than in most industries.

Senior executives at Hilton believe that the training and ongoing development of its employees is critical in order for the business to stay ahead in a competitive global marketplace. Consequently, learning is a major part of the company’s strategy. Hilton International is totally decentralised; splitting into countries, cities and individual hotels.

Theories for managing cultural diversity at Hilton group of hotels

INTERNATIONAL HRM STRATEGY

1.Recruitment: The recruitment strategy, must determine the nature of the IMD programme and the type of international manager development. Three different approaches available to managing and staffing companies’ subsidiaries include an ethnocentric approach, which will tend to use expatriates in key positions abroad; a polycentric approach with the use of local nationals wherever possible, and a geocentric approach with a mixture of nationals, expatriates and third country nationals. In the ethnocentric approach, the cultural values and business practices of the home country are predominant. All the standards for evaluation and control are determined centrally from the headquarters in the form of orders and commands. The polycentric approach is in direct opposition. The subsidiaries in each country are developed locally under the supervision of local managers. It results in little communication between headquarters and subsidiary.

The geocentric approach, organisations try to combine the best from headquarters and the subsidiaries to develop consistent worldwide practices. In regard to Hilton Hotel Group, it tries to involve more integration between centre and subsidiaries to ensure close co-operation between the different parts of the chain, and implement both universal and local standards for evaluation and control. The company that applies the global integrated business strategy manages and staffs employees on a global basis. For example, Hilton has for many years attempted to recruit and develop a group of international managers from diverse countries. These people constitute a mobile base of managers who are used in a variety of facilities as the need arises.

2. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

Considering the international nature of the hotel industry it becomes clear that different development needs exist believes that there are two-tiered approaches to international development. At a tactical level, companies such as Hilton, have to ensure that managers are able to operate in different locations while developing sensitivity to the local environment. The second one is based on a strategic level, where managers are required to think globally and view the organisation in an international context.

Hilton has introduced a large number of HRM strategies which focus on selecting, training and developing global managers who understand the worldwide ramifications of their business and can operate throughout the world. The loss of employees is among the biggest issues facing modern-day corporations. Hilton Hotel Group is one of the examples, where managers work with closely with employees to detail their career paths. Hilton continues to demonstrate that building a satisfied and valuable workforce is not a quick-fix procedure, but an integrated approach that permeates through every aspect of the organisation. Hilton tries to recognise the importance of employee approaches and heavily invests in it.

3. RECOGNITIONS AND REWARDS AT HILTON

An organisation reward strategy is perhaps the area which, for employees, provides the greatest bridge between rhetoric and reality. It is not only an essential tool in terms of retention, motivation and recruitment – it is an opportunity to demonstrate the culture of the organisation in a way that has real impact on employees. Hilton International aims to make everyone feel valued within their working environment. Its objectives are to maintain high standards in human resources management and to create a business culture in which everyone can grow and develop their careers. To support this commitment, Hilton University has been launched worldwide, covering a range of skills for the hotel industry, from operational and technical to finance and general management.

LABOUR MARKET: Labour supply and retention remain areas of managerial concern in the UK and international hospitality industry. High Turnover Issue: It is generally considered that turnover in the industry should be attributed to the essentially transient nature of part of the workforce, namely students, young mothers and young people as a whole, as well as to the general difficulty in retaining staff. The ageism issue is difficult to identify, and therefore difficult to eliminate in an employment context.

Nowadays the industry employs mostly young people, and indeed for many of them provides the point of entry into the world of work. Older recruits often have considerable experience in the industry and may have a lower absentee rate. (Nord and Durand, 1978; Lucas, 1995) In Hilton, where employees are recognised as valued assets and receive the training needed to assume greater responsibility, and where their opinion is sought with regard to operational changes, turnover rates are lower.

Impact of new technology: Technology which facilitates on-line hotels will have an impact in terms of staff reductions on the front-desk hotel staff, which used to perform those functions. This technology also calls for a different range of skills from employees. Training will therefore become a continuous need and the remaining jobs will require greater skills. Compare and contrast the style of leadership and appropriate motivation technique across different culture in Hilton group? The Hilton Group Plc also focuses the leadership styles depend on leader’s behaviour, result of philosophy, personality and experience of the leader.

Here Kurt Lewin and some other philosopher declare some different types of leadership so we can be also think on this way to make a better organising management. Bureaucratic, Autocratic, Democratic or Laissez-Faire (Free Reign) Leadership. 1. Bureaucratic: – A leader who uses fear and threats to get jobs done. As a leader, an authoritarian leadership style which uses the leader with all this style also makes the same decision. 2. Autocratic: – Under the authoritarian leadership style, as a leader in federal decision-making powers is shown that leaders are rulers. 3. Democratic: – Democratic leadership style, decision as a favour done by group, as leader, after consulting group offers instruction. Democratic leader of the group members because they unilaterally decided by them in consultation with the Partnership are not born with as dictator.

4. Laissez-Faire (Free Reign):- A free rein leader does not lead, but the group showed itself as a complete leaf, a leader allows subordinates more and more freedom. They are given generous in deciding its policies and practices. Free rein leadership style autocratic style is considered better. Organizations around the world has been recognizing the cultural diversity within organization is not a contradict aspect, rather can assist an organizational pursue for glory. However it is not an easy task to manage employees with different cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless there are so many policy guidelines that can make a piece of work simplified.

On a wide perspective, cultural diversity can be manage through communicating (creating awareness among all employees about diverse values of peers through communication), cultivating (facilitating acknowledgement, support and encouragement of any employee’ success by all other workers), and capitalizing (linking diversity to every business touch on and strategy such as succession planning, restructuring, employee motivation, performance management and review, and pay back systems) strategies Cross-cultural psychology at Hilton attempts to understand how individuals of different cultures interact with each other.

Along these lines, cross-cultural leadership has developed as a way to understand leaders who work in the newly globalized market. Today’s international organizations require leaders who can adjust to different environments quickly and work with partners and employees. Implicit Leadership Theory: The Implicit Leadership Theory (ILT) asserts that people’s underlying assumptions, stereotypes, beliefs and schemas influence the extent to which they view someone as a good leader. Since people across cultures tend to hold different implicit beliefs, schemas and stereotypes, it would seem only natural that their underlying beliefs in what makes a good leader differ across cultures.

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions : One of the most prominent and influential studies to date regarding leadership in a globalized world is the Hofstede dimensions of culture. The study reveals similarities as well as differences across cultures and emphasizes the need to be open-minded to understand the differences in other cultures. Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) utilize five dimensions of culture to compare cultures to give leaders an understanding of how to adjust their leadership styles accordingly. These dimensions include Individualism/Collectivism, Feminine/Masculine, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Long Term/ Short Term orientation.

Leadership Styles Across Cultures: Leadership is a universal phenomenon That is, wherever there are people, there are leaders. The question here is not whether leadership exists across cultures, but do various leadership styles (paternalistic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional leadership) translate across cultures Paternalistic Leadership

Paternalistic leadership “combines strong discipline and authority with fatherly benevolence and moral integrity couched in a ‘personality’ atmosphere” Paternalistic leadership is composed of three main elements: authoritarianism, benevolence, and moral leadership. At its roots, paternalistic leadership refers to a hierarchical relationship in which the leader takes personal interest in the workers’ professional and personal lives in a manner resembling a parent, and expects loyalty and respect in return .

A great deal of research has been conducted on the prevalence of this leadership style in non-Western business organizations, indicating the prevalence of paternalistic leadership in countries like China and Taiwan. However, considerably less research has been done on whether paternalistic leadership exists in Western cultures. Recently, there has been an increase in the amount of attention placed on paternalistic leadership in non-Western cultures. Based on recent cross-cultural studies, paternalistic leadership seems to be more apparent across cultures than previously believed. Further research is needed to explore how prevalent it is, and how individual characteristics may play a role in where paternalistic leadership is found.

Transformational & Transactional Leadership

In addition to paternalistic leadership, other well-known leadership styles include transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Transformational leadership is loosely defined as a charismatic leadership style that rallies subordinates around a common goal with enthusiasm and support. Transactional leadership is characterized by a give and take relationship using rewards as an incentive. These concepts were introduced by Bass (1985) and have been updated and studied throughout the years, claiming the transferability of these types of leadership styles across cultures. With the help of cross-cultural business surroundings comes a need for people to be aware of how culture influences the organization. The cause of event is the leadership challenge is very hard to achieve.

The Leaders of new era should have the ability to managing people of different cultures; the leaders must have the ability to listen every one and should understand the actual meaning of diversified cultural co-workers. This is the main and the core challenge which a leader faces; when people perceive the world, communicate and view their leaders in different ways, the leader’s ears may be ringing with misunderstood messages. Behavioural Theories: Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviourism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states.

3. Contingency or Situational Theories:

Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation.

4. Participative Theories:

Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account.

Theories of Motivation
1. Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy Theory”:
One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. As per his theory this needs are :

(i) Physiological needs :
(ii) Security or Safety needs :
(iii) Social needs :
(iv) Esteem needs :
(v) Need for self-actualization :
Description: Motivation

2 “Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor :
McGregor states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y.

3 Mayo Theory of Motivation

Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work. 4 Herzberg Theory of Motivation Frederick Herzberg (1923-) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygiene factors)

Critical Analysis of leadership Theories
Trait Theory:

The Trait Approach came from the “Great Man” theory as a way of identifying the key characteristics of successful leaders. It was believed that through this approach critical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such traits could then be recruited, selected, and installed into leadership positions. This approach was common in the military and is still used as a set of criteria to select candidates for commissions. The problem with the trait approach lies in the fact that almost as many traits as studies undertaken were identified. After several years of such research, it became apparent that no consistent traits could be identified. Although some traits were found in a considerable number of studies, the results were generally inconclusive.

Some leaders might have possessed certain traits but the absence of them did not necessarily mean that the person was not a leader. 2 The Behavioural Theory: The results of the trait studies were in concluded. Traits, amongst other things, were hard to measure. How, for example, do we measure traits such as honesty, integrity, loyalty, or diligence, while in this theory of leadership its very clear that the behaviour of the leader is very important, its doesn’t matter how intelligent he is or how educated the leader is. its the game of behaviour and game of personality. This style of leadership, we can see mostly in south Asian countries or third world countries. And in my view this kind of leadership is based on idealism.

3 The Contingency Theory

The behavioural theories can help the managers at Hilton Group for developing specific leadership behaviours they give them little guidance as to what constitutes effective leadership in different scenarios. Indeed, I feel that no one leadership style is right for every manager under all circumstances. Instead, contingency-situational theories were developed to indicate that the style to be used is contingent upon such factors as the situation, the people, the task, the organization, and other environmental variables.

4 Participative Theories

Participative theory may helps more to the managers rather than other above theories. The positive thing about participative style of leadership is distribute the power among the team members. That’s means the leader transfer and share the power among all the team members. This will help to make better decisions, because every team member will participate in the decision making process. In this case every team member has the importance and that thing motivate and enhance their confidence level. On the other hand if the leader transfer the power to that member who I not capable of doing assigned work than that thing can impact negatively. Maslow’s theory is not easy to test because of the nature of the subject involved, the difficulty with defining the plan or intention and only cover partly, for example between love and esteem, or physical and safety needs. Deprivation: The person who is not available in all of the basic needs containing as part of the whole being considered physiological, safety, love, and esteem would likely feel a powerful desire for food above all else.

In the Maslow as a witness explain the example of a persisting for a long time or constantly recurring hungry person for whom no other interests exist beyond food: “he dreams food, he remembers food, he thinks about food, he emotes only about food, he conscious of only food and he wants only food”. Maslow suggested that people who experienced extreme emotional and/or physical the damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society early in life may be permanently destroyed in terms of the social, esteem, and fulfilment of one’s talents and potentialities needs. Individuals develop coping mechanisms in the face of ongoing stressors: in the context of chronic deprivation of basic needs, the person may break the connection from the higher needs, since they may seem causes despair out of reach.

Adults who were process of moving up the hierarchy of needs as the lower needs become satisfied criticized theories that rest on especially significant details of human behaviour under remarkable conditions, Care taken to avoid danger or mistakes against unknown situation from human behaviour in emergencies to human behaviour in more typical situations. Maslow stated a fact or belief confidently and forcefully that those who attempt to measure the goals of humankind based on not involving anyone “behaviour during extreme physiological deprivation is used to emphasize being blind to many things .it is important to observe human behaviour under more normal circumstances in order to develop a generally applicable theory that is not distorted by reaching a high environments.

Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of human needs make an effort to achieve an account for the experience of the persisting for a long time or constantly recurring hungry and the chronically satisfied within the same model, but the model’s structure does not allow enough flexibility to account for the extremes of satisfaction and the damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society as well as the normal experiences of the general population.

“Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor

This lasting legacy of McGregor’s The Human Side of Enterprise and his Theory X and Y is that it shows how far management thinking has come. Objecting to the dominance of Theory X in the workplace of the time, McGregor noted that ‘if there is a single assumption that pervades conventional organization theory, it is that authority is the central, indispensable means of managerial control.’ McGregor then put forward an available as another possibility or choice the art of representing three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth, and position in relation to each other. Theory Y was based on the opposite set of assumptions, namely that people need not only to work but want to work.

Under Theory Y, the worker finds that mental and physical effort at work are as natural as it is not working or occupied; that belonging to control and threats are not the single means of control in a company; that the average human learns not only to accept but to attempt to find responsibility; and that most of us have a fully occupying the available area to display a high degree of forming new ideas, and original in sorting out problems. It is true that neither of McGregor’s two polar opposites are achievable in any organization. Even the most swollen and distended or congested corporate giant has human spirit remain hidden within it, while the most off-beam creative firms require an organization a set of ideas. McGregor recognized this fact and was busy by the terms of a will a hybrid of organizational human try hard to achieve something, theory Z, when he died.

Mayo Theory of Motivation

Mayo theory of motivation has described that treating with people as human is important. The manager Should give them self respect and importance, this is an effective tool for the people who work in an organization. But the negative aspect of this theory is that mayo has forgotten about the basic needs and one of them is money. Only the self respect is not enough other things also matters. In my opinion the mayo theory of motivation is competitively less effective that other theories of motivation.

Herzberg Theory of Motivation

Herzberg has discussed two factor here in my view Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction, for example the company polices really matters. Are they helpful to the workers, how the administration is working, what leadership style they have? If both company policy and administration is worker friendly than it really helpful to the workers and motivates them, there few other factors which have the importance is supervision, interpersonal relationship, working conditions, salary, status and security. these are the factors if they are shown preferably in the company policies that can really motivate the employees. While in Motivation Factor – work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth, job enrichment and leads to superior performance & effort Motivation-Hygiene Combinations

(Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)

Benefits of Cultural Diversity

For producing desired results multi-cultural managed companies have cost effective competitive advantage. It helps in boosting minority friendly reputation among progressive employees. Diverse cultural corporations help to get the best customers which have a variety of people. Diverse group of employees are seems to be more creative and efficient in problem solving as compared to similar group. Ability to manage cultural diversity increases adaptability and flexibility of an organization to environmental changes. Globalization is the increased interdependence (economic, social, technical, and political) between nations. People are becoming more interconnected. At Hilton there is more international trade, cultural exchange, and use of worldwide telecommunication systems.

In the last 10 years, our schools, organizations, and communities have become far more global than in the past. Increased globalization has created many challenges, including the need to design effective multinational organizations, to identify and select appropriate leaders for these entities, and to manage organizations with culturally diverse employees. Motivation strategy at Hilton: An organisation’s rewards strategy is perhaps the area which, for employees, provides the greatest bridge between rhetoric and reality. It is not only an essential tool in terms of retention, motivation and recruitment – it is an opportunity to demonstrate the culture of the organisation in a way that has real impact on employees.

At Hilton, the acquisition of leisure group Stakis plc in March 1999 promoted a review and subsequent update of the company’s rewards program – Esprit Club. Through their “Espirit” programme, Hilton International aims to make everyone feel valued within their working environment. Its objectives are to maintain high standards in human resources management and to create a business culture in which everyone can grow and develop their careers. To support this commitment, Hilton University has been launched worldwide, covering a range of skills for the hotel industry, from operational and technical to finance and general management

CONCLUSION:-

The hospitality industry, being so people-centred and customer-driven, needs inspirational leadership in all its sectors. In that case The Hilton Group Plc’s Organisation culture is analytical –learning search problem and explains process adds in to the customer service systems. This data in the form of a printed report has not come quickly, but quick response into the open joint session, and client and change agent to identify specific problems and ranking co-operation, ways to discover their real reasons in preparation, and plans to compete with them in developing realistic and practical. As a Hospitality method of data assembly, Customer satisfaction, Cleanness, accuracy, measuring results and management however, as strictly followed as a rule so it could be make lots of customer ratio.

Hilton’s strategy on globalisation strongly affects the approach it takes to international human resource management. To ensure the development of managers with international experience, Hilton and other global hotel chains need to establish HRM systems as a core component of general organisation strategy and adopt a formalised approach to IMD. Whichever approach is adopted, it seems essential to plan the strategy and focus on a holistic, long-term approach rather than the individual, short-term approaches. A more centralised approach can optimise Hilton’s management as a competitive resource. The double challenges thinking puff leadership development and improve effective leadership developing practices In the Hilton Group Plc It would be greater than best of previous.

At that time we find our self carefully positive field for the future. Some of the positive trends that are the make a future both challenging and interesting for the Hilton’s employee. Hilton’s strategy on globalisation strongly affects the approach it takes to international human resource management. To ensure the development of managers with international experience, Hilton and other global hotel chains need to establish HRM systems as a core component of general organisation strategy and adopt a formalised approach to IMD. Whichever approach is adopted, it seems essential to plan the strategy and focus on a holistic, long-term approach rather than the individual, short-term approaches. A more centralised approach can optimise Hilton’s management as a competitive resource.

References:
1. www.hospitalityleadership.com
2. www.ukessays.co.uk
3. www.carererandhotelkeeper.com
4. http://www.caterersearch.com
5. http://www3.hilton.com
6. http://www.papercamp.com/group/harvard-hilto
7. Master of Science in Hotel Administration -William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration 8. Leadership research in hospitality: a critical review- Steven Boyne 9. Organizational Behaviour: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses: By John B. Miner 10. Armstrong M., 1996, Personnel Management Practice, Kogan Page; 11. Article, 2001, Human resources development, employment and globalisation in the hotel, catering and tourism sector, International Labour Organisation, April 2, www-ilrror.cornell.edu/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmhct01/tmhctr2.htm

Leadership and Hilton Group Essay

Leadership – Does Gender Matter Essay

Leadership – Does Gender Matter Essay.

Does gender affect the ability of an individual to become an effective leader? Some researchers believe that effective leaders are just born while others believe that effective leadership can be learned. But few of these researchers discuss the difference that gender may make in becoming good leaders. When we take a look back through history, we can see that the evaluation of women leaders was slow. Today, only 2. 4 percent (Gettings, Johnson, Brunner, & Frantz, 2009) of the Fortune 500 Company’s are lead by women which is an increase from the 1.

percent (www. money. cnn. com) of female Chief Executive Officers in 2002.

The gender differences in the corporate world posses several issues for the Human Resource Managers such as management style differences, pay equity, promotion fairness, and work-life balance. Women began entering the workforce in the late 1800s. During that time, women were employed in what society considered female specific careers such as teachers, nurses, and seamstresses and women made up a very small portion of the workforce.

This all changed with the on-set of World War II. While the men left to fulfill their military obligations, women stepped up to the plate and filled positions in industrial factories across the nation doing jobs typically performed by men. Following World War II, many females continued to work and over the decades have set career aspirations which have led them to the top. As time went on, it became obvious that the gender differences in the work place required Human Resource Management intervention.

Historically, the workplace was predominantly masculine when it came to organizational theory. Organizations were structured on centralized authority, specialization and expertise, and division of labor. Aggressive and dominating leadership styles became less popular among organizations. The era of masculine leadership styles then gave way to the newly desired “feminine way” (Lowen, 2007) of leading. In the late 1900s, organizations became more feminine in nature utilizing concepts such as delegation of authority, collaboration, and empowerment.

In addition, interpersonal relations became a focus for organizations and such things as trust, openness and concern for the whole person kicked off the “feminization of leadership” (Frankel, 2007) and in 1963 the Equal Pay Act was created which mandated equal pay, regardless of gender, for workers performing the same job. This became extremely important as women began to hold top level positions within organizations. Women possess many gender specific qualities and characteristics which enhance their leader effectiveness in today’s “feminized leadership. According to a study conducted by Caliper, a Princeton based management consulting group, women leaders are more empathic, flexible and possess stronger interpersonal skills. The strong interpersonal skills of women enable them to be objective in taking in information from all sides and then take this information and weighing the concerns and objectives of their people. Empathy and genuine concern make subordinates feel valued, supported, and understood.

In addition, this same study noted that women were able to be more persuasive and assertive in taking risks as compared to their male counter parts. This often leads to women coming up with more innovative solutions to problems, and ultimately, getting things accomplished. Many studies conducted across the country within various businesses have concluded that women executives are rated higher than men in the areas of producing high quality work, setting and achieving goals, and mentoring subordinates (Sharpe, 2000).

These studies also found that women were not as concerned with self-interest as men and did not accomplish tasks or achieve goals based on what was in it for them, but instead for the mere enjoyment of their success. It is this type of attitude which inspires companies to employee women in their executive positions. In addition, one of the areas in these studies showed that women excelled at teamwork and motivating teams in getting results. But these studies also included areas where men were stronger such as strategic and technical ability.

Men also seemed to be better at giving punishment and were found to issue double the amount of punishments as compared to women. With so many differences in management styles between men and women, it was necessary for Human Resource Managers to design diversity programs which included education on gender differences, as well as, racism, discrimination, etc. Women are slowly making their way into the corporate ranks of Fortune 500 Companies. According to CNN Money, there are currently 13 female Chief Executive Officers in the Fortune 500 and 26 female Chief Executive Officers in the Fortune 1,000.

Believe it or not, the number of female Chief Executive Officers has doubled compared to 5 years ago when there were only 6 female Chief Executive Officers in the Fortune 500. But, if women make equally effective leaders as compared to men, then why are there so few employed in top management positions? In Tischler’s article “Where are the Women? ,” she talks about how women “scale” back their work in exchange for a balanced personal life (Tischler, 2007). She also discusses the competiveness of men compared to women and how that might contribute to the larger number of men holding top executive level positions.

Most often, women simply don’t want to deal with the work-life balance. Top executives put in grueling long days and their lives are controlled by the company’s success or failure. Women have a natural instinct to nurture and often put their family life before their career. When I read Morris’ article, “Trophy Husbands,” it made me stop and think how husbands could assist in helping their spouse to balance the work-life balance. In Morris’ article, she discusses how husbands have given up their careers to assist their female spouses in reaching the top (Morris, 2002).

I think that this is a huge step in elevating women to the top ranks of the corporate world. These husbands stepped down for many reasons, but some stepped down because they knew their wives had the potential and determination to fill these top positions. They were supportive and wanted to assist by elevating any family related stress by ensuring that things on the home front were taken care of. In fact, although the number of female Chief Executive Officers appears to be low, the truth is women are successful leaders.

There are over 9 million women-owned businesses in the United States and women hold over 45 percent of the managerial positions within large corporations. Indeed, women can and are successful at leading. Yet there is still a large difference in the pay scale of female and male executives. Is it simply a blatant decisions that these companies make, or is it a simply mistake because these organizations do not have an established pay scale system? Human Resource Managers need to be cognizant of pay differences and promotion bias.

According to Stites article, one way to avoid this dilemma is to establish systematic pay systems, ensure equal access to promotions, and document discrepancies with legitimate business reasons (Stites, May 2005). So, does gender matter when considering leadership effectiveness? According to the text, men and women are equally effective at leading, but each gender utilizes different styles in their leadership abilities (Northouse, 2007). It is my position that gender is neutral. Males and females can both possess the skills necessary to be effective leaders and I believe that women can lead companies to success just as well as men.

To be an effective leader, one must know how and when to apply the many different styles and characteristics to each unique situation. Both men and women have unique qualities about them, but the ability to learn from the opposite gender will enhance ones leadership abilities. I believe that men and women can combine and adapt their unique styles of leadership to maximize their strengths and minimize their weaknesses within the workplace. Regardless of gender, developing a leadership style is a difficult and challenging feat for all managers.

In researching the many definitions of leadership, I have determined that leaders are defined as those who inspire workers and develop their skills and creativity to achieve goals. Of the many definitions I read, not one referred to male or female gender when defining a leader. Male or female gender shouldn’t matter when it comes to determining an individual’s ability to lead. The Human Resource Manager must ensure that they are concerned and aware of the gender differences and difficulties which must be dealt with in the business world.

Indeed, gender does matter, especially since women have become a large percentage of the work force and are now moving up the corporate ladder into top level positions. Gender differences create many issues that Human Resource Managers must be able to prevent, mitigate, and/or resolve. Today’s Human Resource Management education programs have increased the ability of individuals to fill these vital management positions. In order for Human Resource Managers to accomplish this task, they must be aware of gender specific management styles, pay equity, promotion fairness, and work-life balance.

Leadership – Does Gender Matter Essay