General Motors with Lean Manufacturing Essay

General Motors with Lean Manufacturing Essay.

Part 3. GM’s Global Manufacturing System6 3. 1 Application of Lean Manufacturing6 3. 2 In-Progress Control and Verification7 3. 3 Process Failure and Effect Analysis11 3. 4 Quality Feedback/Feedforward11 3. 5 Quality System Management13 Part 4. Comments14 4. 1 Achievements beyond Efficiency14 4. 2 A Too-Lean GM? 15 Bibliography16 Part 1. Overview of General Motors 1. 1 Why General Motors? First automotive industry has started in 1885 since Karl Benz and Daimler develop gasoline engine cars. The early automotive industry was expensive ,slow and didn’t escape from the design of the wagon type.

But The introduction of Henry Ford’s conveyor belt is way as to be able to mass-produced, it became the beginning of popularization.

U. S. automotive company seek to enter into the world in Europe ,since 1920’s and by combining U. S.. ‘s car production technology and Europe’s brand value, Europe emerged as the largest market in the world. At the European economy will recover in 1950, U. S. has grown enough to occupy 80% in world market and Europe built a new product differentiation and diversification strategy in order to correspond to U.

S. At this point should be noted that Japan’s inroad into world market.

Because of Korean war, Japan laid the foundation of growth and The 1960’s, global automotive market is growing, Japan participate in global automotive market. Especially, Japan made new Labor-management relations by new industrial organization and distinctive production manner, and spreading Toyota production system and JIT approach to become more competitive, They were formed 3 polarized system to dominate the world market with U. S. and Europe. After that, Before and after the 1980’s, Asian countries, including countries such as Mexico and Brazil participated in global automotive market as a weapon low-income and small car. In 1990’s, U.

S. lead global automotive market increasing core competencies by innovation to reengineering, benchmarking, restructuring, and downsizing, etc, competing with Japan. In the late 1990s, Automotive market undergo great confusion due to oversupply and changing consumer needs, and Multinational automotive companies’ M&A is greatly increasing, and a small number of large companies lead global automotive market. In the flow of the automotive industry, after establishment in 1908, GM lay the foundation focusing on to raise the size merging Buick, Cadillac, including 25 companies and maintain first in sales between 1933 to 2008.

Also, in domestic, GM is known for a lot of familiar brands such as Chevrolet. Because GM overcome several financial crisis and still exist the center of the world’s automotive industry companies, we choose GM automotive industry companies, we choose GM 1. 2 Introduction of General Motors General Motors Company commonly known as GM (General Motors Corporation before 2009), is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, and the world’s largest auto maker, by vehicle unit sales, in 2011, employing 202,000 people and doing business in some 157 countries.

General Motors produces cars and trucks in 31 countries, and sells and services these vehicles through the following four regional segments, which are GM North America (GMNA), GM Europe (GME), GM International Operations (GMIO), and GM South America (GMSA), through which development, production, marketing and sales are organised in their respective world regions, plus as fifth segment GM Financial. 1. 3 Basic Information Industry – Automotive Founded – September 16, 1908 Founder(s) – William C. Durant Headquarters – Renaissance Center, Detroit, Michigan, the US Number of locations – 156 facilities on six continents

Area served – Worldwide Product – Automobiles, Financial Service 1. 4 History of GM 1908| Founded by William. C. Durant| 1910-1929| The rise of the automobile captured imaginations and sparked invention. | 1930-1959| GM’s commitment to innovation lent optimism during tumultuous world events. | 1960-1979| GM offered forward-thinking answers to an increasingly eco-conscious world. | 1980-1999| The close of the 20th century brought tremendous global growth for GM| 2000-2008| Trying economic times saw GM embracing an enduring passion for innovation. Today| We are passionate about designing, building and selling the world’s best vehicles. This vision unites us as a team and is the hallmark of our customer-driven culture. | 1. 5 GM’s family Part 2. Introduction of Lean Manufacturing 2. 1 Definition What is lean manufacturing(lean)? Lean manufacturing, lean enterprise, or lean production, often simply, “Lean,” is a production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination.

Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a product or service, “value” is defined as any action or process that a customer would be willing to pay for. Essentially, lean is centered on preserving value with less work. Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) (hence the term Toyotism is also prevalent) and identified as “Lean” only in the 1990s. TPS is renowned for its focus on reduction of the original Toyota seven wastes to improve overall customer value, but there are varying perspectives on how this is best achieved.

The steady growth of Toyota, from a small company to the world’s largest automaker, has focused attention on how it has achieved this success. 2. 2 Lean and TPS Lean is a management philosophy developed from the Toyota Production System (TPS) and identified as Lean in the 1990s. The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an integrated socio-technical system, developed by Toyota, that comprises its management philosophy and practices. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer, including interaction with suppliers and customers. The system is a major precursor of the more generic “lean manufacturing. Taiichi Ohno, Shigeo Shingo and Eiji Toyoda developed the system between 1948 and 1975. Originally called “just-in-time production,” it builds on the approach created by the founder of Toyota, Sakichi Toyoda, his son Kiichiro Toyoda, and the engineer Taiichi Ohno. The principles underlying the TPS are embodied in The Toyota Way. TPS focuses on reduction of the original Toyota seven wastes to improve overall customer value. But there are varying perspectives on how this is best achieved. 2. 3 Theme: Efficiency Lean manufacturing is a variation on the theme of efficiency based on optimizing flow.

It is a present-day instance of the recurring theme in human history toward increasing efficiency, decreasing waste, and using empirical methods to decide what matters, rather than uncritically accepting pre-existing ideas. As such, it is a chapter in the larger narrative that also includes such ideas as the folk wisdom of thrift, time and motion study, Taylorism, the Efficiency Movement, and Fordism. Lean manufacturing is often seen as a more refined version of earlier efficiency efforts, building upon the work of earlier leaders such as Taylor or Ford, and learning from their mistakes.

Part 3. GM’s Global Manufacturing System 3. 1 Application of Lean Manufacturing To be more competitive in the global automotive industry, General Motors is concentrated on some key priorities; get common; think lean and run fast; compete on a global basis; grow the business and most importantly-focus on the product. GM Manufacturing is dedicated to lean and common as demonstrated by a single, global manufacturing approach – a strategy that is changing the way it designs its products, lays out plants, selects equipment and design each assembly plant operator’s job.

The GM Global Manufacturing System-or GMS-is an important building block of an integrated strategy to develop products that excite customers in markets around the world. 3. 2 In-Progress Control and Verification In-Process Control ;amp; Verification includes the intent and purpose of the BIQ motto: “Satisfy your customer; do not accept, build or ship a defect! Solve problems through team work. ” Quality expectations are achieved in each process to ensure defects are not passed on to downstream process. Well, it raises a question, how to achieve customer satisfaction?

General Motors has three paths for solving this problem. In the first place, prevention avoids defects or non-standards occurring. Secondly, Detection—identify when defects or non-standards have occurred. At last, use containment to assure defects or non-standards are not passed on. I will introduce these three methods in the following minutes. The benefits of In-Process Control ;amp; Verification consist of three aspects: * To external customers (people buying our vehicle), it protects customers from sub-standard vehicle quality; it assures customer satisfaction. To internal customers (downstream operation), it prevents major repair and rework by detecting a non-conformity early in the process; it prevents the flow of defects from department to department and station to station. * To internal customers (from suppliers), it protects Team Members from non-compliant parts from suppliers through advanced quality planning and prompt containment during spills. Prevention To understand the prevention, let me show you a comparison at first. As you can see in the picture, Using the Lean approach, we control the process by prevention.

It results in less rework and repair, and higher first time quality. By contrast, the traditional approach is trying to control the product, which is less efficient and more passive, with more rework and repair, and lower first time quality. Process Equipment Capability Reviews means periodic checks are conducted to identify trends or shifts in capability over periods of time. It includes four steps: 1) Identify process equipment with high risk/impact 2) Conduct initial capability confirmation 3) Conduct regular scheduled reviews to confirm capability 4) Implement corrective action as required Detection

The second method is detection. Detection has two purposes. Purpose 1: To make non-standard conditions in the manufacturing process visible – identify when defects or non-standard have occurred. Purpose 2: This supports the “Do Not Accept” element of the quality motto: * Inspection process that confirms quality as soon as possible following manufacture * Measures the output of the manufacturing process * Alerts organization to out of standard conditions * Supports containment and provides input into continuous improvement Quality Check System Update: Internal/external ‘Customers’ are monitored for feedback.

Where there is an indication of defect flow-out through the Verification process, a systematic analysis will be conducted; typically for: 1) Items currently not included in the quality check list/control plan For example, update check list based on prioritization and risk analysis. 2) Current check items not found during the check process For example, improve standardized work or re-train team members. The quality check system must be established in consideration of the ‘Supplier-Customer’ relationship. Inspection frequencies must be established by each ‘supplier’ that prevents shipping defects to downstream ‘customers’.

This is a requirement for safety ;amp; compliance items, key characteristics and for issues that will significantly impact the next process or customer. During a repair, the risk for a discrepancy to occur is increased – many aspects of the repair operation are non-standard. So the Independent Repair Confirmation is very necessary. Many aspects of the repair operation are non-standard: Any documented repair must be verified by Repair Confirmation (both on- and off-line) * Repair Confirmation must be conducted independently (e. g. by Quality). Standardized work (non-cyclic) should be used for the confirmation process – quality standards must be available. * Appropriate training and knowledge of standards must be developed to conduct or confirm repairs. * Repair confirmation should be as close to the repair process as possible. * Repair confirmation can be conducted by man or machine. Workers can use Andon(A Kind of Signboard) to Stop The Process: Work Station Team has the ability to stop the line and complete standardized work in station if there are some problems in the product line.

If the Team Member has a quality issue within their standardized work they activate the Andon system to: * Initiate a call for help through station light, Andon board, and melody * Empower the Team Member to stop line ;amp; organization responds to provide support * Stop at FPS (Fixed Position Stop) to contain and complete the repair * Where Andon is not available the principles still apply Alarm and Escalation Process: When a defect is detected, feedback to the appropriate team or individual will be given by using a communication system. The alarm is raised by using audio/visual signals (e. . Andon). The alarm process directs the support functions to: * ‘Go and See’ the problem * Apply containment to prevent further flow of defects * Initiate problem solving Containment Containment: the purpose of it is the achievement of customer expectations relies on a method to contain defects within the manufacturing process, and implement corrections to protect the next/downstream customer. This also supports the “Do Not Ship” element of the quality motto: * Vehicle delivery to the customer * Powertrain and MFD plants to vehicle assembly * External supplier to the manufacturing plant Internal departments (e. g. between body, paint and GA) * Between work stations within a department Summary of In-Process Control and Verification Standardized work is performed in every process and includes the required quality checks. Process control activities are implemented on equipment to control variation on a daily basis and maintain capability over a period of time. Detection confirms the manufacturing process and ensures both internal (Production Team Members) and External Customers (people who buy our products) are receiving products that meet or exceed the quality standards.

A process is in place to contain defects within the manufacturing process and implement permanent corrective actions that are verified as being effective. 3. 3 Process Failure and Effect Analysis Purpose of this procedure: Investigation, documentation and if necessary reduction of the risk potential (Risk Priority Number-RPN) for all production processes. RISK PRIORITY NUMBER S x O x D = RPN * S = Severity * O = Occurrence * D = Detection * RPN = Risk Priority Number* * 1 = Lowest1000 = Highest There are some questions to answer for the Process Failure and Effect Analysis: Potential failure mode:What things have gone wrong?

What things could go wrong? Effects of failure:What does a failure mean to the next operation, the assy plant, the final customer? Potential Cause of failure: Root cause what has gone wrong in the past Brainstorm what could cause failures? Current controls: What do we do today to prevent the defect from occurring and getting to our customer? Recommended actions: If current controls are not 100% effective, what actions should be taken? 3. 4 Quality Feedback/Feedforward Definition: The communication of quality expectations and results between customers and suppliers through standardized communication pathways.

Purpose: To ensure that information on quality reaches those who need it. Feed Information Forward: Internal and external suppliers communicate known/potential problems and/or problem solving status to their customers in a timely manner. This provides the customer with sufficient lead time to react to upcoming changes and take appropriate measures. Feed Information Back: Internal and external customers communicate known/potential problems and/or problem solving resolution to their suppliers in a timely manner. This provides the supplier with sufficient lead time to react to customer issues and take appropriate measures.

Build and quality status of each vehicle is communicated to downstream processes. Summary of Quality Feedback/Feedforward Feedback/Feedforward promotes the communication of quality expectations and results between customers and suppliers through: * Clearly defining customer/supplier communication requirements •Defining timing, content, and format of information •Establishing metrics and the subsequent management process •Effective implementation of the Feedback/Feedforward communication tools •Problem identification, input into the plant problem solving process and countermeasure follow up . 5 Quality System Management Who is responsible for Quality? Team work is absolutely essential to deliver world-class quality. Everyone! Quality is a shared responsibility Quality Function Resource Allocation: Manufacturing and quality resources are allocated to support the quality system and interface with engineering. Each area requires sufficient resources to properly focus on supporting production and driving continuous improvement through P-D-C-A. Resource allocation needs to consider the quality and production components that are required to support the team member.

Development of an organization for quality incorporates the “Planning”, “Doing” and “Checking” functions into their structure. Summary of Quality System Management Quality System Management provides the supporting structure and framework for the implementation of the quality system and ongoing improvement to the quality of our products through: * Establishment and implementation of a strategic quality plan for the organization * Allocation of manufacturing and quality resources to support the quality plan * Development of an rganization for quality that incorporates the “Planning”, “Doing” and “Checking” functions into their structure * Identification of requirements for documentation, procedures, practices and assessments * Integration of both quality and manufacturing BPD’s at all levels of the organization Part 4. Comments 4. 1 Achievements beyond Efficiency The GMS is generating positive results. By using GMS, General Motors achieved efficiency in many aspects. And GMS is a system built around people.

The system stresses the value of teamwork, and is based on an underlying philosophy that everyone, in every position, adds value. In an empowered environment, everyone’s experience and insights are valued. Manufacturing performance is improved through the consistent adoption of five principals-people involvement, standardization, built in quality, short lead time and continuous improvement. The principals are interrelated and implemented as a complete system. When implemented, the GMS principals maximize performance in the areas of people systems, safety, quality, customer responsiveness and cost.

Products, plants and processes are designed to allow GM’s people to use their skills and abilities as efficiently as possible. GM is the industry benchmark in safety, a goal achieved through a strong partnership between GM and its unions. GM’s workers realize a healthy, injury-free environment. The team concept is a critical part of managing quality by making each team responsible for managing quality in their area. Team members receive extensive training in identifying and solving problems. GM’s manufacturing strategy maximizes customer responsiveness, by responding fast to customer and market trends.

GM’s manufacturing system concentrates on cost savings by eliminating all forms of waste that detract from our ability to be competitive. 4. 2 A Too-Lean GM? It wasn’t that long ago that General Motors was producing too many vehicles. Now the giant automaker can’t produce enough for some area dealers, who said they are finding it difficult to keep enough inventory of some new car and truck models to satisfy demand. And they’re probably losing some sales because of it “I definitely believe it’s restricted” our sales, Scott Hatchett, managing partner of Scholfield Buick GMC, said Monday.

GM’s efforts to emerge from bankruptcy a leaner company mean the inventory Hatchett and other dealers have access to has been much thinner, especially for certain models such as GMC Terrain as well as the Buick Enclave and LaCrosse. “We literally get down to where we have one or two of those vehicles in stock,” he said. Jill Hattan said her dealership, Don Hattan Chevrolet in Park City, has had a difficult time keeping in stock the Chevy Equinox and Camaro. “It’s just trickling in on top of a small inventory,” she said. “We are definitely missing some sales. Hattan said her dealership is trying to alleviate the lack of inventory from Chevrolet by tapping other dealers’ inventory. “We actually try to purchase several at a time just for stock but when everyone’s short, that’s not easy to do either,” she said. GM spokesman Tom Henderson said his company is “dramatically different” now than before it entered a brief bankruptcy in June 2009. It’s axed brands such as Saturn and Pontiac, closed plants and received $50 billion in aid from the federal government. Before GM’s bankruptcy “we typically ran with very high inventories,” Henderson said.

As a leaner company, its production has been sharply trimmed. Now the company is attempting to find the sweet spot between production and demand. “It’s a really delicate balancing act,” Henderson said. Henderson said he couldn’t disclose production rates going forward. But he did point to efforts by the company to ramp up production on the GMC Terrain and Chevy Equinox. It has taken an unused portion of its plant in Ontario, Canada, to create capacity for the manufacture of 60,000 to 80,000 more vehicles. Those two midsize SUVs are hot sellers for GM.

GM said earlier this month that through the first six months of 2010, sales of the Equinox and Terrain were up nearly 193 percent from the same period last year. Henderson said the company is listening to its dealers such as Hatchett and Hattan. “We take their input seriously,” Henderson said, adding that dealers should see this fall the results of GM’s increased production efforts at its Canadian plant. As for additional production increases, “We’ll judge based on business conditions what to do going forward. ” Bibliography * [http://www. gm. com] * Womack, James P. ; Daniel T. Jones, and Daniel Roos.

The Machine That Changed the World,1990. * Bailey, David (24 January 2008). “Automotive News calls Toyota world No. 1 car maker”. Reuters. com. Reuters. Retrieved 19 April 2008. * [http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Lean_manufacturing#cite_note-Reuters-3] * [http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Toyota_Production_System] * Strategos-International. Toyota Production System and Lean Manufacturing. * [http://www. autointell-news. com/News-2003/January-2003/January-2003-1/January-03-03-p6. htm], GM’s Global Manufacturing System – A System To Build Great Cars and Trucks. * Jerry Siebenmark, A Too-Lean GM? , 2010.

General Motors with Lean Manufacturing Essay

Distinct Features of Job Production Essay

Distinct Features of Job Production Essay.

Job Shop Production usually refers to manufacturers that produce items that are “one of a kind”, for example, manufactures of automation systems and tooling. Manufacturers who produce a wide variety of items in very low volumes also fall into the Job shop category. For example, very large mining trucks are produced in volumes typically less than 400 annually. Each truck has thousands of components so you can imagine that there are significant challenges in production scheduling, purchasing and inventory control with this type of manufacturing company as with all Job shops.

Job Production Job production involves producing a one-off product for a specific customer. Job production is most often associated with small firms (making railings for a specific house, building/repairing a computer for a specific customer, making flower arrangements for a specific wedding etc. ) but large firms use Job production too. Examples include: Designing and implementing an advertising campaign Auditing the accounts ofa large . Building a new factory Installing machinery in a factory In this system products are made to satisfy a specific order.

However that order may be produced- -only once -at irregular time intervals as and when new order arrives -at regular time intervals to satisfy a continuous demand The following are the important Features of Job shop type production system: Machines and methods employed should be general purpose as product changes are quite frequent. Planning and control system should be flexible enough to deal with the frequent changes in product requirements. Man power should be skilled enough to deal with changing work conditions. ? Schedules are actually non existent n this system as no definite data is available on the product. In process inventory will usually be high as accurate plans and schedules do not exist. Product cost is normally high because of high material and labor costs. Grouping of machines is done on functional basis (i. e. as lathe section, milling section etc. ) This system is very flexible as management has to manufacture varying product types. Material handling systems are also flexible to meet changing product requirements.

Key benefits of Job production include: work is generally of a high quality high level of customisation is possible to meet the customer’s exact requirements significant flexibility is possible, especially when compared to mass production. performing Disadvantages include: higher cost of production requires the use of specialist labour (compare with the repetitive, low-skilled Jobs in mass production. slow compared to other methods of production. Essential features There are a number of features that should be implemented in a Job production environment, they include: Clear definitions of objectives should be set.

Clearly outlined decision making process. Batch production is a manufacturing used to produce or process any product in BATCHES, as opposed toa CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION process, or a one-off production. The primary characeristic of batch production is that all components are completed at a workstation before they move to the next one. Batch production is popular in bakeries and in the manufacture of sports shoes, pharmaceutical ingredients, inks, paints and adhesives .

Batch Production Batch production is the manufacture of a number of identical articles either to meet a specific order or to meet a continuous demand. Batch can be manufactured either- -only once -or repeatedly at irregular time intervals as and when demand arise -or repeatedly at regular time intervals to satisfy a continuous demand The following are the important Features of batch type production system: As final product is somewhat standard and manufactured in batches, economy of scale can be availed to some extent. Machines are grouped on functional basis similar to the Job shop manufacturing. ? Semi automatic, special purpose automatic machines are generally used to take advantage of the similarity among the products. Labor should be killed enough to work upon different product batches. In process inventory is usually high owing to the type of layout and material handling policies adopted. Semi automatic material handling systems are most appropriate in conjunction with the semi automatic machines. Normally production planning and control is difficult due to the odd size and non repetitive nature of order. There are inefficiencies associated with batch production.

The production equipment must be stopped, re- confgured, and its output tested before the next batch can be produced. Time between batches is known as ‘down time’. Batch production is useful for a factory that makes seasonal items or products for which it is difficult to FORECAST demand. There are several advantages of batch production; it can reduce initial capital outlay because a single production line can be used to produce several

Distinct Features of Job Production Essay

Comparison of Toc vs Lean Essay

Comparison of Toc vs Lean Essay.

Even though each improvement methodology contributes valuable concepts, ideas and techniques to every organization not all of them serve to the needs of organization if leadership doesn’t actively involve to the efforts of the improvement teams. Theory of Constraints (TOC) At his book Goldratt (2004) defines the primary goal as to make money. This can be achieved by simply identifying and eliminating the constraints that limits the output of the entire system. As a result of the organizational change, he aims to see an increase on throughput and decrease on operational expense and inventory.

Theory of constraints (TOC) is based on the premise that the rate of goal achievement is limited by at least one constraining process. Only by increasing flow through the constraint can overall throughput be increased where throughput is the rate at which the system generates money through sales. Inventory is all the money that the system has invested in purchasing things which it intends to sell. Operational expense is all the money the system spends in order to turn inventory into throughput.

He recommends a five step process: 1. Identify the constraint. 2. Exploit the constraint. 3. Subordinate other processes to the constraint. . Elevate the constraint. 5. Repeat the cycle. Line Manufacturing (Thinking) Lean is a total operating system for manufacturing plants and has broad application in product or service businesses. On the contrary to TOC, Lean focuses to create a value to customer by the removal of waste, which is defined as anything not necessary to produce the product or service. Lean manufacturing measure the performance of the company by using three dimensions, cost, lead time and value-added percentage. As Reid (2007) says, Lean initiates metric improvement by assessing the system using Value Stream Mapping (VSM).

VSM has a standard set of icons and instructions for documenting material and information flows based on actual shop floor observation. Value stream observation starts at the process closest to the customer and follows upstream step-by-step to raw material receiving. Similar to TOC, there are five essential steps in lean: 1. Identify which features create value. 2. Identify the sequence of activities called the value stream. 3. Make the activities flow. 4. Let the customer pull product or service through the process. 5. Perfect the process. Lean involves many people in the value stream.

Lean sees an organization as a collection of parts and aims a local optimization system where TOC focuses on a local action with holistic optimization for the organization. The Theory of Constraints (TOC) is a relatively new managerial philosophy that has been steadily evolving since the early 1980s. TOC does advocate buffers at inventory at selected points to ensure that neither the constraint nor the customer is left waiting. Lean aims to reduce lead time and inventory and thus costs by eliminating waste; TOC aims to reduce lead time and inventory in order to gain capacity, increase Throughput (i. . the rate at which money is generated through the sale of products) and provide a competitive edge – thus enabling the business to grow.

Thus it is evident that TOC methodology can provide Lean techniques with a high degree of focus which is both in tune with reality and achievable on a practical level, effectively bridging the knowledge gap that can exist between Lean in theory and Lean in practice. Because the bottom line benefits to be gained from increasing Throughput are greater than those likely to be realised via Lean waste/cost reduction alone, TOC provides Lean Manufacturing with a forward-thinking framework which not only directs improvement efforts where they will be most beneficial, but which is also an excellent platform for future growth.

Comparison of Toc vs Lean Essay

Computer Aided Process Planning Essay

Computer Aided Process Planning Essay.

Process Planning Products and their components are designed to perform certain specific functions. Every product has some design specifications which ensure its functionality aspects. The task of manufacturing is to produce components such that they meet design specifications. Process planning acts as a bridge between design and manufacturing by translating design specifications into manufacturing process details.

It refers to a set of instructions that are used to make a component or a part so that the design specifications are met, therefore it is major determinant of manufacturing cost and profitability of products.

Process planning answers the questions regarding required information and activities involved in transforming raw materials into a finished product. The process starts with the selection of raw material and ends with the completion of part.

The development of process plans involves mainly a set of following activities; •Analysis of part requirements •Selection of raw workpiece •Selection of manufacturing operations and their sequences •Selection of machine tools •Selection of tools, tool holding devices, work holding devices and inspection equipments •Selection of manufacturing conditions i.

e. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. •Determination of manufacturing times (2) The manual experience-based planning method The manual experience-based process planning is most widely used.

It is mainly based on a manufacturing engineer’s experience and knowledge of production facilities, equipment, their capabilities, processes, and tooling. The major problem with this approach is that it is time consuming and developed plans may not be consistent and optimum. The feasibility of developed process plan is dependant on many factors such as availability of machine tools, scheduling and machine allocation etc. Computer aided process planning is developed to overcome this problems to some extent.

Computer Aided Process Planning Essay

Clean Room Activities Essay

Clean Room Activities Essay.

Cleanrooms may be different size from small to complex multilevel structures with large serviced equipment and utilities. Cleanroom is a controlled placement where different products are manufactured. And concentration of airborne particles is controlled to specified limits. So we need to control process of killing ultrafines airborne contaminants. The contaminations are generated by people, processes, facilities, and equipment. They must be continually removed from the air. The level of air cleanliness in the room must be regulated by standards. The most frequently used standard is the ISO 14644.

It is a document that establishes standard classes of air cleanliness in terms of airborne particulate levels in cleanrooms and clean zones. ” A room which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled, and which is constructed and used in a manner to minimize the introduction, generation, and retention of particles inside the room and in which other relevant parameters, e. g. temperature, humidity, and pressure, are controlled as necessary. ” /1/ The basic function of a cleanroom is to protect the manufactured product from contamination.

In the pharmaceutical production economical survival of the manufacturer depends on the safety of the finished product. So, it is needed to know a potential source of contamination, which could include the working environment itself. Requirements of the quality of supply air have increased due to development of new high technologies in different sectors of human activities. Main operation factors which characterize air quality are temperature, humidity, pressure, and cleanness. Settings are chosen on conditions to support every individual technological process.

Maximum requirements for air quality are concentration of suspension particles per unit of air capacity and maximum permissible quantity of viable microorganisms per unit of air capacity 2 Therefore, we can not use general ventilation systems in pharmaceutical cleanrooms for the permanent maintaining of these parameters. In this case we need systematic methods to create special engineering constructions. Cleanroom means a complex of technological tools for supporting set-up parameters of air quality. In this thesis I would like to analyze main applications and rules of cleanrooms in pharmaceutical industry.

My purpose is study how cleanrooms should be designed and how cleanrooms can be controlled. I also will compare Russian and International requirements of similar spaces. 2. CONTAMINATION SOURCES AND REGULATING STANDARDS 2. 1 Contamination sources There are several sources of contamination such as process equipment, personnel and surfaces. Bacteria are the most important contaminant in a pharmaceutical cleanroom. Almost all of these come from the people in the room. So we need to know the number of people who are working in the rooms.

As this will have a direct behavior on the quantity of air required to dilute and remove the airborne dispersion of contamination from their bodies. The efficiency of their cleanroom clothing will have an influence to the contamination dispersed by the people in the room and air quantity. Cooling load also depends on the type of clothing. The more effective the clothing is in preventing dispersion, the less exchange of air there is through the clothing fabric. Staff will feel discomfort due to high temperature and likely to require lower room temperatures.

Temperature level of cleanroom ordinary is 20°C with an RH of 40% ± 5%. For moisture sensitive materials it is required lower RH 25% ± 5%. Also these levels depend on geographical location, production and clothing worn. So dry bulb temperatures can vary in the range of 18°C to 22°C. /6/ Another significant source of particulate contamination is process equipment. Prevention by removal of particles at source should be the first objective before a 3 limitation is made for removing it once it has entered the cleanroom space. This will ensure a more cost-effective design.

Coming into the cleanroom an airborne contamination from outside is an ordinary problem. That can happen if outside airborne contamination produced by badly detailed material into the cleanroom. So holes in construction should be minimized. And the room became sealed to prevent this problem. The entering of contamination can also be provided when personnel, equipment or material are distributed through badly designed airlocks and changing areas. There can be surface or air contamination. Pharmaceutical cleanroom suites consist of different cleanrooms, where are made several steps of production.

Standards of environmental control increase step by step when product materials and packaging components are carried out processes into different rooms. It is continued until one reaches the moment of product filling, closing and sealing. There is required the highest quality condition. Less environmental conditions are required when a sealed product coming for labeling and inspection. Different standards of environmental control are reached by various air supply rates and the usage of unidirectional flow units or isolators at the critical areas.

Clean Room Activities Essay