Mahatma Gandhi Apostle of Peace Essay

Mahatma Gandhi Apostle of Peace Essay.

He had always been a private citizen without wealth, property, title, post, academic distinction, scientific achievement or artistic gift. Yet men with governments and armies behind them paid homage to him. He was the spokesman for the conscience of world. His style was born of a genuine humility of soul. The United Nations paid tributes and lowered its flag when he died. ” These are the words written by the late Pandrangi Rajeswara Rao in his book, “Profiles in Patriotism” epitomising the personality of a great Indian who changed the course of the nation’s history and simply signed M.

 K. Gandhi.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, venerated as Mahatma Gandhi, was born in Porbandar, a coastal town, near Rajkot in the Saurashtra region (Gujarat), on October 2, 1869. Formal education over, Gandhiji went to England for further studies and became a Bar-at-Law and practised for a while in the famous Temple Inn. After returning home, he set up practice and moved to Durban to defend one of his clients.

There he was aghast to experience the ill-treatment meted out to fellow Indians, merely because of the subjugation of their native land by the British.

When he himself was thrown out the first class compartment by a whiteman, Gandhiji made up his mind to resist this whiteman’s arroagance. By that time he had already been influenced by the civil disobedience theory adumbrated by Thoreau. As a child he had witnessed a street play highlighting the trials and tribulations of Prahalada under his tyrannical father. Gandhiji saw Prahalada’s struggle as a manifestation of the individual against the all-powerful state. With this background Gandhiji launched his famous non-violent ‘Satyagraha’ against the British, and succeeded to a great extent.

The South African experience was hailed all over, particularly in India. When he returned home, a tumultuous reception was accorded to him and he addressed meetings of intellectuals and the common people alike on the efficacy of Satyagraha. Lokmanya Bal Ganghadhar Tilak appreciated Gandhiji’s efforts and the liberal politician, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, advised Gandhiji to tour the length and breadth of the country to understand the people’s mind before taking up leadership. Gandhiji obeyed his `guru’.

The countrywide tour strengthened his sinews to launch the famous Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920 to protest against the Rowlatt Act and the 1919 massacre of innocent people in the Jalianwalla Bagh. After the exit of Tilak, Gandhiji filled the political vacuum effectively. He presided over the Belgaum session of the Indian National Congress, and gave a shape to the Non-Cooperation Movement at its Nagpur session. From then on, Gandhiji mobilised the people by his constant touch with masses and, through his mouth-piece, the `Harijan’ weekly.

In the words of Rajaji, Gandhiji had the “alchemy to shape men out of clay” who could lead the country as and when it became free. All his battles against the rulers were through non-violent popular movements. In fact, he called off the Non-Cooperation Movement after violence broke out in Chauri Chaura (Bihar) as part of the agitation. He conducted in a non-violent ambience all his subsequent agitations like the famous march to Dandi to break the Salt Law (Salt Satyagraha) of 1930, the subsequent Individual Satyagraha and the ultimate Quit-India Movement of 1942.

Alongside the ongoing political struggle, Gandhiji fought against social evils like untouchability, propagated the need for self-sufficient villages and promoted Khadi against the mill-made cloth imported from Lancashire. He was a strong votary of Hindu-Muslim unity. Qaid-e-Azam Jinnah’s insistence that Muslims are a separate nation hurt Gandhiji and pleaded in vain against partition of the sub-continent.

When freedom dawned splitting the country into India and Pakistan, he became a disillusioned man and chose to move to Naokhali in Bengal, to reduce the communal tension caused by cross-border migration of Hindus and Muslims from West Bengal and East Pakistan. Gandhiji’s was a versatile personality. He led an ascetic life and established his ashrams at Sabarmati and Wardha, radiating simple living and high thinking. A crusader upholding manual labour, he was unhappy with the machine replacing man in several areas.

Whatever he did as a patriot, journalist, author—his magnum opus is ‘My Experiments with Truth’—and social reformer, he excelled and had the uncanny knack of reaching the common man. Whenever asked for a message, Gandhiji used to say tersely: “My life is my message. ” There cannot be a better summary of Gandhiji’s life and mission than that rendered by Swami Rama, founder of the Himalayan International Institute of Yoga, Science and Philosophy, in his `Living with the Himalayan Masters’ thus: *Non-violence and cowardice cannot go together because non-violence is a perfect expression of love that casts out fear.

To be brave because one is armed implies an element of fear. The power ahimsa is extremely vital and active force which does not come from physical strength. *A true follower of ahimsa does not believe in disappointment. He dwells above in perennial happiness and peace. That peace and joy do not come to him who is proud of his intellect and learning; they come to him who is full of faith and has an undivided and single-pointed mind. *The intellect can produce many wonders, but non-violence is an atter of the heart.

It does not come through intellectual exercises. *Hatred is not overcome by hatred, but rather by love. This is an unalterable law. *Devotion is not mere worship with the lips. It is self-surrender with mind, action and speech. *Gandhi did not believe in the barriers created by religions, cultures, superstitions and mistrust. He taught and lived the brotherhood of all religions. *Gandhi believed in the art of living without concern for the fruits of one’s actions.

He practised not worrying about success or failure, but paid attention to the work at hand without feeling the slightest anxiety or fatigue. *In order to enjoy life one should not be selfishly attached to anything. Non-attachment means to have a pure motive and a correct means without any worry or desired result. He who gives up actions fails, but he who gives up the reward rises and is liberated. *Yoga is the complete reintegration of all the states of mind, the intellect, senses, emotions, instincts and every level of personality.

It is a process of becoming the whole. *One’s mantra becomes one’s staff of life and carries one through every ordeal. Each repetition has a new meaning and carries one nearer and nearer to God. It is capable of transforming that which is negative in the personality into that which is positive, and it can gradually integrate divided and opposing thoughts of deeper and deeper levels of consciousness. It is indeed an irony of fate that such an apostle of peace and non-violence was felled by a misguided assassin’s bullets in the Birla House in Delhi on January 30, 1948.

As aptly announced in a voice choked with grief and emotion by Jawaharlal Nehru, before the Constituent Assembly soon after the tragedy: “The Light is out”. The eminent authoress, Pearl S. Buck, described the assassination as “second Crucifixion”. Einstein remarked: “Generations to come will scarcely believe that such a person as Gandhi ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth”. The statue of the Father of the Nation, sculpted by Ravi Shankar Patnaik of Andhra University, is located in a park opposite Tenneti Bhavanam, the administrative building of the Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation.

Mahatma Gandhi Apostle of Peace Essay

Gandhi and Untouchability Essay

Gandhi and Untouchability Essay.

Mahatma Gandhi was highly grieved about the caste system that characterised Indian society. But it was untouchability that particularly pained him. All his life, he worked hard at eradicating this heinous practice from its very roots. He drew sharp distinction between caste and varna. Varna was based on profession. And in present day India, wrote Gandhi, there is no other trace of varnashram, as they are easily interchangeable, and were are actually interchanged at times, except for the varna of the Shudra.

Their plight continued uninterrupted from the ancient times.

Gandhi thought caste system to be a social evil, but untouchability was a sin. All his life, Gandhi worked for the untouchables. In fact, in one of his letters, Gandhi elevated the bhangis, or the night-soil cleaners as the very epitome of service for god, as they do their unclean work and cleanse society of its perils, and receive nothing but shame and admonition for it. Every man, thought Gandhi, should find a lesson in it.

They should dispense their services to society and expect no reward in return. That would be the greatest service to God.

Gandhi worked relentlessly to elevate the social status of the untouchables in india. He wanted penance for crimes of discrimination that have been perpetuated for thousands of years as he wanted society to work hard to relocate the untouchables on an equal footing with the other members of society. He called them harijans or ‘gods own people’. Gandhi went on a fast until death after the proclamation of the elections based on communal identity in 1935. He knew the cause of secular unification was lost for good, but he could not tolerate the non-accommodation of the harijans within the fold of the Hindu community.

A meeting with B R Ambedkar followed and seats were distributed on the basis of reservations. This was one of the greatest achievements in the political career of Gandhi. Gandhi was instrumental to a great degree to make the Indians conscious of the evils of untouchablity, a consciousness that went a long way in eradicating the evil from Indian society. This is a novel vow added by Gandhiji to the traditional vows. Gandhiji considered untouchability as a blot on Hinduism. Untouchability means pollution by the touch of certain persons by reason of their birth in a articular community. It was an evil practice.

It had greatly harmed the Indian society. It was surely one of the main reasons for its weakness and slavery. It is against Truth and non-violence and therefore against true religion. All are sons of the same God. All life is one. Considering some human beings as untouchables and oppressing them is senseless. It is sinful. This practice degrades its practitioners as well as victims. It is against reason, moral sense and spiritual experience. Hence Gandhiji rejected it. Cleanliness is good, but it should not be carried to absurd lengths.

The evil of untouchability has affected many area of life. It should be rooted out from all of them. This vow implies that we should work for removing this practice from the society. Barriers between man and man should be broken down. Touch does not defile. It is rather an expression of love. Removal of untouchability means love for the whole world. It is an operational aspect of non-violence. It will remove a gross injustice and lead to social cohesion. Mahatma Gandhi, the greatest religious reformer and the father of nation says.

I believe in the fundamental truth of all great religious of the world in theory, since there is one God, there can be only one religion. Gandhji did not believe in the Hindu Dharmashastras which prescribe caste customs as scared. In this context, he remarked “it is a tragedy that religion for us means today nothing more than restrictions on food and drink, noting more than adherence to a sense of superiority and inferiority. Let me tell you that there can not be any greater ignorance than this, birth and observance of forms cannot determine one’s superiority and inferiority.

Gandhi and Untouchability Essay

An Eye for an Eye Will Make the Whole World Go Blind Essay

An Eye for an Eye Will Make the Whole World Go Blind Essay.

Mohandas Gandhi, the father of non-violent resistance in the modern age, believes the world should stand up for what is right in a peaceful way; leading to the creation of his philosophy discouraging revenge—“an eye for an eye will make the whole world go blind. ” He tries to simply convey that vengeance will eventually spiral out of control and wipe out everybody because revenge does not terminate a conflict, rather, instigates further brutality amongst more people, leaving the “whole world…blind.

Gandhi’s theory has influenced many people, most notably, Martin Luther King, Jr. , to respond to controversial matters passively. However, the theory of the world becoming “blind” due to revenge is flawed, regarding justice. The metaphor implies that retribution as means of justice is fundamentally catastrophic. Humans should do what is right no matter what to create a world where plotting for revenge does not exist; like in the Bible, “Be compassionate as your Father is compassionate.

Do not judge and you will not be judged.

” (Luke 6:36-38) Using punishment as a way of dealing with things is seen as the opposite of the solution. For instance, Osama Bin Laden and his followers, known as terrorists, have used violence to solve his belief of oppression on Muslims by the U. S foreign policy which concluded in thousands of deaths in the 9-11 attacks which included his own followers and his death in 2011.

The terrorists who followed Bin Laden, blinded by hatred and misleading beliefs from Bin Laden, went as far as self-sacrifice as an attempt to make change instead of trying to reason with words and nonviolent actions; something Gandhi wanted to accomplish. Although Gandhi may not have influenced everyone, he did accomplish spreading his theory of nonviolence to Martin Luther King, Jr. , another successful rights activist that permanently changed the way the world viewed segregation, who stated, “Nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral questions of our time.

Gandhi’s essence of his argument is morally correct; however, this expression questions the ability for a person to obtain justice. This saying assumes all humans are guilty and justice is harmful. Justice means to treat people how they deserve, in as much as the people have the authority to do so. “Whoever strikes a man a mortal blow must be put to death. ” (Exodus 21:15. ) “An eye for an eye” or the “tit-for-tat” system is necessary in a just and equal society.

For example, a criminal who kills could either get the death penalty or life in jail without parole. The criminal has lost the maximum amount of rights as possible, just like the victim. On a smaller scale, a robber would get fined or a year in prison to compensate for the violation against the person robbed. Therefore, “an eye for an eye” means proportionate justice. This system does not “make the whole world go blind,” assuming all humans are innocent and the fact of the possibility of all humans becoming criminals and murderers is slim.

An Eye for an Eye Will Make the Whole World Go Blind Essay

Role of Gandhi in India’s Freedom Struggle Essay

Role of Gandhi in India’s Freedom Struggle Essay.

The person who will head the list of people for their contribution to India it will be none other than Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Not just because he is the Father of the Nation but his immense contribution to the country not just in terms of struggle for freedom but his ideologies and thoughts which changed the map of our country. When he took the charge of Indian National Congress it was a turning point in its history due to his enormous following, his spiritual powers and his non-violent means of fighting.

Gandhi introduced the concept of Satyagraha. Which appealed to the common masses who were largely pious and religious. Gandhi adhered to a strictly non-violent protest. No matter what happened he never diverted from his ideologies and every time he was successful. Gandhiji always followed the path of non-violence or Ahimsa. His tactic of passive resistance or Satyagraha was his weapon to fight against the British rule.

Swaraj for Gandhi meant self-rule, as much a moral and personal ethic, the self-rule of an individual over his own impulses and weaknesses, as the political objective of a people struggling rightfully to be free – an ambiguity which Gandhi was repeatedly to exploit during his Non-cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements.

Gandhiji and his ideologies were quite successful among the common masses. He planned to win leadership of those organizations, which fitted his grand purpose, the achievement of Swaraj.

Gandhiji made very valuable contribution, firstly, to frame the secular agenda within the parameters of the Indian cultural tradition, and subscribed to the dictum of Sarva dharma sambhava i. e. equal respect for all religions. Secondly, he gave an indigenous content to the concept of nationhood, arguing that it was the common heritage of a highly pluralistic, multicultural civilisation, which provided the necessary clue to hold the Indian people together, as against the Western concept of ‘nations’ being one race, one religion and one language. He always believed in the idea of ‘unity’ in diversity.

All his life he battled against the cult of violence and war; against cruelty of man to man; against industrialism and domination of man by machine; inequality and discrimination. His fight to give equal rights to each and every person of the society irrespective of which strata they belong made him immortal among us. He tried to attained moksha by service to mankind. Gandhiji portrays a multi-faceted moral and spiritual messiah. His tireless endeavor to make people understand the basic happiness of life is to be happy with whatever you have, thus showing the only way to save the world.

Role of Gandhi in India’s Freedom Struggle Essay