Theoretical Framework for Hr Thesis Essay

Theoretical Framework for Hr Thesis Essay.

1. Definition of Motivation and Employee Motivation

1. Definition of Motivation

Many contemporary authors have also defined the concept of motivation. Motivation has been defined as: the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995); an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994); and the will to achieve (Bedeian, 1993).

According to John R. Schermerhorn (2010), the term motivation is used in management theory to describe forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work.

Motivation can be defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behaviors. In its simplest definition, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something. (Cherry, 2011). An individual’s motivation is influenced by biological, intellectual, social and emotional factors. As such, motivation is a complex, not easily defined, intrinsic driving force that can also be influenced by external factors.

Every employee has activities, events, people, and goals in his or her life that he or she finds motivating.

Generally speaking , for this thesis, motivation is operationally defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals. Motivation is an employee’s intrinsic enthusiasm about and drive to accomplish activities related to work. Motivation is that internal drive that causes an individual to decide to take action. So, motivation about some aspect of life exists in each person’s consciousness and actions.

2. Definition of Employee Motivation

The trick for employers is to figure out how to inspire employee motivation at work. To create a work environment in which an employee is motivated about work, involves both intrinsically satisfying and extrinsically encouraging factors. Employee motivation is the combination of fulfilling the employee’s needs and expectations from work and the workplace factors that enable employee motivation – or not. These variables make motivating employees challenging. Employers understand that they need to provide a work environment that creates motivation in people. But, many employers fail to understand the significance of motivation in accomplishing their mission and vision. Even when they understand the importance of motivation, they lack the skill and knowledge to provide a work environment that fosters employee motivation.

From Rick Pitino’s point of view, “The only way to get people to like working hard is to motivate them. Today, people must understand why they’re working hard. Every individual in an organization is motivated by something different.” Employee motivation can be approached in many ways with different definitions. With Twyla Dell, “The heart of motivation is to give people what they really want most from work. The more you are able to provide what they want, the more you should expect what you really want, namely: productivity, quality, and service.” (Dell, 1988).” G. Jones and J. George from the book “Contemporary Management”, defined motivation as “Psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort and a person’s level of persistence.” And this approach is used as the employee motivation definition in the thesis

2. Motivation theories

There are many theories that refer to motivate people such as ERG theory by Clayton Alderfer, Acquired Needs theory by David McClelland, Expectancy theory by Victor Vroom, etc. In this thesis, the author applied Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Two – Factors Theory as the theoretical framework for the thesis

1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

The theory of human needs developed by Abraham Maslow was introduced in this part as an important theoretical framework for the thesis.

Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” and his subsequent book Motivation and Personality. This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.

This hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep, and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security.

As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship, and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person in order to achieve individual potential


There are five different levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:

– Physiological needs: the most basic needs for human to survival, (such as air, water, food, sex, sleep, etc). In working environment, it can be rest and refreshment breaks, physical comfort on the job or reasonable work hours. According to Maslow, if these needs are not satisfied, the human body can not function properly, and will ultimately fail. Physiological needs are supposed to be the most important and should be met first.

– Safety needs: After the physiological needs are satisfied, people’s attention turn to safety and security.

– Social needs: the first level of higher level needs is social needs. Social needs are those related to interact with others which includes: friendship, belonging to a group, giving and receiving love

– Esteem needs: Esteem needs can be categorized as external motivators such as recognition, attention, and social status. While internal motivators include accomplishment and self – respect.

– Self actualisation needs:This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential. (Cherry, 2011)

2. The theory Herzberg’s Two – Factor

The Two – Factor theory by Herzberg is one of the most influential studies on motivation which describes needs in terms of satisfaction and disatisfaction.

Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from those causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation – hygiene theory to explain these results. He called the satisfiers “motivators” and the dissatisfiers “hygiene factors”, using the term “hygiene” in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction.


1. Motivation factors

Herzberg explains that motivation factors are related to “what people do” on the job or “job content” Motivation factors include such things as a sense of responsibility, feelings of recognition, a sense of achievement, feelings of personal growth, the opportunity for advancement and work itself. Presence of motivation factors influences job satisfaction levels

– Responsibility: A duty or obligation to satisfactorily perform or complete a task (assigned by someone, or created by one’s own promise or circumstances) that one must fulfill, and which has a consequent penalty for failure.

– Recognition: Recognition is identifying something you learned previously and is therefore stored in some manner in memory. The employees should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by the managers.

– Achievement: The definition of achievement also includes its opposite, the failure or the absence of achievement. Success put into this category consists of the followings: successful completion of a job, solutions to problems, vindication, and seeing the results of one’s work. (Herzberg, 2008, p.45 -143)

– Personal growth: There must be growth and advancement opportunities in an organization to motivate the employees to perform well.

– Advancement: Advancement is an actual change in the status or position of the person in the company. In situation in which an individual transfers from one part of the company to another without any change in status but increases opportunities for responsible work, the change is considered an increased responsibility, but not formally an advancement. (Herzberg, 2008, p.46)

– Work itself ( Job – itself interesting and fulfilling work): The work itself should be meaningful, interesting and challenging for the employee to perform and to get motivated.

2. Hygiene factors

According to Herzberg, hygiene factors influence directly on job dissatisfaction. The hygiene factors are found in the job context and include such things as working conditions, interpersonal relations, base wage or salary, and technical quality of supervision. By improving them, such as by implemetenting a no – smooking policy, can make people less dissatisfied at work. However, it will not increase job satisfaction. Hygiene factors include:

– Working condition: The working conditions should be safe, clean and hygienic. The work equipments should be updated and well-maintained.

– Interpersonal relations: The relationship of the employees with his peers, superiors and subordinates should be appropriate and acceptable. There should be no conflict or humiliation element present.

– Base wage and salary: The pay or salary structure should be appropriate and reasonable. It must be equal and competitive to those in the same industry in the same domain.

– Supervision – technical : This category refers to the competence or incompetence; fairness or unfairness of the supervisor; supervisor’s willingness or unwillingness to delegate responsibility, to teach subordinates. (Herzberg, 2008, p.47)

3. The combination of Motivation factor and Hygiene factor

The combination of hygiene and motivation factors can result in 4 conditions:

1. High Hygiene/High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few problems. 2. High Hygiene/Low Motivation: Employees have few problems but are not highly motivated. 3. Low Hygiene/High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of problems. 4. Low Hygiene/Low Motivation: The worst situation. Unmotivated employees with lots of problems. Herzberg’s theories can be summarized by his quote, “If you want people to do a good job, give them a good job to do.” The two factor theory is useful because job context and content are major issues in the business world today.

Theoretical Framework for Hr Thesis Essay

Drainflow Repairing Jobs That Fail to Satisfy Essay

Drainflow Repairing Jobs That Fail to Satisfy Essay.

William Assemiah, 12021643 Irene Aidoo, 12021610 Sroda Adzo Apam, 12021626 Asare Ohenedwira Thomas, 12021639 Dorothy Dede Aklerh Asamoah, 12021634 Sampson Abbey Armah, 12021630 Arthur Sherifa, 12021631 Amadu Waliu, 12021617

Report Summary

1. Executive Summary

DrainFlow, a plumbing maintenance firm in the USA, has been losing its customers to competitors due to poor services. Job motivation and satisfaction among employees is declining across various job categories within the firm. This dissatisfaction has been attributed to the overspecialization of some job functions in the company. The report attempts to assist DrainFlow improve in three key areas: job structure and design, incentive policies, and recruitment practices.

It will go further to analyze the causes of the woes being faced by DrainFlow and provide a constructive recommendation on how to overcome them The main contents include an introduction to the problems DrainFlow is encountering, analyses of the current business, and recommendations on how DrainFlow can overcome these issues to foster a long-term competitive advantage.

2. Introduction

Research shows that a happy worker is a productive employee.

Satisfied employees tend to be better at their workplaces. Many of the individual behaviors at the workplace are affected by job satisfaction The main contents include an introduction to the problems DrainFlow is encountering, analyses of the current business, and recommendations on how DrainFlow can overcome these issues to foster a long-term competitive advantage. The goal of this proposal is to provide recommendations for a new job structure, a new incentive structure, and new hiring practices. The job structure recommendations will allow for more cross training between office workers and service providers.

This will enrich all jobs at DrainFlow by adding different tasks, autonomy, and feedback. The new incentive structure will allow for flexible benefits and recognition. This is designed to motivate employees and improve customer service. Lastly, the new hiring practices will provide a repeatable solution for finding a cohesive set of new employees. The report consists of five (5) parts: Executive Summary, Introduction, Motivation and Job Structure Analysis, Recommendations and Implementation.

3. Motivation and Job Structure Analysis

3.1. Job Design Research shows that there is a moderate relationship between job satisfaction and job performance as well as customer satisfaction. Satisfied employees perform better at their jobs and provide better customer service. Employees of DrainFlow are dissatisfied and that is the root cause of their present situation. Generally, specialization results in cost effectiveness and delivering of core competencies among employees when jobs are complex and require years of experience and learning for mastery. It becomes an albatross when jobs have few tasks and require little skill. The bottom line is, jobs have different effects on efficiency and motivation. The current job structure of DrainFlow due to its specialization has contributed to job dissatisfaction among employees and in 25% cases, turning employees away from the company.

Work groups are dissatisfied with each other’s output. The current job structure only assigned tasks without considering the interdependency of those tasks. Due to this, problems such as assigning a plumber assistant on a job meant for a plumber, and vice versa, and poor customer service have plagued DrainFlow. DrainFlow should adopt Hackman’s Job Characteristic Model to describe current jobs in the firm. The JCM has five core dimensions which include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Skill variety is the use of different skills and talents to complete a variety of work activities.

The current job- tasks in DrainFlow are very narrow and do not allow employees that skill variety. Task identity is the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or identifiable piece. This will help communicate the interdependence of work from one group and the other through the order to bill process. Task significance is the degree to which the job affects the organization and society. There no feedback channels in the firm at present and as such it’s difficult to measure customer satisfaction. Autonomy will provide the freedom, independence and discretion in scheduling work and determining the procedure to be used in accomplishing it. DrainFlow has a preplanned and stringent procedure to follow. Feedback will provide employees with direct and clear information about their own performance. DrainFlow’s employees haven’t that information to assess their performance.


Incentive Scheme

DrainFlow has no incentive scheme in place that will motivate employees to put any extra effort on the job. The present reward system is based on skill and qualification. Plumbers are rewarded the most as compared to the others because of their level of skill and not on performance. Generally, reward systems tend to motivate employees better when they are:  linked to performance; the rewards are important, when team rewards are used for interdependent jobs and those rewards are valuable.

Lee’s attempt to salvage DrainFlow by introducing the reward system is laudable but it will need a few modifications. 3.3.

Recruitment Practices

The current recruitment processes by DrainFlow are based on unstructured interviews by different managers thereby creating a higher level of inconsistencies in the choices of selection of employees. The use of shortcuts for judgment such as selective perception (tendency to selectively interpret what one sees based on one’s interests, background, experience and attitudes), or stereotyping (judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs) are prevalent. Although the shortcuts may aide accurate perceptions and hence predictions, they are not full proof and may result in perception inaccuracies.

Research indicates that impressions are formed within a tenth of a second, based on a first glance. Wrong perceptions may result in employees that are unqualified for the position and/or dissatisfied with work. The current situation at DrainFlow was aggravated by these perceptional recruitment inefficiencies. Most employees lack training in customer service, organizational behavior and are anxious about speaking with customers. Order processors do not have sufficient knowledge or skill to explain the customer’s situation to DrainFlow Plumbers or Plumber Assistants.

Billing representatives must deal with the negative reactions of dissatisfied customers; however, Bill processors are only involved at the end of the job process and unaware of any job details. DrainFlow plumbers are sometimes reluctant to deliver bad news of an unexpectedly high bill to customers. Furthermore, it is clear that a majority of order processors do not know any more about plumbing than customers calling in. These deficiencies have resulted in a direct negative impact on the revenue and cost savings, which were to be achieved by dividing assignments and specializing job responsibilities.



A. Job Redesign

DrainFlow work units have been overspecialized and there is little or no coordination among employees of different functional units. Therefore, we recommend a radical redesign of the job structure and business processes to achieve dramatic performance improvements and motivation. Order and Bill Processing be merged into one work unit under a job title. This will enable employees to have a first-time touch with customers. Cross training programs should be organized to enhance their knowledge of plumbing and plumbing-related activities. Feedbacks on customer satisfaction can easily be tracked.

Plumbing assistants, besides performing less technical plumbing works, should be given the opportunity to do rotational job activities in Order and Bill Processing unit. This will foster a better relationship among employees, enhance skill variety, cross training; reduce boredom and increase motivation and job satisfaction. Plumbers should organize training sessions on plumbing for worker in Order and Bill Processing Unit and continue to do complex plumbing works. The training should be interactive and focus on providing skill on how to respond to plumbing problems. This is to add a variety to plumbers’ activities.

B. Incentive Scheme

There is no current incentive scheme in place that is capable of providing employee satisfaction and motivation. DrainFlow should introduce an incentive scheme geared towards increasing employee satisfaction. This scheme should be both intrinsic and extrinsic; it should be both skill-oriented and performancebased.  Skills in customer service, plumbing and work attitude should be considered in the scheme. Performance-based will reward employees who create and maintain high customer retention rates. At the end of any job, a customer satisfaction survey should be conducted to assess level of customer satisfaction. Results from the survey should be the bases for implementing Lee’s reward scheme.

Rewarding performance should be an ongoing managerial and not just periodic.

Therefore, extrinsic rewards such as performance pay should be consistent with overall management objectives, used to reinforce a motivational in which nonmonetary rewards exist such as employee recognition.

C. Recruitment Practices

Based on the problem analysis concerning recruitment practices in DrainFlow, we recommend that management should design a consistent recruitment procedure that is capable of finding and hiring individuals who have the skill and experience to function well on the job. The recruitment policy procedure should emphasize on:  A brief summary judgment about the applicant’s strength and weaknesses  Interpreting facts as they appear on resume and make judgments; highlight and comment on experience and skills only as they apply to the needs of DrainFlow  Identifying personality traits (such as Agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, extraversion, and emotional stability) that will improve customer service and emotional labor

4. Implementation

This is probably the hardest part of it all. DrainFlow’s challenges of improving employee and customer satisfaction whiles increasing profit levels through cost containment and job performance is contingent on implementing our recommendations. However, any successful implementation of these recommendations will require support from toplevel management. The objectives of the changes should be clearly communicated to employees. DrainFlow should not do any radical changes; they should introduce the changes gradually in order of importance. Redesigning the job structure is essentially the first change management should introduce.

The focus is on combining order and billing work responsibilities into a single work unit. This should be followed by cross training and weekly job rotational activities. Workers of the newly created Order and Billing Unit should be given the opportunity to clone a plumber or plumber assistant to learn the basic concepts of plumbing. This will equip them with the necessary competencies in executing order and bill processing. DrainFlow needs to implement a new incentive scheme that is capable of boosting employee satisfaction to put in more effort in their work.

The proposed incentive scheme should include a financial reward system, as proposed by Lee, and an intrinsic, employee recognition program. Research has shown that financial rewards are mostly effective and deliver good results  only in the short-run. Employee loyalty and long-term motivational needs are triggered by non-financial rewards such as recognition.

5. Conclusion

This report summarized recommendations on how DrainFlow will gain a competitive advantage by improving three key knobs: job structure and design, incentive scheme and recruitment practices. The recommendations are clear and understandable and should be technically easy and financially cost effective to implement. The report proposes combining some job units, encouraging a weekly job rotational activities, cross training by utilizing the current talents available within the organization, etc.

A new incentive scheme will create job satisfaction through job motivation; this will boost productivity, performance and customer retention. The new recruitment policy entails finding and training employees that fit and share the dreams and aspirations of DrainFlow. Consequently, DrainFlow will see positive changes in employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction and retention, motivation, loyalty, performance, productivity and profitability.

Drainflow Repairing Jobs That Fail to Satisfy Essay

Vals Analysis Essay

Vals Analysis Essay.

The result shows that my primary VALS™ type is Innovator, and my secondary type is achiever.

Although I do not see myself as a successful person, but this result could give me an insight that I have a potential to become a successful, sophistic, and high self-esteem leader. I agree that innovators are the most receptive to new ideas and technologies, because I am a very creative and innovative person. I like to enjoy variety excitements, to experience new things, and to seek challenges in my life.

Moreover, I love doing artwork in my spare time. I love travelling and go to places that I have never been. I love music and art, in which I can express my feelings, my personality, and my taste. As a customer, I would likely to pick brand products that have high recognition and quality. I believe these are the reasons that make me an innovator type customer.

As an achiever, I truly motivated by the desire for achievement.

I have a goal-orientated lifestyle and a deep commitment to career and family. In addition to my Asian culture influences, these characteristics become more important to me. On the website, it says many achievers have busy lives, so they are often interested in a variety of timesaving devices. It is interest to realize that the most frequent word out of my mouth is efficient. I want to do things fast and with good quality, although sometimes I give myself too much pressure on things that lead to results under my expectations. As a customer, I prefer simple, good-looking and high quality products, just like what the website described the achiever.

Doing the VALS™ research is an interesting experience for me. I did it once in 2011; my primary VALS™ type was an experience and my secondary type was a maker. I am not sure the questions I did today and two years ago are the same, but somehow they are similar. The different results show my changing in attitudes and lifestyle. This research would definitely help companies to identify its customers. Because factors like age, education, income, attitude heavily influence customers’ wants and needs, this research will give companies a good understanding of their customers’ lifestyle and shopping behaviors. For a customer like myself, VALS™ is also a good tool to help me understand my shopping behavior and myself too.

Vals Analysis Essay

Theories of Motivation Essay

Theories of Motivation Essay.

This essay will look at motivation to discuss the content theorist Abraham Maslow ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ relevance and his critics. The research of motivation is interested basically with why people act in certain ways. ’Why do people do what they do?’ In typical terms, motivation can be defined as the direction and perseverance of action. It is interested with why humans take a specific course of action in to others, and why they continue with a chosen endeavour, often sustained over long periods and in the face of difficulties and problems (Kerch D(ed) 1962).

From a review of motivational theory, ‘Mitchel’ pinpoints four common traits that are intrinsic in defining Motivation (Mitchel1982) Motivation is typified as an individual phenomenon. Every person is unique and all the major theories of motivation in one way or another allow for this uniqueness to be demonstrated.. Motivation is described, usually as intentional. Motivation is assumed to be under the workers control, and behaviours that are influenced by motivation, such as effort expended are seen as choices of action.

Motivation is multifaceted. The two factors of greatest importance are; 1 what gets people active (arousal); and 2 the force of an individual to engage in desired behaviour (direction or choice of behaviour). The purpose of motivational theories is to predict behaviour. Motivation is not the performance itself and it is not behaviour. Motivation concerns action and the external and internal factors that affect a persons choice of action. On the basis of these traits, Mitchell defines motivation as ‘the extent to which a person desires and adopts to engage in certain specific behaviours’.

Mullins (2010) quotes ‘Kathy Scholfield, Director of Human resources, HFC Bank which was sited in ’Engineering the Carrott, Management Today December 1995.p66’ “ You don’t motivate individuals. You provide them with an environment to be self motivated. It is a personal decision, but it’s managements job to provide the right environment”. Content theories of Motivation

Significant content theories of motivation include •Maslow’s hierarchy of needs •Alderer’s modified need hierarchy model •Herzberg two factor theory. •McClelland’s achievement motivation theory. Content theories try to clarify the specific things that actually motivate the employee at work and are concerned with the identification of their strengths and needs, and the goals they seek in order to fulfil their needs. The content theories focus on the important factors of needs and what motivates.

“The most widely recognised theorist in motivation was Abraham Maslow who founded the concept “Hierarchy of needs”, his content theory focused on the factors within a person that energise, sustain and stop behaviour and attempt to identify the distinguishing needs that motivate people.” (Mitchell 2008) Cole (2004) states ‘Maslow’s studies into human motivation led him to propose a theory of needs based hierachial model with the basic needs at the bottom and the higher needs at the top, as in Fig1. This theory made a considerable influence on developments in management theory during the 1950s/60s due to partly to the simplicity of the model and partly to the identification of higher levels of needs.’

“Maslow’s basic proposition is that people are wanting beings, they always want more and what they want depends on what they have already have (Mullins 2010 p261). Maslow identified eight needs, however the hierarchy of needs only shows five main levels, ranging from the lowest level of physiological needs then through to safety needs, love needs and self esteem needs to the final need of self actualisation.

Maslow developed his ‘Hierarchy of needs’ (Fig 1) motivation theory and it is probably the most popular and most read motivation theory. (Maslow1954) theory suggests that people have different needs, which can be grouped and ordered to display relative importance, and that within each person there is a hierarchy of needs and the individual must satisfy each level before they move onto the next.

There are five hierarchical levels and these are: Physiological needs: Food, shelter, sexual satisfaction i.e. those needs needed for basic survival. Safety needs: The need to feel safe and have security, freedom from threats of violence within your environment. Also refers to emotional and physical safety. Social needs: The need for love, friendship and belongingness Esteem needs: The need for self respect, status and recognition from others. Self actualisation: The point of reaching ones full potential. Are you capable at excelling yourself? Maslow theory proposes that once a lower level of need has been satisfied it is no longer becomes a motivator and the needs of the next upper level necessitate satisfaction and become the motivating factor. Only unsatisfied needs are the motivator for a person and that a satisfied need is no longer a motivator.

The most significant limitations of Maslow’s theory concern his methodology’ to define the characteristics of self acutalised individuals by undertaking a qualitive assessment method called biographical analysis. In short he looked at the writings and biographies of the people he decided as being self actualised.

This method is subjective and is entirely based on the researcher and personal opinions are prone to being bias, which reduces the validity of Maslow’s definition of self actualization and should not be accepted as fact. It is also quite difficult to empirically test Maslow theory of self actualization in a way that casual relationships can be established. Author and artists such as Rembrandt and Van Gough lived in poverty through their life and it could be argued that they achieved self actualization.

It is also apparent when looking at the poorer regions of the world and the poverty in which people exist, people are still capable of ascending to higher levels of needs such as belongingness and love. Furthermore this should not occur according to Maslow as people who are in financial hardship are failing to meet physiological needs such as shelter and food (McLeod 2007).

The Economist (2008) states ‘Maslow was described by Peter Drucker as “the father of humanist psychology”. But Drucker took issue with Maslow’shierarchy, complaining that he had not seen that “a want changes in the act of being satisfied”. Hence “ as a wants approaches satiety its capacity to reward, and with it its power of incentive diminishes fast”. And opinionates “so (as we all know well) top executives can never be paid enough for them to be satisfied.”

Conclusion Even after many years have passed since its inception and more and more flaws being applied when the hierarchy of needs principles are taken out of its simplistic form. Maslow’s theory of is still the most recognised and well known theory to date, being still written about and being applied in one form or other assisting managers in motivating employees in partnership with other management motivational theories.

Theories of Motivation Essay

Key Qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur Essay

Key Qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur Essay.

Being an entrepreneur is about more than just starting a business or two, it is about having attitude and the drive to succeed in business. All successful Entrepreneurs have a similar way of thinking and posses several key personal qualities that make them so successful in business. Successful entrepreneurs like the ambitious Richard Branson have an inner drive to succeed and grow their business, rather than having a Harvard Business degree or technical knowledge in a particular field.All successful entrepreneurs have the following qualities:Inner Drive to SucceedEntrepreneurs are driven to succeed and expand their business.

They see the bigger picture and are often very ambitious. Entrepreneurs set massive goals for themselves and stay committed to achieving them regardless of the obstacles that get in the way.

Strong Belief in themselvesSuccessful entrepreneurs have a healthy opinion of themselves and often have a strong and assertive personality. They are focused and determined to achieve their goals and believe completely in their ability to achieve them.

Their self optimism can often been seen by others as flamboyance or arrogance but entrepreneurs are just too focused to spend too much time thinking about un-constructive criticism. Search for New Ideas and InnovationAll entrepreneurs have a passionate desire to do things better and to improve their products or service. They are constantly looking for ways to improve.

They‘re creative, innovative and resourceful.Openness to ChangeIf something is not working for them they simply change. Entrepreneurs know the importance of keeping on top of their industry and the only way to being number one is to evolve and change with the times. They‘re up to date with the latest technology or service techniques and are always ready to change if they see a new opportunity arise.www.woopidoo.comCompetitive by NatureSuccessful entrepreneurs thrive on competition. The only way to reach their goals and live up to their self imposed high standards is to compete with other successful businesses.

Highly Motivated and EnergeticEntrepreneurs are always on the move, full of energy and highly motivated. They are driven to succeed and have an abundance of self motivation. The high standards and ambition of many entrepreneurs demand that they have to be motivated!Accepting of Constructive Criticism and RejectionInnovative entrepreneurs are often at the forefront of their industry so they hear the words ”it can‘t be done” quite a bit.

They readjust their path if the criticism is constructive and useful to their overall plan, otherwise they will simply disregard the comments as pessimism. Also, the best entrepreneurs know that rejection and obstacles are a part of any leading business and they deal with them appropriately.True entrepreneurs are resourceful, passionate and driven to succeed and improve. They‘re pioneers and are comfortable fighting on the frontline The great ones are ready to be laughed at and criticized in the beginning because they can see their path ahead and are too busy working towards their dream.

Key Qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur Essay

Are Grades and Effective Means of Motivation? Essay

Are Grades and Effective Means of Motivation? Essay.


Grades are often seen to be one of, if not the most effective method of motivating a student to work to their fullest potential. For example, a student who receives an A-grade is going to be encouraged by the grade, as they see it to be an affirmation of their academic efforts. An A-student views their grade with pride, and will work very hard to maintain said grade, once achieved. An example of this is as follows.

John recently received an A on his Math test.

He then goes home with a sense of pride, bragging about it to all of his friends.

John now realizes that he must keep up the good work and continue to work hard for school, in order to continue to feel as good as he does today. Conversely, a failing student will regard his/her grades with shame, and will be more motivated to raise their grade from the gutter as a result. An example of this is as follows. John receives an F for failing to complete an assignment on time. As a reaction to this, John decides that he will turn his life around completely and alter his studying habits so that he turns in his assignments on time in the future. In conclusion, grades are by all means the most effective way of motivating a student to excel.


Grades are the least effective way of motivating a student. This can be said with such certainty due to the very nature of grades themselves. They serve to rank students against each other. Personally, when I feel as though somebody is putting me up against a friend, I feel much less willing to work harder for the class than if they were to simply tell me what I needed to change in order to excel. The Whitehall Study, performed in England 1967, has shown us with certainty that humans placed in a competitive hierarchical situation over prolonged periods of time will increase their chances of gaining cardiovascular disease by 40%.

This shows us that students placed under similar conditions (as they are with the grade system) are not only less motivated to work, but are also at risk of dying. Another important factor to consider when discussing high-school students and their academic achievements is that many of us are apathetic. This means that when we see a grade, we simply just don’t care about it and it doesn’t serve to motivate us one way or the other. This leads me to conclude that grades, when seriously considered by the student, are not only the least effective way of motivating students to do their best work, but are also a serious health concern.


This writing activity was unlike anything I had seen before. It challenged me to write from two entirely different perspectives, which is something very new to me. The main difficulty I faced with this assignment was the assignment itself. While it may seem redundant to say so, the assignment asked us to write about something from two polarized perspectives, and that was what challenged me the most. I found it easy enough to write the doubting response, as it is what I can most easily associate with. When it came to writing the believing response, I felt as though I was stuck. I stared blankly at my page for several minutes until I finally decided to ask an A-student what their perspective on the matter was.

Doing so helped me greatly, as it broadened my mind and aided me in writing about something from an entirely foreign perspective. After completing this assignment I can honestly say that I am a more well-rounded person, as I find it easier to relate to what others are saying, even if it goes against every fiber of my existence. Believing and doubting helps me wallow in complexity by reminding me not to forget that there is a flip-side to what I am arguing at any given time, and I’ve caught myself thinking about a few of my foundational beliefs and how they can be contradicted by somebody with a different outlook on life. In conclusion, I believe that this assignment has helped me to understand that there are several other points of view to consider.

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Are Grades and Effective Means of Motivation? Essay

Case Solution Electro Logic Essay

Case Solution Electro Logic Essay.

Ram Singam -Electro Logic writeup1. Motivational Strengths and Weaknesses of Electro Logic Strengths: Electro Logic (EL) employees are part of a highly dynamic industry and they are given the opportunity to make a difference in IT through great perfection of the VFVA system. Salaries and wage raises are offered based on performance, stimulating as such EL staff members will increase their efforts in supporting the organization reach its overall goals. On-campus-job training programs are motivating as the employees are able to learn from their colleagues in a familiar environment, maximizing the chances of future successes.

The company is continually evolving, engaging as such its employees in a complex dynamic process, which maintains their motivation and reduces routine work EL creates opportunities for social interactions, which increase morale and employee collaboration. Weaknesses In Electro Logic the fact that major funding comes primarily from the government, the budget for this company was not fixed for a long term, employee benefits, Health insurance premiums can change any time, no job security for employees; thus employees levels of motivation, and consequently performance and Outcomes are negatively affected.

The selection criteria for the newly appointed responsibilities were rather arbitrary and this could generate dissatisfaction. Advancement opportunities are unclear to employees as such fail to properly motivate the EL employees. The internal structure of EL organization is based on vertical hierarchy, with employees being given limited access to distinguish them. The more flat the organization the better the motivation and performance. Reinforcement is missing.

The three locations of the Electro Logic separate buildings reduce the employee’s ability to concentrate and integrate as a team and also reduce their morale on High-Priority Actions. The micro management in some areas should be reduced in the main building. The Administrative department should be treated fairly as it is also part of the company. The appreciation and integrated team work is missing at the Electro Logic. This reduces the outcomes. Employee’s personal needs are not recognized by the managers thus reducing the satisfaction.

Case Solution Electro Logic Essay

Skinner’s Reinforcement Model Essay

Skinner’s Reinforcement Model Essay.

Motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, which means “to move”. According to dictionary of management, it can be defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effort. Motivation is one of the most important areas of study in the field of organizational behaviour. Motivation is done to inspire and encourage people to fulfil their needs. In motivation people tend to do something because they want to do it.

The internal needs and drives lead to tensions, which in turn result into action. In organization, motivation can be described as the willingness to achieve high levels effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need. There are several theories in motivation, such as Hierarcy of Needs Theory, ERG Theory, Two-Factor Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, Process Theories of Motivation, Expectancy Theory, Goal-Setting Theory, Self-Efficacy Theory, and Reinforcement Theory. In this paper, the authors will discuss more about reinforcement theory which popularized by Burrhus Frederic Skinner, a psychologist, an investor, and Harvard psychology professor who came from America.

1. Reinforcement Theory

Reinforcement theory is the process of shaping behaviour by controlling the consequences of the behaviour. In reinforcement theory a combination of rewards and punishments is used to reinforce desired behaviour or extinguish unwanted behaviour. Any behaviour that emerges a consequence is called operant behaviour, because the individual operates on his or her environment. Reinforcement theory concentrates on the relationship between the operant behaviour and the associated consequences, and is sometimes referred to as operant conditioning where behaviour is controlled by manipulating the consequences.

2. Reinforcement Strategies There are four strategies of reinforcement which are used in operant conditioning, such as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. 1. Positive Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement is done by giving a positive response when an individual shows positive and required behaviour. For example, a manager immediately praises an employee for coming early for job. This will increase probability of outstanding behaviour occurring again. Reward is a positive reinforce, but not necessarily. If and only if the employees’ behaviour improves, reward can said to be a positive reinforcer. Positive reinforcement stimulates occurrence of behaviour. It must be noted that more spontaneous the rewards are given, the greater reinforcement value it has.

This strategy of reinforcement has two basic laws which are the law of contingent reinforcement and the law of immediate reinforcement. The first law states that for a reward to have a maximum reinforcing value it must be delivered only if the desired behaviour is exhibited. The second law states that the more immediate the delivery a reward after the occurrence of a desirable behaviour, the greater the reinforcing value of the reward.

There are three process of positive reinforcement, such as: a. Shaping is positive reinforcement of successive approximations to the desire behavior. Workers get support from manager and workers can try to give the best result to manager. b. Continuous Reinforcement is rewards each time a desired behavior occurs. Workers will get reward from manager for each time they can make goals for the job. c. Intermittent Reinforcement is rewards behavior only periodically. Workers will get reward from manager in the spesified time , maybe in the last year or the first year.

2. Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement happened when a manager is rewarding an employee by removing negative or undesirable consequences. Both positive and negative reinforcement can be used for increasing desirable or required behaviour.

3. Punishment Punishment is done by removing positive consequences so as to lower the probability of repeating undesirable behaviour in future. In other words, punishment means applying undesirable consequence for showing undesirable behaviour. For example by suspending an employee for breaking the organizational rules. Punishment can be equalized by positive reinforcement from alternative source. Below are shown guidelines for punishment:

• Tell the person what is being done right and wrong. • Assure that the punishment given is reasonable. • Administer the punishment privately. • Follow the laws of immediate and contingent reinforcement. 4. Extinction This last strategy implies absence of reinforcements. This strategy is meant to lowering the probability of undesired behaviour by removing reward for that kind of behaviour. If an employee no longer receives praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his behaviour is generating no fruitful consequence. So, extinction may unintentionally lower desirable behaviour of the worker itself.

Reinforcement Theory was made by B. F Skinner. It simply states those employees’ behaviors that lead to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not be repeated. Reinforcement theory explains in detail how an individual learns behaviour. There are four main strategies used in Operant conditioning such as, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. Skinner states that work environment should be made suitable to the individuals and that punishment actually leads to frustration and de-motivation.

Therefore, the only way to motivate is to keep on making positive changes in the external environment of the organization. Managers can use these strategies in turn, but if one strategy is used continuously it will causes negative impacts on employees. Managers who are making attempt to motivate the employees must ensure that they do not reward all employees simultaneously. They must tell the employees what they are not doing correct. They must tell the employees how they can achieve positive reinforcement. The desired result of the above strategy is that managers should negatively reinforce employee behavior that leads to negative outcomes and increase positive behaviors in the work environment.

Skinner’s Reinforcement Model Essay

Model of Filipino Values Essay

Model of Filipino Values Essay.

Philosophical basis

Filipino values are for the most part centered at maintaining social harmony motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted w/in the group the main sanctions against the diverging from these values are the concept of ‘hiya’ roughly translated as a sense of shame and ‘amor propio’ or self esteem. Social approval acceptance by a group and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think say or do are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.

According to the anthropologists LEONARDO MERCADO the Filipino worldview is basically nondualistic.based on his linguistic analysis of Filipino value terms like loob (Cebuano buot ),he includes that Filipinos desire harmony not only in interpersonal relationships but also with nature and religion while still remaining nondichotomous.

Joenalyn & mayeth

Models of the Filipino values

F.landa jocano identified two models of the Filipino value system.the first is the exogenous model or the foreign model,while the second is the indigenous model of the traditional model .

the foreign model is described to be a “legal and formal”model while the indigenous model is described as a “traditional and non formal’model or guide but is deeply embedded in the subconscious of the Filipinos.the foreign model was inherited by Filipinos from western cultures,particularly from the Spaniards and the Americans.

Lovely, Amancia, & HANNAH


Based on studies ,surveys opinions,anecdotes and other literature made by experts and researchers in relation to Filipino social values or Filipino core values along with the Filipino character or Filipino identity of a person or an individual known as the Filipino,the Filipino value system are found to possess inherent key elements,among them are optimism about the future pessimism with regards to present situation and events the concern and care for other people the existence of friendship and friendliness the habit of being hospitable religious nature respectfulness to self and others respect for the female members of society the fear of god and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.the core values of Filipinos specially upholds the following items;solidarity of the family units security of the Philippine economy orientation to small groups personalism the concepts of”loob”or”kalooban”(meaning “whats inside the self”the inner self”or the “actual personal feelings of the self),the existence and maintenance of smooth interpersonal relationships and the feelings or needs of others (known as pakiramdam).in a larger picture,these values are grouped into general clusters or”macroclusters”namely,the relationship cluster the social cluster the livelihood cluster the inwardness cluster and the optimism cluster.

Model of Filipino Values Essay

Self-Motivation Essay

Self-Motivation Essay.

When you look up self-motivation in the dictionary it says that self-motivation is initiative to undertake or continue a task or activity without another’s prodding or supervision. Some of us are self-motivated and some of us are motivated by others. It may seem difficult to have the ambition and the drive to motivate yourself but when you take action, when you have faith, and when you have a little motivation from others, you will have the confidence to believe in yourself.

As soon as you take action you will find out the true purpose in life. Figuring out what you want in life will make you work hard and strive without someone telling you what do. You start to realize that you are working hard for something that you want not anyone else. Also, you start to have more confidence in your beliefs. Meaning that although everyone might not go along with what you have to believe in you will still take a stand for what you believe no matter what.

You would be your number one supporter and you don’t need acceptance from anyone else because you have sureness in what you feel and in what you believe. Sometimes you have to accept challenges in life and go through them on your own. But when you have faith in yourself you will never doubt that you can’t do anything. Have you ever thought what would happen to your dreams and aspirations if you didn’t believe that you can accomplish them? When you have the desire to fulfill your ideas, you wouldn’t want them to be rejected because you didn’t believe in yourself. Although you are doing this for yourself you are still becoming an encouragement for others and you will get the respect from others. As well as making your own dreams come true and earning respect, faith gives you the opportunity to give yourself a pat on the back. That feeling to have positive thoughts about yourself and knowing that you have made positive progress. When you have faith in yourself you can expect good things.

Sometimes too much self-motivation can be misconstrued as someone being too confident or cocky, but with the right motivation from the right person to motivate you, that will make you improve your effort in whatever you striving for. We are all motivated in different ways; some of us need a little bit of healthy competition to boost up our confidence and to make you work harder than you competitor and gives you the ambition to win. Also, through all the obstacles you face it can be good for you to have someone there to help motivate you and keep pushing you to do your best. In the same way, it makes the journey to achievement fun and enjoyable.

Of course times will get hard and you will get frustrated but with some motivation it allows you to tolerate difficult times. In other words, self-motivation can go a long ways and can give you the confidence and the assurance in yourself to better yourself and become a better person. Also motivation from others can you give you the boost that you need to go further in whatever you plan on doing. Like late Eleanor Roosevelt said “The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.” Meaning for those people that have dreams and ambitions and they strived for them there will be a virtuous result in the end. If you work hard for it you will receive it.

“Self-motivation.” Random House, 2012.
Web. 25 November 2012.
“ThinkExist.” 1999-2012
Web. 25 November 2012.

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Self-Motivation Essay