Advertorials Case Study Essay

Advertorials Case Study Essay.

An advertorial is an advertisement in the form of an editorial. The term “advertorial” is a portmanteau of “advertisement” and “editorial.” And was coined in 1946. In printed publications, the advertisement is usually written in the form of an objective article and designed to look like a legitimate and independent news story. In television, the advertisement is similar to a short infomercial presentation of products or services. These can either be in the form of a television commercial or as a segment on a talk show or variety show.

In radio, these can take the form of a radio commercial or a discussion between the announcer and representative Advertorials differ from traditional advertisements in that they are designed to look like the articles that appear in the publication. Most publications will not accept advertisements that look exactly like stories from the newspaper or magazine they are appearing in. The differences may be subtle, and disclaimers—such as the word “advertisement”—may or may not appear.

Sometimes terms describing the advertorial such as a “special promotional feature” or “special advertising section” are used. The tone of the advertorials is usually closer to that of a press release than of an objective news story. Advertorials can also be printed and presented as an entire newspaper section, inserted the same way within a newspaper as store fliers, comics sections, and other non-editorial content. These sections are usually printed on a smaller type of broadsheet and different newsprint than the actual paper. Many newspapers and magazines will assign staff writers or freelancers to write advertorials, usually without a byline credit.

A major difference between regular editorial and advertorial is that clients usually have content approval of advertorials, a luxury usually not provided with regular editorial. A related practice is the creation of material that looks like traditional media (for instance, a newspaper or magazine) but is actually created by a company to market its products. One familiar example is airline in-flight magazines, which may feature reports about travel destinations to which the airline flies.[2] Historically, advertorials were less frowned upon and newspapers would even “show how magazine advertising is serving the public”.[3]

Television

Daytime programs featuring light talk designed to draw in mainly a female audience, often use advertorial segments which feature presentations of products, services, and packages by businesses. A representative of a business will have a discussion with a regular host, along with perhaps making a special offer for viewers. These segments are designed to give a business a detailed presentation of their service that might not be possible in a traditional thirty-second or one minute advertisement

Advertorials Case Study Essay

The Reliability of Newspapers Essay

The Reliability of Newspapers Essay.

Question 1.

I think The Independent On Sunday is a broadsheet and The Sun is a tabloid newspaper. I think so because The Independent On Sunday is bigger than the Sun and the broadsheets are usually bigger than tabloids. The Independent On Sunday and The Sun in these specific examples has same headline, but in the first one (The Independent On Sunday) the headline is more informative and less choking than in the second one (The Sun). Also The Independent On Sunday have a big picture of prince in normal conditions while The Sun has the picture of prince when he was drunk, and the Independent’s picture is bigger than the Sun’s.

The Independent has more text on the page than The Sun do, because usually the tabloids choking people from the first page making them buy and read the newspaper, while the broadsheets are usually selling to the business persons. The Sun uses the world “exclusive” which is also attracts people to buy the tabloid.

Question 2.

Harry Faces Eaton Drugs Test- Summary.

The 17th years old Prince Harry, who has been allowed to stay at Eaton School by head John Lewis, faced Eaton Drugs test. Prince Harry has been drunk and under the influence of cannabis Eaton has told him that even through he never smoked pot at the school, its anti-drugs rules applies at home. The Prince is extremely upset about those who mixed with his son in case any of them has been a bad influence on him. “All eyes at Eaton will be on Harry to ensure he does not stray” said head of Eaton, John Lewis. And a pupil who was expelled for having cannabis said he once offered a joint to Harry’s brother William, but he politely turned it down immediately.

Prince Harry Sent To Rehab Over Drink And Drugs- Summary.

Prince Harry was sent to a drug rehabilitation clinic on 12 of January. Prince Charles took a decision after learning his son has taken drugs during private parties.in a later summer Harry came to a couple of hours on a day to talk with several people in recovery, heroin and cocaine addicts mostly. Prince was friendly and relaxed and the residents liked him.

The Independent On Sunday is more factual and objective, because it has been written for older and more official persons. While The Sun is more sensational because it has targeted for younger generation moistly for people 15-25 years old and it needs to interest for them. Because of the same reason The Independent On Sunday has longer, more complex sentences and more formal, controlled language while The Sun uses more informal, conversation language.

The Reliability of Newspapers Essay

A Semiotic Analysis of a Newspaper Story Essay

A Semiotic Analysis of a Newspaper Story Essay.

A logical place to start may be to ask ‘what is news?’ Professor Jonathan Bignell suggests that ‘news is not just facts, but representations produced in language and other signs like photographs.’ The newspaper is just one medium of news communication; other media include television, radio, magazines, and the Internet. We will concentrate on a particular news item as covered in three different British daily newspapers, namely The Sun, The Telegraph, and The Times. The story which is being covered is that of the death of a female police officer who was stabbed by a man whilst she was on duty.

The medium of the newspaper is particularly interesting as signifiers are presented simultaneously thus offering a concrete display of signs which the reader can consume at their own pace and can also be re-read, as opposed to television or radio news which can only be watched or listened to at particular times.

The process of selection is central to the production of all newspapers.

This involves selecting events which are considered to be worthy of being printed as news, and excluding news which is considered to be irrelevant, insignificant or unworthy of news coverage. Thus news is a social construct dependent on what is deemed to be important by those who work in the ‘news industry’ based on certain codes of behaviour which have been learned by news workers in order to do their job. The codes of behaviour which have been learnt by news workers undoubtedly depend on the particular newspaper for which they are working.

It could be suggested that in British society most adults would be aware of the conventions of different newspapers. We will attempt to examine the types of sign systems within which a particular news story is encoded in a selection of newspapers, and how these different sign systems may affect meaning. It is clear when looking at The Sun, The Telegraph, and The Times articles, which were all published on Saturday, April 18th, 1998 that each newspaper attaches significance to different news items. This is made clear by looking at the front pages of each newspaper, with The Sun’s main front page story concentrating on the relationship of Patsy Kensit and Liam Gallagher, compared to The Telegraph’s main story which concentrates on a ‘shake-up’ of scientific committees that advise government ministers on food safety; and The Times main front page story which covers the story of the new National Lottery Big Ticket show which is facing the BBC ‘axe’.

Although we will not be concentrating on the comparison of the front pages of the newspapers in this term paper, these examples demonstrate how drastically the different newspapers differ in what constitutes front-page news. The examples also demonstrate the interpretation of newspaper conventions, as we analyse the stories which are considered to be the intended main news of the front-page. As can be seen with the front page of The Sun the main story is clear as it dominates most of the available space on the front-page.

However, with the other newspapers the distinction is not quite as clear. The main criteria when deciding on which was the main story of the front-pages of The Telegraph and The Times was the size of the typeface of the headline. This emphasises that the reader comes to the newspaper with a set of codes with which to decode the text, and these codes may differ from individual to individual. This leads to the point that the text is open to a variety of interpretations depending on the ideological standpoint of the reader, and whether the reader is familiar with the newspaper and the codes which. it employs to communicate the ‘news’ which it has selected.

Connotations of the linguistic and visual signs which are presented by newspapers are central to the meaning of the news item to the reader. The connotations of the news item are perceived within a coded framework and there are recognisable codes within different newspapers. It is clear that different newspapers use particular narrative codes when representing the same item of news. This can be seen in the three headlines which refer to the particular news item which I have chosen to examine. The Sun headline states ‘SCANDAL OF PSYCHO FREED TO KILL HERO COP NINN’, The Telegraph – ‘WPc was knifed to death after removing armour’, and The Times – ‘WPc paid with her life for dedication to duty.’ Each of these narrative codes used in the headlines instantly provide a framework on which to build the meaning of the news item. The headlines are linguistic syntagms which aim to attract the attention of the reader to the topic of the news story, and the linguistic signs which are employed in the headline suggest to the reader the appropriate codes which are needed to understand or decode the news item.

It is clear that the newspapers use different linguistic codes as a means of representing the news item. The Times and The Telegraph are similar in their use of language. However, both differ dramatically with The Sun. It is clear that The Sun uses orally based vocabulary, and dramatic and sensational language. This can be seen in the first sentence of the news item, which reads ‘A. violent cop-hating nut killed brave WPC Nina Mackay after a catastrophic catalogue of blunders by Crown prosecutors and police allowed him to roam free.’ The article also employs alliteration for emphasis , as in ‘catastrophic catalogue’ and ‘scandal of psycho’. The linguistic codes of the news item certainly connote speech which in turn connotes familiarity, informality, and camaraderie.

The article also implies familiarity with the victim (We Nina Mackay) who is referred to throughout as ‘Nina’ where as a distance is created between the reader and the offender who is referred to throughout by his surname, Elgizouli. This code of familiarity is significantly different to that which is employed by The Telegraph and The Times who refer to the victim either in her professional capacity (WPc Nina Mackay) or by her full name. However, it is perhaps significant that the offender is referred to by his surname in all of the different representations of the news items. This strategy of distancing the reader from the criminal is blatantly employed by all three of the newspapers, clearly suggesting that the preferred reading of the texts should involve no sympathy with the offender.

Another drastic difference between the newspaper representations of the news item are the typographic devices used to break up the text. Again, The Sun differs dramatically to The Telegraph and The Times using bold text to start the article, serving to extend the role of the headline in attracting the attention of the reader to the topic of the news story. The use of bold and one word sub-headings which are employed throughout the text serve to direct the reader in making meaning of the text and make blatantly obvious the points which the newspaper deem to be of particular significance to the understanding of the news item. The Telegraph and The Times do not employ the same typographic codes as The Sun, apart from bold type which is used for the headline, and the bold type used to name the journalist/s of the article.

The narrative of the news story uses the same type and size of font throughout the item. Arguably, this connotes authority and formality to the reader which is also demonstrated by the fairly long sentences, the correct spellings and the lack of colloquial language such as ‘cop’ which is used in The Sun. This perhaps implies that the ‘quality’ press such as The Times and The Telegraph provide better news than tabloids such as The Sun. However, this kind of value judgement is inappropriate as both types of newspaper are constructions of the news with the ‘quality’ newspapers aiming to connote authority and formality and the ‘popular’ tabloids aiming to connote an attitude of ‘telling it how it is.’ Thus both types of representation of the news items present mythic meanings.

Linguistic and typographic codes are not the only codes employed in news discourse. Graphic codes must also be considered. The photographs used in the press have also undergone a process of selection. One image will be chosen over another as it connotes a message that the selectors of the photograph want to communicate. Barthes (cited in Bagnell, 1977:98) suggests that the newspaper photograph is ‘an object that has been worked on, chosen, composed, constructed, treated according to professional, aesthetic or ideological norms which are so many factors of connotation.’ The ‘treatment’ of photographs which is referred to by Barthes can be seen in the different newspapers which I have chosen. Interestingly, each version of the news item has used the same photographs, but treated them differently according to the required connotation. Each representation uses the same picture of the victim in her police uniform looking directly at the camera, and the same picture of the offender looking vacant and away from the camera.

Again, The Times and The Telegraph use similar codes, and The Sun employs a drastically different strategy despite using the same original photographs. The most drastic difference is that The Sun presents the photographs in colour, connoting realism and the dangerousness of the offender. This is also connoted by the size of the photographs, with the graphic representation dominating a large proportion of the overall available space on the page, which is another drastic difference between The Sun’s representation of the news item and the other two newspapers. Despite these major differences it is significant that the newspapers have all used the same photographs, and it is interesting to look at why these particular photographs might have been chosen.

Paradigmatically, photographs involve connotations, and thus the significance of the particular photographs which have been chosen can be seen more clearly when considering what other paradigmatic connotations might have appeared in their place. For example the connotations of the picture of the police officer would change considerably if she was not in uniform. Likewise, the connotations of the picture would change if the offender was looking directly at the camera and smiling, instead he is pictured looking away from the camera with a blank expression, connoting lack of emotion.

The contrasted pairs which seem to be involved in the paradigms are innocence and guilt, justice and injustice. These contrasted pairs are made more clear by the way in which the meanings of the photographs are anchored in a small amount of text beneath the photographs. The Times offers its own contrasted pair in the text beneath the pictures, namely ‘killer’ and ‘killed’. As Bignell (1997:99) suggests, the caption underneath the picture enables the reader to ‘load down the image with particular cultural meanings and the photograph functions as the proof that the text’s message is true.’ The pictures are also shown in different contexts in the three newspapers with The Sun using a different strategy to The Telegraph and The Times.

The Telegraph and The Times use similar sized pictures of the individuals involved. In The Sun the size of the photographs of the individuals differ considerably with the ‘killer’ being represented as significantly bigger than the ‘killed’. Also, the photograph of the police officer is presented in a photograph-like frame connoting sentimentality, and elevating her position in comparison to the ‘killer’. This emotionalism is carried over into the other picture which The Sun represents which shows the coffin of the police officer being carried by her colleagues. This is a cultural sign which most readers will be able to relate to, and connotes sympathy, tragedy and injustice.

This discussion of several newspapers’ representations of the same news item show how semiotic analysis can determine the meanings of such news items, as a result of the linguistic and visual signs used within the texts. However, semiotic analysis cannot determine how an individual reader might interpret the representations of the news items in a real social context. Semiotic analysis does offer an insight into the factors at work in the production of a news item and distinguishes the various codes which are employed by different types of newspaper when representing a particular news item.

A Semiotic Analysis of a Newspaper Story Essay

Newspapers and Books Are Outdated Essay

Newspapers and Books Are Outdated Essay.

As we move into the twenty- first century an increasing number of people are relying on new forms of technology. A possible consequence of this is that traditional media such as books and newspapers are not just less popular but are considered by some to be outdated. Personally, I disagree with this point of view. The principal reason why some people take this view is fairly clear in the case of newspapers. It is generally much easier and quicker to discover what is happening in the world from the internet or the television than from a newspaper.

If you use Google or another search engine or simply switch on the television, you can instantly get the latest news bulletin. A newspaper, by contrast, is out of date the moment it is published because it contains yesterday’s news. It is perhaps less obvious why books are said to be out of fashion. One possibility is that fewer people choose to read for pleasure nowadays because they prefer the instant gratification and thrills of modern technology.

There is less effort involved in enjoying a 3D movie or playing a computer game than in turning the pages of a book.

My own view and conclusion is that books and newspapers will never go completely out of fashion or become redundant. The reason for this is that they serve basic human needs. I believe that people will always want to read about the news and escape into the imaginary worlds of great novels. However, books and newspapers may need to change to meet the new demands of twenty-first century consumers. We can already see this happening with the arrival of the audio-book and the various free newspaper internet sites.

Newspapers and Books Are Outdated Essay

The Ferre Media Group Essay

The Ferre Media Group Essay.

The Ferre Media Group case talks about a family business starting out as the Puerto Rican Cement Company in the 1940s, with a grandfather and son, Luis A. Ferre or Antonio’s father. But, Over the years and a few generations on, by the mid- 1960s tension and sibling rivalry started. Antonio Luis Ferre and his brothers divided the companies and their shares rather than to risk further family disharmony. After 8 years one sibling, Antonio Luis Ferre bought his father dying newspaper El Dia, in hoping to turn the newspaper company into the largest and most influential newspaper in Puerto Rice.

After 2 ½ years into it, El Nuevo Dia had become an important editorial voice. The Ferre Rangel family represents the fourth generation of long line of business and civic leaders. Antonio and his wife Luisa believed that the succession process began before the beginning. His children were educated in hopes to achieve excellence and do things well, for hope in the future the adult siblings considered business, since they could all conceivably want to be president of their company.

Antonio Luis Ferre struggles with the fact on how well the future generations will nature a culture of cooperation and communication without having the typical sibling and branch rivalries. Antonio knew this will be a factor knowing from past experiences. He did not want all his hard work or his dream to fail and fall right before him. He wanted to make sure that the company will stay within the family. How was he going to be able to keep them all together was the question. In 1993, the Ferre Rangel family began to meet regularly as a family to discuss family and business issues.

Over the next several years the family developed a family constitution. An in it, it established guidelines for the involvement of the family members and eventually for future generations. Another one of Antonio’s struggles was how they were going to integrate their spouses into what they are doing. Antonio wanted to make sure that their spouses were involved. He hopes it would show them the hard work that they were doing to build this business as well as letting them know they have the opportunity to be a part of it.

Since Antonio was so committed in orderly transferring the power to the next generations, his next priority was to make sure the next generation paid attention the details. Antonio felt that the newspaper business lived and died by those details and by its reputation for responsible citizenship and journalistic independence. In order this to succeed Antonio presented himself as a role model, he believed this was the best way to lead by example to show his work ethics, compassion and love towards his work and to others.

To ensure the continuation of the spirit of enterprise and Ferre Media Group’s history of innovation, Antonio should welcome other ideas and values. So, having the family meetings helped tremendously build new ideas and encourage individual aspirations. Antonio said he wanted these meetings to help stop conflicts between the siblings and built strong relationships with one another. Antonio wanted the family to express and listen to other opinions and understand the different perspectives because without it, to him, it was consider a competition. Family unity was the utmost priority and with much communication, listening and compromising, trust was built. And so in collaboration with fourth generation members to continue to grow the family business Antonio helped launch the new paper Primera Hora in 1998 and a Spanish language newspaper in Orland in 2003.

This case shows most of the family’s success. I feel Antonio did everything that he could to keep tradition and to keep a business that has been in the family for almost 70 years. It’s also great that he still wanted to remain a mentor and advisor to the future generations and to accept new ideas and innovation. For Antonio the business he built was meant to be shared by his family.

The Ferre Media Group Essay

New York Times v. Sullivan Essay

New York Times v. Sullivan Essay.

  1. Introduction

Communication refers to the exchange of ideas or information between two or more people. Information composes of voice (e.g. telephone, handy talky etc), data (short message services/SMS, facsimile etc), and video (video streaming, video conference etc). Although the types of information are still the same, their importance always gets stronger eventually.

Information is the root of actions and becomes more important in this information age. This is because its importance has even doubled, tripled, or even infinite as people in this age understand the necessities to learn about incidences in other part of the world and become more knowledgeable to use appropriate information for their advantages.

As the sense of knowing give reasons and confidence to act towards issues, information, if delivered truthfully, can be the instruments of great deeds. In contrast if the information is manipulated it will lead people to disastrous wrongful acts.

Televisions, newspapers, magazines, radios and the internet are now becoming main sources of public information where we can find out what happened in the world.

The media, therefore, have been noteworthy sources of information although it faces great challenges since readers now seriously question about the truth of information presented in the media. Readers think that most of media tend to create public opinion that the sources want, driven by their political concerns.

This is true since politic, in its nature, is capable to influence and control everyone’s life and lifestyles, and has always in the spotlight. As society gets wiser, attention on politics has never been this scrutiny. With very powerful people or party played their hands in it, politics has been one of the strongest reasons why the role of media as a trustworthy messenger is questioned. In line with the idea, Lynden Johnson says”reporters are puppet, they simply respond to the pull of the most powerful strings.”

In this paper, we will discuss the role of media in setting the political agenda. We take into account the 1964’s case “New York Times vs. Sullivan” in describing the topic. Prior to the discussion, we will develop the idea of media power, and the framing, priming, and agenda setting.

  1. New York Times vs. Sullivan
    • Fact

Back to the 1964 where the feud between New York Times and Sullivan existed, we witnessed that the case has gradually changed the maneuver of U.S. newspapers. Nowadays, we witness that U.S. media are paying a great attention on Paris Hilton than on Capitol Hill. The reason is that today’s media are less concerned to expose the misdeeds and motivations of powerful people or public officials.

According to Goldman (2004), the case of New York Times v. Sullivan begun when New York Times published a full-page ad that suspected the arrest of the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. for perjury in Alabama was part of a concerted effort to tear down King’s efforts to integrate public facilities and encourage blacks to vote.

The ad soon arouses the ire of a public official named L. B. Sullivan, the Montgomery city commissioner. The commissioner then filed a libel action against the Times and brought four black ministers who supported the ad into the court for claiming that the allegations against the Montgomery police defamed him personally (Goldman).

Under the auspices of the Alabama law, Sullivan finally won the case and received $500,000. This was happened since under the state’s law Sullivan did not even have to prove that he had been harmed. In contrast, Times’ defense saying the ad was invalid since the ad contained factual errors (Goldman).

2.2       Learning from the case of New York Times v. Sullivan

The decision of the Court that favored Sullivan was based on the First Amendment, which “protects the publication of all statements, even false ones, about the conduct of public officials except when statements are made with actual malice with knowledge that they are false or in reckless disregard of their truth or falsity” (Goldman).

Furthermore, Goldman explains the new ruling, in effect to this day, says “it is not enough for a plaintiff to show that a printed or televised account is false and defamatory. Under such circumstances, the plaintiff needs to show that the media has reported erroneous and recklessly ignoring facts.

The actual malice rule at a minimum encourages newspapers to take risks defaming people they otherwise would not take. The new ruling makes media to have the best defense when dealing with sue by a public figure. He adds that such defense would make it very difficult to sue newspapers and television stations even if they got an entire story wrong. Unfortunately, the case of Times vs. Sullivan have driven the press a little more arrogant than it needs to be when covering politicians or public figures.

III.      How Powerful Is Media?

Mc Combs and Shaw in their book the Emergence of American Political Issue, state that today’s media have the powerful function to organize how the world looks for us. They might not successfully control our minds, but they are undeniably capable to “direct” our everyday thoughts.

In similar tone, Shanto Iyengar and Donald Kinder in his book News That Matters, says that by paying attention to one issue and neglecting others, television is able to decide what American believed to be the most important issue to think about.

For instance, Israel – Palestinian lifetime conflict has been America’s most important concerns in 2003, and judging from the nature of the issue (e.g. atrocities, suicide bombing, etc), it is newsworthy, but as the media turn their focus to the Iraq war, Schwarzenegger’s governor election and the California Wildfires, the Israel-Palestinian issue is somehow diminished, although the debacle is not even approaching a win-win solution (“Anti Propaganda Watch”).

  1. Framing, Priming and Agenda Setting

Framing is the process of making a “meaning” out of incidents or stories. In the effort of building a line of comprehension between journalists and the readers, the frames are often drawn from. It is said to often chosen unintentionally. As an example, when a journalist is making a story about the high rising rate of poverty in a state, he or she will have to do what is called thematic framing, which means that eventually, a connection will have to be made between the increasing rate of poverty and the state government’s policies. While in periodic framing, the routine nature of the story derive journalists to put the blame on individual  actors, preventing audience from making a generalization of the stories (London).

Priming is done when a journalist gives an extra weight onto an issue or an opinion, allowing people’s mind to have a change in their opinion. This is usually done by giving extra amount of coverage, making an issue salient while others not.

Agenda Setting is even more conspicuous than the two terms we have mentioned before. It is a process of giving a certain theme over incidents that happens in a coverage area. By using materials that are sensitive to society, journalist can properly “put in ideas on people’s head”. For example, research shows that a single exposure on a violent crime-related news can heightened people’s fear of being victimized, which then gave the idea that violent crime is a very important issue (“Media Effects”).

One of the most attractive issue on priming and agenda setting is the LA Times anti-Israel Propaganda. In the join the boycott website, there are enough reasons to make visitors of the site hate the LA Times. According to the website, the boycott is due the intolerable bias on news coverage relating Israel-Palestinian ‘endless’ debacle. Furthermore, it shows that LA times has done all of the three forbidden acts of journalism we have addressed before. This situation also applies to the case of New York Times v. Sullivan in which the Times has set up a political agenda about Black community to vote.

  1. Conclusion

The role of media in our society is unbelievably important. Truthful coverage is always a worthy achievement. Politics does not come in the form of campaigns, elections, and the affairs of big government, but also the press as mind setters of the society.

Furthermore, the new ruling, in effect since the case of New York Times v. Sullivan to this day, favors media to expose the misdeeds conducted by politicians or public figures in which the new ruling enables media to cover politicians aggressively without fear of lawsuits.

However, the audiences still have absolute control to choose what they want or do not want to value what journalists distinguish as important. Nevertheless, the psychological implications of framing, priming and agenda setting are less significant. The existence of a picture and the atmosphere of the language can be a gentle but powerful way to alter opinions to the preferred direction.

Bibliography

Goldman, Jerry. “New York Times v. Sullivan.” OYEZ. 2004. Retrieved April 2, 2005 <http://www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/case/277/>

 “How Public Is the NPR?” Retrieved March 19, 2005 from <http://www.reclaimthemedia.org/stories.php?story=02/05/17/2036384>

Iyengar, Shanto. “Media Effects.” 1998. Retrieved April 2, 2005 from

“LA Times Israel anti-propaganda Watch.” 2004. Retrieved April 2, 2005 from <www.geocities.com/truthmasters/watch04-1.html>

London, Scott. “How Media Frames Political Issues.” 1993. Retrieved April 2, 2005 from <>

Pulle, Matt. “Don’t Kill the Messenger.” Nashville Scene. 2005. Retrieved April 2, 2005 from <http://www.nashvillescene.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?story=Back_Issues:2003:February_27-March_5_2003:News:Killing_the_Messenger>

U.S. Supreme Court. “New York Times v. Sullivan.” Retrieved April 2, 2005 from <http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=376&invol=254>

New York Times v. Sullivan Essay

Newspapers -How have newspaper changed overtime? Essay

Newspapers -How have newspaper changed overtime? Essay.

Newspapers have changed so much overtime. It’s changed in so many different ways. Many of them are obvious such as use of colour, text size etc. The first printed newspaper was published in 1605; the World Association of Newspapers recognizes Johann Carolus’s ‘Relation aller Fi?? rnemmen und gedenckwi?? rdigen Historie’, published in 1605, as the world’s first newspaper.

‘ However, when the English started printing their own papers in London, they reverted to the pamphlet format used by contemporary books. The era of these news books lasted until the publication of the Oxford Gazette in 1665.

Text size has changed drastically as in the early 1900s the text size was so small you needed a magnifier. This was because in the 1900s ink was expensive, very expensive. The newspapers, newsprint (paper) was also very expensive. So the editor had to cram in as much words as possible in the smallest size available.

Nowadays the text size is much bigger and not crammed as its given space; even sometimes they make the font bigger when there is less information.

This is because people are becoming lazier; they tend to want to read less but also want to know more. They are not prepared to read longer articles. Many popular tabloids are encouraging a ‘culture of ignorance’. Apparently nowadays ‘less is more’ this is referring to the text sizes. There are many studies that shows, people are more likely to read newspapers with fewer words than a newspaper with more words.

Anther reason is that the ink is also much cheaper nowadays and so is the manufacturing of newsprint (newspaper paper). The highlighted areas in yellow show how the text many years ago is different to modern newspapers. In the 1903 newspaper the writing is really tiny you can hardly see it whereas in the 2005 newspaper the writing is really big and can be seen from far, so it will catch a passers bys attention. On the other hand in areas highlighted in red is the headline of the story.

As you can see in the 1903 newspaper the headline is barely visual as they want to cram in as much information as possible into a tiny area so that they don’t have to pay a lot of money for paper as it was really expensive in the past. However in the 2005 newspaper the headline is really, really big so it can be seen from far. The headlines as you’ve would have guessed are also much bigger this is because the editor wanted to catch the reader’s attention. It reflects less loyal readership. Using the newspapers above the headlines is highlighted in red see how different they are?

The 1903 Daily Mail shows that the headline is really small, if you compare it with the 2005 Daily Mail you will see a 20x bigger difference between the headlines. If you saw the 1903 Daily Mail headline in a 2005 newspaper you would think that it was the date, or a little reminder of what is inside the newspaper. Because you wouldn’t even see that type of small font in a newspaper at this date as the newspapers are becoming more modern. That is the really big difference of newspapers and how they adapted to culture.

The order of newspapers are really important as you don’t want to clash too many of the sections together and make it appear all incorrect e. g. Fashion section and sport section together, this will confuse people and make the newspaper look unorganized. In the early stages of newspapers there used to be notices of the births, deaths of people etc on the front page of the newspapers, a few newspapers still do it till this day (The Times, Daily Telegraph) but it is hidden, either in the middle or the end of the newspaper.

Because it’s no longer important to insert it into the papers to the wider audience, this is because we find out about deaths and births through a wider range of technology such as mobile phones, telephones, and internet etc. And also, there is no longer a target market for this as people are no longer interested to find out about this in newspapers. Newspapers are clearly split into sections. Society has changed therefore newspapers have changed to adapt to the society, and it reflects societies different priorities.

For example, sport is more important than the death and birth notices therefore there is always a huge section on sports at the end of the newspaper so it is easier to find and shows the most important story as a front page but at the back. It is also more socially acceptable for newspapers to have a section for fun and enjoyment. In the middle to end, depending on the newspaper, there is a section which includes; crosswords, Sudoku (easy, medium, and hard), horoscopes, mini cartoon strips etc.

Newspapers -How have newspaper changed overtime? Essay