Mongols and Aztecs Comparison Essay

Mongols and Aztecs Comparison Essay.

The Mongols and Aztecs lived on completely different sides of the world. Although they had extreme differentials on Longitude and Latitude, the similarities between the two societies are compelling. The Mongols and the Aztecs were similar politically and socially. Politically, their Militaries were large and powerful; socially, women also had more rights and power. However, they were not the same in every category. Religiously, they were very different. Along with that, the foundation of their societies are very different as well, one being nomadic and one being agricultural based society.

Politically, the Aztecs and the Mongols were fairly similar, particularly with their military. The Aztecs had a very large and strong military. Most of their society was based around the foundations of their military. The Mongol society was also very strongly based around there military. Every boy was trained to be a soldier as soon as he turned 14 in the Mongolian Empire while in the Aztec Empire, every able bodied boy was trained to fight.

Although the Aztecs did not have a professional army, every man knew how to fight and would fight at a moment’s notice.

This militaristic way of life in both societies made them both very strong empires. Another similarity is their intelligence in warfare. The Aztecs wore costumes to make there already feared army even more feared among the tribes around them. The Mongols did something very similar. To scare there enemy the Mongols would put fake soldiers on horses to make their numbers look larger than it actually was. Socially, the two societies were very similar when it came to women’s rights.

Aztec women although were not equal to the stature of men, were actually quite liberated. Women in both societies had a much higher status in society then in most other societies of the time period. Mongol women, unlike nearly all other Asian societies, were actually taught how to fight in case of an attack. This shows that women in the Mongol Empire were seen closer to as equals than anything else. Although women’s jobs did differ from men’s jobs, they were very balanced in difficulty. Aztec women were close to being equals as well.

Although Aztec women could not fight, they could own property, get divorced, and remarry. Owning property was a very rare trait for women of this era. Religiously, the two societies were very different. The Aztecs had hundreds of gods and goddesses although they praised their sun god, Huitzilopochtli, more than any other god. They Aztecs would sacrifice people (usually prisoners of war) to help give the sun energy to sustain its life. Many of the gods that the Aztecs worshipped were gods of agriculture because of how deeply their society relied on agriculture.

The Mongols did not have as many gods as the Aztecs. The Mongols were very open with religion; they were much more tolerant than the Aztecs. Although when the Mongolian great leader, Genghis Khan, opened his mind to Shamanism, the rest of the Mongol society followed him although it was never mandatory to be Shamanistic. Perhaps one of the biggest differences between these two societies is that the Mongols strongly believed in being a nomadic society, while the Aztecs strongly relied on their agriculture.

One of the reasons the Mongols were so good at war is because they incorporated strategies they used in war in everyday life. For example, they used horses every day in their life because of them being a nomadic society. So, when it became time to use horses in war, they were very well ready for it. This was very different for Aztecs. The Aztecs taught war in schools. It was not incorporated in everyday life. Although all of the other tribes around the Aztecs were agricultural societies too, therefore being like this was not a disadvantage for them.

In conclusion, the Aztec and Mongolian societies were in fact, not as different as they seem, even though they were thousands of miles away. They were similar in the fact that they were both militaristic societies and gave more freedom to women than most other empires of their time periods. However they were different in the fact that one was nomadic and the other was agricultural based. Their religious beliefs were also very different as well.

Mongols and Aztecs Comparison Essay

Mongol Empire Essay

Mongol Empire Essay.

A barbarian decribes a crude person in a primitive state or someone who lacks education or refinement. During the 13th Century a small Asian tribe known as the Mongols conquered much of the known world linking Western and Easter Eurasia. The Mongols were a nomadic people until they acknowledged the supreme leader Genghis Khan in 1206. Most historians formulate an arguement based on the question “The Mongols: How Barbaric Were the “Barbarians”? The Mongols were not very barbaric because they had a highly sophisticated military, lived by a code of conduct, and helped improve the lives of those they conquered.

The Mongols had a very structured military which grouped their warriors into armies of 10,000 commanded by two or three chiefs. Under this unit of 10,000 warriors were 1,000-man brigades, 100-man companies, and 10-man squads. (Doc C) They were expected to carry clothing, cooking pots, dried meat, a water bottle, files for sharpening arrows, a needle and thread and other useful items.

The Mongols wore silk which made it easier for the soldier or physician to remove it without ripping further flesh.

(Doc B) This clearly shows that the Mongols were well prepared for war and had distinct knowledge of it. Their strategy was to attack their enemies head-on and far right and left creating a barrier leaving them with no where to escape. Although the Mongols were outnumbered, they placed women, children, horses and dummy figures to make it seem as though they had a huge army. (Doc D) Their tactics were very skillful and well thought out.

John of Plano Carpini could have left out a valuable note to winnings of the entire Mongol’s battle because he most likely did not see all of the war strategies and might not have described it in the exact way. Ata-Malik Juvaini stated that the Mongols severed the heads of the slain from their bodies and heaped them up in piles during the conquering of Nishapur, (Doc E) this document might portray potential bias because Juvaini was a Persian chronicler and could have made the Mongols look ruthless and uncivilized.

Not only was he Persian but he wrote this account about forty years after the destruction of Nishapur. Why did he wait until 40 years after? Was he hiding something? The Mongols conquered 4,860,000 miles of land which is more than the United States. (Doc A) In order for them to achieve such feats they had to be educated to gain and control an empire larger than the United States. Barbarians have no laws or rules in which they abide by but however, the Mongols lived by a code of conduct.

In 1271, Kublai Khan enforced a new legal system which reduced capital crimes by half. Doc H). There had to have been some kind of strict society in order to have a drastic crime reduction. In the eyes of a Mongol, if someone committed adultery then they would be executed whether or not they have previous convictions. (Doc N) In today’s society, we use the same concept on a less harsh scale, if someone commits an unlawful act, then they shall face the consequences. We might think of that as barbaric today due to penalty of the crime but that would be biased because we do not share the same value system as they did.

Plano Carpini stated “War, strife, bodily harm or murder do not exist, robbers and thieves on a grand scale are not to be found among them. ”(Doc K) The severity of Mongol laws against theft made it possible for those to respect others’ belongings. A scene from a Persian manuscript c. 1300 shows the execution of a prisoner by a Mongol soldier and others being buried alive. (Doc F) This document shows potential bias because it was taken from a Persian manuscript and does not give enough information on why the prisoners are being executed.

Here is where I would need an additional document or source to explain the upside-down burial of living prisoners and why they faced such consequences. The Mongols were not barbaric because they had a code of conduct which maintained order in their society. Although the Mongols conquered most of the known world, they also helped to improve the lives of those they conquered making significant contributions to the political institutions, economic development, and cultural diversity of many lands. In China the (Mongol) Yuan emperors built canals to improve transportation and communication. Doc J) Barbarians are frowned upon as uneducated people. It is unjust to describe the Mongols as barbaric because they made Asia more civilized and advanced . The Great Khan also developed the system of relay stations which aquired 200,000 horses stabled at posts for the special use of the messangers.

(Doc L) This stupendous organization made is easier for the Great Khan to receive immediate news. Over the course, Mongol leaders often converted to the region’s dominant religions- Christianity, Islam, or Buddhism. Doc M) This clearly shows that the Mongols accepted all religions. The city of Karacorum had two districts: the Moslem’s quarter where the markets are and the other district of the Chinese who were all craftsmen. (Doc G) The Mongol cities were highly organized into districts and had some kind of social hierarchy. They also traded for centuries with border posts and had received gifts and money from the Chinese courts. (Doc I) The Mongols should not be considered barbaric because they united most of Asia throught their advancements.

Mongol Empire Essay

Global Research Paper: the Military Tactics of Mongol Essay

Global Research Paper: the Military Tactics of Mongol Essay.

The Mongol civilization was a highly advanced group of people in terms of military characteristics. They had superior weapons and strategic skills that contributed to their success of conquests. The purpose of this investigation is to address the question: To what extent did the Mongols benefit from their advanced military tactics? The major body of evidence will focus on Genghis Khan who was a prominent Mongolian ruler, the Mongol army, their war tactics, the empire and finally, the invading of neighboring countries.

These subtopics will assist in answering the research question by describing the significant role of Genghis Khan in leading his empire, and also their advanced military strategies and to what measure of success these factors resulted in. Sources such as books and databases were used to provide research and background information on the subtopics. They have been evaluated according to their origin, purpose, values and limitations. One of the databases, “Mongol Empire (Overview)” gave me a gist and a clear understanding of how the Mongols used their military skills to conquer many areas.

I gained knowledge of some of their strengths and strategies that allowed them to become a powerful army. The analysis of all these documents will help to establish the extent of the benefit that the Mongols obtained through their advanced military tactics. Summary of Evidence The Mongol Empire originated from the nomadic tribes of the Central Asian steppes, now called Mongolia. The high, dry grasslands and mountainous geography on the steppes was not fit for farming, so they raised sheep and horses instead. However, this was one of the reasons to why the Mongols were able to vastly expand.

Sheep provided meat, milk and cheese, which were their main diet. Horses were their source of mobility for hunting and transportation. Both of these factors stood as significant advantages for their army. The Mongols, however, were not strongly unified in the beginning. They had no solid foundation for a central government. The civilization was divided into different tribes that were each led by chiefs, and the tribes were always at each others’ throats. In all this time of constant fighting and violence, a man stepped up to unify all of the Mongol tribes and eventually reated an omnipotent empire. His name was Temujin(1162-1227), who later obtained the title, “Genghis Khan”, meaning universal ruler. A man named Juavini once stated, “Before the appearance of Genghis Khan they had no chief or ruler. Each tribe or two tribes lived separately; they were not united with one another, and there was constant fighting and hostility between them. ” Genghis Khan ruled from 1206 to 1227 and led great military campaigns during his reign that contributed to their Golden Age. The Mongol army and their military campaigns were like tidal waves.

They swept away any obstacles in their way and showed no mercy if the enemy resisted against them. One of Genghis Khan’s war strategy was the use of psychological weapons. He manifested terror and panic into the obscure areas of the country. His plan was to create a sense of such fatal destruction that resisting would be foolish. Another explanation to why the Mongol army were successful in their conquests was extreme mobility (up to 100 miles a day) and advanced weapons. The cavalry were always seen to be galloping on their horses.

They shot arrows while charging at the enemy and moved with tremendous speed. The Mongols were also able to adopt new tactics and master new technologies. When Genghis Khan realized their weakness in capturing fortifications, he took captives of Chinese siege engineers and learned siege tactics such as building catapults and ladders. On the battlefield, the Mongols liked to fight in teams rather than individually. While the Japanese army was trained to present their skills by fighting in single combats, the Mongols were trained to work together as a team.

If a samurai individually stepped up to a Mongol for a battle, the samurai would be surrounded and killed. A Japanese warrior named Hachiman Gudokun explained, “According to our manner of fighting, we must first call out by name someone from the enemy ranks, and then attack in single combat. But they took no notice at all of such conventions. They rushed forward all together in a mass, grappling with any individuals they could not catch and killing them. ” This may seem unfair; however, this is one of the barbaric ways that the Mongols fought and it gained them victories.

The Mongols were able to conquer lands and expand their territory; however, the extent of the benefit does not terminate there. Since the Mongol Empire controlled most of Asia and parts of Europe, they ruled much of the territory through which the Silk Road journeyed. Due to the peace within the empire, there was a great flow of merchants, craftsmen and missionaries traveling along the road, exchanging new ideas and creating cultural diffusion. The Mongols brought back new goods and cultures from the area that they conquered.

When Genghis Khan retuned to Mongolia from China, he brought back engineers, musicians, translators, doctors and scribes. He also brought back goods such as silk, porcelain, iron kettles, armor, perfumes, jewelry, wine, medicines, gold and much more. From then on, they received goods from China in a steady flow. Because the Mongols, despite that they were barbaric and strictly militaristic, were able to keep peace and control in their empire, trading and traveling increased and exposed people to new ideas and culture. These factors led to the Golden Age of the Mongol Empire, Pax Mongolica.

This golden age gave the Mongols a chance to advance in not only military, but economically and socially also. They were able to prosper with all the riches that they obtained from various trades and they were able to develop their society with the new ideas that were brought over from different cultures. Evaluation of Source The book Genghis Khan and the Mongol Conquests 1190-1400 was written by Stephen Turnbull. He is a historian specializing in eastern military history and wrote other books relating to the history of the Mongols, such as the Mongol Warrior.

The publisher, a credible source, Routledge was founded in 1851 and became a major publishing house. The author’s intention for writing this book was for scholars, teachers, and students who are interested in studying the history of the Mongols. The book sought to answer questions such as: How did the Mongols obtain such power with their army? What tactics and strategies did they have in order to succeed in conquest? Therefore, there were some value as well as limitations to this book as it was used for research.

There were quotes from other people who observed the Mongols, for example, soldiers who fought them. They described them to be barbaric and somewhat unfair. However, the book only shows the view of others, mostly the Mongols’ neighboring countries and enemies. There were no quotes from the Mongols that allowed to defend themselves. Another limitation was the fact that this was a secondary source and the author was not a witness to this event. This is a limitation because the information may not be accurate due to the time difference between the event and now.

There were also some unanswered questions such as how their advanced army benefited them with a golden age and how their golden age had a great impact on their society. This limited my amount of research and therefore, I had to look for another source with that information. Analysis The Mongols had two different faces. They were brutal and fierce. They brought destruction among their enemies if they chose to fight. On the other side, they were benevolent and kind with those who yielded to them. It is seen that the Mongols were merciless and barbaric people; however this is not the whole truth.

The Mongols did not torture or mutilate, while their enemies did. They preferred to slaughter in one quick motion which allowed their enemy to feel barely any pain. European rulers often enjoyed bloody executions such as stretching and hacking the body into pieces, but the Mongols did not take part in such gruesome activity. In fact, these horrible executions were carried out on the captured Mongols. An explanation to why the Mongols were able to have a benign side was because of their leader, Genghis Khan.

He is known to be a fierce man but he has a bit of a merciful characteristic also. Genghis Khan said to a man who attempted to assassinate him, “When an enemy wishes to kill someone, he keeps the fact secret…But you have been frank with me. Become, therefore, my companion. In memory of your deed, I will name you ‘Jebei’–the arrow. ” This portrays not only the act of forgiving, but the tremendous amount of confidence that Genghis Khan had in himself by befriending an assassin. On the other hand, he was not so forgiving on the battlefield.

He intimidated his enemies to the point where some even fled before the fight began. Having such a confident leader affirmatively impacted the Mongol Empire and its army. With Genghis Khan leading them, they were fearless and confident that they will take victory. “My friends, Temujin knows how to range men for battle much better than Baibuga,” said Jamuka, who fled from battle after seeing Genghis Khan’s fighting arrangement. The Mongol army were able to conquer and create a vast empire. From the perspective of the conquered people, it may be negative, considering all the orrid destructions that were brought by the Mongols. However, the Mongol Empire was extraordinary. It brought almost the entire continent of Asia under one control. There was no division in the land because there was religious and cultural tolerance. Relevant to culture, as mentioned in the summary of evidence, the Mongols had an impact on the Silk Road. Trade along the Silk Road had decreased since the fall of the Tang dynasty but revived during the Mongol Empire because safe travel was guaranteed throughout the entire empire.

Therefore, it created a huge economical boom and a great deal of new culture and knowledge reached Europe while the Mongols were able to experience a Golden Age. Conclusion The extent of the benefit that the Mongols received from their successful military was a time period of peace, prosperity and technological advancements. They were introduced to many new cultures as well as weapons and goods like silk and gold from China, which allowed them to prosper and become even more powerful. Pax Mongolica, their Golden Age, was the climax of their empire, and the extent of their power.

The Mongol Empire can be compared to the Hellenistic Age. Figures like Alexander the Great and Augustus had conquered great amount of land and expanded their territory just as Genghis Khan did for the Mongols. However, both empires fell after their period of prosperity, which showed another similarity between two great civilizations. What would have happened if the Mongols did not fall after their golden age? The extent of their benefit from their advanced military tactics may have been greater.

Reference

Global Research Paper: the Military Tactics of Mongol Essay