Application for MSc Innovation, Entrepreneurship, & Management

Personal Statement

Ref: Application for MSc Innovation, Entrepreneurship, & Management

Kindly wish to apply for an MSc Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Management program at Imperial College Business School. I’m from Thailand, but I have studied in London since I was sixteen. I joined Bloxham School Oxfordshire for my secondary school education and later joined Regent University London, where I’m pursuing a bachelor’s degree in global business management. I’m slated to graduate in July 2017. An (IEM) program will enhance my skills in entrepreneurship and help me become more creative and innovative in business management affairs.

I have been imparted with vast business management and entrepreneurship skills throughout my learning process. My father owns several energy companies in Thailand, and one of them is known as Global International (GI). During holidays, I work as an intern in the company. The internship programs have instilled me with pertinent industrial skills vital in becoming a successful business manager and entrepreneur.  Moreover, I was privileged to attend several business meetings with my father, which gave me a rare opportunity to learn some of the best management skills and basic skills in decision-making, interpersonal relations, and communication.

Career plan

One of my short-term career goals after graduating from the MSc program is to find an entry-level position in the field of business management by working in one of my father’s companies and assist my father in executing some of his management duties. The entry-level position will impart me with skills vital for plausible integration and induction into management roles. I will help the company supersede competition in the energy industry by applying creative and innovative techniques acquired in the learning process. Similarly, I will acquire a new set of skills that will shape my career through working and sharing the experience with fellow employees in the company. Moreover, by joining a forward- moving company, I will be in a position to gain leadership skills which are vital in the short and long term period of my career. The integration level will be the most important short term goal that I will like to achieve.

My short term career goals fit with my long term goals in a myriad of ways. Getting an entry-level position in business management will integrate me into the industry where I will gain vital leadership skills necessary in running a personal company. One of my long-term career goals is to run a personal company. To effectively run the company I will need to have vast knowledge and skills that can only be gained gradually through learning, training, and engagement in actual practice. Therefore, the short-term goals will form a basis for a profound learning process. Secondly, the interaction with fellow employees and skilled leaders during the career entry point will help me maintain a professional network that will be available for contact when I need assistance in the process of running my company. The network of professionals will equip me with knowledge on how to find and manage resources, resolve the crisis and manage the decision-making process. Moreover, working hard to fit in the industry during the entry- point will assist me to gain a positive mindset and attitude which is essential in making firm decisions and forming a successful career. Additionally, the short-term goals will enable me to assess my skills and abilities in accomplishing my long-term goals. Moreover, the short-term plan will assist me in finding alternatives that will assist me in achieving my long-term goals.

Extracurricular activities have played a vital role in shaping my personal development. Taking part in games have enabled me to understand and respect the diversity that exists in the society. Moreover, interaction with other people has helped me gain interpersonal skills vital in relating with people from diverse cultures. Additionally, participating in voluntary work has enabled me to understand some of the crucial human needs in society that are necessary for creating equality and respect for other people’s right. Moreover, being part of the management team of the business club in our institution has impacted my leadership skills, work ethics and communication skills which are essential in my short term and long term career goals.

One of my proudest achievement in the last four years was addressing a delegate meeting comprising of several leading managers in the firms owned by my father. I was working as an intern in the firm, and it was a privilege to make a contribution among elite managers who had illustrious career experience.

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Intercultural Communication Ability Personal Narrative

More and more employers are committed to hiring a workforce who respect cultural differences and possess strong cross-cultural communication skills. Many organizations seek employees who are prepared to work well with diverse co-workers, customers, clients, patients, students, and/or constituents.   Their diversity statements* reflect their stated commitment to diversity in their workplaces and suggest why they think intercultural communication experience and skill is a strategic hiring priority.   Today’s employers often ask applicants questions on job application and/or in job interviews to assess their:

  • Experience and skills working effectively with diverse populations, including cultures/ethnicities, women, LGBTQ+, persons with disabilities, various ages, learning styles, etc.
  • Self-awareness of implicit biases and attitudes about diverse populations.
  • Demonstrated knowledge of how to reflect diversity, equity and inclusion in the workplace.

More and more employers are committed to hiring a workforce that respects cultural differences and possess strong cross-cultural communication skills. Review some organizations’ diversity statements at the bottom of this page for a sampling of examples. Consider reviewing Forbes article titled “America’s Best Employers for Diversity 2019”.


To explain your intercultural communication competencies and goals


Create an Intercultural Communication Ability Personal Narrative, worthy of being attached to your resumé when you apply for a job. As you answer each question below, think about your real lived experiences, and current knowledge, attitudes, skills, as well as your future goals as a life-long learner.

Answer each question in a separate paragraph that starts with a topic sentence that reflects the point of the question.  Do not write the questions and do not number your paragraphs. Start by writing your name, the title of this document and your career objective, as indicated below. Adhere to these guidelines.

Limit: 3-4 double-spaced pages.

Include the heading below at the top of your page!

Include an APA citation for any sources used.


To explain your intercultural communication competencies and goals


Create an Intercultural Communication Ability Personal Narrative, worthy of being attached to your resumé when you apply for a job. As you answer each question below, think about your real lived experiences, and current knowledge, attitudes, skills, as well as your future goals as a life-long learner.

Answer each question in a separate paragraph that starts with a topic sentence that reflects the point of the question.  Do not write the questions and do not number your paragraphs. Start by writing your name, the title of this document and your career objective, as indicated below. Adhere to these guidelines.

Limit: 3-4 double-spaced pages.

Include the heading below at the top of your page!

Include an APA citation for any sources used.


Intercultural Communication Ability Personal Narrative

My career objective: information

Throughout your life, how much experience have you had communicating and working with people across cultures? Tell us about it. How have you been shaped as a communicator from those experiences (or lack thereof)?

What are your strengths as an intercultural communicator? What do you know about culture, race/ethnicity and intercultural communication that will help you work effectively with your diverse co-workers and clients? (Change to “customers,” “patients,” “constituents,” “students,” “community members,” or whatever is appropriate for your future career).

Describe the ethical position you take as it relates to ethical violation situations in diverse cultural situations. (Be sure to read the section on “Multiple Ethical Positions” in Chapter 12 before answering this question).

Tell us about one way you plan to strengthen your intercultural communication skills. Explain why this matters to you.

Why do you think there is a need for intercultural competence in our profession, in particular? (In your answer, specify your future profession—e.g., health care, firefighting, business, law, education, law enforcement, etc.)

Reflect about your responsibilities as an interculturally competent professional. What expectations do you have for yourself? Identify and explain two such expectations that can help you become a more interculturally competent communicator.  In other words, how will you contribute to bringing cultures together, increasing intercultural understanding or promoting fair-minded intercultural interactions?

* Sampling of Diversity Statements

College of Southern Maryland

The Equity and Inclusive Diversity Office works to nurture an environment at CSM that is welcoming, inclusive, and respectful of all students, staff, faculty, and visitors—a college community that is free from discrimination, intolerance, and harassment


Uniqueness is powerful. Be yourself. We like it that way.

Diversity fuels the Un-carrier spirit. Our commitment to inclusion across race, gender, age, religion, identity, and experience drives us forward every day.


A Competitive Advantage

Our focus on diversity enables us to build a culture where all employees are inspired to share their passion, talents and ideas. They become part of a team that works to better serve the needs of our diverse consumers by delivering fresh thinking, product innovations and quality brands.

In addition, thanks to technology, demographic shifts and worldwide connectivity, we live in a world where change occurs at a rapid clip. For Kellogg to be part of, and ahead of, that change, we know we must continue our progress in diversity and inclusion – allowing us to bring our best to people all around the world every day.

Stanley Black and Decker

Diversity & Inclusion

To be engaged, you must feel included and valued. We strive to build and nurture a culture where inclusiveness is a reflex, not an initiative. Where there is a deep sense of pride, passion and belonging that transcends any role, business unit, language or country and is unified in our shared commitment to excellence, innovation and social responsibility. We know through experience that different ideas, perspectives and backgrounds create a stronger and more creative work environment that delivers better results. To support an inclusive environment where employees feel empowered to share their experiences and ideas, we’ve encouraged the creation of a variety of Employee Resource Groups, including groups for Women, Veterans, LGTBQ (Pride & Allies), African Ancestry, Developing Professionals and more.


A Culture of Creativity is life at GoDaddy

A Culture of Creativity is life at GoDaddy. We hire the best, give them first-class training and set them loose. If you’re driven to perform, you’ll fit right in. We approach our work fearlessly, learn quickly, improve constantly, and celebrate our wins at every turn. Everyone is welcome—as an inclusive workplace, our employees are comfortable bringing their authentic whole selves to work. Be you.


Bring Your Whole Self to Work

We’re passionate about creating an inclusive workplace that promotes and values diversity. Companies that are diverse in age, gender identity, race, sexual orientation, physical or mental ability, ethnicity, and perspective are proven to be better companies. More importantly, creating an environment where everyone, from any background, can do their best work is the right thing to do.


Our accelerated approach to diversity and inclusion

Our accelerated approach to diversity and inclusion Google’s mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful. When we say we want to build for everyone, we mean everyone. To do that well, we need a workforce that’s more representative of the users we serve. That’s why we’ve embraced a refreshed and accelerated approach to diversity and inclusion.

Johnson & Johnson

Diversity at Johnson & Johnson is about your unique perspective. It’s about you, your colleagues and the world we care for—all backgrounds, beliefs and the entire range of human experience—coming together. You view the world from a unique vantage point; a perspective that gives you problem-solving potential ideas, solutions & strategies that, when mobilized, can bring health to billions.

Inclusion at Johnson & Johnson is about creating a deep sense of belonging. It’s about a culture where you are valued, your ideas are heard and you advance this culture for everyone.

Diversity & Inclusion at Johnson & Johnson means – You Belong.


It takes all kinds

Diversity. Inclusion. They’re more than just words for us. They’re the hard-and-fast principles guiding how we build our teams, cultivate leaders and create a company that’s the right fit for every person inside of it. We have a global, multicultural following—we want to reflect that inside our walls.


Diversity & Inclusion: Our Foundation for Innovation

At Comcast NBCUniversal, diversity and inclusion are part of our DNA. Together, we continue to build an inclusive culture that encourages, supports, and celebrates the diverse voices of our employees. It fuels our innovation and connects us closer to our customers and the communities we serve.


We’re On a Journey

We are inclusive. We celebrate multiple approaches and points of view. We believe diversity drives innovation. So we’re building a culture where difference is valued. We take a holistic approach. We’re always growing our network of people, programs and tools all designed to help employees grow and manage their careers. We foster both a top-down and grassroots approach. This gives us the freedom to address the broadest set of initiatives.

News Corps

At News Corp, we appreciate the importance of creating an environment in which all of our employees can feel valued, included and empowered to bring great ideas to the table.

We recognize that each employee’s unique experiences, perspectives, and viewpoints across our various companies are critical to creating products that engage and inspire customers all over the world. Therefore, our goal is to foster an environment that is an incubator for great ideas, is attractive to the best talent, and that creates a profound sense of pride across our Company.

Our diversity and inclusion efforts will therefore focus on:

Leading and managing inclusively – embracing different cultures, ethnicities, genders and sexual orientations

Creating a work environment that fosters growth and advancement. Engaging with our audiences in a way that reflects and respects their unique perspectives and experiences

Our diversity and inclusion objectives, and progress towards achieving them, will be assessed annually to ensure they align with our business and talent objectives.

Consider reviewing Forbes article titled “America’s Best Employers for Diversity 2019.” If necessary, paste the link into your browser:

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Final Personal Consultant Statement Description

Assignment: Final Personal Consultant Statement AND Demo Video Interview

(1) Final Personal Consultant Statement Description:

Your Personal Consultant Statment is a “first impression” of how you might present yourself to others/administrators in a district if you were to be asked to consult.  Whether spoken or written, our tone is so important. Your Personal Consultation Statement is reflective of you – and sets the tone for a potential consultative relationship.  With this in mind, and based on the continued readings and research in this course, make adjustments to your draft (also be sure to make changes based on feedback given).

Highlight the areas of change that you made since your last draft. Submit your  final personalized consultant statement (1-2 pages).

In addition, include 1-2 paragraphs on how the course readings, knowledge of interpersonal styles, etc. influenced your changes. Be thoughtful and insightful, cite readings or course experiences that have influenced your change. 

 (2) Demo Video Interview

Create a 5-minute (no longer!) sample video of you presenting yourself to a public school interview panel who has reached out to you as a potential consultant at their school/district (either as a consultant or full-time/part-time district BCBA).  Base your responses on the path you chose. This is great practice for you!

Answer the following  5 questions in your video:

**If possible have someone ask you the questions as it will feel more “real life.”

1.  I’m reaching out because I was given your name as a possible BCBA consultant for (A, B, or C – your path).  Can you tell me a little about yourself and your personal consulting style?

2  What is your experience with consulting?  (if you don’t have a lot then you need to figure out how to answer this effectively – think about your briefs and understanding of current public school issues)

3. Specific Consultation Path (pick  ONE question in your chosen path):

· Path A: STUDENT-SPECIFIC CONSULTATION: We have a student who has significant challenging behavior. Do you think you can help us fix this problem? How will you be addressing this problem?  OR We have a student who demonstrates significant challenging behavior. He has a previous history of neglect. Do you think you can help us fix this problem? How will you be addressing this problem?

· Path B: PROGRAM OR CLASSROOM SPECIFIC CONSULTATION: We are creating an ABA/autism classroom. How can you assist us in creating a quality program?  OR We have a teacher struggling with a few students in her classroom which is affecting the entire classroom. Do you think you can help fix this problem? How will you address this problem?

· Path C: DISTRICT-WIDE CONSULTATION: We are have recently implemented SW-PBIS. There has been some resistance with teachers and a lack of follow-through. Can you help us fix this problem? How will you address this problem?

4. We have some staff members who don’t necessarily believe in ABA or know enough about it, how will you handle those staff?

5. Can you tell me more specifically how you will train staff?

There are 5 questions. Be succinct and thoughtful about how you answer each question.  Approximately 1 minute or less response per question!


Project Rubric 12

Project Rubric 12
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWritten with audience in mind (potential public school administrator)6 ptsFully3 ptsPartially0 ptsNot Present6 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeHighlights/summarizes relevant work experiences, roles, and/or responsibilities6.5 ptsFully3.25 ptsPartially0 ptsNot Present6.5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConsultation style is described in sufficient detail and releavant examples.6 ptsFully3 ptsPartially0 ptsNot Present6 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting meets expectations of assignment and is well-organized; clear and coherent; clearly sequenced6.5 ptsFully3.25 ptsPartially0 ptsNot Present6.5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeVideo Interview: Answers all questions in a succinct and thoughtful way; answers clearly convey your knowledge of ABA and your role as a potential BCBA consultant w/in a public school setting30 ptsFully15 ptsPartially0 ptsNot Present30 pts
Total Points: 55

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Biomedical Engineering Application Letter

Biomedical Engineering Program

Texas A&M University and I share and boast a common vision. In particular, we both place great emphasis on exploring new limits of nature, in addition to exceeding expectations. Most importantly, my experiences in high school and other social settings, have so far shaped my desire to pursue a degree in Biomedical Engineering. One encounter that defined my primary goal of becoming a competent and change-driven biomedical engineer involves the death of my best friend, Trenten, who collapsed and passed away after being on a life support machine. Given the healthy relationship between Trenten and I, I had difficulty overcoming the depression, as I could miss classes and perform dismally. Over time, I learned that Trenten’s death resulted from an undiagnosed blood disorder. The incident served as the most heart-wrenching experience I have ever encountered. As a result, it raised a broad range of difficult questions in my mind, including what I should do soon to prevent similar incidences.

I have acknowledged and appreciated that I should utilize my life, experiences, knowledge, challenges, as well as skills, to accomplish something remarkable by enhancing the lives of others and the world’s overall well-being. I have realized that I have a genuine fascination with the human body. I have developed great interest in gaining a deeper understanding of how it functions and what happens if any given component goes awry. As a bioengineer, I will have the incredible opportunity to create life-saving devices and take a leading role in changing people’s lives through early diagnosis and evidence-based practice (EBP).

Recent conversations with seasoned biomedical engineers and other responsible stakeholders in the industry have presented with the best possible opportunity to understand that biomedical engineering helps in bridging the medicine-engineering gap. In essence, it seamlessly combines biological, as well as medical sciences with the various engineering problem solving and design skills. With this combination, I will be in a position to improve therapy and healthcare diagnosis and associated treatment options. For instance, my science teacher enhanced my understanding of biomedical engineering by presenting me with a list of prominent breakthroughs in the field, including kidney dialysis, artificial organs, EEGs, pharmaceutical drugs, prosthetics, tissue growth, pacemakers, the electron microscope, and crutches.

The teacher in question further challenged me to recognize and start identifying myself with various skills, which serve as a prerequisite for professional bioengineers. I have appreciated this challenge by honing my analytical, math, creativity, communication, as well as problem-solving skills. In essence, my profession will expect me to place much emphasis on analyzing and understanding the ever-changing patient needs, while at the same time, designing and implementing appropriate solutions. Moreover, developing practical interpersonal skills will go a long way in helping me establish and maintain healthy relationships with patients, interdisciplinary teams, and other healthcare professionals (HCPs). Additionally, I am captivated not only by math and the laws of physics but also have a creative mind which enables me to think critically and enjoy collaborating with others to create something spectacular.

I consider my past and current experiences suitable for this unique, result-oriented interdisciplinary field, as they have presented me the rare opportunity of identifying my career path, which revolves around using engineering tools to solve a variety of biological and medical problems. By combining the identified passions, I firmly believe that Texas A&M’s Biomedical Engineering Program remains my calling; given it will enhance my ability to make extraordinary achievements both in medicine and engineering. Equally important, my father played a fundamental role in introducing me to the Aggie difference at an early age, which means I will continue to carry on the tradition and promote desired values at my workplace. In this respect, I thank you in advance for your time and consideration.

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New York University Interactive Telecommunications Program Graduate Personal Statement

New York University Interactive Telecommunications Program Graduate Personal Statement

New York University offers the promise of continually improving the lives of others and upgrading people to distinguished humans who are well-prepared and developed for the outside world. I would love a chance to improve my stature and develop both as an individual and a career driven person. Every journey has opportunities and challenges that will outline how a person’s life may turn out. Therefore, I would appreciate the chance to learn and grow at one of the most decorated universities within the United States. I have a distinctive reputation which I will clearly outline, but I still need the chance to pursue the Telecommunications Program to gain the essential trait necessary in a continuously evolving world.

I pursued a Bachelor’s degree in the School of Visual Arts in the period between May 2012 and May 2016, ultimately attaining a Bachelor’s Degree in Graphic Design. This marked an important period in my life and an empowering one as I chose to look for ways to improve my trade continually. In the School of Visual Arts, I primarily focused on interaction (UI/UX) from my Junior Year. This was an enlightening period as I managed to gather numerous knowledge and ideas on UI/UX. However, like many great scholars, I wanted to feed on more knowledge and thus the unrelenting need to pursue more design and technical knowledge such as understanding AR and VR systems and 3D Printing.

School of Visual Arts paved the way for my career direction as I started working at Mobikasa in New York working as a UI/UX designer and efficiently developing two applications, Holiday Gif and several company decks. I am still working in this region, but I have the constant urge to learn more and to continually grow in a changing world. Mobikasa offers full-fledged web, mobile, and tablet application development services. My experience at the firm has served to make me understand the importance of acquiring more knowledge of technology and consistent improvements in the level of skills to offer better solutions within the work-place and improve on the products and services rather than primarily dealing with UI/UX designs.

I have also worked with the Fresh Digital Group which entails a diverse workforce of developers, innovators, and creators who efficiently design, develop, and execute mobile strategies and solutions for start-ups and brands. I was effective in the firm managing to work as a UI/UX designer and thus efficiently Alexa skills of diabetes. I believe that it is imperative to find ample and effective ways to combine design and technology which offers a more compelling synergy than the mere concept of designing. It is easier to relate to the ‘WE’AR’ project which reinvents buying products by incorporating good ideas and quality by connecting small product companies with the users. The move outlines an impressive private project that uses AR System rather than solely depending on designing.

I have had my fair share of contributions to the technical world primarily based on my acquired knowledge and passionate drive to keep on learning. I spearheaded the designing of the application which entails combining the AR system and improving the reputation of small corporations. Users can easily trust such a company to deliver while the company efficiently sells quality ideas and products and compete with major firms. Efficient enactment of technological advancements can improve many aspects of the contemporary world such as the quality of products and services or the reputation of an image. However, I believe that I need to acquire more knowledge and skills to make a change in the world. Therefore, a chance to be a part of the NYU community would go a long way towards the attainment of the outlined specific goals.

I am a passionate, willing, and dedicated learner who primarily aims to attain a fusion of technology and design based on experiences from school and work. Every day presents a learning challenge it is imperative to walk into an environment which entails creative and innovative minds. NYU offers innumerable opportunities for people to improve their skill and gather vast knowledge that can be incorporated to develop an ideal world where challenges are minimal, and solutions are easy to derive. My work experiences have served to continuously challenge more and thus necessitating more experiences in the learning environment to stand a chance in a growing world.

I have worked in a few firms during my school years and also after my graduation. I worked in the CHOA Volunteer Association for a short period between March 2010 and August 2011 as a visual designer and a key member of the organization. I was charged with diverse duties such as creating logos, posters for cars, and brochures. In the period between 2013 and 2015, I worked as a visual designer in NDK Company, Busan in South Korea helping with the website design and designing logos, brochures, and posters. I also worked at the Bushwick Film Festival, Brooklyn New York, and Daegu Culture and Arts Centre in Daegu both as a visual designer.

Over the past few years, I have attained essential knowledge in Graphic design software such as Adobe Illustration, Photoshop, InDesign, and After Effects. Notably, I have knowledge in sketch application, keynote, prototyping, Final Cut, and Bridge knowledge of HTML and CSS. Every day offers a new chance to learn something new and to improve my skills. However, I want a chance to work under people who are passionate and driven to influence the lives of their subjects. New York University can effectively help me attain my career and personal objective. I am always learning whether working or studying and thus I would like to have a brighter and well-enlightened future by being a part of an institution that aims to be the best and thus always delivers.

I have the basic knowledge and some key skills as outlined during my work period where I managed to develop a couple of apps and effectively challenged the Alexa skills of diabetes. However, there is an unrelenting need to better my knowledge and life in general. Therefore, I am constantly looking for new ways to be better and new platforms to improve. New York University is an empowering and motivating institution that can guide me through my developmental stages. The university offers a chance to actualize on technological advancements and understand how to enact the effective changes in the world. Therefore, I would like to be a part of the New York University Interactive Telecommunication Program and help in the attainment of the key objectives and strategies of the institution.

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Dismantling of the Affirmative Action within the University of California was appropriate.

Legal Memorandum




RE:      Dismantling of the Affirmative Action within the University of California was appropriate.

Statement of Facts

The passing of the Resolutions SP-1 and SP-2 by the University of California board in 1995 marked the end to the use of race and gender as criteria for student admission at the college. In 1996, the state of California also passed the California Civil Rights Initiative (CCRI) popularly known as the Proposition 209 that banned all ethnic, cultural and gender-based penchants in education admissions and opportunities. Affirmative action was intended to bridge the gap between the best universities in the country that largely remain comprised of whites than other races. However, those opposing use of affirmative action in the university admission perceives that use of racial and gender considerations are inappropriate since they exclude qualified individuals admission opportunities in universities. However, those supporting the affirmative action perceive that it increases opportunities for those who would otherwise be overlooked or even excluded from active consideration. Despite the dismantling of the affirmative action, discrimination remains rampant in University admission and consideration of race would be an important responsibility for any civilized society. Additionally, the supporters of the affirmative action posit that it should be promoted since it supports students from conventionally lessened groups a chance to get access to schooling and equal occasions.  Historical reliance on merit had given the white students more opportunities in the universities despite the underprivileged minority experiencing a lot of historical inequalities that disadvantaged their academic achievements.  Use of merit led to overrepresentation of the whites in the student body. However, the affirmative action helped to bring diversity in the student body by devising selection criteria that support the inclusion of the underrepresented races in the student body. In the run-up to the dismantling of the affirmative action, it was it was perceived that academic excellence was being compromised through policies that were instituted with a view of achieving diversity. However, those supporting affirmative action are of the few that marks and tallies should not be the sole principles for determining university admittances. After the affirmation act was eliminated in 1998, the number of African Americans admitted to Universities in California declined from 30% to 13% while that of the Hispanics dropped by 30-50%. The decline represents a significant blow to the prospects of the minority groups joining the elite Universities in the U.S. It will possibly kill diversity in the elite university student bodies and professions.


The question presented in this case is whether the dismantling of affirmative action within the college was appropriate. Affirmative action was dismantled when minority underrepresentation in elite universities was still rampant. Additionally, there was a need to compensate for the historical inequalities that minority races such as African Americans and Hispanics had suffered historically both academically and socially.  Moreover, there was a need to promote a diverse academic body in the university by promoting educational opportunities for underrepresented minorities. However, affirmative action is accused of denying and excluding qualified races from admission opportunities in the elite universities. Additionally, it is accused of compromising academic achievement through admittance of students with limited academic achievement to promote diversity in higher learning institutions. This begs the question of whether the dismantling of the affirmative action in the university was appropriate or inappropriate in the face of increased historical inequalities and discrimination that the minority races have suffered and continued to experience.

Brief Answer

Yes. Dismantling the assenting action in the University of California was appropriate since it was founded on a racial proportion system that used race as the sole factor to determine admission. Affirmative action acted as contrary discernment against the majority of whites by denying them equal admissions opportunities at the expense of minorities with minimal qualifications. Affirmative action played a critical role in supporting diversity in the institution by promoting access to academic opportunities for minority groups that had historically been denied equal admission opportunities to elite universities as compared to their white majority counterparts. However, use of race as criteria for admission amounts to racial discrimination which violates the American constitution. Therefore, its dismantling would promote equal access to academic opportunities for all races and prevent racial animosity through unequal representation in universities.

Applicable Statutes

Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

Equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment provides all individuals in the state must be treated in the same manner as others in the light of similar conditions and circumstances. However, under the clause, permissible discrimination is allowed, but this type of discrimination provide concrete, rational basis to justify the difference in treatment. Briefly, the clause prohibits disparate treatment unless there is a compelling interest to support disparate treatment.

 Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972

Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972 requires that university and colleges must provide equal chances for both males and females in all aspects of education. Course offerings are one of the education aspect highlighted by the clause hence any form of discrimination in academic admission violates the clause. Other aspects of education include student health insurance benefits, employment, financial assistance and sporting chances.

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 relates to discernment in the federally-aided education programs. The Title VI provides that race, colour and national origin should not be used as the basis for discriminating students during admissions in education programs that are federally-assisted.  Sec. 601 of the Title VI offers that every individual in the United States shall not under the background of race, colour or state origin be denied contribution in education program receiving Federal Financial assistance.

Based on the permissible discrimination as provided in the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, the use of affirmative action can be justified since there is a concrete, rational basis for its application. Use of affirmative action is permissible as it promotes diversity in the student body and helps to remedy historical discrimination that the minority races had suffered in access to academic admission in elite universities. Therefore, dismantling of the affirmative action will kill the student body diversity and deny the disadvantaged minority access to academic opportunities.


Limited and highly envied positions in elite colleges have made competition for admission to the most prestigious more rivalries than ever. Rejection from these prestigious colleges is painful not only to students but also to their parents. It is even more painful when a well-qualified student is denied entry to the elite college through the affirmative action. The affirmative action was primarily used to remedy historical discrimination that had denied certain minority groups access to admission opportunities in the elite universities. However, the application of the affirmative action created an impression that the white students were unjustly barred from colleges. Exclusion of the white applicants from admissions opportunities in the elite universities is one of the factors that contributed greatly to the dismantling of the affirmative action in the University of California. Race-and ethnicity-targeted admission policies were central to the affirmative action making the probability of the prototypical white applicants virtually negligible. Consequently, the dismantling of the affirmative action increased the probability of white applicant’s admission at the expense of the disadvantaged minority. Despite the dismantling of the affirmative action, the opportunities for majority whites exceeded those of the other races significantly. The whites were dominant in every profession and occupation that is accorded high status except in sports.

The dismantling of the affirmative action was appropriate at California University for the sole reason that admission was based on racial quotas thus discriminating the majority white race. Use of racial quotas was intended to provide the races that had suffered historical injustices in admission to elite universities access to admission opportunities to promote diversity in the apprentice organization. However, search for diversity in the student body should not be achieved through strategies that promote the desecration of the Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. It is true that dismantling of the affirmative undermined aids that result from a varied scholar organization. Diversity in the student body is associated with high level cognitive and effective development. Students who interact more with other students from diverse backgrounds are impacted positively in most of the measures of academic development and achievements. However, the use of an affirmative action that excludes qualified students from pursuing their desires in elite Universities amounts to a violation of the constitution.

Considering admission criteria that boost chances for the under-represented minorities is a critical thing to consider in the American society. However, race should not be used as a form of exclusion to deny certain races to admission opportunities. In the Bakke v University of California  Board of Regents, 438 U.S. 265 (1978) the court lined that strict use of  racial quotas in the University’s admittance program was illegal since it denied qualified candidates a chance to join the university on the ground of race. However, the judges in the case commented that adoption of admission criteria that intends to promote diversity in the student body is appropriate but should not be based on racial quotas. Use of race as a basis for determining admission in the elite University is against the Fourteenth Amendment requires that an individual should be treated as another in similar circumstances and conditions. It is also against the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to use race as the basis for determining admission. Therefore, it is important to use alternative admission criteria that holistic factor evaluation of the applicants rather uses of the racial quotas as witnessed in the case of the University of California.

Use of race as a basis for determining admission in the University of California was against the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment that necessitates that an individual should be treated as another in similar circumstances and conditions.  It is also against the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to use race as the basis for determining admission. Therefore, it is important to use alternative admission criteria that foster diversity without discriminating on certain individuals due to their race. However, the Fourteenth Amendment supports permissible discrimination provided that there is a concrete, rational basis to justify the disparate treatment. In Fisher V. University of Texas at Austin, 597 U.S. (2016),Fisher sued the University of Texas being denied based on admission criteria that were racially based. In her claim, Fisher posited that she had a higher qualification than most of the students from other races, but she was disadvantaged by her race. However, the justice system apprehended that the University of Texas was justified to use race-conscious admission criteria since it supported the development of enlightening welfares that accrue from a varied apprentice body. Additionally, the court seized that use of race-cognizant admission principles is justifiable under the Equal Protection Right of the Fourteenth Amendment given that it is intended to promote cross-racial understanding, end stereotypes and prepare students to work in a diverse environment. Similarly, in In Grutter V. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003) the Federal Court apprehended that use of race in the admission policy is does not disrupt the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment as far as the policy is intended to promote positive educational benefits by ensuring a  varied student body. In the same case, the court commented that an affirmative action based admission program should consider a holistic process for evaluation of applicants as opposed to the racial quota system that the University of California used. 

The only mistake with a holistic evaluation is when it is narrowly tailored to make a factor of the race to become decisive in admitting a student to the institution.  In Gratz V. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003) the court seized that the admission in University of Michigan that automatically gave underrepresented students one-fifth of the obligatory points was tailored to make the race a determining factor of admission and was  not intended to promote instructive assistances that emerge from a various scholar organization.         It was found that the University of Michigan Law School admission process allowed minimally qualified minority applicants get outright admission at the expense of students from other races that were highly qualified. However, in the same case, the court commented that variety is a convincing state interest to justify deliberation of race, but the admission policies should not narrowly be tailored to make the race a determining factor in the admission program.

Therefore, an affirmative action that is solely tailored to make race the sole determining factor in the admission process is unconstitutional. Most of the case laws indicate that promotion of diversity in the Universities is an issue of compelling state interest. However, diversity should only be promoted in a way that does not make race the sole determining factor. A holistic approach that considers a wide range of factors including score, socioeconomic background of the student, interpersonal skills and a wide range of others is critical. In the Grutter v. Bollinger (02-241) 539 U.S. 306 (2003), the court held that the admission program used the Michigan University School of Law  did not disrupt the  Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment since it  promoted the creation of a serious mass of marginal scholars in the  university. The court held that there is convincing state attention in using racial affirmative action to promote a critical mass of minorities in University.  Promotion of diversity was a critical factor that the court used to uphold that the admission program at Michigan University School of Law. However, the court commented that an admission program that is based on racial quotas is unconstitutional since it uses race as the only factor for promoting diversity. While the University of California racial quota admission program was intended to promote diversity, it was laced with significant racial discrimination which is against the constitution.  Discernment on the foundation of race and state-providing teaching is no exclusion.     

In Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, 572 U.S. (2014) case questioned whether a state disrupts the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by proscription race- and sex-grounded discernment on community college admittances in a state. The Supreme Court apprehended that the court seized that it was lawful for a state to ban admission policies based on race and ethnicity since classification of people based on race perpetuates same racism policies that the constitution sought to alleviate. The Supreme Court also ruled that it was not its role to disempower decision of voters in a state to make a decision regarding the ban of the race-based preferences in the University Admission. Therefore, when inferring from this case, it is justifiable to say that it was right for the University of Michigan to dismantle use of race-based penchants in the student selection process. Use of race as the sole factor for promoting diversity in the University Student Body is insufficient and unconstitutional in since it disadvantage one race at the expense of another and it perpetuates racism.


The University of California admission program was based on racial quotas that gave minority groups preferences in access to admission opportunities at the expense of other races. It was appropriate to dismantle this admission program since it perpetuated racism and made other races disadvantaged in access to education opportunities. The racial quota system was against the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that forbids any form of discernment that is founded on race. While it is important to promote variety in the University scholar body, the admission policies should not blatantly use race as the sole determining factor. Most of the case laws relating to the use of affirmative action in the admission policies have indicated that use of a holistic evaluation criterion that considers a wide range of other factors in addition to race is important in supporting a diverse body of a student in the Universities. The holistic evaluation drifts from making race the only determining factor in the achievement of diversity. Racial quota system used at the University of California denied highly qualified students a chance to be acknowledged in the University for the reason of race. With time, the racial quota would have made more and more students become disadvantaged at the expense of others hence it was important to dismantle race-based preferences in the admission policies.  



Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment,

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

 Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972.

Case Laws

Bakke v University of California Board of Regents, 438 U.S. 265 (1978)

Fisher V. University of Texas at Austin, 597 U.S. (2016),

Gratz V. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003)

Grutter V. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003)

Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, 572 U.S. (2014)

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Develop a personal nursing philosophy statement.

As an advanced practice provider, it will be important to create a personal nursing philosophy to guide your practice as you develop your practice. This will continue to be honed and adapted to what your practice requires; however, the belief and values you identify will be a constant thread through your practice.

Upon successful completion of this assignment, you will be able to:

  • Develop a personal nursing philosophy statement.


  1. You may want to reflect on the journal articles assigned for Workshop 6.
  2. Review the rubric to ensure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
  3. Script a 3-4-page paper where you develop a personal nursing philosophy that will be refined throughout your clinical experiences and will guide your development as a PMHNP. Be sure to address personal philosophy regarding your thoughts on caring for patients with psychiatric mental health disorders and ethical and cultural aspects including your beliefs, assumptions, and values when caring for these patients. How will cultural aspects affect the NP-client relationship and the care you provide?
  4. Use APA formatting throughout the paper; citations/references should be included.
  5. When you’ve completed your assignment, save a copy for yourself and submit a copy to your instructor using the assignment submission page by Day 7 of the workshop.

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Pros and cons of using a case study to understand personality disorders

Pros and cons of using a case study to understand personality disorders

Case studies are important in studying personality disorders because they contain descriptive data that aims to inform one about a particular disorder. In this respect, a case study not only defines a particular disorder but is it also a real example that well captures the concepts of a particular disorder. To psychologists, case studies help understand how different aspects of a person’s life are related and how a particular disorder affects different aspects of one’s life. In addition, case studies are important for exploratory research and for the generation of ideas. This is important because it helps psychologists come up with suggestions on how a particular disorder can be successfully treated using different interventions.

Although case studies are informative, they also have their limitations. For one, case studies deals with a one person, event or group and as such the results drawn might not represent the wider body of similar instances. In other words, case studies tend to be subjective, and their results may not apply elsewhere. In addition, case studies tend to be too deterministic and lack empirical support.

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Lifespan Development and Personality of Princess Diana

Lifespan Development and Personality of Princess Diana

Development is a life long process that describes the sequence of changes, transition and transformation that an individual goes through in the various stages of their lives. Human development and personalities are bound to be influenced by various factors such as heredity, environment and life experiences. What makes a person who s/he is depends on how one perceives the positive and negative influences of their lives and how they take them emotionally and morally. This paper shall critically analyze the life of a famous individual who I feel has undergone many adversities which have had both negative and positive impact in her life. Her environment and emotional upbringing have been influential to the decisions that she made in her lifetime. Many viewed her life as one filled with conflicts as she portrayed selflessness and generosity to those in need even though she came from a royal affluent background. This famous individual is Princess Diana. In order to understand a person’s personality, we must critically look back from where that person has come from.

Lifespan Development and Personality of Princess Diana

Early Life

Princess Diana was born Diana Frances Spencer George in July 1, 1961 to her rich and affluent parents, the eighth Earl Spencer and Lady Frances Althorp. Unfortunately, they separated in 1967 and finally divorced in 1969. Diana was sent to a boarding school at a tender age and therefore she was also separated from her brother and sisters. However, this does not mean that Diana lived a lonely life. On the contrary, she was very social with a large circle of friends. These social activities were meant to bring her up in royal status and environment.

At the tender age of twenty, Diana Spencer married Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales and the prospective heir of the throne in Britain. The marriage to the Prince of Wales who was thirteen years her elder changed her status to Princess Diana.  She bore him two sons, Princes William and Harry, between the first and fourth year of their marriage. Their marriage lasted until 1992 when they separated and finally divorced in 1996. Princess Diana’s life ended tragically when she was involved in a fatal car accident in August, 1997.

Major Impacts in Diana’s Life

Childhood is a life development stage in the period between infancy and adolescence. Diana was privileged in terms of being born in a royal family where money and riches was in abundance. Her life seemed to be a quiet and reserved one as she was attended home school up to the age of nine. She loved swimming and dancing activities that matched well with her great sense of humor (Weiten, 2007).  Her parents’ divorce when she was barely eight impact her negatively as she became a depressed and lonely child. Shyness became a big challenge in her entire life. 

The adolescence stage is an individual’s phase of transition and development where physiological, cognitive and behavioral changes are seen to be in action.  The generalized age for this period is usually the age from twelve to eighteen a stage that marks the transition from puberty to maturity.  At this stage, the adolescent seeks to interact socially, and always has an urge to be independent away from the family’s protective nest. In other words, s/he seeks an identity. At this stage in Diana’s life, she became Lady Spencer after her grandfather’s death. As she struggled to cope with her parents’ divorce, she was even more isolated from the rest of the family when she was enrolled in a boarding school. This impacted her negatively as she underwent psychological changes evidenced in a lonely and homesick self.

The adulthood stage of development was marked with tremendous growth and twists in Diana’s life. She dropped out of high school and got married to Princes Charles. Her status at this point changed again this time as Princess of Wales. Diana became a media limelight during her marriage. Shortly after the birth of their second son, her marriage started to fall apart. She became even more depressed and lonely and at one point was diagnosed with bulimia. Bulimia is an eating disorder that is as a result of one psychologically perceiving themselves as not physically perfect and thereby inducing vomiting after meals (Schimelpfening, 2007). The divorce was a blow in her life and she faced her tragic death a year after the divorce.

The psychological development of Princess Diana’s must have definitely been influenced by the fact that she came from a royal and noble family. Her moral development was positively influenced in that as a child and an adolescent, she was trained and made to engage in social activities with the royal and noble individuals and therefore bred to fit in the royal status. It is therefore true to state that her heredity played a major role in enhancing her moral development. Her expectations from the society were of great help in shaping her moral development as she got the various titles of Lady and Princess. In contrast, her emotional development was severed from a tender age when her parents divorced and also when she herself got divorced. She is supposedly thought to have begged her father,” If you love me, please don’t leave me here” (Weiten, 2007).  Diana therefore grew up as a lonely and insecure child who experienced had eating disorders as an adult due to depression. She grew up a shy child which proved to be a great challenge in her adult life as she was always on the public limelight.  However, she was seen to overcome this in her involvement in charity work. It is evident that she sought her own happiness by helping others in need.

Erickson’s personality theory states that development is a sequence of changes bound to occur throughout one’s life. Each stage of development is marked by conflict a determiner whether the resultant influence is either positive or negative. A successful resolution in a specific stage results in a favorable outcome (Franz & White, 2006). According to this theory, stage five of development is the adolescent stage that is between the ages twelve and eighteen. He describes the ego identity as a major driver of development. It is that sense of knowing who we are as at now, where are heading and knowing our place in society. This stage for Diana was characterized by conflict between identity and confusion. The end result for this was loneliness, insecurity and depression. The fact that her newly acquired title brought with it new expectations and the engagement into marriage at such a tender age proved exhausting to a girl who wanted to be independent and seek her own identity.

Her young marriage was a period where Diana’s life experienced conflict between intimacy and isolation. Erickson’s theory states that achievement of an identity is likely to influence positivity on intimacy. The lack of an identity during her adolescence can be seen as the factor preceding her failed marriage. She was rumored to have also engaged in several love relationships which were also a failure. This caused her more depression and psychological disorders such as bulimia. 

The second personality and development theory is the humanistic psychology theory. Although there is no aggregate definition of this theory, major statements are always there in its discussion. The emphasis it presents on personal responsibility, the “here and now” perspective and the critical analysis of personal growth. The theory basically states that one is personally responsible for the events in their own lives, s/he should focus on the events that are happening in their lives now and not the past or the present and finally, looking at life from the perspective that there is more to life than just the urge to make your immediate needs catered for. Diana is the perfect example of this personality theory in that she did not try to blame anybody for the events of her life. She focused on her present life and finally sought to make herself happy by helping others. She presents an individual who believes that life is not about meeting our own immediate needs but finding happiness in the activities that engage in, in the present. 

Erickson’s theory in my view best explains the individual behavior and achievements of Princess Diana. This does not mean that it fully explains her personality but the fact that it presents the identity crisis which seem to be the cause of conflict in her overall life is proof of it being the best theoretical approach to describing her personality. Diana did not have a chance to create a personal identity in her adolescence stage due to the various titles that came with different expectations. The depression evidenced in her childhood was with her throughout her life and therefore she was unable to hold on to intimate relationships. Instead, in search of personal happiness, she ended up in charity work where millions of desperate cases benefited. 


Franz, C.E & White, K.M (2006) Individuation and Attachment in Personality Development: Extending Erickson’s Theory. Journal of Personality Vol. 53(2) pp. 224-256
Nieboer, S. (2007) Diana, Princess of Wales: Learning To Give Retrieved April 28, 2010 from

Weiten, W. (2007). Psychology: Themes and Variations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Schimelpfening, N. (2007). Depression Retrieved April, 29, 2010 from

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Live Music in Silent Film Era:

Live Music in Silent Film Era:


According to Cook (2005) the era of the silent film extends from the late 18th C, with the initial work by the Edison and Lumiere Brothers in America and France respectively, into the beginning of 1930s, when silent film paved way for the talkies. Nevertheless, a number of scholars locate the silent film era in America between 1910 and 1920, when it developed to a relatively organized film sector privileging the multi-real concept film following the nickelodeon’s waning, the move from original New Jersey and New York headquarters to Hollywood, and the competition decline from European filmmakers as a result of the World War I twelvereel feature by D.W Griffiths, (The Birth of a Nation 1915), which a major cinematic and commercial achievement indicating a number of the directions the sector was to adopt going into the 1920s. Whereas the term silent in respect to silent film refers to the lack of coordinated sound, early film was distinct from the silent film in other aspects (Cook, 2005).

 Live Music as an aspect of Silent Film Era

Presenting the silent films nearly all the time featured live music, beginning with a pianist at initial public show of film on December 28th, 1985 by Lumiere Brothers in Paris. At the beginning live music was viewed to be important contributing to the setting and offering the audience essential emotional cues. Small neighborhood and town cinema theaters normally had a pianist. As McCaffrey and Christopher (1999) point out at the start of the mid 1910s, huge city film theaters appeared to have ensembles or organists of musicians.  Huge theater organ were developed to bridge the gap between a huge orchestra and a mere piano soloist. The theater organs had a variety of unique effects, theatrical organs for instance the renowned Mighty Wurlitzer were capable of simulating certain orchestral sounds as well as various percussion effects for example the cymbals and bass drums and sound effects ranging from rolling thunder to galloping horses.

According to Greiveson and Peter (2004) starting from the era of the nickelodeon into the 190s, cinemas went along with live music performance, ranging from reed organs or single pianos to big orchestras, based on the location and nature of the venue that also varied from small front-store theatres to multi-seat picture palaces.   Certain studio features came with meticulously-composed melodic scores, and   nearly all with cue sheets, which hinted musical themes for particular scenes. In most cases, solo musicians that were professionals at reading and interpreting visual cues of the cinema improvised the score on the spot, and the exhibitors as well drew on huge published sheet music collections suitable for the stock scene forms.  The theaters within the silent era, apart from musical accompaniment, could deploy lecturers or descriptive talkers to narrate the cinema, in some instances from printed object of differing level of specificity. Some lecturers invented dialogue not included, for example on the inter-titles.  Within the urban immigrant communities, this element was depicted as a way of self-improvement, and it for a long time it continued to be used when the clarity of visual narrative was compromised.  With the feature cinema becoming the core product of the industry, the deployment of lecturers went down and the application of title cards for the purposes of dialogue got more realistic, and with time displacing exposition cards. Bowser (1994) posts that Warner Brothers in 1925 developed Vitaphone system, disc sound system which started the end of the silent cinema, producing The Jazz Singer, two years later, nevertheless silent cinema continue to be produced in the 1930s and the Modern Time (1936) of Charlie Chaplin is a number of occasions have been noted to be the last silent cinema. As a matter of fact, it is hard to envisage the cinematic experience in the course of the silent era due to the individualism in regard to the varieties both of projection and aural accompaniment.

Cook (2005) argues that even though the standard speed for projection was 16fps, exhibitors could project cinemas slower or faster than the talking speed to make sure that the film started and ended within the proscribed time. As a medium developed from theater, vaudeville, and still photography, silent cinema adapted a number of their presentational techniques as the era progressed, nevertheless, the cinema industry diligently worked to become more reputable, trying to delink its products from the once peddled by nickelodeons and vaudeville houses. Whereas older distribution methods and venues persevered, the grand film palaces of the silent period exaggerated the uplift movement’s goals to create a friendly-family, clean and safe environment for the middle-class orderly audience in an economical style with impressive orchestras, elegant lobbies and vast seating areas. In spite of the growth of the picture palace, smaller theaters remained the most prevalent with a number of them having a seating capacity of less than 500 seats. The Roxy Theater situated at the heart of New York City, which showed off for its 6,214 seats were indeed opulent, however it represented a unique case.

At the onset of the 1920s, there were about fifteen thousand theaters in the US and charging admission fees of between 10 and 25 cents. Out of this number, most of them were in rural areas as opposed to urban settings.  The theaters presented different entertainments in a balanced method that increased in length as the era progressed. A classical mid-1920s bill could comprise combinations of a novelty film or brief comedy, a live revue, a lantern slide show, news weekly, a feature film and a musical overture (McCaffrey and Christopher, 1999). 

Cinema exhibitors sough to start and wind up the program at particular times, which in some instance implied, apart from speeding up the projection, removing reels from the feature, or even leaving out some menu items, to put up with the repeated group audiences. Within the increase of the large theaters, the need for quick audience turnover declined and the multireel feature cinema developed into the core attraction.

According to McCaffrey and Christopher (1999) film scores during the initial stages of the silent film were either complied or improvised with theatrical or repertory music. Once complete of features became humdrum, nonetheless music was developed from the photoplay music by orchestra conductor, organist, the movie studio or the pianist and also comprised of a cue sheet.  Such cue sheets were normally very lengthy, with well developed notes about the moods and effects to watch for. Beginning with the very initial score by Carl Joseph Breil for D.W Griffith’s (The Birth of a Nation 1915), a groundbreaking epic it became quite common for the huge-budgeted movies to get to the exhibition theater with specifically original scores.  Nevertheless, the original full blown designates scores were developed earlier in 1908, by Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov and Camille Saint-Saens for the Stenka Razin and The Assassination of the Duke of Guise.

When the pianists and organist used sheet music, they could still blend it with improvisatory flourishes to enhance the screen drama. Even if the special effects musical effects were not shown on the score, when an organist was performing a theater organ capable of producing a bizarre sound effect, for example the effects of galloping horses, it could be applied for theatrical horseback chases as Greiveson and Peter Kräme pointed out.

At the peak of the silent film era, movies were the main source of job o for the percussion musicians, mainly in America.  However, the overture of talkies, which simultaneously took place with the beginning of the Great Depression, was overwhelming to most musicians.  A couple o countries devised other processes of bringing creating sound to the silent film. The initial Brazilian cinema filmed fitas cantatas; featured operettas with musicians performing at the backstage. In Japan, movies not only had live music, but also a live narrator (the benshi) who provided character voices and commentary. The live narrator was a central feature of the Japanese silent film, and also offering translation for foreign mainly in American films.  The main reason for the persistent of the silent film in Japan well into the 1930s was due to the benshi’s popularity.

A couple of film scores thrive intact from this era and musicologist remain confronted with questions when they try to accurately reconstruct the remaining once. Scores could be differentiated as entire reconstructions of composed scores, lately composed for function, developed from the already existing theatrical libraries or can be improvised (Cook, 2005).

The enthusiasm in silent film scoring somewhat fell out o fashion in the course of 1960s and 1970s. Some argue that in a number of repertory cinemas and college film features, which audiences were to experience silent film as a visual pure medium, undisturbed by music. This notion could have been promoted by poor music track quality found in reprints of a number of silent films during that era. Of later, there has been restoration of interest in showcasing of silent films with excellent musical scores, either cue sheets or reworkings of epoch scores or composing of suitable initial scores.

A watershed occasion in this aspect according to McCaffrey and Christopher (1999), was Brownlow Kevin’s 1980s revival of Abel Gance’s Napoleon (1927), filming a score by Davis Carl. Brownlow’s rival was then after distributed in America shortened or re-edited by Ford Francis Coppola accompanied with live music score developed by his father Carmine Coppola.

The revival of Metropolis (1927) in 1984 with novel score by composer and producer Moroder Giorgio was also another great event in the contemporary interest in live music in the silent films.  Although the modern-day score that comprised of pop songs produced by Freddy Mercury of Pat Benatar, Queen and Anderson Jon of Yes was contentious, they open a new chapter for novel approach to showcasing of typical silent films. Johannes Heesters (1903-2012), the German-Dutch film star is such one of the handful silent era actors who still remain active in the 21st C (McCaffrey and Christopher, 1999). 

Currently music ensembles perform contemporary and traditional scores of the silent movies. The traditional approach of the purveyors comprised organists for example Dennis James and pianist for example Donald Sosin, William P. Perry, Ben Model, Philip Carli, Gunter Buchwald, and Neil Brand. Music conductors for instance Carl Davis have compiled and written scores for a number of silent films. A part from producing fresh film scores, Brock Timothy has revived a number of scores by Charlie Chaplin. Joana Seaton, the wife to Sosin Donald focused in adding voice to the silent cinema, especially where there was onscreen music that gains from hearing the actual music that is being performed (Bowser, 1994).Silent films of this category according to Bowser (1994), comprise Phantom of the Opera by Julian with Virginia Pearson and Mary Philbin, Evangeline by Carew with Dolores del Rio and Lady of the Pavements by Griffith with Lupe Velez. 

Greiveson and Peter (2004) assert that the other modern pianists (such as Gabriel Thibaudeau and Stephen Home) normally work in not so traditional styles. The modern day orchestral ensembles are assisting to reintroduce typical silent cinemas to wider audience by applying a wide range of approaches and musical styles. Certain performers develop fresh compositions deploying traditional percussion instruments whereas some add modern harmonies, electronic sounds, sound design, improvisation and rhythm elements to improve the experience of watching the film. Some of the modern day ensembles from this group include Silent Orchestra, Club Foot Orchestra, and Alloy Orchestra. Other performers have established this practice as Zaragoza (Jaime Lopez, Spain) free and public offering his musicmuda blog editions of the most popular films of the silent era film.

As earlier indicated a silent cinema is a cinema that comprises solely of the picture, meaning it does not have sound.  The concept of blending motion picture together with recorded vocals or sound is almost as old as the motion picture itself, however prior to 1920s, a number of cinemas were silent. The days prior to the arrival of sound to the films are referred to as the silent period, among the historians and film scholars. The motion picture concept developed into complete maturity before talking picture replaced the silent films and many cinema buffs argue that the quality of film in a sense declined for a couple of years, before a novel sound medium was adapted for the cinemas. Because the silent cinema were not able to take the advantage of harmonized sound for purposes of dialogue, titles had to be edited in to elucidate the on-screen presentation to the film and add or improve critical dialog.

Presentation of silent cinema normally were not in actual sense silent, they were usually accompanied with live performance. Originally in the course of the motion picture industry development, it was appreciated that music was an integral component of any film, since provided the audience with expressive cues for the screen actions taking place (Koszarski, 1994). 

The silent film medium needed a greater focus on facial expression and body language to allow the audience to better comprehend what the actor was portraying and feeling on the screen. The contemporary audiences who are not well versed with these cinemas may appear to be overacting to an extreme level. Due to this silent cinemas or comedies seem to be more common in contemporary era as opposed to drama, since overacting tend to be a natural style of comedy.

Literally a number of the film cinemas were developed during the period leading the sound introduction, however a significant percentage of those cinemas (historians approximate about 85%) have been forever lost. Films of the first half of the twentieth century were developed on highly flammable, unstable nitrate film stock that needed vigilant preservation to conserve them from decomposing as time went by. A lot of the movies were not preserved, and as a result their prints gradually crumbed into the dust. Some of them were recycled and a good number were wiped out in studio fires.


The importance of the silent film epoch in cinema history cannot be overemphasized. In the course of the beginning of the 20th Century, a truly money-making famous art emerged closely bound to the modern America image. Because of the established of synchronized sound, the silent film period drew to an end, however the modes of consumption, exhibition, distribution, and production inaugurated in the course of the silent cinema period persisted, making the film industry what is today known to be.  


Bowser, E.  (1994).The Transformation of Cinema: 1907-1915. History of the American Cinema.   Berkeley: University of California Press.

Greiveson, Lee and Peter Krämer. (2004). The Silent Cinema Reader.  New York: Routledge.

Koszarski, R. (1994).  An Evening’s Entertainment: The Age of the Silent Feature Picture, 1915-1928. History of the American Cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press.  . 

McCaffrey, D. W. and Christopher P. J.(1999).  Guide to the Silent Years of American Cinema.  London: Greenwood Press.

Cook, D. A. (2005). A History of Narrative Film, 2nd edition. New York: W.W. Norton.

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