Ayurvedic Medicine Essay

Ayurvedic Medicine Essay.

Ayurvedic medicine is one of the world’s oldest medical practices. It is also called Ayurveda and means “the science of life” (Cherry and Jacob, pp239, para 5). This practice originated in India and is now world known. Ayurveda’s goal is to “integrate and balance the body, mind, and spirit” (Ayurvedic Medicine, para 2). This practice is uses a variety of products and techniques such as herbal remedies, massage, meditation, breathing exercises and special foods to help cleanse the body and attempt to restore balance.

This is believed to prevent illness and maintain wellness. Before using this therapy, you must first consult your healthcare provider because certain herbs have various side effects and may counteract with certain medications. Some view these practices as holistic medicine, however in the United States, it is viewed as a CAM and a whole medical system.

It is believed that a person’s chances of developing certain diseases depends on the way doshas, which are “distinct metabolic body types” (Cherry and Jacob, pp 240, para 1), are balanced, their mental and physical wellbeing and lifestyles.

There are three types of doshas. 1. Vata, which are unpredictable, hyperactive, impulsive, slender, prone to insomnia, have fluctuating energy levels, cramps, and constipation. 2. Pitta, which are predictable, efficient, perfectionist, passionate, short-tempered, prone to heavy perspiration, medium build, have acne, ulcers, and stomach problems. 3. Kapha, which are relaxed, affectionate, forgiving, sleeps long and deeply, have a tendency toward procrastination, obese, have high cholesterol, allergies and sinusitis (Cherry and Jacob, pp 240, table 11-1).

The treatment process depends on the body type a patient possesses and may include using any of the following techniques: cleansing, detoxification, palliation, rejuvenation through special herbs and minerals, mental hygiene and spiritual healing (Cherry and Jacob, pp 240 para 2). Another goal to Ayurveda is to promote spiritual healing and remove oneself from negative situations to aid in mental nurturing. Some therapies that are currently approved for Ayurveda usage include a herbal remedy curcuminoid from turmeric used in cardiovascular conditions, cowhedge plant compounds used to lessen the side effects of Parkinson’s disease drugs, ginger, turmeric and boswellia used in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, and the herb gotu kola to treat Alzheimer’s disease (NCCAM-Funded Research, para 1) .

There is no process for certifying or licensing Ayurvedic practitioners currently (Cherry and Jacob, pp 240, para 3). However, many practitioners study in India where training may take up to 5 years to complete. After graduating, these practitioners may choose to provide care in the United States. Although there are no national standard for training in the US for Ayurveda, a few states have approved these schools as educational institutions (Practioner Training and Education, para 1). To locate qualified practitioners, you may visit the website www.ayurveda.com or http://ayurvedanama.org/find-practitioner/. Or for general information on Ayurvedic medical practice, you may visit www. nccam.nih.gov.

Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction, 2009 July, retrieved from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/ayurveda/introduction.htm, on August 4 2012. Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. R. (2011). Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, and management. (5th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby, Chapter 11, pp 239-240.

Ayurvedic Medicine Essay

Preparing for the BMAT (biomedical admissions test) Essay

Preparing for the BMAT (biomedical admissions test) Essay.

The biomedical admissions test was created to assist medical and veterinary schools in the admissions process. Some of the universities have much more applications than places and the majority of these applications are strong. The BMAT allows the universities to filter out the strongest candidates based on exam performance. The BMAT exam lasts for 2 hours and is split into 3 sections. The examination test date is 31st October 2008. This article will aim to provide you with some advice and give an overview to students who are planning on taking the BMAT exam.

• aptitude and skills (1 hour)

• scientific knowledge and application (30 minutes)
• writing task (30 minutes)
The universities which currently require you to take the BMAT are:
• The university of Cambridge
• The university of Oxford
• Imperial college London
• The royal veterinary college
• University of central London
Aptitude and Skills

This section aims to explore your problem solving skills, your ability to understand and interpret data and your analytical skills. It is multiple choice for the most.

This is the main reason as to why you should guess intelligently, take a look at the given data and take a guess. Practice is key in this section. For the problem solving element of this section look at all the given data carefully. Here are some techniques to help you. • Divide and conquer technique: Break down any large chunks of data into smaller chunks, making the smaller problems which are easier to solve and then once you have solved them put the data back together and form an answer. • Trial and error: Use different approaches to come to a final conclusion and answer. • Working backwards: start with one of the possible answers and work backwards from it.

• Incubation: This is a last resort method which seldom works. Put all of the starting details relating to a problem in your mind picture them and then stop focusing on them and carry on with the examination (take an intelligent guess). Your subconscious mind may come up with an answer during the rest of the examination The understanding and interpreting subset involves using the information in front of you, do not make assumptions unless it is appropriate to the question. Analyse all data given carefully not leaving anything out. The data analysis subset involves extracting certain points out of the data and using these to make suitable conclusions, to give the answer. Depending on the starting data you are provided with this could include using statistical methods, interpreting graphs, curve fitting or even eradicating unwanted information and prioritising said data.

Scientific knowledge and application

This section attempts to make students utilise their scientific knowledge to help them answer questions. Again this section is multiple choice, so make informed guesses when there is a need using the data given. This section also requires practice and revision of scientific principles in order to score high marks, so we advise you do some revision covering the basics of biology, chemistry and physics.

Writing task

The writing task is asking you to create an essay from a given question. Here are some general pointers to help you achieve a great score. • Read: Read articles, newspapers, journals and book. This will help you to gain an understanding of how to put forward logical thought and will also help improve your English writing skills • Partake in group discussions/debate forums: By doing this you will develop the skills that allow you to analyse certain situations and statements, in addition to developing the ability to generate a fair argument looking at both sides of the situation and can help you produce good conclusion.

• Good structure: Ensure you have an introduction, Main body and conclusion. By having an assigned essay structure your ideas will flow more freely and will follow a logical order that makes it easier for the reader to understand. • Snappy conclusion and introduction: the introduction and conclusion can be the sections of your essay that sell it to the reader. Because these are the first and last things they read and so will remain in their mind the longest. An extremely good conclusion will stick in the readers head and maybe it might help you to boost your mark.


One key aspect for revision regarding the UKCAT is to sit some mock BMAT examinations; this will allow you to get a feel for the allocated time slot for the exam and thus ensure that you can finish all the questions. Some final general pointers I would like to add are 1. Don’t waste too much time on one question.

2. Generate a short plan for your writing task, just pointing out what you are going to cover and in what order. 3. Make sure you get plenty of rest before the exam.

4. If you have time available at the end of the exam use it to check over your answers.

Preparing for the BMAT (biomedical admissions test) Essay

Biggest Problems Facing Medicare and Problems Key Similarities and Differences Essay

Biggest Problems Facing Medicare and Problems Key Similarities and Differences Essay.

Problems Facing Medicare and Medicaid

The Federal Government has sponsored Health insurance programs such as Medicare as well as the Medicaid. Medical insurance for the elderly, disabled, as well as low-income Americans are covered by these insurance programs. In 1965, these programs took effect and the Health Care Finance Administration or the HCFA, of the Department of Health and Human Services administered these programs. Health Care coverage is provided by the US government to a variety of groups such as federal employees, military personnel, veterans as well as the Native Americans.

However, the largest proportion of health care expenditures is accounted by the Medicare as well as Medicaid programs.

The program of Medicaid provides Health services as well as residential care to more than 50 million Americans wherein each has unique personal needs. Medicaid provides payment for prenatal care for about one-third of the children of the nation, long-term care for more than 20 percent of elderly citizens as well as health safety for people with disabilities are provided.

In addition to that several States works on similar initiative to cover the uninsured. Medicaid are facing severe crisis of sustainability. It was found that since 1990s a typical State was able to see that the medical costs have double the percentage of their budget and it was also projected that continued disproportionate growth is evident. In 2006, the combined federal as well as State expenditures totaled $320 billion and by 2016, they are projected to reach $580 billion (“Making Medicaid Work: A Practical Guide for Transforming Medicaid,” 2007).

The Annual Medicaid Budget Survey Report have indicated that at the beginning of the state fiscal year 2008, according to the description of the Medical Directors, State fiscal situation is generally improving, the state revenues are increasing that allowed Governors as well as the state legislatures to restore many cuts as well as restrictions that have been adopted during the economic downturn, and adopt positive changes in Medicaid such as increase in provider payment rates as well as expansion in benefits and eligibility. The State policy decisions for 2007 and 2008, includes a clear focus on improving coverage as well as quality of care provider under the program      (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Across the states, however, signs that the economic climate was changing, emerged just a few months into state fiscal year 2008, in the fall of 2007. Studies have shown that the outlook was no longer positive as it had been in the case early in the state fiscal year (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Different Issues Facing Medicare and Medicaid

Key Issues of Medicaid

A lot of key issues, concerns and priorities in mid fiscal year 2008, have been identified by Medicaid Directors. On top of it were the effects of an increase in fiscal stress across states, a lot of federal state issues such as those impacting Medicaid enrollment and access, as well as their current efforts to address the uninsured (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Fiscal Stress across the States

As described by the directors of the State Medicaid, in the last half calendar 2007, economic situation in a lot of states leveled off unexpectedly and in some cases deteriorated. Results have shown that early in fiscal year 2008, the revenues came in below projections on which the state policy makers had based the state budget. Based on the report “as the state approached the mid-point in fiscal year 2008, the outlook for the immediate future was less optimistic than it had been at the beginning of the year.

The directors of Medicaid had also described in the budget survey that at the beginning of state fiscal year 2008, they strongly sense that the state economies were rebounding as compared to the recent years, according to recent rates of growth in state revenues. Due to Annual changes in each state’s federal Medicaid matching rate, the states budget is affected. It would be difficult to achieve significant Medicaid cost savings now than it had been during the last economic downturn and Medicaid cost control actions are not often easy and almost always have impacts on the effectiveness of the program (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Issues of the Federal-State

The recent federal regulatory changes are adverse to the states, according to Directors of Medicaid, and it will provide negative impact on the programs including the proposed changes regarding the Medicaid benefit design as well as the Medicaid financing arrangements. They also have singled out the Health Information Technology as an example of the state-federal relations moving in a positive way (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Improving Access in Medicaid

In Medicaid the issue of access had been perennial because of generally lower rates of provider reimbursement in most of the states, occasional budget-driven cuts or freezes, as well as rate increases occurring at certain intervals when authorized by state legislatures. Few providers of specific types as well as commercially insured patients encountered access problem for certain specialists such as psychiatrists, pediatric specialists in some states. Directors have also expressed concern over access to oral as well as mental health services. It was observed that in many states there are few dental health providers who participate in the Medicaid program. Moreover, participation has not been improved just by the rate of increases. In fact, one state reported that despite the rate adjustments, even dental clinic of public university would no longer serve Medicaid patients. In addition to that, while access to mental health services suffers from lack of providers, the issue gets more complicated by the lack of resources and need to coordinate with other agencies in order to provide non-medical services (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Enrolment in Medicaid

“The total Medicaid enrollment dropped by -0.5% in fiscal year 2007on average across all states, with increase enrollment for almost half of the states and decrease enrollment for over half of the states. Reports indicated that Medicaid caseload was showing flat or continued downward-sloping caseload trend, and in addition to that, several state indicated that their current projections had been revised upward. Where the caseload was now increasing, the upward caseload trend was thought to be associated with a more sluggish economy (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

The Health Care Reform and Covering of the Uninsured

The Governors, as reported by the Medicaid directors are interested in reforming the health care system as well as the strategies to reduce the number of individuals who do not have health insurance coverage. A lot of states have proposed initiatives to address the problem of the continuous increase of the number of uninsured nationally. In some states their goal is universal coverage, on the other hand, others focused on increasing coverage options for the targeted populations (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Key Issues of Medicare

One of the major problems of Medicare program is that financing mechanisms of Medicare will not be able to sustain it in the long run. Another concern is that the structure of the program which in large measure reflects health care delivery and political considerations in effect at the enactment, has failed to keep pace with the changes in the health care system as a whole. A lot of individual suggest that in order to address this problems major structural reform are required. However, to others the existing system should be improved rather than replaced. As of now, there has been no consensus reached. The major focus in the recent years has been on providing prescription drug coverage for beneficiaries. According to some observers, it would not be appropriate to add new costly benefit before structural reforms are enacted, while others stated that seniors, particularly low-income seniors, should not be required to wait for benefits until resolution of the entire restructuring issue (O’Sullivan, Chaikind, and Tilson, 2001).

Program financing is the major concern to policy makers. Another important issue that they are facing is whether the program has responded to changes in the health care delivery.

Another issue is fraud in Medicare. Sometimes beneficiaries are not safe, that is why Medicare is working hard in order to protect them from being a victim of fraud (Quick Facts About Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage and Protecting Your Personal Information).

Key similarities of the Problem

Both Medicare and Medicaid are having problems in sustaining the program.

“The biggest problem that the Federal Government is facing is fraud in Medicare as well as Medicaid. They wish to address the problem by teaching the beneficiaries of Medicare and Medicaid on how to avoid being the victims of fraud, waste and abuse. Mr. Clarkson stated that everyone is at stake in this since the money lost, in these practices has an impact on premiums and deductibles and could result in cutbacks to these programs” (“Medicare Fraud,” 2008).

Biggest Problems Facing Medicare and Problems Key Similarities and Differences Essay

Medicalization Essay

Medicalization Essay.

Medicalization describes a process by which a non-medical problem becomes defined and treated as a medical problem, usually in terms of illness and disorders. Medicalization used to be focused on deviance, now it focuses on a range of human problems. Medicalization is increasing as technology advances. There are many things that have become medicalized such as Alcoholism, mental disorders, eating disorders, sexual dysfunction, etc. There are three degrees of medicalization.

1. Fully medicalized, example would be severe mental illness. 2. Partly medicalized, example would be menopause.

3. Minimally medicalized, example would be sexual addiction. The factors that affect the degrees are the support of medical profession, available treatment, and medical insurance. In the end medicalization has increased the profitability and markets of pharmaceutical and biotechnological firms. Many factors have contributed to the rise of medicalization. For instance the loss in religious, the increase of faith in science, rationality, progress, increased prestige and the power of the medical profession.

The medical profession and the expansion of medical jurisdiction were prime movers for medicalization.

Medicalization has also occurred through social movements. Doctors are not the only ones involved in medicalization now, patients are active collaborators in the medicalization of their problem. The Vietnam veteran movement medicalized PTSD; AIDS treatment was done by the gay and lesbian movement, and PSM with the woman’s movement. There are both positive and negative consequences to medicalization.

With everything being medicalized, some people have a better chance functioning well in society. If they are really shy, they will be diagnosed with Anxiety Disorder, and will be medicated to interact efficiently in society. People are no longer depressed, disoriented because of medical intervention, for example, menopause and anorexia. It can really improve the self-esteem of some individuals. Those were some of the positive consequences of medicalization. There are a few negative consequences as well. For instance, medicalization transforms human differences into pathologies.

Example, a child with a different learning size will be accused of having a learning disability or having ADHD. By transforming all of these differences into pathologies, it will diminish our tolerance for and appreciation of the diversity of human life. Eventually every person will be labeled as sick. In the Dr. Jarvik article, the speaker demonstrates how old age is being medicalized. It isn’t acceptable to age, because one should stay young. Medicalization has brainwashed people into thinking that somethings aren’t normal when really they are.

As people age they are pushed to take all of these medications to stay young and feel good, when it should be socially acceptable to age. A good example of a way medicalization has been resisted would be demedicalization. Gays have changed the definition of homosexuality from illness to lifestyle. Same thing with masturbation, it used to be considered an illness, now its something natural that most people do. These examples contradict medicalization since they have been demedicalized. Disabilities went from medical problem to societal problem.

Childbirth used to have been done in a hospital under drugs. Now woman have many options on how they would like to give birth. Parents have refused to give children medication for their ADHD because they belive it wont benefit them. One example from the article would be the “ana is my friend” website that they mentioned. It is a website that helps anorexic people learn to live an anorexic lifestyle. They don’t promote it they just help anorexics adjust. In the end, Medicalization plays a huge role in todays society. It will keep on expanding from here, and along will come its consequences.

Medicalization Essay

Paramedic Essay

Paramedic Essay.

“People don’t care how much you know, they want to know how much you care.” –John C. Maxwell I am attending Fortis College to become a paramedic. I want to become a paramedic not only to make a difference, but to help others in their time of need. I think of this degree as a passion not just a career. As a paramedic there is always room for continuing your education. You learn from your co-workers and the runs you go on.

As early as 1500 B.C. there has been some kind of EMS. In those days it was a Good Samaritan act and completely voluntary. Moving up the time line in 1767, the Greeks and Romans took soldiers off of the battlefield by chariots. In the same time period a chief physician in the Napoleon’s army, Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey, started the first pre-hospital system used to triage and transport injured soldiers from the battlefield to aid station. In 1865-1869 the first ambulance service was started in the United States.

Interns of the hospital used horse drawn carriages made specifically in taking the sick and injured to the hospital. And modern day today, there are many ambulance companies including fire houses and private ambulances. As knowledge of science and the anatomy of humans grows the knowledge of what paramedics can do grows.

I have experience in the fire and EMS world. I was an explorer at the Fairfield Township Fire Department in Fairfield Township, Ohio. I was an explorer for four years. In that four years I did ride-a-longs, scenarios, and class room training. We also did competitions with other departments. In my last year at the department I interviewed and obtained the position of captain of the explorer program. The first year that my explorer post did competitions that I was attending, we placed 2nd overall and placed in 3 competitions; of those 3 I was involved in 2. This was a very exciting time of my life. I also attended the week long Fire/EMS academy at Hocking College as an explorer. I learned a lot from both programs.

In conclusion, I can’t wait to start my career at Fortis College. I am excited to further my knowledge in the EMS field. Upon graduation at Fortis College, I plan to work as a paramedic at a private ambulance company and in the ER of a hospital, to only further on as a care flight medic in Columbus.

Paramedic Essay

Rights of Medication Administration Essay

Rights of Medication Administration Essay.

Health care providers are responsible for ensuring patient safety and quality of care at all times. Nurses play a vital role in provision of patient care. Many of the tasks of nursing carry some degree of risk, with medication administration having one of the greatest risk factors. Serious errors may occur in approximately 2 per 1,000 prescriptions (Lesar et al, 1990). The rate of adverse drug events are estimated at approximately 1%, with 12% to 30% of them classified as serious of life threatening ( Lindquist & Gersema , 1998).

Health care providers enter into a trust relationship with their patients, none more so than nurses. It is the betrayal of trust that is often part of the motivating factor of patients and their families when malpractice claims are brought against health care providers (Kraman & Hamm, 1999).

In Florida a young woman with Guillian-Barre syndrome died from a medication error. The case went to court and a multimillion dollar settlement was reached when it was determined the woman was given succynylcholine which causes a fatal reaction in those with Guillian-Barre (floridahealthcarelaw.

com, 2011).

Another case which resulted in a fatality involved a 32-year-old woman who underwent removal of her tonsils and adenoids. Her post op analgesia included a PCA, Phenergan 25mg IV q 4 hours prn for pain, Compazine 10 mg po q 4 hours prn for nausea, Benadryl 50 mg po q 4 hours for itching and Halcion 0.25 mg hs. The PCA was set for 1mg /activation with a 6 minute lockout a bolus of 5mg morphine plus 25 mg Phenergan was given IV. Pt was administered 25 mg Phenergan IV at 1500 and 1900 and 50 mg Benadryl at 1900.

The patient reported nausea at 2000 requesting Tums. The nurse reported to the patient that the medication was not ordered, but the physician could be contacted to ask for an order. The nurse also informed the patient that Compazine was ordered for nausea. The patient chose to take Compazine and 10 mg was given at 2030. At 2100 0.25 mg Halcion was administered for sleep. At 2400 the patient was found cyanotic and unresponsive and could not be resuscitated. She died from a medication overdose (Benjamin, 2003).

A third case from Britain involves a nurse who substituted Actrapid instead of giving Mixtard as ordered. Both of these drugs are insulins. The nurse claimed the correct insulin was not in the medication refrigerator. When confronted by her superior regarding the substitution the nurse stated she did not want the patient to have to wait for the time it would take for the correct medication to arrive from pharmacy. The nurse also did not alert other staff to the fact she had given a shorter-acting insulin so the patient could be more closely monitored. The actions of the nurse put the patient at risk. An investigation was conducted and the nurse was found guilty of gross professional misconduct and her name was removed form the UK nursing register (British Journal of Nursing, 2003).

Cases such as these can result in lawsuits being brought against the healthcare team involved in the patient’s care and the healthcare facility. In order malpractice to be determined four elements are required: 1) a professional relationship has to exist between the patient and the healthcare provider. 2) The conduct of the professional has to be below the standard of care 3) damages occurred (patient was injured), and 4) the actions of the healthcare provider was the cause of the damages. Malpractice cannot always be determined, but can result in multimillion dollar settlements. Often disciplinary actions are taken that result in termination of employment and loss of licensure. If death or disability resulted from the error the healthcare provider often is left with permanent psychological scars.

The six rights of medication administration were put in place to decrease the risk of medication errors. These consist of the right patient, drug, dose, route, time and documentation. There is a push to include the nine rights of medication administration, adding the right action, form and response. If these measures are taken consistently avoidance of medication errors can be greatly reduced and events such as the above can be avoided.

Rights of Medication Administration Essay

Path to Veterinary Technician Essay

Path to Veterinary Technician Essay.

Every person lives to bring self-satisfaction to their life- to find a purpose. Sometimes that self-satisfaction comes from leadership jobs such as being a politician, and sometimes that feeling comes from humanitarian jobs like being a psychologist. However, that incredible feeling of self-satisfaction can also come from careers that don’t directly involve helping people, but involve helping animals. For some, that career might be to become a veterinary technician.

It takes effort for one to achieve a dream and obtain that self-satisfaction, and understanding the road one must take to become a veterinary technician is just as important as understanding the road one takes after achieving it, because new and exciting paths open up after that goal is reached.

What exactly does being a veterinary technician entail? Think of a nurse, but rather than assisting a doctor and helping human patients, they assist veterinarians and tend to animals. That being said, a veterinary technician must enjoy being around animals and have a desire to help those in need.

A veterinary technician will usually perform clinical work, such as blood tests, urinalysis, they can expose and develop x-rays, assist in a variety of diagnostic tests and more while under supervision of a licensed veterinarian. The typical patients helped by a veterinary technician are cats and dogs, but in reality, a veterinary technician can tend to any type of animal. According to VeterinaryTechnican. com, many veterinary technicians work in a clinical setting such as an animal hospital or private veterinarian’s office. Additionally, many of them work in zoos, aquariums, and research facilities (2012).

A veterinary technician can also become a specialist with additional schooling to perform procedures such as anesthesia, surgery, dental work, behavioral training and more. The Bureau of Labor Statistics claims that while many veterinary technicians find satisfaction from their job, it is also an occupation that can prove to be physically and emotionally demanding, as well as dangerous. Their statistics show that full-time veterinary technicians experienced a work-related injury and illness rate that was much higher than the national average (2011).

Reasons for this can be because the veterinary technician is vulnerable to being bitten, scratched, and lunged at by an animal, as well as being exposed to viruses that they animals might be carrying. When someone considers careers, one of the first things that will come to mind is the required education. Questions such as, “How many years of schooling do I need? ” and “What schools are the best options for me? ” need to be explored fully before making a decision. The path to becoming a veterinary technician begins with high school courses, such as Biology, Math, and Science.

For continued education, there are several colleges that offer veterinary technology programs that are accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). A veterinary technician program must be accredited by the AVMA in order for the student to become a veterinary technician. Typically, AVMA courses take around two years to finish, granting the student an associate’s degree. Some colleges have created AVMA accredited courses that take about four years to complete, which will reward a bachelor’s degree upon completion.

VeterinaryTechnician. com states that after the student receives their degree, the student must pass a state-administered licensing exam, after which the student can start working with veterinary technicians as a trainee (2012). Naturally, the time spent being a trainee depends on the amount of hands-on experience that the student had prior to becoming one. Now that the expectations for college have been set, a person must figure out how to finance their continued education. Being able to finance college in order to get the career started is one of the most frustrating and difficult things in the United States.

College normally costs thousands of dollars and often leads to a lifetime of debt. What the majority of students do not know, however, is that there are scholarships for just about anything that can pay for most or all of the schooling! NCVTSA. org says that several awards are available from the National Association of Veterinary Technicians, but there are also private awards available (n. d. ). One of the top scholarships for this cause is the American Kennel Club and Hartz Veterinary Technician Scholarship Program. This particular scholarship is available to full-time students who attend an AVMA accredited college.

In order to be considered for the scholarship, the student must be a student member of the National Association of Veterinary Technicians (NAVTA). Another good scholarship is called the American Kennel Club Veterinary Technician Student Scholarship, where several scholarships are given each year totaling to $25,000. The student must also be a NAVTA member to qualify, and the application requirements include a brief essay explaining their interests, education, research and work experience, as well as recent college transcripts submitted by April each year.

Those are only two of the several veterinary technician scholarships available. Especially in this economy, an additional concern that a person might have before they begin their career is how stable the job market is and how well the job pays. No one would want to spend multiple years and waste thousands of dollars on schooling to realize that it is nearly impossible be hired into the career that they signed up for. However, there is good news for veterinary technicians.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the job outlook will increase by 36% by the year 2018, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. Pet owners are becoming more affluent and are more willing to pay for advanced veterinary care because many of them consider their pet to be part of the family. The Bureau further stated that there are relatively few veterinary technician graduates each year, and fewer than 3,800 students move onward to become veterinary technicians.

Thus, the market is not overflowing with recent graduates trying to become employed. While the job market may be stable for veterinary technicians, the career does not pay a substantial amount. A standard licensed veterinary technician earns from $31,000 to $35,000 a year. If a veterinary technician decided to further their education and become a specialist, depending on the specialty that they would focus on, they can earn a much higher income. For example, a veterinary technician anesthesia specialist earns, on average, $48,000 a year.

Like many aspirations to feel self-satisfied, becoming a veterinary technician will take time, dedication and work to obtain. It may not require as much schooling as a psychologist and it may not pay as well as a politician, but earning that feeling of self-satisfaction is what counts in a career. Understanding the road to self satisfaction is just as important as understanding the road taken after the goal is reached, because life as a veterinary technician never stays the same and offers so many different paths to choose from.

Path to Veterinary Technician Essay

The Medicines Company Case Essay

The Medicines Company Case Essay.


Value: Angiomax is a blood-thinning drug, or anticoagulant, used in emergency coronary heart care. Angiomax is positioned as an alternative to heparin, the most commonly used anticoagulant in emergency coronary heart care, so to assess Angiomax value to a hospital is required to compare these two drugs.

First of all is necessary to analyze the differences in effectiveness of the products in treatments. The use of heparin has associated some general disadvantages like: • Unpredictable effects: it is difficult to use properly since its effectiveness depends on achieving a certain level of anticoagulation of the blood, too much might lead to uncontrolled bleeding and too little might not prevent a blood clot • • High risk of uncontrolled bleeding: it is necessary a tight monitoring of patients in order to identify and control potential major bleedings after the use of heparin Risk of adverse reactions: the use of heparin could cause a thrombocytopenia (HIT) in some patients • Needs several hours to the observe the effects: cardiologists said that it might be necessary wait three or four hours to see if a dose of heparin has the desired effect In contrast, the effects of Angiomax were very accurate and predictable, since it works faster than Heparin so it is easier to know if the desired effect was obtained.

Some studies conducted discover that the use of Angiomax in has associated at the same time a lower risk of major bleedings and risk of adverse reactions in patients.

Angiomax is more effective than Heparin, especially in “high-risk” and “very high-risk” patients, that accounts for 50% of all the angioplasty patients (40% “high-risk” & 10% “very high-risk”). However, for the other 50%, the low-risk patients, Angiomax was also better, but the differences when compared wit heparin are not so significant as in the other half of patients. The higher quality and capabilities of Angiomax described create the Functional Value that the hospital could benefit through the use of the new drug. The doctors, who are the potential users, are more concerned with the results and performance of the drug in treatments. It is important to assess what economical/monetary value the Angiomax could offer to a hospital, especially to convinced the administrators to approve the drug for ongoing use within the hospital. Since the major disadvantage of Angiomax is its production cost of $40 per dose against the $2 per dose of heparin, that leads for sure the selling price of Angiomax to be higher. Hospital’s decision will depend on whether the cost savings compensate the higher price of not.

Angiomax reduces the probability of complications during angioplasties that can cost on average $8000 for a patient who experienced complications or eventually die. These extra costs are not reimbursed by insurances, they absorbed by hospital. Therefore, the use of Angiomax allows the hospital to benefit from some cost savings since the use of Angiomax decrease the risk of complications after the treatment and consequently the extra cost associated, especially in high-risk patients (Heparin=16,5% Angiomax=9,5% Δ=7% means a saving of 560$) and in very-high risk patients (Heparin=21,4% Angiomax=7,8% Δ=13,6% means a saving of 1088$). At the level of low-risk patients the cost savings are not so significant, it only represent a half of the cost savings of high-risk patients, 280$.

Angiomax has associated lower risks both for patients and to hospital than the other alternative drug heparin, so Hospital could believe that they can trust Angiomax, since with this new drug hospitals can offer to patients a better, safety and reliable treatment, and consequently save more lives. Market: The Medicines Company initially will try to market the 700 centers across the USA responsible for 92% of all angioplasty procedures. Angiomax, as a prescription drug, appears to be part of a big market that move a huge value of 220 billion dollars in sales worldwide at the manufacturer level, with USA accounting for 50% of all sales. Also the expected market growths at 10% rate per year through 2010 express the high potential of the market. Other important trends were impacting the USA drug market, and are able to support the concomitant increase of the particular market for drugs used in coronary heart care: • People are becoming older: very important fact since people aged 65 or over correspond only to 15% of the population but represent 33% of prescription drug sales. It is possible to conclude that due to the aging population, the market for prescription drugs is expected to increase

• Coronary heart disease was the leading cause of death in the USA: during the late 20 century accounts for 1 in each 5 deaths • Coronary heart disease is transmitted genetically: which means that in the future the number of people with this type of pathology is expected to growth, since the previous American generations had already suffer from some heart problems • The modern societies rhythm of life and bad habits: the constant stressed faced by people in their daily life associated with some risky behaviors like smoke, drink, fast-food and lack of physical activity increased exponentially the risk of an individual to suffer from any heart problem in the near future By the late 90’s, 14 million Americans had some form of coronary heart disease, from which 1.5 million experienced unstable angina each year and another 1.1 million suffered from a heart attack. These patients with unstable angina or heart attacks require emergency care and therefore needed an anticoagulant drug to prevent new blood clots; most emergency care patients need either a balloon angioplasty or a coronary artery bypass surgery and so anticoagulants were also needed to prevent blood clots from forming before, during and after these procedures.

Before Angiomax launch, about 3.5 million coronary care patients received heparin to prevent blood clots. The Market for Angiomax is not as big as the one for heparin right now since FDA approval was only for its use in angioplasty procedures, which means that Angiomax can only reach about 1/5 of the patients receiving anticoagulants per year. The Medicines Company is however undertaking clinical trials in order to confirm the benefits of Angiomax also for patients with heart attacks, unstable angina or undergoing a Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery, so if they obtained the FDA approval, then the market for Angiomax will be the same as the one for heparin, about 3.5 million patients per year. A number that might increase because there are 14 million people in the USA with coronary heart disease. th


It is fundamental to set the price window for Angiomax and choose the most appropriate price that captures the value created by the product. In order to create this price window, it is necessary to know the Reference Value (the price of customer best alternative), the Differentiation Value (the value to the customer of any Monetary or Psychological differences between alternatives available) as also the Relevant Total Costs associated with the Angiomax. 1. Reference Value: The price for a dose of heparin is 2$, but on average a treatment requires 4 doses of heparin. So the Reference Value for treatment 8$ (4doses*2$) 2. Differentiation Value: It is fundamental to quantify the benefits provide by Angiomax when compared to heparin. The fact that Angiomax decrease the uncertainty and risk associated in each treatment represent a great psychological value since doctors and patients could feel a sensation of safety that heparin cannot provide.

This psychological value due to its subjective character is very difficult to quantify, so it is better to move look to the monetary value created by Angiomax. The use of Angiomax allows the hospital to benefit from some cost savings since the use of Angiomax decrease the risk of complications after the treatment and consequently the extra cost associated, especially in high-risk patients (Heparin=16,5% Angiomax=9,5% Δ=7% means a saving of 560$) and in very-high risk patients (Heparin=21,4% Angiomax=7,8% Δ=13,6% means a saving of 1088$). At the level of low-risk patients the cost savings are not so significant, it only represent a half of the cost savings of high-risk patients, 280$. The average cost savings are 0,5*280$ + 0,1*1088$ + 0,4*560$= 472.8$, since 50% of the angioplasty patients are “low-risk”, 40% “high-risk” and 10% “very high-risk” 3. Relevant Total Costs: These costs are the ones that actually influence the impact of pricing decisions in profit.

They are the costs that are incremental (not average) and avoidable (not sunk). It is known that each dose has variable costs of 40$ and that the Medicines Company need to spent spread by a period of ten years (maximum duration of a patent), an initial 2M dollars in the acquisition, 28M dollars in the continued development of the product, 12M dollars to finish the clinical trials and gain the FDA approval, 10M dollars to reduce the production costs as also a rough amount of 15M dollars per year in expenses with Sales, General & Administrative costs. It is possible to conclude that the company incurred in an average annual fixed costs of 20.2M dollars per year [(2M+28M+12M+10M)/10years + 15M)] Knowing that for a general treatment it was necessary 1.45 doses of Angiomax (70% ->1 dose & 30% -> 2 or 3 doses), it is possible to know what is the maximum price that makes it indifferent for hospitals to buy Heparin or Angiomax.

Since the average cost saving per treatment with Angiomax is 472.8$, and it was necessary to use 1.45 doses, the maximum price for dose is given by the maximum price of an Angiomax treatment divided by the number of doses needed by treatment, (472.8$+8$)/1.45= 331,5862069$. Assuming the economic value in this case is in fact the value perceived by hospitals, The Medicines The price floor is the one that makes The Medicines Company have zero profit. To assess this price it is necessary to take into account the relevant costs incurred by the company as also the forecast demand for Angiomax. Knowing that there are 700 000 angioplasty patients receiving Heparin per year, the maximum volume of sales for Angiomax is 700 000*1.45 doses=1 015 000 doses per year. However, The Medicines Company needs to take into consideration that it is not easy to replace a well satisfactory and cheap drug as heparin

by Angiomax, so in a realistic scenario they would not sell the maximum possible according to the data available. Since the company will focus its action on the 700 centers across USA responsible for 92% of the angioplasty procedures and taking into account that 22% of the cardiologists surveyed by the company said their degree of satisfaction was 5 or less out of 10, which means that these cardiologists might without major difficulties to change from heparin to Angiomax. The quantity sold per year must be around the total number of angioplasties made by the 700 centers chosen by the Medicines Company, multiplied by the percentage of cardiologists that answer was 5 or less in the survey conducted and by the average doses required in each angioplasty. The most realistic forecast for volume of sales is 700 000*0.92*1,45*0.22 =205 436 doses of Angiomax per year. The minimum price that The Medicines Company can charge for a dose of Angiomax is given by the following expression 205 436*(P-40$)- 20.23M $=0  P=147.0893125$.

Knowing that the price window for Angiomax lies between 147.0893125$ and 331.5862069$, The Medicines Company should know choose the price taking considering at the same time its bargaining power, what pricing strategy to follow, the economical context and the elasticity of demand. In spite of not having a high bargaining power since the company still lacks of recognition and contacts to reach hospital administrators, it should pursue a skimming strategy obtaining high margins at the expense of volume, since hospitals could not be price very sensitive since the product is directly related with a treatment that involves high risk and human life. Furthermore, after drawing attention to the shortcomings of Heparin, The Medicines Company is reducing the elasticity of demand, turning hospitals less price sensitive to Angiomax, which should be used to capture a large share of the value created by Angiomax. Also during the period of the ten years of patent the firm faces low threat of imitation, so it has a sustainable differentiated product when compared with other market alternatives.

Taking also into account that in this industry the typical price to cost of goods sold is 1 to 10 (which would mean a price of $400 for a dose), Angiomax is allowed to set a price near to the estimated price ceiling. Additionally, The Medicines Company is offering a premium product with high perceived customer benefits, which supports the perceived customer costs; therefore, the marketing of Angiomax needs to have as key objective the recognition of Angiomax as a premium-priced drug with great benefits for hospitals. The company cannot neglect the fact that heparin’s costs are much smaller than the costs of Angiomax and that there has been an increasing pressure to reduce prices in the prescription drugs business, since care organizations and the government pay a percentage of the expenses with prescription drugs.


The adoption model for Angiomax will be divided in distinct stages. A first stage before the FDA approval, where the objective is convincing hospitals to buy Angiomax through drawing attention to the shortcomings of Heparin in an academic article that appeared in the Journal of Invasive Cardiology; a second stage will be conducted after the FDA approval for the launch, Angiomax needs to be shown as the preferred alternative to Heparin through journal articles, advertisements in medical journals and in trade show presentations. It is also fundamental to create product advocates within the medical community, so it is necessary to sponsored weekend gateways for thought leaders in the cardiology community with presentations designed to eductate them on the company and the Angiomax. After this, it will be expectable that Angiomax finally start replacing heparin in the case of angioplasty procedures.

The final stage will happen when The Medicines Company finishes clinical trials for other uses of Angiomax and gets FDA approval to other clinical usages like treat heart attacks, HIT, unstable angina and coronary artery bypass surgery. The selling of the product will be tough due to the great discrepancy between the price of a single dose of Angiomax and the price of a single dose of heparin. It will be difficult to communicate to hospitals the benefits provided by Angiomax and making them believe that the higher price is justified by the potential cost savings obtained with Angiomax. Therefore the marketing of Angiomax could certainly have a crucial impact in the success or failure of the product. Dr. Stephanie Plent, the senior director of medical policy, was in charge of the communication of Angiomax’s benefits, but have a hard task to complete since in a hospital there were typically three major groups involved in the purchase, which had different objectives and concerns:

The doctors are the users of the drug and care only about its results. This group is not difficult to convince since the price is not seemed as an obstacle. Doctors are also analyzers because they seek for alternatives in scientific journals and influencers

Pharmacists, the buyers, care about their budget, since they are rewarded for achieve the goals initially established. Replacing a cheap drug with a premium-priced one would ruin that budget, meaning that this group is very difficult to convince. Pharmacists are also analyzers and influencers

Hospital administrators take into account the whole economic sense of the drug. They are the deciders, the ones who actually make the buying decision

Since drug companies do not have direct access to talk to the hospital administrators, doctors and pharmacists should be the main target of the marketing strategy followed by the company. It is necessary to convince these groups by showing them that the new drug is the better alternative, will lead them to influence the purchase. The company focused especially on convincing doctors, since they care about the results, which is the strength of Angiomax instead of focus on price that represents the major concern of pharmacists. Tom Quinn, vice president of sales and marketing, tried to educate the market place through advertisement – publication of academic journal articles talking about the shortcomings of heparin and advertising of Angiomax as the preferred alternative in medical journals, after its approval; and public relations – presentations at trade shows, clinical trials at hospitals to allow doctors to gain hands-on experience and creation of advocates within the cardiology community.

Quinn also formed a sales team with people with experience and existing relationships within the coronary care community that will be spread by the 5 regions where the centers selected by the firm are located in order to influence the doctors and pharmacists. Another factor that makes it harder selling Angiomax is the fact that The Medicines Company lacks recognition and a product portfolio, so why would hospitals even think about buying a drug that was once abandoned by other firms? Once again, the marketing strategy is of a huge importance, but the company should not only focus on marketing its drugs, it must create brand awareness and recognition for itself, proving its customers that its drugs could make the difference for hospitals.

The Medicines Company Case Essay

Why I Chose Surgical Technology at Miller-Motte College Essay

Why I Chose Surgical Technology at Miller-Motte College Essay.

I chose the career of Surgical Tech for several reasons. I’ve always wanted to be in the medical field in some way. As a kid I always said I wanted to be a brain surgeon. I was also in a car accident at the age of seven where I went through the windshield of the car and my forehead was cut open and had a lot of glass embedded in it. I was pictures of during and after where they had to pull the skin back and remove glass and clean and such.

Instead of thinking “ewe, gross” like most seven year olds I, instead thought it was cool. As an adult I have a career. I work with FedEx Office and have since I was 19 (then Kinko’s). I’ve done sales and management with this company. I could continue that career and be very successful, but I want to do more. I want to do something with a purpose, something that can truly and consistently make a difference in the lives of people and the world around me whether they know I had something to do with it or not.

I decided to start that change in the Surg Tech field because I do have a career right now as well as being a single mother to 2 daughters. Miller-Motte allowed me to get started very quickly and still be able to work and provide for my family. I do plan to get into the surgical tech field and be successful at that, but I also would like to continue my education and broaden my view. I want to go to medical school. I am not really sure what for specifically yet. I want to be more than the right hand, as Mrs. Woolford says a surg tech is. I want to be the hands.

Why I Chose Surgical Technology at Miller-Motte College Essay

Ventria Bioscience and the Controversy over Plant-Made Medicine Essay

Ventria Bioscience and the Controversy over Plant-Made Medicine Essay.

1. The problem facing Scott Deeter and his company Ventria is that CRC advisory board and California Secretary of Agriculture is not being convinced to allow Ventria start planting genetically modified Rice in California. Even though Deeter and his staff offered numerous concessions to address the concerns of rice farmers and other parties involved, but they still could not get an approval for their project. Deeter and his company Ventria is also having the possible issue of maintaining trust of their sponsors and stake holders.

The company missed two planting seasons and is not making any profit which doesn’t make investors happy, and could eventually lead them to withdraw their capital and invest in other company’s and projects.

2. Members of the company’s board and their organizations collectively provided 85% of the company’s financing. That includes, Dr. Rodriguez the founder, cofounders of Chiron Corp. Dr. William Rutter and Dr. Pablo Valenzuela, William Rutter who is an attorney and venture capitalist, Ron Vogel the president of Great Western Malting and bio-entrepreneur Dr.

Roberto Crea. Also, Thomas Urban, Melvin Booth and David Dwyer joined later.

3.There could be different scenarios: First: stakeholders could get impatient about pouring money in a company that will never see the light of success because of the huge amount of opposition. Second: The board members could eventually decide to move their company outside of California, or maybe moving the planting of Rice fields at least to be outside of CRC regulations.

4. If Ventria decided to employ a political action strategy then I believe they should focus on proving enough research and guarantees that their project will not have the negative bad effect on other Rice crops or humans. They could also argue that their project is very beneficial to the state of california bring in new revenue and state tax. Also they could present the idea that their project will provide many job opportunities and decrease unemployment in the state.

5. The company could have the ultimate option of moving it’s planting operations to outside of California where there are no Rice fields and proper climate.

6. I think Ventria should investigate the possibility of moving the company outside of california and check if they would be able to gain enough profit as they were initially anticipating. I believe the there are other states with lenient laws that would not mind having Ventria operations and Rice fields. The average salaries are usually lower in other states than in California which could also play to their advantage.

Ventria Bioscience and the Controversy over Plant-Made Medicine Essay