National School Lunch Program Essay

National School Lunch Program Essay.

The Food and Nutrition Service administers the program at the Federal level. At the State level, the National School Lunch Program is usually administered by State education agencies, which operate the program through agreements with school food authorities. 2. How does the National School Lunch Program work?

The National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program operating in over 101,000 public and non‐profit private schools and residential child care institutions. It provides nutritionally balanced, low‐cost or free lunches to more than 31 million children each school day in 2009.

In 1998, Congress expanded the National School Lunch Program to include reimbursement for snacks served to children in afterschool educational and enrichment programs to include children through 18 years of age.

1. What is the National School Lunch Program?


3. What are the nutritional requirements for school lunches?

Generally, public or nonprofit private schools of high school grade or under and public or nonprofit private residential child care institutions may participate in the school lunch program.

School districts and independent schools that choose to take part in the lunch program get cash subsidies and donated commodities from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) for each meal they serve. In return, they must serve lunches that meet Federal requirements, and they must offer free or reduced price lunches to eligible children. School food authorities can also be reimbursed for snacks served to children through age 18 in afterschool educational or enrichment programs.

School lunches must meet the applicable recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which recommend that no more than 30 percent of an individual’s calories come from fat, and less than 10 percent from saturated fat. Regulations also establish a standard for school lunches to provide one‐third of the Recommended Dietary Allowances of protein, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, iron, calcium, and calories. School lunches must meet Federal nutrition requirements, but decisions about what specific foods to serve and how they are prepared are made by local school food authorities.

4. How do children qualify for free and reduced price meals? Any child at a participating school may purchase a meal through the National School Lunch Program. Children from families with incomes at or below 130 percent of the poverty level are eligible for free meals. Those with incomes between 130 percent and 185 percent of the poverty level are eligible for reduced‐price meals, for which students can be charged no more than 40 cents. (For the period July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011, 130 percent of the poverty level is $28,665 for a family of four; 185 percent is $40,793.)

Children from families with incomes over 185 percent of poverty pay a full price, though their meals are still subsidized to some extent. Local school food authorities set their own prices for full‐price (paid) meals, but must operate their meal services as non‐profit programs.

5. How much reimbursement do schools get?

Afterschool snacks are provided to children on the same income eligibility basis as school meals. However, programs that operate in areas where at least 50 percent of students are eligible for free or reduced‐price meals may serve all their snacks for free.

Most of the support USDA provides to schools in the National School Lunch Program comes in the form of a cash reimbursement for each meal served. The current (July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011) basic cash reimbursement rates if school food authorities served less than 60% free and reduced price lunches during the second preceding school year are: Free lunches: $2.72 Free snacks: $0.74 Reduced-price lunches: Paid lunches: $0.26 Paid snacks: $0.06 $2.32 Reduced-price snacks: $0.37

6. What other support do schools get from USDA? In addition to cash reimbursements, schools are entitled by law to receive USDA foods, called “entitlement” foods, at a value of 20.25 cents for each meal served in Fiscal Year 2010‐2011. Schools can also get “bonus” USDA foods as they are available from surplus agricultural stocks.

Through Team Nutrition USDA provides schools with technical training and assistance to help school food service staffs prepare healthful meals, and with nutrition education to help children understand the link between diet and health. 7. What types of foods do schools get from USDA? States select entitlement foods for their schools from a list of various foods purchased by USDA and offered through the school lunch program. Bonus foods are offered only as they become available through agricultural surplus. The variety of both entitlement and bonus USDA foods schools can get from USDA depends on quantities available and market prices.

A very successful project between USDA and the Department of Defense (DoD) has helped provide schools with fresh produce purchased through DoD. USDA has also worked with schools to help promote connections with local small farmers who may be able to provide fresh produce. The National School Lunch Act in 1946 created the modern school lunch program, though USDA had provided funds and food to schools for many years prior to that. About 7.1 million children were participating in the National School Lunch Program by the end of its first year, 1946 ‐47. By 1970, 22 million children were participating, and by 1980 the figure was nearly 27 million. In 1990, over 24 million children ate school lunch every day.

In Fiscal Year 2009, more than 31.3 million children each day got their lunch through the National School Lunch Program. Since the modern program began, more than 219 billion lunches have been served. 9. How much does the program cost? The National School Lunch Program cost $9.8 billion in FY 2009. By comparison, the lunch program’s total cost in 1947 was $70 million; in 1950, $119.7 million; in 1960, $225.8 million; in 1970, $565.5 million; in 1980, $3.2 billion; in 1990, $3.7 billion; and in 2000, 6.1 billion. For more information: For information on the operation of the National School Lunch Program and all the Child Nutrition Programs, contact the State agency in your state that is responsible for the administration of the programs. A listing of all our State agencies may be found on our web site at, select “Contact Us”, then select “Child Nutrition Programs.” 8. How many children have been served over the years?

National School Lunch Program Essay

Reflection of Daily Nutrition Intake Essay

Reflection of Daily Nutrition Intake Essay.


My daily caloric intake is anticipated to be higher than the recommended allowance of carbohydrates, lipids and sodium; however, it is expected to be lower than the recommended allowance for proteins, minerals, and vitamins.


In the United States, people use almost their entire food budget on processed foods which often have been treated with chemicals after being harvested or butchered. These chemicals are additives and preservatives which are substances intended to change the food before it is purchased by customers.

Additives can be flavorings that enhance the food’s taste, dyes that alter the color, and dietary additives, such as vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and other supplements. Preservatives are used to extend a products shelf life by preventing bacterial or fungal growth, oxidation (which can lead to the discoloration or rancidity), or inhibiting the natural ripening of fruits and vegetables. Packaging is considered an “Indirect Food Additive” because it can add substances to the food it protects. A common preservative in the food that I eat is called propionic acid, which prevents mold in bread.

Also, most processed foods rely on additives to restore the flavor that is lost in processing or create new flavors altogether.

For example McDonald’s chicken products like Chicken McNuggets® add “chicken flavor”. A food additive is considered fit for human consumption after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves it. However, this decision can prove to be poor because when certain chemicals are added to processed food products, some of these food and color additives provoke an allergic reaction or other critical health problems. For example, monosodium glutamate (MSG) causes headaches, nausea, weakness, difficulty breathing, drowsiness, rapid heartbeat, and chest pain. This can be avoided because it is required for all of the ingredients to be listed on the food label. Unfortunately, additives and preservatives are often unclear as to what they include. Saturated fat is found in foods from animals and certain types of plants. Foods from animals include beef, lamb, pork, lard, poultry fat, and other dairy products made from milk. Foods from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, tropical oils, and cocoa butter.

Two types of unsaturated fat are polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. They are found mostly in fish, nuts, seeds and oils from assorted plants. Trans-fatty acids are found in small amounts in various animal products such as beef, pork, lamb and the butterfat in butter and milk. Both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are considered to be healthy because they may help lower one’s blood cholesterol level when replacing saturated and trans fats. Unsaturated fatty acids are found in two different types: “cis” and “trans.” These terms refer to the hydrogen atoms physical positioning around the carbon chain. The cis form is more common than the trans form. In some studies hydrogenated fats, or trans fats, mostly raised the total LDL cholesterol level and lower the HDL cholesterol levels. This could result in the heightened risk of heart disease.

Essential Vitamins and Minerals are often called micronutrients because only a small portion is needed to live a healthy lifestyle. Without these micronutrients one is almost guaranteed to become infected with a disease like scurvy, blindness or rickets. Although they are both considered micronutrients, vitamins and minerals differ in basic ways. Vitamins are organic and can be broken down by heat, air, or acid. Minerals on the other hand are inorganic and hold on to their chemical structure. Essential Vitamins include Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins. The water-soluble vitamins are B and C and the fat-Soluble Vitamins are A, D, E, and K. The fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K. Firstly, Vitamin A is vital for good vision, prevents night blindness, keeps mucous membranes healthy and is necessary for healthy skin and hair growth. Next, Vitamin D is found in foods obtained from the sun.

It helps bones use the mineral calcium to build strong bones and it prevents rickets. Also, Vitamin E helps breakdown polyunsaturated fats. It is an antioxidant that protects blood cell membranes from too much oxygen. Finally the fat-soluble Vitamin K is essential for the clotting of blood. It can be found in foods or produced in bacteria in the small intestines. The water-soluble vitamins are B and C. C is the most famous vitamin, and is also referred to as ascorbic acid. It helps form collagen, grow and repair body tissue and blood vessels, and prevent scurvy. However, too much Vitamin C can lead to the creation of Kidney stones and the breakdown of red blood cells.

Vitamin B is complex and has several different types such as B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), Naicin, B6, B12, and Folacin. Amino Acids are organic compounds. They are the monomers of proteins and consist of both an amino group and a carboxyl group. The human body is unable to synthesize certain amino acids called “essential amino acids,” “the human body can synthesize all of the amino acids necessary to build proteins except for the ten called the “essential amino acids.””(Nave 1) For example, some of the “essential amino acids are Leucine(leu) and Phenylalanine.


My hypothesis was correct because as I cataloged my daily nutritional intake I found that the recommended allowance of carbohydrates, lipids and sodium is lower than what I eat and the recommended allowance for proteins, minerals, and vitamins is higher than what I eat. I am supposed to take in approximately 2000 calories a day and, on average, I only eat 900 calories a day. As I reflect on my daily nutritional intake I realize that in order to have a completely healthy lifestyle I must have more essential vitamins and minerals as well as proteins in my diet.

Works Cited
American Heart Association . “Cholesterol.” American Heart Association , n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <>. “Helpguide helps you help yourself and others.” Helpguide helps you help yourself and others. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <>. Nave, R. “Essential Amino Acids.” Essential Amino Acids. University of Arizona’s Biology Project , n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <>. Sustainable Table. “Food Additives, food additives pose threat – The Issues –

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Reflection of Daily Nutrition Intake Essay

Fighting Malnutrition Essay

Fighting Malnutrition Essay.

Malnutrition has been a serious concern across the world which is caused due to lack of vital vitamins and minerals in the diet where in majority of the impoverished or poor people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Tackling malnutrition has indeed been a challenge for the government, donors, and the private sector to give their attention to the developmental effectiveness and providing value for money.

Approx. 2 billion people across the globe suffer from anemia which caused due to iron deficiency and iodine deficiency which leads to mental retardation, results in being resistance to the disease, lowering the attention and concentration of children in class rooms, causes death of pregnant mothers, deaths due to diarrhea and million of people go blind each year.

As this problem of malnutrition takes away almost 3% of the country’s GDP, companies need to be very much careful of this fact which in turn affects the consumption pattern of the consumers. Companies like Coca-Cola and P&G have indeed put much efforts in making their food and beverages rich in vitamins and minerals but the issue in this regards is how firms target the market in terms of the availability of the product, its pricing strategies, the way of promoting and creating awareness among the masses and the convenience of the product.

Thus instead of only focusing upon the Product mix, just like Coke and P&G have dealt with the problem, the firms should target the other marketing mix elements as well to successfully market their goods. What additional efforts have been taken up by companies to solve this concern of malnutrition, How has the research and development team of the firms focused on their activities to overcome and fight the economic concern has been the questions in most of the organizations watch list.

Problems / Issues: Coca-Cola introduced the product named Vitango, which was a powdered drink to be mixed with water and to be consumed as a beverage, the issue was that research did show that there was a huge improvements in certain places where it was introduced but in certain places due to the impurities in the water, it nullified the efforts of the powdered vitango. The firm encountered trouble because of lack of focus in the initial stages of the new product development which it at a later stage went about packaging a ready-to-drink formula for its consumers.

P&G also came out with their own production of Nutridelight which had an element of vitamin A, iron contents and Growth Plus was the main ingredient. But unfortunately it did not sell well in the market as the prices were non – competitive and it did not meet the present market – going rate of the product’s price. It later came with Nutristar which performed good in the market but it would target only the premium group customers as the product was available at only McDonald’s outlet, and in major instances it is the segment of the poor which actually require the product.

Thus again P&G had lack of focus in their strategic implementations. In both the cases mentioned above, the firms lacked focus of their marketing mix factors in terms of the product, price, place or promotional strategies. Analysis: Based on the research carried, both over nourished and under nourished leads to malnutrition and hence poverty and lack of food has been an issue under consideration in certain countries which has symptoms of anemia, diarrhea, disorientation, goiter, lack of coordination and loss of reflexes, scaling and cracking of lips and mouth are terrible consequences faced by the people.

Companies need to provide fortified foods which have the opportunity of adding value and providing economies of scale by lowering upon the prices, developing quality products to enhance trade and competition and reaching out to newer customers that have not been targeted, there by combating the problem of malnutrition of a huge segment of those suffering. Thus malnutrition is a vicious cycle where in an under-nourished or over-nourished person suffers from various diseases and infections which in turn increases the requirement of energy into the body which needs to be fulfilled.

If this demand s not fulfilled it results in malnutrition which further reduces and diminishes the immunity level of the children and elders as well making them more prone to such infections. Recommendations / Solutions to the Problem: To improve the nutritional levels of food, the prior concern should be to increase the income levels where by the quality and the quantitative food intake can be increased. Firms need to focus on consider the following aspects in the formulation of a strategic development in order to combat malnutrition and the poverty line.

Companies need to focus upon: ?Creating awareness among the public on nutritional and health issues: This will help the local poor people to understand the value of health and the benefits of having balanced food habits. ?Increase the income levels there by improving the standard of living: If the purchasing power parity of consumers is increased, the consumption level will also increase leading to adoption of the best food eating methods.

?Improve the nutritional and the health status of the society at large, ?Focus on the rural marketing and distribution methods: rural marketing needs focus especially to instill the seriousness of the deaths and weaknesses which result through malnutrition. Making the product available to them at a reasonable price and at their convenient places will create positive sense of belongingness in the minds of the users.

?Organize and develop market surveys to study the general trend of the consumers: Study the market and understand the changing food habits there by promoting the strategies in the manner which clears the issues of resisting and fighting the problem of malnutrition. ?Train the volunteers and create awareness among the rural sectors, ?Setting up production and marketing units to cater to the goals and objectives set by companies there by improvising on the nutrition status of the target village or market taken into consideration.

Conclusion: Fighting Malnutrition has been a concern and a serious issue for all the firms whose main objective has been to develop products which are higher in nutrient level with nutritional supplements. The prior focus should be on whether the food or the beverage should be used as a supplement or as a substitute which in turn will help in strategizing the business processes in a manner which suits the target markets requirements and needs.

References: Capart. (2008). Promotion of community initiatives to combat malnutrition and provide income generation in the backward regions of India. Retrieved October 3, 2008, from Website: http://209. 85. 175. 104/search? q=cache:PWnXLkls_2sJ:capart. nic. in/scheme/projectm. pdf+marketing+:+malnutrition&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=in Michael, J. (2007). Fighting Poverty with Markets, Marketing to the malnourished. Retrieved October 3, 2008, from Foreign Policy Website: http://blog. foreignpolicy. com/node/3712

Fighting Malnutrition Essay

8 Tips for Eating Well Essay

8 Tips for Eating Well Essay.

1. Base your meals on starchy foods – an example of starchy foods would be: potato, cereal, pasta, rice and bread. If you choose whole grain varieties they will contain more fibre which is good for you. 2. Eat lots of fruit and vegetables – ideally we should be eating 5 portions of fruit and veg a day. Even if you drink a glass of unsweetened fruit juice that will even count as 1 of your 5 a day. 3. Eat more fish – fish includes protein, vitamins and minerals.

Even if you have at least 2 portions a week that would be fantastic. Anybody who eats fish on a regular bases should try a wide variety of fish such as oily, smoked, frozen, fresh and canned. 4. Cut down on saturated fat and sugar – you do need a little bit of fat in your body but you don’t need so much fat because it is not good for you. Another risk of having lots of fat in your diet is that it can cause heart disease.

Saturated fat is found in many foods, such as hard cheese, cakes, biscuits, sausages, cream, butter, lard pies, chips, burgers, chicken nuggets, ice cream and others.. so try to cut down on these.

5. Eat less salt – If you buy a ready-made meal from the shops you may not know but it will contain quite a lot of salt in, which is ok but if you have to much of this, it will be a problem because it raises your blood pressure and if you have high blood pressure you are more likely to have a stroke or heart disease. Adults and children over 11 should eat no more than 6g of salt a day. Younger children should have even less. 6. Get active and be a healthy weight – fatty foods has lots of energy in it and if you don’t use up all of that energy then it is stored in the body as fat which can lead to over weightiness and obesity. If you are overweight or underweight that is not good and it means that you are not healthy. So to make sure you are healthy you should be more active for instance even doing a 30 minute work out on your wii fit can make a difference.

7. Don’t get thirsty –drink more water and stay hydrated. If you don’t have as much water then this can cause dehydration which basically means lack of water. On a daily bases you should at least have 8 glasses of water a day. If you don’t like water then you can have milk or fruit juice but do try to avoid fizzy drinks and sugary drinks. 8. Don’t skip breakfast – do not skip breakfast because breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Breakfast is the first meal you have after you wake up so to make sure you have that fibre in you, you need to make sure you have it so you can concentrate throughout the day. Cereal is very high in fibre so that would be a good option for breakfast. It is very important in our diet. THINGS THAT YOU SHOULD EAT/DO




8 Tips for Eating Well Essay

Benefits of Drinking Water Essay

Benefits of Drinking Water Essay.

Lose weight: Drinking water helps you lose weight because it flushes down the by-products of fat breakdown. Drinking water reduces hunger, it’s an effective appetite suppressant so you’ll eat less. Plus, water has zero calories. Here are the further details on how to achieve fat loss by drinking water. Natural Remedy for Headache: Helps to relieve headache and back pains due to dehydration. Although many reasons contribute to headache, dehydration is the common one. Look Younger with Healthier Skin: You’ll look younger when your skin is properly hydrated.

Water helps to replenish skin tissues, moisturizes skin and increases skin elasticity. Better Productivity at Work: Your brain is mostly made up of water, thus drinking water helps you think better, be more alert and more concentrated.

Better Exercise: Drinking water regulates your body temperature. That means you’ll feel more energetic when doing exercises. Water also helps to fuel your muscle. Helps in Digestion and Constipation: Drinking water raises your metabolism because it helps in digestion.

Fiber and water goes hand in hand so that you can have your daily bowel movement. Less Cramps and Sprains: Proper hydration helps keep your joints and muscles lubricated, so you’ll less likely get cramps and sprains. Less Likely to Get Sick and Feel Healthy: Drinking plenty of water helps fight against flu and other ailments like kidney stones and heart attack. Water adds with lemon is used for ailments like respiratory disease, intestinal problems, rheumatism and arthritis etc. In another words one of the benefits of drinking water is that it can improve your immune system.

Follow this link for further information on how lemon water can improve your health. Relieves Fatigue: Water is used by the body to help flush out toxins and waste products from the body. If your body lacks water, your heart, for instance, needs to work harder to pump out the oxygenated blood to all cells, so are the rest of the vital organs, your organs will be exhausted and so will you. Good Mood: Your body feels very good and that’s why you feel happy. Reduce the Risk of Cancer: Related to the digestive system, some studies show that drinking a healthy amount of water may reduce the risks of bladder cancer and colon cancer. Water dilutes the concentration of cancer-causing agents in the urine and shortens the time in which they are in contact with bladder lining. Can you see the importance of water to your body after understanding the above benefits of drinking water?

Benefits of Drinking Water Essay

Prevent Animals and Plants from Dying Out Essay

Prevent Animals and Plants from Dying Out Essay.

Increasing number of animals and plants are dying out, but little has been done to prevent. This problem has given rise to great public concern now. In this essay, I’ll analyse some possible causes of this phenomenon and then propose some solutions.

Firstly, some people think it is waste of resource to prevent animals and plants. They suggest that the money should be better spent on human population. They want take more space and totally ignore the animals’ and the plants’.

Secondly, human being is selfish and greedy, some people cannot resist the temptation of wearing the fur coat or eating the delicious food, (such as shark’s fin, wild animals etc.) though they have been aware of this problem for a long time.

Based on the above analysis, I think there are some ways to deal with the problem. To start with, the sense of protection animals and plants should be enhanced. To let people know that the disappearance of animals and plants will result in serious threat to the balance of ecosystem.

It is hard to imagine what our world would be like without animals and plants. Next, a healthy lifestyle should be advocated, like healthy diet, simple life, get alone well with natures. Finally the most important thing is to lay down the low to punish those who kill animals or cut plants without permission strictly.

In summary, to protect animals and plants is to protect our living environment. Every individual should participate in doing something to preserve animals and plants from dying out.

Prevent Animals and Plants from Dying Out Essay

How Your Diet Is Influenced by Religious Essay

How Your Diet Is Influenced by Religious Essay.

Since the beginning of time, dietary practices have been incorporated into the religious practices of people around the world. Some religious are prohibited from consuming certain foods and drinks. Practices such as fasting are described as tenets of faith by numerous religions and several incorporate some element of fasting. The diet influenced by religious beliefs does have numerous benefits in our daily life but it also has some disadvantages. Some religions have dietary restrictions which are observed by their followers as part of their religious practice.

Such like Islam has laws permitting foods classified as halal. Which is means pork and alcohol are not allowed. Meanwhile, most hindus are vegetarians and must do not eat cow. There are reasoned why every religion have dietary restrictions in their daily meal and it is because of food safety.

According to Wisegeek (2012) religious dietary restrictions protect the followers of the religion which is allowing them to grow fruitful and multiply healthy meal. Furthermore, every religions has it owns preferences and culture.

In culture of religions, they do have their own eating patterns and behavior. Cultural also provides guidelines regarding of the food in their religions. If the religions had a good eating patterns in their daily life it will give a benefit on their diet. It depends on how many amount of food that their takes in one day. As we know, some religions have some acceptable foods and unacceptable foods. For religions that have a bad food combinations it can have negative effects on their health, especially when it comes to their digestion. In addition, food combinations can also give harmful effects to their body.

While this may be true, we should also consider the fact exposure to food by religions local cuisine does influence their diet. Basu (2011) states that for a person that more exposed to a food, it more encourage for them to eat it. Foods that are commonly and easily cook within a specific religion frequently become a part of the local cuisine. For example, other religions cook such an oily dish but there are other religious cook their dish with grilled or boil it. It is based on how the followers of the religions cook in their daily life because the followers are only more exposed to the foods that are easily for them to get it. It does influence their diet when they are eating based on their local cuisine.

In conclusion, certain religions are at high risk of nutrition-related disease. With understanding and adjustment it is possible to change their diets so they are easily followed a current healthy eating habits. It is very important to us to take the best possible care of our body and develop healthy cooking and eating habits in order to help our live life.

Conjectour Corporation. (2012). Religions Dietary Restrictions. Retrieved September 1, 2012, from

Basu, O. Julia. (2011). The Influence of Religion on Health. Retrieved September 2, 2012, from

How Your Diet Is Influenced by Religious Essay

Are BHA and BHT bad for you? Essay

Are BHA and BHT bad for you? Essay.

The foods we consume can have different kinds of compounds in them that we didn’t know about. These compounds added to the foods we eat are not always detectable. For instance certain compounds can be listed on the nutrition label and we can’t even taste or see them. Butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, also known as BHA and BHT, are both phenolic compounds that are added to certain foods in order to preserve fats and oils. Even though these compounds are used to preserve the foods we eat, how do we know that BHA and BHT aren’t bad for us? Even though BHA and BHT have minimal negative effects, they are outweighed by many beneficial attributes and are not bad for us.

Knowing what these compounds are made of, what their functions are, and how they work will help in answering this central question. Even though BHA and BHT both have the same function, they have different characteristics.

“BHA is a mixture of the isomers 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, also known as BOA.”

The molecular formula of BHA is C11H16O2. BHA can be a yellow tainted or white waxy solid and can have an aromatic odor. BHT “also known as 3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; methyl-di-tert-butylphenol; 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-para-cresol,” has a molecular formula of C15H240. BHT physically looks like a white powder. Even though BHA and BHT are used for the same things, BHA is more stable at higher temperatures than BHT so it is used more. There are other antioxidants that can be used like NDGA but they are more expensive than BHA and BHT. BHA and BHT can be found in certain foods or can be found in certain food packaging. BHA and BHT do not have to be directly put into food and products to work. They can be placed in the packaging of food and will have the same effect. These compounds have not only been used to preserve food, but animal feed and some cosmetic products as well. Without BHA and BHT the foods we eat and products containing fats and oils would not be preserved as long as they could be. The use of BHA and BHT enables us to consume foods for a longer period of time.

These compounds are antioxidants. “Oxygen reacts preferentially with BHA or BHT rather than oxidizing fats or oils, thereby protecting them from spoilage.” BHA and BHT are placed either in or inside the packaging of foods so the oxygen reacts with these compounds instead of reacting with the food which in turn will spoil it. In a sense BHA and BHT slow down the oxidizing of fats and oils because eventually most food expires or goes bad and becomes inedible. BHA and BHT are also “fat soluble and are incompatible with ferric salts.” Since BHA and BHT prevent the fat and oils in food from spoiling, they also prevent the fat and oils in some cosmetic products from spoiling. In addition to preserving cosmetics BHA and BHT are also used in certain pharmaceuticals to be prevented from oxidizing. BHA and BHT can be found in many different kinds of food products. They can be found in “breakfast cereals, snack food, chewing gum, vegetable oils, shortening, potato flakes, granules and chips, enriched rice, and candy.” BHA and BHT can be found in certain cosmetics like lipstick, lotion, and moisturizers as well.

These compounds are also placed inside the packaging of foods. Sometimes when opening a snack or box of food there is a little white package that says “DO NOT EAT” or “THROW AWAY” on it. It is usually a white or clear substance inside. Those packages are silica gel, which are similar to BHA and BHT because they are all used in preserving foods, except silica gel is not used in foods and is not safe to consume. BHA and BHT compounds are also found in rubber and petroleum products, and animal feed. Sometimes you can see if a food or product contains BHA or BHT when reading the nutrition label. On the nutrition label sometimes it will say “BHT has been added to the packaging.” Foods and products that contain fats and oils in them can benefit from BHA and BHT so they can be preserved and therefore used for a longer period of time. BHA and BHT aid in other things relating to the prevention of food and products from becoming rancid due to the oxidization of the oils and fats. “BHT also prevents oxidative rancidity.”

BHA and BHT preserve the color of foods and products as well. When foods or products containing fats and oils become spoiled, their color can change. For example when cereal goes bad it can become stale and moldy which will change its color. BHT and BHA also help maintain the odors of foods and products. When a food becomes rancid it can develop a bad smell. When milk spoils you can tell just by taking the lid off that it instantly has a sour smell. BHT and BHA also help preserve the flavor and taste of foods. After a food has been spoiled, in most cases it has a rancid taste and is not enjoyable or even edible. With BHA and BHT the color, odor, and flavor of foods are being maintained for a longer period of time. BHA and BHT help preserve our foods and products so they are safe to ingest and use in minimal amounts. Even though these compounds have been in many of our food and cosmetic products for a very long time, you can’t help but wonder if they are really safe to come in contact with. “BHA and BHT were given, generally recognized as safe, GRAS, status and no additional studies were required.”

Even though these compounds are considered safe, the amounts in which we receive them are limited. Just because BHA and BHT preserve our foods does not mean we can use mass amounts of them in our foods and packaging to prolong the oxidization process. “The FDA limits their use in food either alone or in combination with other antioxidants to less than or equal to 0.02% of the total fat and oil content.” BHA and BHT can only be used in these limited amounts enforced by the FDA. It is impossible to ingest or come in contact with too much of BHA and BHT because manufacturers add them is such small amounts. If BHA and BHT were not safe to be used in products and product packaging, the FDA would have banned their use by now. BHA and BHT have been used since 1958 and are still being used today. These compounds are not dangerous to use but have been linked to minor health effects in humans. Lots of animal toxicology has been done with these two compounds, but there have only been few records of human reactions to BHA and BHT since its use.

“In 1973 Fisherman and Cohen reported on seven patients with asthma, vasomotor rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or the combination, who were suspected of intolerance to BHA and BHT.” Even though these patients had these health effects when taking BHT and BHA the details were not given as to why BHA and BHT were considered the reason for these complications. Also another study similar to this was conducted but the same results were not achieved which has proven it inconsistent. “There are no published reports of BHA or BHT challenges resulting in well documented, reproducible asthmatic responses.” Even though it was found that seven patients had asthma, it cannot be directly related to the ingestion of BHA and BHT. In a different study done in 1975 it was found that after giving patients a total dose of 17 mg of BHA and BHT, they developed recurrent urticaria which is also commonly known as hives. “Six of 47 tested to BHA reacted, and 6 of 43 reacted to BHT; it is unclear whether these were the same six patients.”

Even though BHA and BHT could have been the cause of urticaria in these patients, it is a very small number of people who reacted to it this way and is not recurring. This does not prove that BHA and BHT are harmful and will always cause people to get hives when ingesting or coming in contact with these compounds. “Delayed hypersensitivity contact dermatitis through a variety of occupational or medicinal exposures is well documented, but not common.” Skin irritation has been related to BHA and BHT intake but only from very minimal experiences. Urtcaria resulting from these compounds is not common and is not documented as a direct relation to one another. Even though these concerns have resulted from BHA and BHT use, it is not proven to be the cause of these effects on humans The only main concern of BHA and BHT is their carcinogenicity. Carcinogenicity is something that has a tendency to cause cancer in humans.

Animal tests using BHA and BHT “have shown to be cancer promoting and cancer inhibiting.” In some tests BHA and BHT had prevented tumors from developing in mice, and in others the BHA and BHT promoted the development of tumors in mice. Determining whether these compounds promote or prevent cancer in humans depends on various aspects. “The time of administration, type of carcinogens already present in the body, and the target organ affected,” are a few things that would determine whether it promotes or prevents cancer from arising in humans. Even though the carcinogenicity of these compounds is unsure, the use of them was not prohibited. Any kind of chemical compounds can have suspected negative effects on humans. Even though BHA and BHT have had minor effects, their benefits significantly outweigh those effects. The main benefit of BHA and BHT is of course to preserve food and products for a longer period of time.

These compounds can aid us in other ways as well. “BHA and BHT exhibit anti-microbial activity against several common food pathogens and viruses.” Without BHA and BHT it would be a lot easier for our food products to develop viruses and pathogens that can get us sick. By keeping the food from spoiling longer, these compounds also prevent the development of these pathogens and viruses. This in turn “helps retain vitamin E in food which otherwise gets destroyed when fat content is oxidized.” Vitamin E helps prevents free radicals from damaging our body tissue. These free radicals can even harm our organs and cells too. Vitamin E also helps us to build a stronger immune system so we won’t get sick as easily from bacteria or develop viruses. Lastly vitamin E is also essential to our body’s formation of red blood cells. BHA and BHT can help us obtain more vitamin E which is necessary for our health. These compounds can enable us to receive so many more benefits that vitamin E has by retaining the vitamin E in our foods.

“The oxidization of fat, which occurs in the absence of BHA and BHT, produces peroxides which are definitely carcinogenic and mutagenic.” Carcinogenic peroxides can promote cancer and mutagenic peroxides can cause mutations in our cells. These peroxides can be extremely detrimental to us. So in other words, without BHA and BHT these dangerous peroxides would be produced that are harmful to us. The benefits of BHA and BHT are tremendous and outweigh the small possible negative effects of these compounds. Knowing about the different compounds present in your food and products is important. Just because you can’t see or taste them doesn’t mean that they are not there. BHA and BHT were created to help the preservations of food and products containing fats and oils. These compounds are essential in the prolonging of our use of these certain foods and products. Without BHA and BHT we would not be able to improve shelf life of food and the use of products.

Even though BHA and BHT were somewhat connected to asthma and urticaria (hives), they were not declared the direct cause of those conditions. The only concern of BHA and BHT was its carcinogenicity which is unsure due to the confusion and mixed results of its animal testing on mice. The human benefits to BHA and BHT are great ones considering how it is only administered in very minimal amounts. BHA and BHT protect us from pathogens, viruses, and peroxides that can harm us. These compounds enable us to retain more vitamin E which promotes healthier body functions. BHA and BHT have been used for over 50 years. They are not dangerous and have not caused any detrimental effects to humans. We will continue to use BHA and BHT and receive their great benefits.

Are BHA and BHT bad for you? Essay

My Most Valuable Possessions Essay

My Most Valuable Possessions Essay.

The world today is full of ways to keeps us busy, distracted, and stressed. We all have to find ways to manage these in our lives, often this happens because of special items in our lives that have a special importance to us. Maybe these items are very different from person to person. For me, my most valuable possessions are my family and friends, my health, and my self-confidence. Each one has a unique quality that helps me to manage the distractions and stresses that life presents to me.

Have we ever sit down and ask ourselves theses questions: “Who are we?”, “Why do we come to this world?”, and “What is the most important in our lives?” All of these answers are varies according to our purpose of lives. In addition, if someone comes and asks me those questions, I will tell them my family and friends are so important to me because they are the closest people in my life.

They know me better than anyone else and of course they will be there for me when I need them.

Because of that, I make them the priority in all I do. It is easy for me to always choose my family before work or any other activities I am involved in. However, I also make time in my busy life to spend time with friends and family members. My family is the only family I have and I value them because they cannot be replaced. When I am dealing with work, school, and all the other distractions that stress my life, it is nice to escape with a group of friends and does something that is very productive such as go to eat, watch movie, or relax a little at a bar. My friends and family really help me reduce stress in life which helps me stay healthy. Then, I am very fortunate to have a good health and rarely get sick. My good health is valuable to me and I recognize the importance of living a healthy life.

Being healthy, I know that I have the ability to achieve my goals, be successful, and earn the money that is needed to do everything else in life. Because of this, I strive to eat healthy foods and take a little time each day to exercise in order to keep my body and mind in shape as well as encourage people around me to do the same. Living a healthy lifestyle allows my body to easily handle working and other physical stresses that someone on an unhealthy path might struggle with. Next, my health and having a close group of friends and family has help to build my confidence. I know that I have the support and the physical ability to accomplish anything I want to do.

Self-confidence is so valuable to me because someone with confidence can be a strong leader when needed and can deal with a difficult or stressful situation much easier. In addition, being confident with myself has made me stand out as better employee at work and a better student at school. In brief, life presents another challenge we have to overcome. With the right tools, it can be much easier to deal with these difficulties and stresses. My success is a result, in most part, because of my family and friends, my health, and my self-confidence. Because of these three items, I know I will have a great life, and that is why these are my most valuable possessions.

My Most Valuable Possessions Essay

How to Prevent Obesity Essay

How to Prevent Obesity Essay.

We must stay active. This is an important step in preventing obesity. Join a gym or yoga class to stay slim and trim. Take the stairs or walk to do your chores. Simple steps like these can go a long way in preventing overweight and obesity. Joining a gym or yoga class will help you mingle with like-minded people who can give you valuable tips on how to prevent obesity.

We must eat healthy foods.The Food and Drug Administration advises that one must consume about 2,000 calories each day.

Ensure that you include legumes, vegetables, fruits, whole grain breads, meats and dairy items. To avoid obesity, your daily calorie intake must not exceed the number of calories expended. So, if you are not an active person, reduce your calorie intake to ensure your weight does not balloon up.

We have to Drink Plenty of Water. Many people mistake thirst for hunger and start gorging. Drink plenty of water every day to flush out toxins and impurities from your system.

Most health experts advise drinking eight to 10 glasses of water every day. Whenever you feel hungry, first try drinking water and see if that satiates you. Water is thus a great way to combat hunger pangs and ensure you do not overeat.

We must eat only when you feel hungry. Research reveals that naturally thin people eat only when they feel hungry. If you do not feel hungry at regular meal time, then cut down your portion size and eat just enough food to keep you satiated and energetic for your daily tasks. Thus to prevent obesity, ensure you start eating only when you feel hungry.

Do not store Junk food and soda. Do not keep any stock of junk food in your home. Stocking junk food will always tempt you to take a bite now and then. This can be harmful in the long run. So, be smart and avoid buying junk food in the first place. Similarly, avoid storing soda and sweet fizzy drinks in your fridge. These harmful beverages can also add on the flab and therefore should be avoided at all costs.

How to Prevent Obesity Essay