Importance of Nature Essay

Importance of Nature Essay.

The more technologically savvy our society becomes and as our cities become larger and more urbanized our connection with nature gets weaker and weaker. It is difficult to remember the natural beauty of a 100 year old oak tree while you dwell in the city where you are lucky to see a tree every three blocks. Our attitudes (especially people who live in very urbanized areas) tend to think that civilization surrounds nature instead of “wilderness [as] the element in which we live encased in civilization.

”(1)

I am not stating that our technological advances are a bad thing, but we must remember the importance of nature. People need to experience nature. One reason is that the beauty of nature excites our senses, but it also is a perfect place to experience personal growth and meditation. From a logical standpoint though, learning more about nature can lead to growth as a society.

As humans, we are constantly looking to be awed. We look to beauty to do this.

Nature offers the most pure form of beauty. Nature is stunning, yet not distracting. Our senses are enlightened by the magnificence of it yet we are not so distracted that we cannot think of anything else. It’s not the flash of a million colorful lights or the awe inspiring power of a larger than life sky scrapper.

This kind of beauty demands your attention while the beauty of nature is humbly offered. A baby is a great example of our attraction to nature or just natural things in general. When there is a baby in a room full of people, people cannot help but stare and coo over it. We are attracted to them. I think a big reason for this is because they act so natural.

They are not analyzing their actions, they are completely uninhibited. Society has not shaped them and told them what is right and wrong and how they should act. Everything is much more appealing in the most basic, natural form. Nature is the closest thing we have to perfection. There is no denying the fact that we love to stare at the oranges and yellows of a sunset or enjoy the deep greenish blue of the ocean. We fill vases with flowers in our home in hopes that it will make our home more appealing. Life should always be celebrated and beauty if part of life. We should look for it and admire it, especially in nature.

A lot of this sense of perfection comes from a “higher, namely, of the spiritual element.”(2) Many religions are centered on the grace of their god(s) and are often believed that the perfection of nature is a reflection of the perfection of their god(s). In Christianity and Judaism, God was the essential creation of nature. In the bible “when a noble act is done-perchance a scene of great beauty”(2) will appear such as the rainbow that appeared after the flood that lasted for 40 days and nights in the story of Noah’s Ark. Perhaps why we are so attracted to natural beauty is it makes us feel closer to God. Or maybe just something bigger than ourselves.

Nature has a spiritual quality to it which offers the ideal place to meditate. If one wants to learn more about themselves, then they should learn about nature because that is where we came from. “It is hard to escape the sense of one’s predecessors”(1) when we spend enough time outside of civilization. We all once used to dwell among nature with animals and all other forms of life. Civilization is simply a wall which we have placed between us and nature. When we are in nature we have “striped away the human façade” (1) than stands between us and the universe and we can “see more clearly” (1) where we are.

Thoreau stated in Walden “Rather than love, than money, than fame, give me truth”(3) and there is nothing more truthful than nature. Nature is as truthful as it gets. Alone in the woods, away from society and the people in it, one is allowed to escape the influence of society and influence themselves independently. There we can figure out who we truly are and not what society makes us believe we are. I constantly hear of people talking about the importance of having a diversity of people and ideas on earth, yet how can we have true diversity if we are unable to discover out natural selves free from society? Nature is not only the window into our history, but also to the core of our existence. Nature offers perspective to people and our place in this world.

Some might view my past two arguments as exceedingly unsatisfying. Why should we care if it beautiful or if it helps us “discover” ourselves? But one argument cannot be denied: nature is the key to the survival of the human race. We use the stars to navigate, we till the land to plant our crops, trees provide us with oxygen, we use plants for medicine, and we drink the water from lakes and creek. The list goes on and on.

“The endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man”(2) while nature never expects anything back. It is strange how we forget about nature when it is the essential factor to our survival. When people experience nature, they are more likely to join the effort to conserve it and its resources. If we learn to appreciate it, then we will want to take care of it.

Ecological conservation and preservation is extremely important. Not only does nature offer important nature resources, but there have also been studies that suggest that people who spend more time outside are typically happy and healthier individuals. There has also been research that points to a correlation between stress levels and the amount of time spent outside. Nature provides us with general health and well being.

Each year we build more buildings, more houses, and more roads. We do this so we can continue to progress as a society, but as we do this we must remember nature because it also helps us progress as a society. Without it, there would be no society. Nature is beautiful, insightful and necessary. We must never forget about it and we must always work to protect it.

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Importance of Nature Essay

The Reason Why I Interest on Science Essay

The Reason Why I Interest on Science Essay.

In my family there is a tradition of interest in science: my grandmother was college professor in chemistry and physics, and both my parents were trained as mechanical engineers in college. When I was a kid, my mom showed me a box full of extremely tiny gears — those that table clocks are made out of — and told me what each part was for. And I remember thinking “this is the coolest tiling I’ve ever seen!’ I have been interested in mechanical structures and the inner working of human-made and natural things ever since.

My interest in natural structures and systems began with photography. I find it an almost magical technique of preserving any natural phenomenon from large to small. It also gives me a chance to look at things very closely and wonder about them for as long as I like. I took photographs extensively when I travelled in China, and later in my first year of college. My interests intensified and went beyond just apparent forms, when during my first summer in college I read about linear and nonlinear dynamics, emergence behavior, game theory, neuroscience and spatio-temporal pattern formation in books intended for undergraduate students or the general public.

I decided that my appreciation for nature would only deepen and advance if I learned about the underlying theory of the nature of beauty, instead of just the beauty itself I’m also more and more convinced that we can gain insights into the very large structures in our universe by looking at smaller structures like cellular pathways or subatomic particles.

In order to understand the physical world further, I enrolled in both physics and mathematics programs. Even with the strong theoretical emphasis in my curriculum choice, I still find physically touching, seeing and manipulating things among the best ways to understand them I enjoy doing lab works in physics, and I have worked in a machine shop, sculpture studio, art museum, and taxidermy studio. However, the elegance, simplicity, and power of theory are even more appealing to me as a scientist. As I acquire more and more background in mathematics. I realize what a powerful language and metaphor it is to science.

I enjoy engaging myself in philosophical arguments about the nature of mathematics and physics with my physics and astronomy professor Dr. Robert Harmon and my best friend in college who is a neuroscience student. My research project last summer was on an eclipsing binary star system, LV Hercules, which has high orbit eccentricity. From the beginning of the project, I was very enthusiastic about teaching myself observational astronomy from scratch. The project was sponsored by the Arkansas Center for Space & Planetary Sciences at the University of Arkansas, a new research center consisting of mechanical engineers, chemical engineers, astronomers, biologists and cosmologists. I enjoyed the interdisciplinary group dynamics during weekly seminars, while at the same time working m the physics research building, where I could talk to other physicists about their work on material science, numeric and computation, or quantum optics.

During the process of learning about the universe — seeing, touching, experimenting, thinking, and researching—I also have learned about myself I find the only way I can learn anything meaningful is to ask “why.” which is the central thread of any inquiry — experimental, theoretical, philosophical or intellectual. I always ay to find the boundary to the chain of knowledge or reasoning. For example, in the world of astrophysics. I find the jets from black holes and pulsars interesting; I find cosmic background radiation interesting. and I find the origin of universe intriguing, since we do not know how these phenomena have come into being.

My liberal art education also has provided me inspiration and reflection on science education. Having found that college science outreach consists almost entirely of cool demonstrations of scientific phenomenon, I tried to create another area of interest in science and scientific thinking, by demonstrating the power of reasoning, logic and critical thinking. That was the main objective when I gathered students and faculty members and created the Freethinkers Club on campus last fall.

We discussed the teaching of the theory of evolution m public schools, and pseudoscientific influence in public policy making. We tripled the size of our mailing list after just one semester. The liberal arts approach gives me opportunities to explore all these different experiences and ways of learning. I want to continue exploring the beauty and elegance of our universe in my life, my studies, and my career. For me, seeking out and understanding such mysteries—large and small—is like discovering and collecting jewels, or something even more elegant, like the tiny gears of a mechanical clock.

The Reason Why I Interest on Science Essay

Animalistic Passion Essay

Animalistic Passion Essay.

In the novel Therese Raquin by Emile Zola, Zola’s use of naturalism causes Therese and Laurent to fall victim to their own animalistic passion. Zola’s masterful use of naturalism creates the idea that Therese and Laurent are merely animals acting out of instinct, unable to control their emotions or actions. This natural instinct is what lead to Therese’s affair with Laurent; they were drawn together as two wild animals would be, logistics could not stop this act from occurring.

This same natural instinct is what lead to the lovers killing Camille it had to happen regardless of the effects it may entail. This uncontrollable passion turns on them after the murder, an instinctive fear sets in, controlling the lovers and driving them to insanity.

Zola claimed Therese Raquin to be a scientific experiment, this is a hoax. The novel started out with reasonable possibilities, however his romanticism would overcome him in his writing. Zola realizes this and claims naturalism as the cause for the romance, then furthers his naturalism idea by creating a need for violence because the romance needed to continue its natural course.

The result of violence was considered a natural reaction to committing a crime, self inflicted punishment. (Bryfonski 585) For a book to be written as a resultant of a scientific experiment, the experiment needs the ability to be duplicated. There is no experiment to be duplicated in this novel it was just an attempt to create social reform. To Zola the claim of naturalism made his novel more factual, thus holding more weight in the public’s eye for social reform; naturalism did not prove anything though and critics questioned the validity of this “experiment”. (Bryfonski 585-586)

Zola wanted to be called a naturalist and utilized the theme in every way possible, Philo M. Buck states “Zola never ceased to call himself a naturalist. But he learned in his maturity to use his naturalism as a means to an end, and discovered, through it perhaps, a philosophy of life that has less connection with Zola the man of science. To be sure it was impossible for him to turn his back on science, or renounce his faith in his method. But more and more science to him the means to great social ends, and literature more the handmade of science than a department of experimental biology and physiology.

And above all, because of his minute social studies, he acquired a faith in human nature, a belief in its essential soundness, that will make him a defender of the oppressed, but for a reason that has in it nothing of the sentimental love of the lowly or the liberal belief in democracy.” (Buck 282) Oscar Cargill states “It is remarkable in Zola’s notes to discover that he did not want to be “political, philosophical, or moral,” but “purely naturalistic, purely physiological.”(56) Zola wrote Therese Raquin to be a novel showing that humans are predestined by nature. There is also strong physiologic aspects in this novel like effects of murder on the murderer, and the effects an affair has on the two lovers. Zola claims all these effects to be natural and destined. (Cargill 62)

Zola paints a natural scene of Therese and Laurent’s love making one that could be compared to Adam and Eve before their biblical downfall. Therese and Laurent also have a downfall into the depths of insanity after they vile their innocent passion with murder. The passion shared by Therese and Laurent naturally leads them to murder so they continue to enjoy this passion; however once the murder is done their passion turns on them creating hatred between the two they now hate each other with the passion that they once loved each other with. This is the outcome when a crime for passion is committed it is the only natural outcome, the passion now has thoughts of crime tied into it. (Wilson 40-63)

Zola writes at great lengths the struggles Therese and Laurent suffer after the murder, saying how these events they suffer are natural and inevitable. Therese and Laurent’s passion has now fully transformed into a hatred that burns in each of their bodies like the scare on Laurent’s neck burns. The scare symbolizes their passion, it was invisible and painless before it was given to him; but once it becomes real and visible to the world just as Therese and Laurent’s relationship every touch or embrace creates a burning pain. Zola’s obsession with infidelity and the effects of it clearly goes much further than naturalism itself it is clear that he has been affected by this issue. (Hemmings 25-37) Zola’s obsession with infidelity and naturalism leads the reader to believe that he is tied to the subject.

Angus Wilson states “The answer to this sexual despair, the very core of his social pessimism, lies in Zola’s own life. Nothing in Zola’s early days in Paris had helped him to escape from his retrospective view of happiness, and his marriage seems to have proved to be no solution. Alexandrine was a good wife, ambitious, thoughtful for his needs, strong in character,emotionally profound. But she appears to have been only a supplement to his already deep mother-fixation. Had they been able to have children, all this might have been changed, but, unfortunately, this was not to be so…. It is only after his fruitful union with Jeanne Rozerat-a union which caused such misrey to poor Alexandrine-that the picture changes.

Already in LA Debacle, more openly in Le Docteur Pascal, and finally in Paris, the end of the long trilogy of Abbe Fromont’s road to a new faith, a note of hope appears…this was the faith which Jeanne Rozerat gave to Zola. It saved him from morbidity,”(Wilson 49-50) Zola’s marital issues and possible sexual frustration give ample reason for his obsession with naturalism. It was the only excuse for his own suffering that satisfied him, the thought that it was natural and everyone suffered like this as some point was the only thing keeping him sane. To further convince himself of this he would write about it in all of his novels, using it as a plot device and motif. In Therese Raquin naturalism is the reason for every action, from the two lovers to the mother and her natural decay.

Animalistic Passion Essay

Exploration Proposal Essay

Exploration Proposal Essay.

Nature is a huge part of our lives. While we appreciate the blessings she imparts on us, we often forget that we are robbing her treasures and thus disclaiming our generation the pleasures of enjoying nature in all her abundance. Conceptually there are a variety of ideas I would like to explore in relation to sea animals in order to express the beauty beneath nature. When I encounter the natural environment I aim to glance past the negativity such as pollution, poverty, over population and natural disasters but focus on the hidden beauties of our planet which are usually forgotten yet destroyed.

The society we live in is fixated on artificial things, everywhere we look, we see man made machines and gadgets. In a world that has been consumed by electronics and artificial things we can often forget to take the time to appreciate the natural environment which surrounds us.

As a society we depend on our eyes, we don’t use our mind’s eye to view things.

In reality we are limited to what we can see and what is displayed in the media. Why live in this world where we are limited, when we can create our own world full of possibilities. Every time an oil spill into the ocean, every time we cut down trees, let us not forget we are destroying the most cherished inheritance we can leave behind for our future generation. In creating my artwork I hope to uncover the beauties of nature from a different perspective in order to send out awareness to save the marine life animals.

My main focus throughout the year will be based on the immediate environment and surroundings I live in. I plot to visit The Melbourne Aquarium to increase my knowledge concerning the sea life in hopes to detect great inspirations for my resolved artworks. I scheme to use images such as…

I anguish to look further into ceramics; I plan on hand making my tiles to create my resolved artwork. I believe that my use of tiles will depict richness in colour …

Exploration Proposal Essay

The Nature of Prostitution Essay

The Nature of Prostitution Essay.

Many societal problems experienced today such as law violations and crimes are highly associated with poverty and lack access to jobs. Data beginning from 2000 shows 73 percent of all women in poverty was women in color or in minority. Especially in the case of Back women, majority of arrests are done in areas where poverty is experienced the most. Significantly during that year, 85 percent of all arrested women are from African American descent and recorded as the highest increase rate since 1995. The incarceration rates fro Black women are higher than those for white males arrested.

Several leading causes for Black women arrests are controlled use of substances, assault, larceny and prostitution. Three-fourths of black women arrests and sentencing causing incarceration aside from use of controlled substances is prostitution. However, aside from such quantitative evidence showing the existing problem between black women and prostitution, there is the realization that these factors also limit the opportunities for women of color. Lack of training and educational attainment and opportunities significantly results to experiencing the vicious cycle of poverty among black women.

Read more: Prostitution Effects on Society

Amidst the economic boom in the late 1990’s, more black women experienced unemployment and limited access to welfare. Rationale A prostitute, by definition, is one who exchanges sex or sexual favors for money, drugs, or other desirable commodities (Overall, 1992). During the past decades, there is a substantial increase of attention paid to the sex industry, and to the women who engage in prostitution for various reasons. Many researches have focused on addressing the need for governmental funding sources, which specifically mentions drug-related issues with prostitution and associated risk-factors on health knowledge and behavior.

The diversity of types associated with prostitution has a rich and vast history of literature for reference; however, the homogeneity associated with prostitution as a profession, has formed a false stereotype and often fills in very broad and ill-fitted categorizations. Although such rich context about prostitution recognize the commonality among women engaging in prostitution to affects social and policy-making processes, recognition of the uniqueness within each situation entails a more detailed account of how prostitution is for each women who engages in it.

Moreover, such study shall further focus on black women to include other factors such as race, gender and others. Law-enforcement strategies have reinvented the face of prostitution in most countries. Many women working in the sex trade industry has not only increased in numbers, but also increased the opportunity to advertise and sex trade off the streets. Prostitution has evolved from a short-term means of employment to a profession and a career. This ultimately affects their orientation about prostitution and their length of tenure to sex work which consequently motivates them to execute the trade completely.

The research aims to determine the face of prostitution among black women in context of influencing factors and behavior. Specifically in three focused contexts; analyzing how black women engage in prostitution, their risk awareness and resilience, and their exit from prostitution. Problem Statement The general problem of the study is stated as: How do the stages of prostitution influence black women? Specific Questions: 1. What is prostitution? 2. What are the stages of prostitution? 3. What are the influences on black women entering prostitution?

4. How do black women socially adjust to prostitution? 5. What are the factors influencing the adjustment of black women in prostitution? 6. How do black women socially immerse in prostitution? 7. What are the factors influencing the immersion of black women in prostitution? 8. How do black women exit prostitution? 9. What are the factors influencing the exit of black women from prostitution? 10. What are the seen limitations and opportunities for black women after engaging in prostitution? Objectives The study shall aim to: 1.

enumerate the influencing factors of prostitution on black women 2. enumerate the stages of prostitution 3. describe how these factors influence the behavior and attitudes of black women on prostitution 4. determine the level of risk awareness of black women engaging in prostitution 5. determine the sources and behavior of black women engaging in prostitution on the risks of prostitution 6. determine how black women exit prostitution 7. determine the limitations and opportunities for black women after engaging in prostitution Significance of the study

The study is important in the growing literature on the sociology of human behavior with regards to prostitution. Since prostitution encompass different degrees, reasons, ethnicity, and the prominence of sex trade among women, it shall provide an analysis on how and why black women specifically engage in the process of prostitution. Even further, the study analyzes the dimensions to which prostitution is understood in the context based on African American studies and how it relates to the entire comprehension of prostitution among women.

Recent development in sociology and behavioral literature has re-oriented its goal in the rescue and rehabilitation efforts on women who engage in prostitution. This is a significant development in efforts to not just understand, but also influence policies regarding the implementation of regulations on the subject of sex trading, and how it can influence the decrease of women having to sell sex in order to live. Limitations of the study The study focuses on prostitution among women and the reasons for their engagement on the profession, their exit, and their level of awareness on the risk of prostitution.

The general topic regarding prostitution is very broad and diversified, and the study aims to focus or stratify the area based on race and ethnicity. Focusing on black women alone serves as a limitation because the study does not aim to generalized the reasons and factors of engagement, risks awareness, and exit on prostitution, Rather it maintains its scope on black women. The study also is significantly dependent on the respondent’s accounts of their own experiences, drawing relevant information through focal group discussions and in-depth interviews.

The chosen research methods may pose certain limitations for the study in terms of validity of using self-reporting as a measurement method. Time is also a limiting factor as it specifies a given time-frame for the research to be conducted, like any research based on a time-frame, time constraints is based on researcher’s capability to conduct the research given the limited allocation of resources for this particular study. Operational Definition of Terms Black women- women of African American descent

Prostitution- engagement in sex or doing sexual favors for money, drugs or other desirable commodities as defined by Overall (1992). This definition shall encompass the different types of street prostitutes: • Conventional Prostitute- women controlled by pimps who set the rules, controls their actions, and takes their earnings. The prostitute has no control over her actions and is less likely to achieve provisions for her to enjoy time, attention and affection.

• Renegade- women who works independently from pimps and relies on opportunities working in the streets to gain financial opportunities. They are interested in gaining fair and even exchange as agreed upon with their customers. • Outlaw- prostitutes who are only interested in manipulating, exploiting and even robbing their customers during sex exchange to either get the money or whatever commodity they need to sustain the lifestyle they have. Review of Related Literature Historical Background The study shall encompass several areas needed to understand the topic all throughout.

It shall begin with a review of the historical context of prostitution. Several research explorations on contemporary American feminist debates on prostitution argues more of the significant attribution of prostitution towards “First World” women working in the sex trade industry for their needs. Prostitution as some literature reviews would say concerns not only the contractual consent of sex as pay for such favours, but goes beyond the conceptualization of the rights and wrongs of sex work.

In the book of Nancy Hirchmann entitled “The Subject of Liberty: Toward a Feminist Theory of Freedom”, the feminist theory of freedom is explored and is applied to various wherein women’s freedom is compromised, including the nature of sex trade. By relating actual experiences of women, the theory of freedom takes into account the complexities of choice and the urgency to which these choices has to be made. It enables us to understand how freedom affects choices and how freedom of women entails a misconception on the definition itself.

A prostitute can neither turn out to be entirely free nor purely self-regarding. In this context, the concept of liberalization of women is placed under restriction in the social construct within women’s choices. Increasing the social context of women’s choices entails redefining the social construction in order to further understand the products of such choices for women. For example, women who choose to engage in legal prostitution may result to more constraints for women because of the definite social construction for women and how such profession is inherently derogatory to women in social context.

Women who engage in prostitution accounts feminist freedom in two contexts: the participation in prostitution which is forced, and the other wherein she freely chooses to participate. In another review of a novel, Corregidora, the context of prostitution within black women is explored in historical assumptions. In the review of the novel, black women’s sexuality is a product of both historical oppression and cultural productivity as transcended through American slavery and African American blues expressivity.

This encompasses diagnosing the trauma from slavery and the reclamation of black women’s sensuality as their own through African American blues. The literary review depicts the relation of black women prostitution in context of literary works which attempts to explain in the development of sensuality and eventually prostitution throughout black women history. Going further on the feminist views regarding prostitution, debates and analysis are critically informed and shaped through engagements in the exploitation experienced by women.

Some argues against prostitution because of the physical and symbolic practices of violence experienced by women who engage in prostitution. Feminist debates against prostitution is based upon the implication it serves on the realities of women who engage in sex trade and the symbolic grounds tow hic violence, vulnerability, protection and danger happens. In Shah (2004) review of essays detailing the nature of feminist debates against prostitution, several terrains regarding sex work, prostitution and violence has greatly been discussed.

Several advocates to prioritise decriminalization and or legalization of prostitution have contributed much to the awareness regarding the threats on prostitution. The review also mentioned that the debate on prostitution and sex works has its underpinnings on theory and politics. However, there are many ways by which women acts depending on situations. Prostitution is explained through this review as a terms used in the framework for rescue and rehabilitation efforts of many organizations.

Influencing Factors of Prostitution In a study conducted by Leggett (2001), prostitutes in urban areas in South Africa were examined to the extent to which drug addiction has led them towards prostitution. Significant findings of sex workers in three South African capitals had led to no association between drug addiction and prostitution. Using the ANOVA statistical analysis methods, significant findings of the study includes no association between drug use and HIV.

Quite significantly, results of the study shows that ethnicity and drug use is likely to be associated, and that hard drug user was less likely to get infected with HIV than non hard drug users among commercial sex workers in South Africa. In another study by Robinson et al. , (2005) of 163 low-income African American women, there was no significant relationship found between acculturation and risky sexual behaviors, and favorable attitudes and response towards the use of contraceptive methods that correlates consistent use of condoms.

African Americans in the United States is disproportionately infected with HIV and others sexually transmitted diseases. In a tsuy conducted in 2000, African Americans incurred 76& of gonorrhea cases, 71% of syphilis cases, 51% of HIV infection cases, and 38% diagnosed with AIDS. These findings alone question the risk awareness of black women who are exposed to the kind of profession they have in prostitution. Prostitution is one important factor in the increasing rate of HIV infection cases in the country.

However, as Hunter (2002) explains, the phenomena cannot explain the speed and persistence with which the infection spread in South Africa. Prostitution deeply inhibits the infection due to the major migrancy of reasons moving beyond prostitution alone. Some of which is attributed to relating sex with non-marital relationships based on transactional sex, or exchange of gifts in a broader set of obligations which may not involve payment in cash form.

This significantly broadens the concept of prostitution as not just involving payment in money alone, but also through commodities beneficial to a woman’s lifestyle. Women who engage in transactional sex often have access to power and resources that surpass the stereotyped from of prostitution. Street prostitution has evolved from short-term employment to a subculture as some social scientists would explain. Patterns of living, different set of norms and behaviors made them different from the normal culture of the society.

Often times, prostitutes are regarded as a minority in the society, or has became a new resort for people, women specifically, to sustain their needs and develop into a profession. Many studies has already tackled the violence, substance abuse and associated risk-taking on prostitution. Women of color are relatively more likely to get arrested and serve jail time because of prostitution. However, a new trend in studying prostitution has re-emerged in the face of studying about the recovery process of how African American women face and recover adversities and limitations on their opportunity to exit from prostitution.

Another essential area of study entails the understanding of the resilience process of recovering African American prostitutes. An earlier study attempted to study this aspect by interviewing 43 street-level prostitutes, not specifically black women alone, analyzing their entrance, maintenance and exit from the sex trade. Investigation of these women’s experiences laid emphasis on the exit attempts made by several of them.

18 participants of the study were gathered and results showed that five women had maintained their exit form prostitution, nine returned to prostitution and drug use, and one returned to prostitution only. Three of the participants had violated their parole and had been reincarcerated. Theoretical Framework Social scientists have long pursued this topic and several arguments remained imbedded between sympathizing for the women who engage in this form of work, and for the abolization of such sex trade in societies.

In understanding the context of prostitution, we shall examine the topic and be guided by three main theoretical frameworks constructed over the years. It must be noted that some of these proposed theories has been created to overlap other existing models of theories in explaining prostitution. The Functionalist Approach The functionalist approach describes the inevitability view of prostitution in society. As explained by Jarvinen: “Prostitution is a normal and universal phenomenon, existing in all periods and all known societies.

The functionalsits considers prostitution as… a natural and unavoidable phenomenon… which is relatively independent of the societal structure and level of development”. Prostitution is highly regarded in the functionalist view as one of the main aspect in marriage dichotomy. When married men do not get sex from their wives, whether in quantity or variability, prostitution offers them what they want and need. The functionalist approach upholds prostitution as a complementary institution to marriage and pose women as a model for deviants.

Since women have different attitudes, this perspective entails restrictions of prostitutes and not on prostitution because this formalizes the need for controlling measures against social disturbances such as diseases and others. The functionalist approach emphasizes the need of men to satisfy their sexual needs thus entailing prostitution as an important social function in the society. In terms of women turning to prostitutes, depending on the different views considered such as social, emotional, economic or mental. Feminism and Control

As a response to women prostitutes as deviant beings in the society, feminist theory analyzes the control of prostitution as an explicit manner by which women are being controlled. The feminist view is consistent in attributing the inequality between men and women and the historically recognized demand and supply for sexual services which defies another form of gender inequality. Feminist contests that the idea of prostitution insists the patriarchy within the society and creates a dominant perspective n the availability and exchangeability of a women’s body as a commodity.

The Nature of Prostitution Essay

Enhanced Oil Recovery Essay

Enhanced Oil Recovery Essay.

Oil and Gas refers to the naturally occurring liquid and natural gas specifically made up of long chain hydrocarbons and various organic compounds found beneath the surface of the earth in entrapments called reservoirs; the presence of oil and gas in these reservoirs is the reason humans survive everyday and carry out their daily activities effectively. Different activities are usually carried out to ensure that the oil and gas present in the reservoirs continue to support humans through their day-to-day activities; such activities include exploration, development, production and finally, abandonment and reclamation.

This process is what is referred to as “the oil and gas process”. On completion of this process, numerous efforts are made to increase the quantity of oil that can be extracted again from the oil well and we refer to these efforts as “recovery”. There are three main types of recovery, primary recovery (solution gas, gas cap and natural water drive) secondary recovery (gas injection and water flooding) and tertiary recovery (enhanced oil recovery EOR, polymer flooding and steam flooding).

In this article, analysis on the “enhanced oil recovery” technology and trends will be emphasized upon. Enhanced oil recovery becomes very vital when oil production has to be increased to obtain a recovery percentage of at least 75% (Rigzone, 2009). This can only achieved by using any of the four basic methods of EOR; these methods include chemical flooding, miscible gas displacement, thermal recovery and microbial EOR. Among these four mentioned, “Thermal methods are the oldest EOR methods, they have been developed over the last thirty years” (Elsevier, 1981).

Miscible gas displacement also called “gas injection” by some engineers refers to the process of injecting CO2, natural gas and Nitrogen into a reservoir; “in miscible gas displacement, the gas is injected at or above the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) which causes the gas to be miscible in oil” (Bandar, 2007). Chemical flooding also called “chemical injection” involves injecting chemicals such as a polymer directly into the reservoir to enhance the oil recovery. Thermal recovery introduces heat to the reservoir to reduce the viscosity of the oil.

Many times, steam is applied to the reservoir, thinning the oil and enhancing its ability to flow (Rigzone, 2009). Over 50% of the tertiary recovery method employed by the United States of America is the thermal recovery method. The most common gas employed when “gas injection” is being used is the CO2 (carbon dioxide) gas. The two major reasons why carbon dioxide is used are because it is miscible with crude oil and also it is the cheapest of all the other miscible fluids present.

Carbon dioxide injection into the reservoir based on previous experiences has shown that a recovery of up to 15% of the oil that was originally in the reservoir is achievable. With the injection of the carbon dioxide gas, changes occur in the reservoir such and temperature and pressure changes. Through the changes in temperature and pressure, carbon dioxide can form a solid, liquid, gas and supercritical fluid (Teledyne, 2007).

Furthermore, when carbon dioxide has been injected into the reservoir, it begins to form a homogeneous mixture with the crude oil thus, the light hydrocarbons, which are present in the crude, mix with the carbon dioxide gas and this dissolves the oil. Upon miscibility of the carbon dioxide gas and the crude, the physical forces separating the liquid phase and the gaseous phase gives way and this helps the carbon dioxide gas move the oil from the rocks towards the wells for production. According to the USDOE, a very good example of an applied carbon dioxide gas injection technique is the Wasson.

Field’s Denver Unit CO2 EOR project which has resulted in more than 120 million incremental barrels of oil through 2008 (2010). Moreover, carbon dioxide is not the only gas employed when the gas injection technique is employed. Nitrogen is another gas commonly used for gas injection basically to maintain the reservoir pressure; it can also be employed when gas cycling and gas lifting are to be employed. The minimum miscibility pressure of nitrogen depends largely on the pressure, temperate and the composition of the reservoir fluid.

According to Schlumberger, “above the MMP, nitrogen injection is a miscible vaporizing drive. Miscibility of nitrogen can be achieved only with light oils that are at high pressures; therefore, the miscible method is suitable only in deep reservoirs” (2011). Both methods of miscible injection from past experiences have proved very effective. When oil has been effectively recovered from these reservoirs using the miscible gas, the gas that has mixed with the recovered oil is separated from the oil and re-injected into the reservoir to enhance the oil recovery once again.

This process can be repeated until the reservoir is completely depleted and cannot produce any more oil. Note that nitrogen gas injection is used when dealing with reservoir containing light oils and also very economical allowing a recovery of up to 40%. A practical example of nitrogen gas injection is in the Cantarell oil field in Mexico. Upon application of this enhanced oil recovery methods, there was a noticeable increase in the oil production from 1. 9 million bpd to 2. 1 million bpd. Fig 1: Typical illustration of the miscible gas process using CO2 and water (University of Kansas, 1999)

Chemical flooding can also be referred to as chemical injection and is the process whereby chemicals and polymers are injected into a reservoir to increase its “recovery factor”. EOR methods involving the use of polymers usually yield a recovery range of ~6% to ~30%. When these chemicals are injected into the reservoir, the oil that is trapped there is released thus it can flow freely into the production wells. Furthermore, “polymers help increase the effectiveness of water-floods and boost the efficiency of surfactants” (Duncan, Ferguson, Sudip and Neptune, 2011).

The use of polymers in chemical injection further helps to enhance the competence of the surfactants and also the efficiency of the water flooding; to be precise, water soluble polymers are best used for this process. The polymer that is regularly utilised during the process is the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and with development in technology, the quality has improved over time. In order to achieve the best results from the chemical injection process, there are certain characteristics that need to be in place.

These characteristics include “high remaining oil saturation, low water-flood residual saturation, high permeability and porosity, high polymer concentration and slug size, fresh water and soft water and reservoir temperatures of less than 220F” (Gary, 2007). Favourable characteristics are not limited to these that have just been mentioned but if these characteristics are present, then the expected recovery from the reservoir in question would be satisfactory as up to ~30% recovery is achievable.

Moreover, economics have shown that chemical flooding is not profitable when the price of the surfactants is compared with that of the price of oil; it usually cost a lot to obtain the surfactants needed to recover oil from reservoirs and in some cases, the chemicals which are injected into the reservoir are more expensive than the oil which they extract from that reservoir. Chemical flooding can prove to be very pricy and at the same time provide the engineers with the needed results.

Thermal recovery is usually applied to reservoirs with depths lesser than 3000ft. These reservoirs usually contain very viscous oil. There are four main types of thermal flooding that can be applied to any reservoir; they include: Fig 3: The steam injection process (The Piping Guide, 2009) 1. Cyclic stem injection: Popularly known as the “huff and puff” technique, it differs from all other types of thermal flooding in that it uses a central well to carry out every function from the injection of steam to the extraction of oil.

The technique is quite straightforward, steam is pumped into the well and the well is covered up for some time so that the steam can get to the reservoir rocks and upon arrival, the steam enhances the oil flow. To improve the oil flow further, this process can be repeated over again which leads to a new process called “steam drive”. 2. Steam drive: In this process, steam is re-injected into the reservoir constantly. Moreover, this process cannot be as effective as required if the reservoir rocks have fractures.

If there were fractures, “the steam would simply head straight through those into the producing wells instead of working its way through the reservoir rock” (Anon. , 2008). After the steam is injected, underlying heat is formed and this eventually aids the oil to flow with ease. 3. Thermally assisted gas-oil gravity drainage: this process is best suited for highly fractured reservoirs. In this process, the steam is injected directly into these fractures to reduce the viscosity of the oil and allow it flow easily.

According to the petroleum development Oman, the steam “just needs to get the oil flowing more easily. This then allows gravity to take effect, causing the oil to drain down into the fractures and then into horizontal producing wells that are situated towards the bottom of the reservoir” (2008). 4. In-situ combustion: In this process, a reasonable quantity of the oil in the reservoir is actually set on fire to act as a steam and gas generator. According to the petroleum development Oman “it’s the trickiest of the four main thermal EOR methods to get right.

It is generally only used in a reservoir that has high permeability (i. e. fluids can flow easily through the reservoir rock) and even then only as a last resort” (2008). Some of the oil might be lost during burning but more can be recovered as a result of the steam that has been generated that drives the oil towards the producing well. MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (MEOR) Microbial enhanced oil recovery also known as microbial flooding refers to the process whereby microorganisms are injected into the reservoir to increase oil production from a well.

The process of MEOR is a biological based technology in which these microorganisms react with the reservoir fluids in order to mobilize the oil and move it towards the production wells. Usually, MEOR is used in the third stage of EOR after 12% to 20% of the oil in the well has already been recovered. The characteristics of the reservoir in which the MEOR process is being applied will greatly have an effect on its success. There are two types of MEOR, “those in which the microorganisms react with reservoir fluids to generate surfactants and those that react with microorganisms to generate polymers” (Ronald, 2001).

MEOR is an economical way of increasing oil production and as genetic technology keeps improving, it would become the most attractive and cheapest method of enhanced oil recovery as the improvement lowers the cost of oil production. Conclusively, certain strains of bacteria that exist and are used for the MEOR method sometimes do not survive due to the harsh conditions they encounter in the reservoirs but as mentioned earlier, microbiologists are working on a different strain of bacteria that can survive in the reservoirs irrespective of these harsh conditions.

Enhanced oil recovery has an outstanding economic potential to increase oil recovery thereby maximizing profit. EOR also has it disadvantages that have negative effects on the ecosystem. Steam injection causes serious air pollution and also, polymer flooding which falls under chemical injection also leads to contamination of underground water which eventually makes it unfit for consumption. Furthermore, during the EOR process, a substance called “brine” is produced at the surface of the well; this substance is highly toxic and also radioactive. On exposure to humans, it can be very dangerous and highly detrimental.

In my opinion, more research on how the chemical injection process can be carried out without affecting the underground water supply and also how the thermal process of steam injection can be done safely without a threat to the atmosphere. Regulations put in place to control the environmental impacts of EOR should be as strict as possible so that eventually, the eco-system is preserved and oil and gas companies can still maximize profit.

Enhanced Oil Recovery Essay

Descriptive Beach Essay

Descriptive Beach Essay.

The smell of the salt when deprived of water, a sponge becomes hard and brittle. It can shrivel up like wilted flowers, lifeless. Water relaxes sponges as they fill up and make them soft and supple. But at times, it’s hard for me to be in need of something to fill me up and restore my deadened senses, too, if you will, water me. The ocean satiates my senses and rejuvenates my spirit within me. I’m awakening from my trance and imposed upon the insensibility of the world.

For me, the ocean has always been my escape with new beginnings and a brand new adventure.

The vast ocean is filled with tides that come and go and waves that break in different parts of the ocean. It was like the water was dancing or showing a fit of anger daring a person to look on. The ripples of the bubbles remind me of a bubble bath. Even the warmth of the sun gives off the mood of summer festivities after a long and frigid winter.

It’s a calming getaway from the stress and pressure of everyday life. The sounds of the waves coming from the massive deep blue sea washes up on the shores or crashing up against the sharp jagged rocks of the coast line are soothing.

Something about the rhythmic timing of each wave is a relaxing sensation that can almost put you into a deep sleep. Although it may sound extremely annoying to some individuals, I completely enjoy the sound. And the sound of the slight breeze rustling through the palm trees is calming to the ears. Though there are many tastes and smells present at the beach. There is something about the smell of the salty sea that makes you wish that summer was endless. You can almost taste the scent of the flowers as the sent blows towards you with the wind. Or the sensation of lying on the hot but soft sand that melts away any stress.

The bright sun’s warm ray instantly puts you in a gratifying mood. And as a bonus it is an opportunity to get a nice dark tan. Also the slight crisp breeze that comes off the ocean keeps your body at the most perfect temperature. But if the sun provides a bit too much heat for you and the wind just doesn’t cut it, you can always cool down with a dip in the fresh cool waters of the ocean. Many of the mesmerizing sights are quite peaceful and just by lying down and looking at the bright blue sky seeing a wide variety of clouds is enjoyable. Watching the clouds move across the immense sky as it changes size and shape.

Wave after wave systematically reaching the shore and dissipate never gets old. And watching the waves come to sandy shore and wipe away the foot prints just like the thoughts in your mind. The warm air and the never ending cool waters of the ocean all of which are peaceful. Walking down the beach on soft white sand like snow in the winter makes you feel care free. The stress and pressure are taken away by the crisp breeze and the warm sand in-between your toes. That careless feeling makes you want summer to be endless and just enjoyable to your life and memories.

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Descriptive Beach Essay

American Samoa Essay

American Samoa Essay.

Samoa is a group of islands; Western Samoa and American Samoa. These islands are located in the South Pacific Ocean about half way between Hawaii and New Zealand, together they are slightly smaller than Rhode Island. Don’t let the small size fool you, these islands are full of rich life and culture. The pre-Western history of Eastern Samoa (now American Samoa) is bound with the history of Western Samoa (now independent Samoa).

The Manu’a Islands of American Samoa has one of the oldest histories of Polynesia, accompanying the Tui Manua title, connected with the histories of the archipelagos of Fiji, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Tokelau, Tahiti, and elsewhere in the Pacific, where Manu’a once had influence.

During the Tongan occupation of Samoa, Manu’a was the only island group that remained independent because of the familial relationship between the Tui Manu’a and the Tui Tonga, who was decended from a former Tui Manu’a. The islands of Tutuila and Aunu’u were politically connected to ‘Upolu Island in what is now independent Samoa.

It can be said that all the Samoa Islands are politically connected today through the faamatai chiefly system and through family connections that are as strong as ever. This system of the faamatai and the customs of faasamoa originated with two of the most famous early chiefs of Samoa, who were both women and related, Nafanua and Salamasina. “Samoa. ” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 14 May 2008 The rich history has laid the foundation for a rich culture. Samoa has elaborate ceremonies that incorporate music and dancing.

Of the two singing is the most popular, but dance is extremely important as well. One of the main dances is the Sasa which is a sitting dance that is performed with only arm movements. Another is Fa’ataupati which is a dance with only men. The men slap their limbs and torso, stomp their feet and sing in rhythm. It is very beautiful to watch and is also mesmerizing. Ava ceremonies mark special occasions, such as weddings, deaths, or visitors from another village. This ceremony is only done when there is an official gathering of the Chiefs, and will always be practiced in the traditional way.

It is an extremely elaborate ceremony that has many parts to it. I will briefly explain the detailed ceremony only in context to the beginning of a marriage of two Chief’s children. In this culture, it is the woman’s side of the family that hosts the ceremony as well as the whole wedding itself. After the wedding is over, the new spouse lives with the husband’s family, or if they are from a different village, she will go to live with her husband in his village. The custom is a patrol-local style of home. Therefore, the female gives up everything from carrying her father’s name to even having to change religions.

Ava is a root that is used by the woman’s village, since it is their responsibility for the ceremony. To start the wedding preparations, the son’s father arrives at the daughters village and is greeted by the hosting village and seated facing the Chiefs. The taupou who is the high chief’s daughter or granddaughter. In this ceremony there is a proper place for everything. Including the people as well as the tanoa also known as the ava bowl, it is a four to six legged bowl with one leg wider than the others. This wider leg will always be placed in front of the taupou. The taupou begins to mix the ava.

Coconut fibers are placed in the bowl and will be used to squeeze the ava root into a drink. Specific people are placed around the tanoa to assist the taupou with the mixing, even though they don’t mix the drink, they are there to make sure that she is doing it correctly. Other people are also allowed to serve the drink to the chiefs and others are there to chant the order of who gets the next cup of ava. Once the ava ceremony is coming to an end the tufa’ava, (the one that chants the drinking order) will signal that the last cup of ava will be served. Once this has been done, everyone is dismissed (in a specific order).

The hosting villages begins the big feast for the visiting village. After the completion of the meal, the two fathers begin disguising the wedding plans. During the Ava ceremony I spoke of the Taupou. The Taupou is a Samoan princess. She is the high chiefs daughter or granddaughter, every village has a chief and therefore will have a taupou. As a right of passage, she will learn to preform the ceremonies in great detail. If she is performing a ceremony and performs any part of it incorrectly, it will cause great embarrassment to the chief as well as the village. This is a very stressful job.

Not only is there a right of passage for girls there is also a right of passage for the males as well. This is a form that we are all accompanied to seeing. The tattoo. The tattoo has a two major derivations from the Polynesian word ‘TA’ which means striking and the Tahitian word ‘TATAU’ which means to mark something. At the beginning of the paper I stated the “Manu’a Islands of American Samoa has one of the oldest histories of Polynesia, accompanying the Tui Manua title, connected with the histories of the archipelagos of Fiji, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Tokelau, Tahiti, and elsewhere in the Pacific, where Manu’a once had influence. Could tattoo be one of them? Tattoos began over 5000 years ago. In Samoa, the tradition of applying tattoo, by hand, has long been defined by rank and title, with chiefs and their assistants, descending from notable families in the proper birth order. The tattooing ceremonies for young chiefs, typically conducted at the onset of puberty, were elaborate affairs and were a key part of their ascendance to a leadership role. Not all tattoos give family status, the more elaborate tattoos that are seen from the thigh to the ribs are the ones that are designed to show status.

The meanings behind each pattern of tattoo has its own meaning, and not everyone has the same tattoo. The tattooer sits down and makes a tattoo specifically to you. He may incorporate things that are related to you family as well as thing that you like and the kind of person you are. Traditionally these designs are never copied, but in the modern world, this does happen. A good tattooer will never copy a tattoo, it has to do with pride, showing his ability to come up with new designs as well as creditability. Not only is this a right of passage but it was explained to me as a kind of Samoan “coat of arms.

Which has a literal meaning as well. Not only was this a decorative or “beauty” ritual, this was also to guard their heath and spiritual well being. Boys are allowed tattoo from the beginning of their teenager years but no later than thirty. It is recommended not to have it done in the traditional way because it is a sign of manhood and at thirty, you are a man. I spoke of boys getting tattoos but girls are allowed to receive tattoos as well. Usually women are tattooed on the hand, fingers, wrists, ankles and sometimes their tongue. The females have the same age group as the males do.

They too are not allowed to get a tattoo until they are of teenage years. Most of the work the people do in their plantations or farms, are for food, planting crops to replace the ones being used. It is mostly done in the morning hours between 6:00 and 12:00 noon. When it’s done, most of the day is spend in groups of all ages in their respective interests. Not to say that this is the only thing that they do, work on the farm for six hours and then go home. The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid, family remittances from overseas, agriculture, and fishing.

Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, and copra (dried coconut meat). There is also an automobile electrical harness factory that employs thousands of people, as well as the Sunkist Tuna packaging plant. There are not specific jobs that men and women can or cant do. They do not discriminate when it comes to bringing in money to the home. Everyone can do anyones job. The traditional language of Samoa is of course Samoan, but both places speak English.

In Western Samoa they speak English with a “British” sounding accent but they also practice the language and the traditional culture more than American Samoans do, they also tend to speak Samoan as their first language. Their language consists of fifteen letters. A, e, f, g, h, i, k l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u and v. There are three other letters that are borrowed such as h, k, and r. When hearing the language spoken its very similar to Hawaiian. Flowing words that seem to roll off the tongue, especially for the ones who know how to speak it properly. As for myself, not so much. I did learn how to say my name and how to say hello.

Even-though the first language isn’t English, this culture is just like the American culture regarding home life. There are male and female positions in the home. As my friend Toalo put it, “They [men) think that they rule the house, but we all know that isn’t the case,” Just like in my home “if Momma ain’t happy ain’t nobody happy”. Even though specific chores are not identified that men and women cant do in the home, then men seem to do all the BBQ cooking, and all the other cooking in the house is usually done by the women. With cleaning the house and child rearing that is a shared job. Samoan culture, it is common to have a large family.

It seems that the parents grow up with large families, and pass that down with their children. This society looks at it like this “the larger family that you have the better chances that one or all of them will hep take care of you when you are old, as Desmond put it. ” Also family size comes back to the ceremonies that they have. There are many ceremonies such as a funeral that requires family members to pitch in money to help pay, the more family members, the less of a burden is on you. With these large families, there has to be food, a stereotype that some Samoans receive is that they are large people.

This has to do with the diet, and their gene pool. Not all Samoans are large. I happen to know three that are average size. Being told that their diet consists of coconut milk, starches, rice, and pork, we can see that any culture that eats this in abundance can be quite large. I have agree though, it sure is good! Traditional Samoan foods included taro root, yams, bananas, coconuts, breadfruit, fish, turtle, and chicken. Even though pigs are raised, pork is reserved for ceremonial occasions. Samoan meals are always accompanied by a salted coconut cream condiment called pe’epe’e.

It is poured over boiled taro root and heated before serving. For many rural Samoans, this is a staple food and is served at the two daily meals. Another is Palusami – baked parcels of taro leaves enclosing a coconut cream, onion and meat filling is a famous Samoan dish which has become common in several other Pacific Islands. I’m told that the taste is unique, particularly if cooked in a traditional earth oven. Not only is there wonderful sounding food, there happens to be a Samoan beer named Vailima. At one time Western Samoa was occupied by Germany for fourteen years. This may be where this beer originated from.

Other than beer there is Kava. Kava is an age-old herbal drink made from the kava root, that was the beverage of choice for the royal families of the South Pacific. Believed to originate from Melanesia, kava grows abundantly in the sun-drenched islands of Polynesia. Another age old tradition of Samoa is religion. The two main religions in Samoa are Mormon and Catholicism. There are others such as Protestant and other Christianity. Religion is one of the most important aspects of Samoan culture, to the extent that it is incorporated in Samoa’s motto: “Samoa is founded on God. Like most of the other Pacific Islands, it was the churches seeking to introduce Western philosophies and standards of morality for the benefit of indigenous peoples.

Before the arrival of the missionaries Samoa had a complex religion, that can be compared with some Native American religions. They differentiated between non-human and human gods, and which also incorporated elements of ancestor worship. The Samoan religion had a war goddess, Nafanua who prophesied that there would come a new religion which would end the rule of the old gods made the Samoans easy pickings for the first missionaries that arrived. Samoan Sensation. 008 Samoan Sensation Online 14 May 2008. Not only was there a goddess, there were beautiful stories and superstitions. My personal favorite that was told to my by Desmond and Toalo is the story of Kelesa and the story of The turtle and shark. “Kelesa gets jealous of girls that have longer hair that she thinks is longer than hers. So if girls walk around with their hair down at night time, they get slapped in the face. Once that happens they believed that they will have a deformity in their mouth, or a mark that wont go away. ” Another is called Turtle and Shark, “Which is a blind mother and daughter from the village of Iliili.

The family treated them so badly that they decided to give up their life so they moved to the village of Vaitogi. There they were treated well. The mother and daughter were so grateful to feel loved by the villagers that they sacrificed their life by jumping into the ocean off these cliffs by the village, when they did that their bodies changed, the old woman was turned into a turtle and the daughter became a shark. that village that they are from will once a year go to the beach where they jumped and sing a specific song named laumai, this is the only village that can sing this song.

Nobody else is allowed. When they go to the cliffs and sing, the shark and the turtle come towards the shore, but they also tell you not to point at them if you do they will go away thinking that you are going to shoot them. Then they wont come back until the next year when that song is sung again. ” To conclude you can see the culture of Samoa is rich in life, tradition and legend. They are a loving family oriented people who I happen to have the privilege to be friends with. This is a society that I would feel at home with one who loves each-other and has tradition that they are not letting go of.

American Samoa Essay