Challenges Faced by the Print Media Essay

Challenges Faced by the Print Media Essay.

Conventional wisdom in the media industry holds that existing, established forms of media adapt to new and emerging forms. For example, radio adapted to the emergence of television rather than simply fading away. The emergence of the Internet and the plethora of information available, however, have led many to question the conventional view. Media executives and scholars agree that newspapers, magazines and other forms of print media face serious challenges in terms of readers, revenue and even their existence.

Declining Readership •Readership of many forms of print media, especially newspapers, has been declining for years, and the Internet may have only accelerated this trend.

Further, newspapers have largely failed to reach the younger, technologically savvy generations. The Press Council of Australia, in its 2006 report on the State of the News Print Media, reported that people over the age of 50 comprise nearly half of the readers of Australia’s newspapers. In the United States, the Pew Research Center for People and the Press, a nationally known public opinion research firm, reported in 2008 that the Internet surpassed newspapers as a news source.

Television, however, remained the most popular source of national and world news. Lost Revenues

•As the print media lose readers, shrinking their circulation figures, it becomes increasingly difficult for newspapers, magazines and other print outlets to sell the advertising space that provides the bulk of their revenues. Media consultant Jack Myers, writing for the online Huffington Post, reported that newspaper ad revenues plunged an estimated 40 percent since 2001, based on projected revenues for 2010. Further, Myers reported that magazine advertising revenues fell between 12 and 15 percent in 2008. Even the “Yellow Pages” telephone directories are not immune from this trend, as Myers projected declines in their ad revenues, as well.

Long-Term Survival •Declining advertising revenues have threatened the very existence of many print media outlets, especially newspapers. As revenues fall, many newspapers have slashed their editorial staffs and shuttered news bureaus. Some print media outlets have even ceased operations. The trend may continue, with more newspapers and other print publications going out of business. The Press Council of Australia cited a 2006 report by the London-based magazine “The Economist,” which predicted the extinction of at least some of the United Kingdom’s newspapers. The worrying trends and threats to their viability have many print media executives scrambling to develop news business models and methods to adapt to and prosper in this new media environment. Newspapers have increased their online presence, according to a survey of news media consumption by Pew Research; however, growth online has not offset newspapers’ losses in print readership.

Challenges Faced by the Print Media Essay

Newspaper vs Tv Essay

Newspaper vs Tv Essay.

Print and television are two dominant media outlets for the news. Unlike radio, they are predominately visual, although television provides both visual and auditory information. Newspaper and television news organizations each have long-established traditions for reporting news in their respective media, which engenders distinct human behaviors that shape how people obtain news. For instance, television broadcasts present short video-based stories that are sequenced linearly and fit within a specified timeframe for on-air viewing.

One’s access to and the sequence of such stories is controlled by the news organization.

There are no archives of stories immediately available, unless the viewer records the broadcast. Conversely, newspapers primarily offer text content intended for in-depth reading whereby the reader selects a story of interest and reads it for however long he or she desires; thus, readers control the access to the information presented in the paper. Additionally, the printed paper can be archived for later reading.

Increasingly, news organizations employ the Web as an outlet to accommodate a growing number of people who seek news online.

More than fifty million Americans utilize the Internet daily to keep informed about local, national, and international events (Horrigan, 2006), a trend that will likely continue. Millions of people seek news through newspaper affiliated Websites (Jesdanun, 2009; Society for New Communications Research, 2007) and TV-oriented sites associated with television news stations, both of which pervade the Web.

While the Web is another vehicle for disseminating news, it represents a highly dynamic interface characterized by a proliferation of motion and static media and interactivity that supersedes what is found in either traditional newsprint or on television. It is not yet clear how it shapes the way users attend to news information. In addition, newspaper and television news organizations often design sites to underscore their newsprint or television traditions and reporting methods, resulting in distinctive information and graphical layouts that will likely influence user behavior.

For example, the homepage of The New York Times, a newspaper-oriented site, reflects a newsprint layout that engenders reading. It presents a minimalistic design with headlines and article summaries dispersed throughout the page, similar to a newspaper. CNN, a TV-oriented site, features minimal text and more concentrated listings of links, many with corresponding video camera icons indicating that video is available. Visitors spend between 25 and 35 seconds on a Website homepage before leaving (Nielsen & Loranger, 2006) and they typically read pages by scanning.

Because The New York Times features headlines and story summaries distributed throughout the homepage, and high density text, one might expect a user’s visual attention to be more dispersed and browsing to be prolonged compared to a site like CNN, which presents limited text and a concentration of navigation links in the upper portion of the display. Moreover, people perceived newspaper and TV-oriented sites as different, with TV-oriented sites receiving more positive ratings in terms of screen layout, design, and overall rating (Gibbs, Bernas, & McKendrick, in press).

In a survey that examined newspaper, newsweeklies, and TV-oriented sites in the Houston, Texas area, almost half of the sites that attracted 10% or more of the immediate market were TV-oriented (The Media Audit, 2005). The aforementioned factors are compounded by the fact that a convergence of newspaper and television media are occurring, dramatically increasing the complexity of the visual landscape. On American television, it is common for news programs to use visual treatments such as split-screens and animated text that are typically associated with the Web (Josephson & Holmes, 2008, p. 87).

The Web has adopted elements of television. While a provider’s site may reflect its media origins, it will likely integrate characteristics not typically associated with that form of media. For instance, users can watch video on a newspaper site such as USA Today and The New York Times. In the United States, video is available on 92% of the major 100 newspaper Websites (Society for New Communications Research, 2007). Alternatively, users can read news articles on a TV-oriented site such as CNN, as well as participate in blogs about various topics (Gibbs, 2008).

Better understanding of how people allocate visual attention on newspaper and TV-oriented sites is an important area of inquiry for several reasons. First, print and television media and associated reporting approaches pervade traditional media outlets and the Web. Millions of people use these sites daily. Second, major newspapers and TV providers each represent their traditional media origins online in unique ways and these representations are perceptual to users. The extent to which they support or distract user attention is not yet clear but should be examined given the pervasiveness of these sites.

Third, the Web has emerged as a distribution channel for the news. Compared to newspapers and television, it affords distinct interaction modalities that shape how users access and attend to newsprint and television media. For instance, TV news broadcasts, prepared as video for the Web, can be made nonlinear and user controlled but they are often segmented to increase accessibility, which constitutes a dramatically different experience of obtaining the news compared to watching a continuous newscast on television.

Text articles can be presented online without segmentation, as in a newspaper. However, users tend to scan text online so these articles may be read differently from those in newsprint. With greater understanding of where and how users allocate visual attention, developers and information architects can begin to design sites to augment information access and improve Web designs and services overall (Chi, Pirolli, Chen, & Pitkow, 2001; Heer & Chi, 2002). This is especially important for news sites where users actively seek content that changes continuously.

Newspaper vs Tv Essay

Dove’s Real Beauty Campaign: a Reflection Essay

Dove’s Real Beauty Campaign: a Reflection Essay.

Jennifer Millard’s Performing beauty: Dove’s “Real Beauty” campaign was made to conduct a study on the results of the company Dove’s Real Beauty Campaign onto it’s targeted audience, women. Throughout the study Jennifer Millard explains that Dove’s Real Beauty Campaign is a series of advertisements in magazines and commercials that promotes and empowers beauty for every women, no matter what other media outlets says. Millard uses focus groups and interviews with sixteen Canadian women to investigate the opinions; with ages ranging from fifteen to fifty-nine years old.

Within the study, I found two main themes within Millard’s article, which will be discussed and reflected on how it contributed to her study.

The first theme I found quite interesting in Millard’s study was how she was connecting her definition of beauty towards a symbolic interactionist perspective by explaining how it is the culture and society that determines which features would be deemed as beautiful or not.

I somewhat disagree with Millard’s connection because while the media outlets to society what they should and should not be, most of the content was created by the outlets themselves with their opinions of what society should be. While the society may have certain opinions on these topics, the media elaborates on the opinions society has and makes them more negative and demanding then they actually are.

For example, in Millard’s study she shows the participants an advertisement from the Dove Real Beauty Campaign of a naked, overweight, middle-aged African American woman. After seeing many of the other Real Beauty Campaigns, this was the first advertisement that got a negative reaction from one of the focus groups. “Sasha: Sometimes I’m like ew, I wonder why is this even in here? Like all these Dove ones, there is old wrinkly lady. Her legs are like this and you can’t see any- thing and it’s like why is she in here?

Monica: She’s naked and like oh no!” (Millard 164) From these reactions that came from the youngest aged focus group, it reflects the negative attitude regarding nudity the media has created against overweight, non-white women. The general, society-made opinion on nudity is that it is an act to be seen not in the public eye, but in a private setting. The media has taken that opinion of nudity and subjected it to making it more tolerable in public (in certain films or advertisements) but only if the people who are naked are deemed beautiful enough. An argument that can be made against my point is that only one of the focus groups in Jennifer Millard’s study had a negative reaction to the advertisement.

The focus group that reacted negatively to the advertisement also happened to be the focus group with the youngest women in the group. Their reaction can be explained because they have not had a long experience with “out of the norm” advertisements and are used to seeing advertisements with a more negative message within them, compared to the other and more experienced focus groups. Also, the women in the other aged focus groups can better relate to the model’s “imperfections” compared to the younger focus group. Millard explained in her article that specific advertisement was Dove’s boldest one in the study, and expected that it will cause stronger reactions compared to the other campaign advertisements the focus groups would be seeing.

Another theme that I found when reading Jennifer Millard’s article was the idea of privilege that the media creates within the desire of beauty. By being classified as beautiful in society, the media creates a shift in power that only beautiful people can have and reinforces the power within majority groups in the society. “In Western culture, those with beautiful bodies and faces “get more” out of life because beauty is highly valued (Black 2004). Beautiful people are viewed as more intelligent, powerful, healthy, and of higher class than the masses of regular Joes and Janes (Plous and Neptune 1997).” (Millard 150). To make sure this idea of privilege gets reinforced, and not every person can be classified with is privilege, the media has created extreme expectations that are very difficult for a woman to fully achieve every requirement. These expectations range from being tall and having a slender body, long, shiny hair, clear skin, and trendy, expensive clothes.

These expectations creates a form of privilege within society, that the small percentage of people who have all those qualities are classified correctly will all the benefits and advantages. I definitely agree with Millard’s on this issue because everyone who is not classified as beautiful has seen this form of privilege in the media. By looking at a tabloid magazine or by watching television, the privilege of beautiful is often flashed into the eyes of the less worthy, non-beautiful majority. Award shows is a obvious example of this privilege. Here famous and usually beautiful people gather and attend a extravagant night of drinking and celebration, and accompanied by thousands of dollars worth of jewellery and clothing on their bodies. Throughout their campaign, Dove promotes equality of beauty between all groups of women, no matter their size, shape or age.

With their campaign message, they are attempting to eliminate the privilege that only women classified as beautiful deserve. As positive as this campaign is, at the end of the day Dove is a company trying to make a profit. Instead of the usual kind of advertising with the message that their product will make the woman who buys it more beautiful; they state that every women is already beautiful, and they can embrace their beauty by buying a dove related product. From advertising with this point of view, Dove is assuming that no women knows their true beauty, and will never see it unless they buy their products. When looking at that viewpoint Dove is stating, it can be seen as offending towards any woman who is already confident in their beauty and self-image.

In conclusion, while the Dove Real Beauty Campaign is certainly not the only solution towards changing the view of beauty in the media, Jennifer Millard’s study discusses the many pros and cons the campaign offers towards women in a fair matter. Millard also presents the themes of a symbolic interactionist perspective and of privilege that help benefits the Real Beauty Campaign which in time, creates more positive content within the media.

Reference List

Millard, Jennifer. “Dove’s “Real Beauty” Campaign.” University of California Press (2009): n. pag. JSTOR. University of California Press. Web. 5 Feb. 2013.

Dove’s Real Beauty Campaign: a Reflection Essay

Is the Media Biased? Essay

Is the Media Biased? Essay.

What is media bias? Media bias is the one-sided perspective of the broadcasters and journalists of the news. I believe that major broadcasts and newspapers can be biased because the opinions of journalists and newscasters can influence the way people view information based on the way it is presented. If we base our views on what’s reported in the media, it can affect our outlook on national and global issues. As I observed news broadcasts between FOX and CNN, I’ve noticed that FOX seems to have a more conservative perspective while CNN and other news broadcasts have a more liberal or balanced way of reporting the news.

One of my observations between FOX and CNN was how they reported the CIA scandal of General Petraeus. FOX news seems to place more emphasis on the White House knowing about the scandal but covering it up until the election was over. They show bias towards the Republican Party and seem to illustrate favoritism toward their own political views.

CNN focused more on the relationship between General Petraeus and Paula Broadwell and how the FBI began its investigation. Another national issue where there appears to be bias in the reporting was Hurricane Sandy. FOX news analysts felt like White House should have received more criticism on the response of Sandy, as the Bush administration did for Hurricane Katrina. CNN focused more on interviewing victims of Sandy that were affected in this disaster. CNN also questioned several people on the response of the Red Cross assistance. The overall goal of media outlets is to generate revenue and increase viewers, but being bias can sometimes hurt those goals. Media in the format of television, radio, newspapers, and also the internet, are in the business of providing information as well as entertaining viewers, readers, and listeners.

The truth of the matter is… Goldberg says “there is no greater sin than to bore the audience…” (Government in America 227) That uninteresting information and honest facts is not always what attracts a huge audience. “Ratings are the reason television people do almost everything. (Goldberg 213)” Goldberg states that liberal networks such as CNN, NBC, and CBS, control most of the news market. FOX news has increasingly become more popular over the last years because of the controversial views and bias opinions. This has turned out to be an excellent news marketing concept because viewers that may not agree with FOX news will watch just to hear what the other side has to say. I believe that media can bore people unless there is some sort of controversy, conspiracy theory, or conflict of interest.

A media outlet that has become one of the strongest forms of media is the internet. The internet has opened the floodgates to the world which allows anyone to express their opinions. “The internet is certainly changing the nature of our media system.”(Oligopoly 283) With the rise of the internet, people are able to express their bias opinions using social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, and blogging. Broadcast news does not always report the important issues or what is factual in daily society. The worldwide web has become a more dependable source of daily news where people can find information that may favor their own views. It gives anyone the ability to blog, post content, or videos about our own bias opinions on politics, our government, and other global issues.

It also provides us a platform to speak out against the bias news media to whoever wants to listen to our side in our individual way of thinking. There are tons of bias videos on YouTube, such as 9/11 conspiracy theories, President Obama being a terrorist, or the Tea Party being racist against blacks. Even though media outlets can come off as being bias, it is more profitable for networks, and newspapers to have more open-minded journalists that will attract more viewers and readers. The news should be based on real-life incidents and facts but there always appears to be distorted information from different media broadcasts. When the 9/11 attacks occurred, there were many conflicting stories about bombs going off in the streets, more airplanes that were possibly hijacked, and whether or not U.S military fighter jets shot down civilian aircraft.

Do interest groups strengthen democracy?

An interest group is an “organization of people with similar policy goals who enter the political process to achieve those aims.”(Government in America 325) They allow particular interests and causes to be heard and to use influence in public decision and decision-making. I think that without these groups, our democracy would be weaker and many voices would not be heard.

A theory that strengthens democracy would be the pluralist theory. It claims that interest groups do well to Democracy by “bringing representation to all” (Government in America 325) and it can increase participation and access to the political system; where it can make democracy stronger. These interest groups want to help the voice of the minorities to work with the political parties and influence them. It gives a voice to many that may feel excluded from the political process.

Interest groups represent various social issues from women’s rights, saving the environment, the NRA to Mom’s Against Drunk Drivers. They place emphasis on issues such as economics, the community, and the constitutional rights of all people. The government’s aim should always be to please the public, or to do the best for the state so that these groups can show the government what their group wants to change.

In some ways, interest groups can also weaken American democracy because if there are several different factions, no specific interest group will have more power than the other. One positive aspect I see in interest groups is that they encourage more political participation. Some people believe that interest groups can become too powerful causing the general public to suffer as a result. For example, the NRA promotes gun ownership and a right to bear arms while other interest groups are fighting for stricter gun laws to decrease the murder rate in the country. Interest groups are a necessary part of our free society; however the influence of some interest groups may not be the common good for everyone. The 1st Amendment of our Constitution encourages freedom of speech, and the assembly to petition the government, which is what interest groups are based on.

It is important to understand that these interest groups can be both helpful and damaging for democracy. Today, I believe that the problem of our government is that they pay more attention to special interests more than the public interests. People are becoming more disappointed in our political system. Instead of people in these groups having an equal say in this process, some organizations are giving an unfair advantage than others.

These organizations may have more power and influence to support their issues; however the other groups may not able to fully support their cause due to lack of funds, and also influence. Interest groups can help the democratic process, but only if our lawmakers in Washington listen and fight for these groups. If we want our democracy to be stronger, our citizens must have political power to be shared by all. We should all have a voice in determining our policies in the government, because that is the main goal of democracy. As said by Lincoln in the Gettysburg Address, (“government of the people, by the people, and for the people.”) If the interests of the people become a major concern across the nation, our government will take action to give the country what they need to move forward towards a united nation.

Works Cited
Goldberg, Bernard. “Bias” Faultlines: Debating the Issues in American Politics. Ed. David T. Canon, John J. Coleman, and Kenneth R. Mayer. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2004. 209-212. McChesney, Robert W. “Oligopoly: The Big Media Game Has Fewer and Fewer Players.” The Enduring Debate. Ed David T. Canon, John J. Coleman, and Kenneth R. Mayer. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2003. 282-287 Fox News – Latest News Headlines. 16 November 2012. Television. CNN Newsroom. 16 November 2012. Television.

Edwards, George C., Martin P. Wattenburg, and Robert L. Lineberry. Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy, Twelfth Edition.United States: Pearson, 2006. Print.

Is the Media Biased? Essay

Mass Media and Younger Generation Essay

Mass Media and Younger Generation Essay.

The media can definitely change your perception of intimacy, as well as alter your ability to be intimate. As the media displays false images of the human body and makes false descriptions of what humans desire sexually. There are too many subjects and issues to go on about here, but a small example of the two issues i mentioned before are in magazines the pictures of the models are airbrushed to display, what most call a “flawless” body and in movies and sitcoms the most desired people are medium height, and very slender and so on.

Giving the receivers of this idea the false realization that’s what you have to have to be sexually attractive. which would cause embarrassment of their own bodies or thinking some thing is wrong if they are attracted to some one that’s 4 foot and heavy.Possibly leading them to involvement with someone they are not sexually attracted to and embarrassed to take their clothes off in front of.

This is definitely, in my opinion, going to cause intimacy issues and is an excellent description of proof how mass media plays a role in shaping your meaning of intimacy.

the mass media, including TV, radio, newspapers have a great influence on people and especially on the younger generation. It plays an important role in shaping the opinions and position of the younger generation. Argue for or against this statement.

The peril from Mass media

In the present, the younger generations are influenced by the mass media, including TV, radio, and newspapers. They think this is the model for them because in daily life is necessary for everyone therefore it is not unusual that it have a great influence on the people and especially on the younger generation. .It plays an important role in shaping the opinions and position of the younger generation. The younger imitate by the mass media and it has impact for younger that is impact for dressed, language, and behavior.

Nowadays the younger or teen have been sensitive because the younger is the people who has been 13-18 years old and they want to find something for them that is their dream, acceptance from other people so they want to find inspiration and don’t have limited. So the mass media are important for the younger that they want to be the same the star or some thing when they think is good for them. If they were persuaded by vice maybe they will be scoundrel. Some of people are think it is unsuitable dressed. Although the younger want to be one that who are the modern of them. Some of people think it is suitable but the younger can not consider. The stars are good dress but adult think it is unsuitable. The mass media have good or bad but we do not know so we must warn you child before late time.

However it has impact for family because when the younger use the mass media be the model neither it bad nor it not bad I think it is directly for the younger especially language. It was influenced by younger because when the stars are speaking, the younger are listen it I think they copy the speech from the stars if it is bad I think it is not good.

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Mass Media and Younger Generation Essay

The Negative Impact of Conglomeration of Media Companies on Audiences Essay

The Negative Impact of Conglomeration of Media Companies on Audiences Essay.

The word conglomeration is defined as the formation of a large company by the merging of separate and diverse small firms. Media conglomerate is a large company or corporation formed by merging of different small media outlets such as TV, radio, newspapers, and internet. Big companies tend to buy out other smaller companies in the market to increase their revenue by increasing their viewership, and to control the smaller companies’ resources. This creates media oligopoly by which few firms dominate the market.

This media conglomeration is threatening democracy because of its negative impact on audiences. Those negative effects are profit becoming the main focus of conglomerates effort, media bias, and elimination of local media. The most important negative impact of the conglomeration of media is that profit becomes the main focus of corporate effort. Ivan Fecan, CEO of CTV, says: “If we can’t make money, we have no reason to exist. ” (Mirrlees 1). This leads to reduced program quality and hyper-commercialism.

Media companies became commercially driven and loyal to their sponsors not to the public interest.

Audiences became products rather than consumers because media companies sell them to advertisers. Therefore, space for news and important information shrank to make room for advertisements. Conglomeration of media also leads to reduced quality of programs because they shift the interest of audiences to less important news such as celebrity scandals. When celebrity Anna Nicole Smith died in 2007, cable news net-works gave more coverage to her death than any other important news such as war in Iraq (Baran 38).

Bill Moyer, a journalist, says: “As conglomerates swallow up newspapers, magazines, publishing houses and broadcast outlets, news organizations are folded into entertainment divisions. The news hole in the print media shrinks to make room for ads, celebrities, nonsense and propaganda, and the news we need to know slips from sight. ” (Baran 37). The second negative impact of conglomeration of media is media bias. Due to lack of competition and diversity, people are being manipulated by few conglomerates’ opinions. Israel Asper, known as Izzy, is the founder of CanWest, the largest media conglomerate in Canada.

He is also known for his Zionist views and turned lots of Canadians against Arabs and Muslims by representing them as terrorists. In August 2003, he stated in an interview with Jerusalem Post that “In all our newspapers…we have a very pro-Israel position…we are the strongest supporter of Israel in Canada. ”(NECEF 6). When Asper bought The National Post, the paper strongly supported the state of Israel and its government. The paper also supported Israel during its conflict with Hizbo Allah in Lebanon during the year of 2006, to the extent that one of the paper’s columnists called Hizbo Allah “cockroaches. (Gross 1).

During the year of 2004, the National Post covered the deaths of Israeli children at a rate of 89. 5 times greater than the deaths of Palestinian children (NECEF 7). Also, in 2004, not a single Palestinian child’s death was captured in a National Post photo/caption (NECEF 7). The third negative impact of the conglomeration of media is the elimination of local media. By buying out smaller stations in the local market, these stations’ programs are either cut back or eliminated.

The Reporter, one of the oldest Canadian local newspapers, has been shut down after being bought by Torstar Corporation. Torstar Corporation bought the Reporter in 1999 and since then the corporation reduced the Reporter from being a daily newspaper to a free biweekly one to cut costs (Robock 1). With the closure of the Reporter in 2003, the city of Cambridge lost its oldest local news coverage source in Southern Ontario. Some criticizers claim that Torstar closed the Reporter to make room for the other more profitable daily newspapers (Robock 1).

Mirko Bibic, senior vice-president of regulatory affairs for both the network and its telecommunications parent, BCE Inc, says “We won’t continue to fund chronically unprofitable stations, tiny stations in tiny little towns. ” (Sturgeon 1) . With the closure of many local media outlets lots of employees will be left unemployed. In 2009, 1000 journalists lost their jobs in local newspapers in Northcliffe in the United Kingdome because Northcliffe Media Company lost 37% of these newspapers advertising revenue (Toynbee 1).

Also, Guardian Media Group closed 153 of its local newsroom in the same year (Toynbee 1). In conclusion, conglomeration of media needs lots of attention as it is threatening democracy in Canada. Conglomeration of media made corporations care about the business part of the media more than the ethics of the profession. Conglomeration of media also caused media bias and loss of objectivity in delivering the news to the public. Finally, conglomeration of media is the major cause of the loss of the local news in Canada. As a result, lots of media professionals are losing their jobs.

The Negative Impact of Conglomeration of Media Companies on Audiences Essay

James Thom’s “The Perfect Picture” Essay

James Thom’s “The Perfect Picture” Essay.

In James Thom’s extraordinary piece “The Perfect Picture” he writes about situations he was in at a one point of his life. He explains an experience he was in as a young police reporter and driving to a seen, where the grandfather back over this granddaughter. When he drives up he sees all the media and the police gather around the grandfather. The grandfather couldn’t even grasp the concept of what happened yet, before news reporters and photographers are invading his property, life and time with his family to grieve over his granddaughter.

When Thom sees the opportunity to snap the photo of the grandfather cradling the little girl, wrapped in a sheet, lying cold and lifeless in his arms. Thom has such a huge decision to make, and only a mere moment to decide on what he will do. Thom thinks about his career, for a brief second, and he almost pushes the shutter, the button that has the power to keep time standing still, for now and forever.

He has the power to expose the emotions and lives of people, including this family, that have to re-live these experiences for the rest of their life. He can see the joy on the faces of his executives, and the awards that would be engraved with his name. If pictures are worth a thousand words, then his “perfect picture” will be worth a million! Thom finally decides there is still no way to justify this intrusion of private family affairs. He shows courage in his decision and great confidence in his ability as a reporter.

James Thom is making the right decision in not taking the opportunity to snap the perfect photograph. In today’s society the media takes advantage of the common people, and profits from the world’s misfortunes. In the era this story is taking place, the media is no different. The media believes they have the right to intrude into people’s lives, take what they want, and assume no responsibility and reap no consequences for their actions. Newspapers, TV stations, and so forth, call this their right to free speech. Watching a reporter taking pictures, pushing shoving and crowding around the scene, is like watching a group of wild hyenas fighting each other for one piece of dead carcass.

On one side, there would be those that believe pictures, events, and the news, regardless of the subject matter are public property as long as it’s done in the name of media material. Reporters, journalist and photographers all fall into the same category. They are there to find the story, and if there is not a story present. They construct one to create intrigue for their customers. Most of the media is ruthless, cold and with hearts of stone. These beasts stop at nothing to get what they need to fulfill the greed in their soul.

James Thom’s “The Perfect Picture” Essay

The current trends in mass media Essay

The current trends in mass media Essay.

Media for the people. Mass media is an ever changing entity, as we have observed over the past years. It has been very useful and has played a big role in the formation and extraction of the people’s opinion; it is also a way to reflect their ideas of many relevant issues. It has been a bridge to communicate with the people around the world, introducing new things to new people.

Thru the years, mass media has seen great changes, revisions and additions.

It has introduced much more complex interactions between media and the society, continuously providing information to those who seek it. The latest addition to mass media is the internet, one of the most efficient ways of communicating over a large group of people. In the advent of internet, the two-way interaction between mass media and the people began to change, introducing much more ways to reach people.

Mass media revolution

There are a lot of factors which have driven the changes in mass media.

These factors have been the fuel to the ongoing media revolution, which sparked the emergence of trends in mass media. The first factor that contributes to this revolution is the changing landscape of content that is presented to the viewers.  Content-wise, precise.

Everything in mass media became content-wise, form print, to blogs, to commercials, to newscasts on television. They are conscious of what is in them, what is packed inside for their consumers – the people. They are concerned about the information they carry, whether or not the people will like it. Because of this, it gave the people wider boundaries of the entire concept of content, the message, information and all. Every aspect is being furnished to the people’s liking, aiming for their patronage of the information they offer.

Means of distribution. As content draws more interest to the people, the means of distribution and who it’s being distributed to, is affecting mass media. The first concern is the way in which content reaches the people, the audience, has made the mass media even more reachable. This flood of content availability is greatly changing the people’s way of assimilating media. Taking for example the internet, it provides a great deal of information to the people, so much more than what people could take.

In order to face this great deal of information, improved searching capabilities like search engines made it easier to process the information, may it a lot easier to classify the ones you need and the ones you don’t need. The distribution aspect of this information is going mobile, from hand-held gadgets like iPods, cellular phones to other wireless means, people are able to acquire different information anywhere and anytime they want to. Because of this, the people who creates this contents are responsible for the information overload problem it poses, thus leaving them the tasks of improving the content even more as time goes by.

The target audience. With the increased means of disseminating information, there is also a great change in the ones who will be using this content – the people. The people, the main audience of these changes in content and much more, are the ones who need to understand it more. The concern then is how the different groups of people accessing this information will be able to assimilate them, how these messages will be appropriate for them. The accessibility of information to these people is very great; you can get information just like any other people anywhere in the world (Tanner, 2005).

The internet. The internet has been the main trend that media is experiencing now. It has been the primary driving force of the mass media revolution that we are having now. The internet enabled its users to access tons and tons of information of a great variety. In the internet, you could find information about other countries, famous and infamous people, the latest technologies, and latest breakthroughs in science, medicine, the arts, and so much more. It enables you to have business transaction whenever, wherever you are. You can buy and sell things, thus creating a “paperless society.” In the internet, you could have your daily dose of news and information, sports updates and weather forecasts.

You can virtually do anything over the internet

The internet debate. The internet has opened its users to unlimited amounts of contents, thus creating a debate over the idea of “net neutrality,” whether or not certain content should be open or restricted to the people. The future of mass media depends on how this issue will be resolved. If it leads to the point where the ability to view the internet freely is removed, the availability of the content will greatly affect mass media. But recently, the inseparability between traditional mass media and the internet has been a growing trend. Because of this, the content available to the people is affected, again being altered in more ways than one.

The internet is an open communication forum. Because of this, it allows the people who created and manufactured the content to freely associate and interact with other media. An example situation is placing audio and video on a magazine’s webpage. It tackled other mass media devices: magazine, which is a print media; the video, which is a visual media, and audio, the essence of the radio broadcast media. These examples of traditional mass media have been assimilated into one, all because of the internet (Mazzucco, 2006).

The dangerous end of the trend

The emergence of the internet surely created a “scene” in the world of mass media. It offered a lot, especially in delivery of information to the people, promising loads of relevant and timely information to its users. But as it emerges, some of mass media’s players before the advent of internet are slowly getting off the scene.

The end of the road for print media? The famous “paperless society” concept that was tagged along with the internet spelled danger for the society’s paper media. The print media composed of news papers, magazines, and many others are losing to the internet. A lot of households nowadays have computers and internet access, thus they spend less time reading the paper. They would rather prefer to stay on-line and “surf” the internet for the latest scoops on fashion, news, and sports. If the print media doesn’t do anything to get their patrons back, then it could mean the end for them (Fletcher, 1997).

Television’s competition. Along with the print media, the television is also being endangered with the emergence of the internet. Because of video streaming and video archiving, people can access things in the internet, faster that waiting for the timeslot of a television show. Television commercials are also faced with the problem, if ever television runs out of a viewing public. The internet has plenty of advertisements, putting them on the same footing with television and its commercials. Just like print, television’s existence is at risk, unless they do anything to attract back their viewers (Sollinge, 2005).

The future of mass media. With these trends in hand, one could have a clear view of what’s in store for mass media in the future. It is clear that with the emergence of the internet, a lot has changed with media. It is a challenge to its competitors, the other players of mass media if they can stand up to the internet, or be out of the scene for good.

References:
FLETCHER, J. (1997) Types of Mass Media – Descriptions and Comparative Advantages.
MAZZUCCO, N. (2006) Wrap It Up.
SOLLINGE, J. D. (2005) Danish Mass Media.
TANNER, A. (2005) Trends in Mass Media Education in the Age of Media Convergence: Preparing students for careers in a converging news environment. Toronto, Canada, University of Toronto Press.

The current trends in mass media Essay

9/11 Research Paper Essay

9/11 Research Paper Essay.

The official account of 9-11 does not give a sound explanation of where any extremely hot material in the WTC collapse piles could have come from, nor does it give a sound explanation for the unusually persistent heat at Ground Zero.

Numerous misleading and misinforming statements are disseminated to conceal this dilemma of the official account. In Part I several sources are compiled relating to the exceptionally high temperatures, and/or to the persistent heat at Ground Zero. Most of these sources compiled have a background in science or in engineering.

Some sources are statements by people who participated in the management of Ground Zero. The background of some of the sources is given in detail. In the subsection “Thermal images” some features of published thermal images are addressed. Some of them are in conflict with the assumption that the high temperatures/persistent heat phenomenon was due solely to burning fires

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In Part II disinformation strategies, techniques and arguments are addressed that serve the purpose of avoiding a thorough public debate about the phenomena of “molten steel”, exceptionally high temperatures and persistent heat at Ground Zero. The articles and excerpts discussed are from NIST, from so-called “debunking” websites, and from mainstream mass media.

It will be shown that the statements and suggestions by NIST and “debunkers” in respect of these phenomena are misleading or wrong. In some of the cases the wrong or misleading statements or suggestions are directly stated. In these cases it will be shown why a statement or suggestion is wrong or misleading, and indications will be discussed that the authors must have been aware of the fact that their statements or suggestions are wrong or misleading. These statements or suggestions have the quality of disinformation1. With respect to the other cases it will be shown that misleading suggestions are spread by the use of language that is purposely manipulative.

In addition to the articles and excerpts that are directly related to the high temperature/persistent heat phenomena at Ground Zero some mass media articles are discussed that deal with these phenomena implicitly by dealing with the broader subject.

9/11 Research Paper Essay

Assess the postmodernist views of the mass media Essay

Assess the postmodernist views of the mass media Essay.

PM argue mass media are central to the PM theory, as the decline of traditional communities, time-space compression and flexible production – all derived through the media. PM argue the global society is media-saturated, making it harder to distinguish between reality and hyper-reality, and making culture fragmented and unstable. PM challenge viewing audience as passive and easily manipulated, as they use media images to construct individual identities. The major criticism of PM is that their argument is based on abstract concepts and a lack of empirical evidence.

Marxists criticise PM for ignoring inequalities in media access, and that the media messages can mislead the audiences, as the main effort behind them is maintaining profit for capitalists. PM argue the society today is media-saturated. BAUDRILLARD argues the media messages dominate and distort the perception of the world. People live media-led virtual lives, spending time on social networks (eg. Twitter) or playing such video games as Second Life. Media-saturated society had created increasing uncertainty in the world by making it hard to discern reality from fantasy.

BAUDRILLARD notes people are bombarded with the mass media daily. As a result, the media define our sense of reality and self-perception. To support, BAUMANN suggests people live in a liquid modernity, where we base our identity around consumption, and pick n mix identities. BAUDRILLARD agrees that identity is driven my media-created pressure to consume. However, Marxists argue capitalism is behind media-created pressure to consume, and the growth of consumerism represents the success of capitalism rather than diverse media messages.

Nonetheless, BAUDRILLARD still argues that identity is formed by media images, rather than class and imposed values. PM argue the media actively create reality. BAUDRILLARD argues media images have replaced reality to such an extent that we live in hyper-reality, i. e. reality structured by electronic communication. In turn, the media present simulacra (artificial copies of real events), which is hard to differentiate from reality. There is no longer separate reality for things like TV programmes, highlighted by media stories about fictional characters.

TUCKLE notes that the lives of TV characters have become more real to the audience than actual communities. For example, people felt so strongly about TV show Cheers that they created Cheers bars in America, similarly to creating Central Perk coffee shops after popularity of Friends. Moreover, the media can create realities of such major events as wars. BAUDRILLARD argues that the First Gulf War was a simulation created by the media, noting that ‘the war only happened on TV’. While not denying the existence of conflict, he criticised its portrayal in western societies.

However, the impact of hyper-reality and simulacra is uneven between social groups. They are only significant to those who can access them. PM are criticised for ignoring that media images can increase perception of inequality. More importantly, PM ignore concerns over concentration of media ownership and ideological function hyper-reality may perform. Marxists suggest the RC may create the hyper-reality to reinforce their ideology, whereas Feminists suggest some aspects of hyper-reality, particularly games like GTA, reinforce patriarchy and misogyny.

PM highlight the increasing importance of popular culture promoted by the media. STRINATI notes the mass media have caused a breakdown of distinction between high and popular culture, making popular culture dominate the way people define themselves. Popular culture has more influence on our lifestyles than social structures, as opposed to Marxist view that the media owners influence the media output thus influence our identities.

However, PM are criticised for not being able to empirically prove the link between popular culture and creation of identities. PM conducted small scale ethnographic research, as they reject possibility of discovering objective truth about social world. However, it severely undermines their argument. In support of PM, however, neo-functionalist PUTNAM found empirical evidence to highlight the breakdown of the real world social interaction and declining social capital due to the influence of the media, and especially new media.

In conclusion, PM view of the media is influential in drawing attention to the impact of the media on creation of identities and how consumption influence people’s ability to create their identities themselves. However, the major limitation of PM theory is reluctance to recognise the significance of the market forces and concentration of media ownership in understanding the media impact on the society. Moreover, PM do not acknowledge the media’s role of promoting and exacerbating inequalities among audiences.

Assess the postmodernist views of the mass media Essay