- Philosophers distinguish between three different types of responsibilities on a scale from more to less demanding or binding. Explain these responsibilities.
- Discuss the arguments between the economic model and stakeholder theory.
- Discuss the various aspects associated with employment at will (EAW).
- After posting your original response (at least 75-100 words per question
Prepare a paper reflecting on the budget philosophy of your principal…how does the school
receive the funds and how are the funds distributed in the school; also, develop and reflect on
your current philosophy of administering a school budget, including all aspects of what you
consider are issues which need to be addressed at various times during the school year,
including how you see categorical funds being distributed in your building.
- What is your budget philosophy?
The budget is a moral document that outlines the investments being made towards the
priorities of the district’s strategic plan.
- How does the school receive the funds?
The majority of funds are received through the apportionment process from the
Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, derived from state-approved funding
formulas. Other monies come in from tax collection and local donations.
- How are the funds distributed in the school?
Staffing levels are created by projected building enrollment, then building
budgets are allocated according the enrollment levels. Additional grant dollars
are distributed based on qualified student needs
- What do you consider are issues which need to be addressed at various times
during the school year, including how you see categorical funds being distributed in
It is important for building principals or department managers to check in on their
budgets monthly and ensure the plan is being followed that positively impacts student
outcomes. Often things arise that require analysis and strategic pivoting, but those
won’t be clear unless you are reviewing things monthly. Categorical programs are
designed to address the additional needs of students who qualify under those
programs, so it is important that distribution follows the students.
Please help me write a 3,000 words paper using 5 or more peer-reviewed articles and evidence from the book “8 ball chicks” by Gini Sikes which explains why girls join gangs and how the criminological theories “routine activities theory” and “social control theory” also correlate to it. Include a reference page
The topic of the week is “The Power of Knowledge.” With this theme in mind your goal for this week’s discussion is to research two designers or studios that are at opposite ends of the spectrum. Research and provide a link to one studio and designer whose work your absolutely respect and another you positively do not want to emulate. Show examples of their best and worst designs and explain why you feel the way you do.
While writing avoid general statements and personal attacks, and critique these designers / studios only by the work seen in their online portfolios. What advice would you give the designer or studio with the poor quality portfolio and what question would you ask the successful designers?
For you follow up post, look at another student’s two selections and write whether you agree or disagree with their choices. Explain why you feel this way. As always avoid general statements and support your opinion with valid analysis.
Due dates for your initial and response posts can be found by checking the Course Syllabus and Course Calendar.
Personal Command Philosophy as a Military Commander
Influencing and motivating people towards a common objective is vital in business leadership. A military commander introduces a command philosophy concept that shapes the army troops’ culture as a symbol of organizational ownership (Mayer, 2012). Developing a personal leadership philosophy is vital in shaping organizational culture since the role of a leader is to influence and motivate the organizational members towards a common goal. Everyone possesses a different philosophy towards different things in life. Personal command philosophy just like military command can be utilized to influence beliefs, values, and principles of organizational members in a business setting (Parsons, 2003).
My personal command philosophy that I have adopted over time is to lead by example, staying focused on the mission and effective two-way communication. Just as the mission command is applied in the army, I will apply the same strategy to unify the troops towards a common goal through empowering agile and adaptive leaders towards a unified mission. Leading by example will help to set high standards of discipline and output among the troop members. High standards should apply to troop members to ensure that no one is left behind in the organizational processes. Moreover, setting the standards higher unleashes undying desire in pursuit of excellence among the troop members and this enable the team to achieve its mission more effectively. Additionally, the effective two-way communication will ensure that everyone knows what is expected of him in the troop. The troop also communicates to the commander about what is constraining them from achieving the set mission.
The situational theory of leadership shapes my mission command approach. The situational theory postulates that leadership style need match the suitable level of followership-growth (Vecchio, 1997). In the military situation, the level of troop followership is vital in enhancing the chances of achieving the mission. The best way to command followership is through the mission command approach where every troop member strictly adheres to the mission order and is ready to take mission risk. Moreover, mission command philosophy helps to create a shared understanding and a cohesive team that acts effectively depending on the situational demands. Evidently, the approach creates a whole confront orderly, efficient, and precise control through clear command intent. Consequently, this personal command philosophy will enable me to effectively rally my troop towards a common objective.
Formal schooling has played a vital role in shaping my personal command philosophy. According to Meyer, the way a person views himself/herself as a leader shapes his/her actions, behaviors and thoughts and it forms a foundation on how one influences others (2012). The learning process has inculcated me various leadership skills and a guide on how to apply the leadership skills depending on the situations available. In the process of formal learning have been able to weigh and ascertain that the best leadership approach is one that rallies all the team members towards a common organizational objective. Moreover, schooling learning has helped to understand how to adjust measures depending on the situational needs.
Developing a leadership philosophy is vital in achieving comprehensive necessities to influence organizational members towards a common goal. Personal leadership philosophy forms a foundation for nurturing behaviors, attitudes, and values vital to making an impeccable leader.
Mayer, S. (2012). Developing an effective command philosophy. Military Review. 75-85
Parsons, C. (2003). Brief for personal use: Command philosophy Major C. Parsons, NZ Army. Geddes Papers. 90-95
Vecchio, R. P. (1997). Situational Leadership Theory: An examination of a prescriptive theory.
1. Read Descartes’s Meditations 4-6 in Cottingham. Then read Descartes’ mind-body problem in Patton’s The Cartoon Introduction to Philosophy (attached) to further understand what Descartes is saying.
2. Many later philosophers have a hard time with Descartes’ dualism (that is, his dividing all things up into body (and nature) and mind (soul)) and the consequences of such division. Below you will get a sense of how different groups of thinkers. It will probably be easiest to read these selections in the order in which I’ve listed them.
- Read the summary “Several Theories of What Makes Up a Person” (attached).
- Read Paul Taylor’s “Respect for Nature” (attached).
- Read Val Plumwood’s “Descartes and Mind/Nature Dualism” pp 111-117 in Feminism and the Mystery of Nature (attached).
- Read Wendell Berry’s “Choosing Health” (attached).
- Read Thomas Berry’s quotation (attached). (Note: Thomas Berry and Wendell Berry are two different men.)
- Read about the 2017 Indian court decision giving personhood rights to two rivers: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/21/ganges-and-yamuna-rivers-granted-same-legal-rights-as-human-beings.
- Watch the video “They’re Made Out of Meat” (attached).
3. Discussion 10: What do you believe make someone a person? (Must a person be human? Are all humans persons? What kind of treatment and rights does a person get?) With which of the material assigned this week do you agree in your answer? Why? With which do you disagree? Why? Be specific.
As an advanced practice provider, it will be important to create a personal nursing philosophy to guide your practice as you develop your practice. This will continue to be honed and adapted to what your practice requires; however, the belief and values you identify will be a constant thread through your practice.
Upon successful completion of this assignment, you will be able to:
- Develop a personal nursing philosophy statement.
- You may want to reflect on the journal articles assigned for Workshop 6.
- Review the rubric to ensure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
- Script a 3-4-page paper where you develop a personal nursing philosophy that will be refined throughout your clinical experiences and will guide your development as a PMHNP. Be sure to address personal philosophy regarding your thoughts on caring for patients with psychiatric mental health disorders and ethical and cultural aspects including your beliefs, assumptions, and values when caring for these patients. How will cultural aspects affect the NP-client relationship and the care you provide?
- Use APA formatting throughout the paper; citations/references should be included.
- When you’ve completed your assignment, save a copy for yourself and submit a copy to your instructor using the assignment submission page by Day 7 of the workshop.
At this point, Pojman’s argument on the utility of desert comes to the fore. According to Pojman (103), a society that endeavours to reward those who do good for the general welfare and to punish those who undermine it has better chances for survival and prosperity than a society that does nor practice these. This is very true. In a sense, when people expect something of value for good conduct, they will generally aspire to be good. Judicial punishment serves social good.
Pojman’s meritocracy philosophy evokes many possibilities in the bigger social realm, that is the world arena. Substituting individuals to nations, the gains of using justice as desert could be magnified to benefit a larger group of people. Although this has been challenged, mainly bordering on political concepts such as sovereignty and independence, and also on philosophical beliefs such as diversity of moral systems in pluralistic societies, an international system of rewards and punishment is in place and may be enhanced through the passage of time, this being possible according to centuries of global experience.
Pojman, Louis. “Justice and Desert.” Queensland University of Technology Law and Justice Journal 1.1. 2001: 88-105
—. “Theories of Equality: A Critical Analysis.” Behavior and Philosophy 2.25 1995. 2 Dec 2008 <http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/taboos/lp_equal.html>
Sher, George. “Desert”. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Desert.” First published Tue May 14, 2002; substantive revision Wed Nov 12, 2008. 2 Dec 2008 <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/desert/>
Political Philosophy Midterm Passage ID
“The final sentence, it is probable, which pronounces characters and actions amiable or odious, praise-worthy or blamable; that which stamps on them the mark of honor or infamy, approbation or censure; that which renders morality an active principle, and constitutes virtue our happiness, and vice our misery: It is probable, I say, that this final sentence depends on some internal sense or feeling, which nature has made universal in the whole species.” Hume, pg. 15
Political Philosophy Midterm Passage ID
This quote is found in the readings of the second Inquiry that was presented by Hume and it is situated almost at the end of the text. It comes after a clear analysis of the vital concepts as they relate to ethics and humanity’s role in upholding the same. It implies that virtues play a critical role in enhancing co-existence amongst humankind. The author in this regard places great emphasis on the same and contends that if one upholds virtues, s/he is likely to be rewarded in various ways.
On the contrary vices in most instances tend to attract punishment. He ascertains that virtues have intrinsic goodness, in that they are good in themselves. As such, they are worth pursuing, irrespective of the reward that they attract. In particular, they enhance personal satisfaction by influencing various facets of a person’s emotional wellbeing or/and sense of touch and taste. In other words, virtues reward ones internal feelings that can not be satisfied by anything else. Most importantly, they determine a person’s ethical wellbeing and arguably, they can be considered to be at the core of morality. Thus without these virtues a person is considered to be immoral and vice versa. Furthermore, the virtues and vices are a representation of morality and evil respectively.
The quote also shows that there is a distinction between reason and taste and each of these play different roles. Reason in this regard helps in discernment of what is true or false and as such, it is critical in enhancement of knowledge. Taste on the other hand presents the feelings of deformity and beauty that are represented by vice and virtue. Reason is important because it directs ones feelings and emotions in to ways that would enhance happiness rather than misery. It highly depends on the impulses that are derived from the person’s appetite. Since taste determines a person’s pain or pleasure, it comprises of misery or happiness and therefore it guides the motives of individuals.
Finally, it implies that the decision or choice to pursue either good or evil is largely personal. Every species is accorded the capacity and responsibility to make decisions regarding whatever it wants to pursue. As such, the respective feelings are sourced from a person’s internal wellbeing. With respect to the entire text, the quote is important because it provides a succinct conclusion of the prepositions of Hume with regards to reason nature and morality. In addition, it provides a clear relationship between these and how they impact on the moral wellbeing or humanity.
“Now I would very much like someone to explain to me what kind of misery can there be for a free being whose heart is at peace and whose body is in good health?” Rousseau, pg. 52.
Notably, the author was responding to previous assertions that had indicated that the state of humanity is in itself miserable. These were specifically by Hobbes who argued that irrespective of his social or economic wellbeing, man in most instances tends to struggle with various social economic, environmental and cultural issues tat undermine his holistic welfare. More often than not the author pointed out that most individuals are not satisfied with their lives. As such, they tend to keep complaining about their lives especially when they face challenging experiences. They put their entire blame on the divine law for failing to make timely interventions to rescue them accordingly. This explains why a significant percentage of them commit suicide. Their primary goal is usually to escape the overwhelming changes that they face in their daily lives. The author fails to understand the side of life that presents more misery, whether in death or when one is alive.
The author implied that individuals who are usually at peace both in the physical, mental and psychological being tend to function better that their counterparts who face various challenges in their lives. Psychological problems usually undermine the wellbeing of humanity and have a direct effect on their functioning. However, life presents its miseries in various ways. To begin with, it is indicated that individuals that have immense knowledge and are tormented by the same tend to undergo significant misery. In addition, the author ascertains that comparing oneself with others or putting ones state in another person’s can be equally tormenting. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that these miseries are initiated by oneself during the thinking process and measures can be undertaken to avoid them altogether. However, it is contended that when an individual is in perfect health with regards to physical and mental health, s/he does not have to experience any form of misery; be it physical of psychological in nature.
This is because nature provides sufficient resources for livelihood. The only effort s/he has to take is to work hard and use the resources to earn a living. This can be attained in a sustainable manner when s/he uses reason too. Reason in this regard enables the same to apply knowledge and critical skills in application of knowledge and techniques learnt during work. A combination of both intellectual and physical energy would yield optimal results. This text is important and seemingly, it makes vital contributions to the entire text. To begin with, it acts as a pacesetter and enables the author to develop credible arguments regarding the topic under review. In addition, it evokes critical thinking in the reader and enhances attention of the reader to the entire text. Most importantly, it draws from the thoughts and suggestions of other philosophers and can therefore be considered to be objective in nature.
“There is often a great deal of difference between the will of all and the general will.” Rousseau, pg. 155
This quote is drawn from the writings of Rousseau when he was discussing about the concept of the genera will and how it relates to the wellbeing of the society. In particular, he was addressing the issue of sovereignty and how the same was related to human wellbeing. He indicated that the notion of the general will shared an intricate relationship with the issue of sovereignty. At this point in time, he ascertained that the sovereignty in this regard should be used to benefit the entire public rather than individuals. In this consideration therefore, he argued that the general will reflects the public’s will and therefore presents its interests. In addition, he contended that the general rule is abstract in nature and it mode of addressing issues is not particularistic in nature. Hence when employed as a representation of the perceptions of the public, it tends to present the ideas as a block, rather than as parts of the whole. It is in this regard that he argues that there is dire need to outline the differences between the general will and the will of all. He goes ahead to ascertain that the general will places emphasis on the interest of all individuals within the society while the rule of all basically analyzes a coition of private or individual wills.
By ascertaining highlighting that there are different types of wills in the society, this quote is instrumental in enlightening the public of their responsibility. It challenges the individuals in power to address the specific needs of the society and further the wellbeing of the same accordingly. In particular, these need to place considerable emphasis on the general will because of the fact that it captures various concerns in the society and designs the same to reflect the common interests of the population. This is instrumental in enhancing the welfare of the entire society by ensuring that their various concerns are addressed accordingly. This also contributes to increased productivity within the society as all segments of the same are empowered accordingly. In addition, it informs that citizens to exercise a great degree of caution during decision making. Specifically, they are challenged to be informed about the decision making structures within the society and how the various decision making processes impact on the welfare. Knowledge of this would be fundamental in enabling them to ensure that their views and concerns are mainstreamed within the various policies during the formulation of the same. This is because it would enable the m to participate actively in the same by making credible contributions.
With regard to the text, the quote is vital as it has been employed in underscoring the importance of acquainting oneself with vital information regarding the relationship between the public, private will and the relationship that exists within the same. The author uses the same as a concluding remark when analyzing this important area of study.
“Morality consists, then, in the reference of all action to the lawgiving by which alone a kingdom of ends is possible.” Kant, pg. 42
The quote is found in Kant’s Groundwork and it seeks to ascertain the roe of an individual in creating a moral society. The author argues that individual behavior needs to be checked and modulated to ensure that it reflects similar ideals with that of other individuals within the society. Besides being uniform, these ideals need to be ethical and rational in nature. In addition, they need to have a similar impact on individuals in the society. In other words, they should not be discriminatory.
This quote means that for one to be considered to be moral, s/he needs to align his or her behaviors to the provisions of the law. This can be attained if one takes time to examine his or her nature or personality, understands the related personal weaknesses that undermine his or her moral functioning and devises viable ways through which the same can mend his ways accordingly. Alignment of one’s behavior to universal provisions is imperative in enhancing harmonic living and it goes a long way in avoiding social conflicts and deviant behavior. Notably, all individuals within the society are charged with the responsibility of reviewing their code of conduct. The universal laws in this regard also need to be in line with the expectations of the individuals that it governs.
In order to enhance sustainability, subjective aspects of individuals should also be mainstreamed in the particular law. This is because the individual in this context are considered to be subjective ends. This implies that they have an intrinsic goodness that enhances their morality. They are also dutiful and assume responsibilities that are harmonious to the entire society. Furthermore, they share a moral world that is equally characterized by inherent goodness and therefore a ‘kingdom of ends’. Thus in order to attain this condition, respective individuals should adopt good dispositions.
These should be objective in nature and should not be influenced in any way by personal inclinations, impulses or feelings. Rather, they should be based on rational and informed thought. Without the assumption of this ideal disposition, it would become difficult to create an ideal kingdom of ends that is seemingly comprised of moral individuals. This is because the personal ideas would be conflicting and unlikely to be in line with the provisions of the fundamental universal laws. Good dispositions are therefore imperative because they compel an individual to assume universal acceptable characteristics. Further, this quote implies that an individual can as well be the only member of the Kingdom of ends in so far as the same exercises the fundamental ideals.
The quote is important in reference to the text because of the fact that it provides a precise summary of the role of moral individuals in creating a moral society and vice versa. In particular, it summarizes the various comprehensive explanations regarding the ideal nature of the world, universal laws, and individuals and how these interplay to culminate in a kingdom of ends.
“A spirit of innovation is generally the result of a selfish temper and confined views. People will not look forward to posterity, who never look backward to their ancestors.” Burke, pg. 33
This is drawn from Burke’s reflections on the people of France. In this, he specifically refers to the constitution and acclaims the fore fathers that were responsible for its formulation. He indicates that they performed the noble task without any reservations and included policies and laws that were beneficial to all segments of the populations. Thus the rights provided therein are sought to protect the welfare of each and every individual in the country. Particularly, he cites the Margan Charta whose provisions enhanced liberty and freedom for the entire nation. However, he laments that the current situation is not reflective of these fundamental efforts as the present constitution is compounded by various controversies. According to him, the conventional constitution was inheritable and it gave the English people a chance to enjoy liberty as well as freedom.
More over, it appreciated diversity and respected each and every segment of the population. Most importantly, it provided the current population with an opportunity to inherit property and franchises. He contends that this policy was based upon a firm foundation of wisdom and refection. It is at this juncture that he reprimands the current attitude and posits that it is devoid of critical values of selflessness. Further, he contends that conservation is a vital aspect that is passed on through inheritance.
The quote implicates innovation and affirms that it has contributed to a spirit of selfishness that is manifested through unhealthy competition and lack of regard for the neighbors as well as the past populations. Notably, this is exhibited at different levels and just as individuals; nations are increasingly struggling to secure various resources at the expense of others. This has been further compounded by the burgeoning population that places unprecedented pressure on the available resources. Unfair and unhealthy competition that is characterized by exploitation has been made possible through the alteration of the constitution that was formulated years back. This also means that this selfish attitude that is characterized by increased self centeredness is unlikely to yield any positive outcomes.
The background of a person in this respect is equally influential in determining the future of the same. As such, Burke posits that the current populations need to respect their past in order for them to prosper. This is because their ancestors played a leading roe in safeguarding the resources that they are using as their livelihoods. Moreover, these populations are also responsible for safeguarding the resources for future generations. Notably, increased innovation is compromising this as the depletion of the resources is prevalent. This ascertains that the current populations are not mindful of either the past, present or future. Implications of these are likely to be devastating. This quotation was vital in the text because it set the pace for a critical analysis of the disparities that are inherent in the current constitution and the implication of the same to humanity.
“Believe me, Sir, those who attempt to level, never equalize. In all societies, consisting of various descriptions of citizens, some description must be uppermost. The levelers therefore only change and pervert the natural order of things; they load the edifice of society, by setting up in the air what the solidity of the structure requires to be on the ground.” Burke, pg. 49
This quote was still presented by Edmund Burk in his Reflections of France’s revolution. In this context, he points out that the current way of life is characterized by a high level of imitation and emulation. Furthermore, various individuals that are considered the lowly in the society are making significant efforts to be economically at par with the rich in the society. These efforts are also being supported by the government and other influential humanitarian bodies. This according to him has culminated in a state of social confusion and competition with all segments of the population struggling to reach the top of the social ladder. Notably, it can also be implicated for the inherent conflicts that stem from the characteristic aggression. At this point, he wonders what will happen if the servants want to be at par with their masters. It is in this regard that he indicates that is a destruction of natural social order. For instance, he cites that the carpenters and tailors in Paris should stop struggling to be to the same level as the rich economists.
This implied that individuals who made efforts to make the society equal or leveling it are only destructing its natural structure. For instance, this can be likened to turning a house up side down. In the physical world, such an idea is likely to yield detrimental effects and is basically illogical. Likewise, Burke contended that such efforts in the social domains are also devastating. Classic examples in this regard include over taxing the economically endowed individuals, welfare programs as well as affirmative action that seeks to accord women an equal position in the society as their male counterparts. Generally, he posits that all programs that are geared towards social equity have far reaching implications on the social cohesion as well as other facets of the society. These according to the author have the capacity to lead to social collapse.
At this point, the author contends that the natural order of things is the most ideal and therefore need to be upheld for proper functioning of the society. Besides having adverse effects on the social structure, leveling would possibly eliminate diversity that is fundamental for co existence. In this respect it should be acknowledged that equality would possibly contribute to ‘similar ways of doing things’ and this is likely to result in to loss of vital diversity. The quotation is important in this text because it accredits the numerous examples that Burke provides. It achieves this by likening this struggle to the disruption and destruction of social order that is imperative for survival. Notably, the implications of this are likely to have adverse effects on the holistic wellbeing of the society as it will disrupt its functions.
The Evolution Of Correction Philosophy
There is need for correctional systems within every society that assists in the maintenance of integrity within the society. These correctional practices are useful in enforcing behavioral norms within the society. In every existing surrounding at any time, society can be drained by peace or war. These conditions may have an influence on the views of the public that can be associated with crimes and the punishments they are related to. There has been a slow transformation that has been witnessed from personal vengeance to the orderly procession of rules and standard of justice that are observed in the present day.
In the European history there is a stage when all acts of justice on a personal level had been left and society had come up with a subculture behind bars this was used to deal with elements found within society who do not follow the stipulated format of identifying right from wrong. An offender could no longer flee from justice by moving to their family stronghold so that they can get united protection as it was done in days before. Retaliation from an individual’s family was no longer acceptable as a form of justice. Public offenders in medieval Europe had to go through extreme punishment like torture to death. The justice system had a dark age and has slowly progressed with minor improvement (Parish, 2012).
During 17th century, criminals were staged in open view of the public in an effort to shame them and hence discourage them from a repeat of similar behavior. It included pillory and whipping in public. It was quite normal for even small offenses to get death penalties. In Europe early prisons were just holding rooms where offenders were placed as they waited for trail and punishment they lacked proper maintenance and they were home for disgusting diseases, the inmates often died from diseases they contacted while in there. There was a great leap when a house of correction was established that held petty offenders or disorderly.
In the 18th century, death penalties were slowly being outlawed. There was also imprisonment with hard labor. there was a motion set by John Howard in 1777 to end barbaric conditions in house of corrections (Parish, 2012).there was transformations that saw the use of paid staff as opposed to volunteers. In the 19th century saw the repelling of capital punishment save for hideous crimes. Imprisonment was now replacing capital punishment slowly.
This history has had a great influence on today’s American corrections practices since it was concluded that capital punishment was not an effective form of punishment. Hence in the 20th century there have been various reforms registered that advocates the separation of the youth and adult offenders. There has also been abolishment of hard labor and custom flogging. This also led to better treatment requirements for the offenders in America
As mentioned the correction practices today and in 1800s is quite comparable; in both practices the aim of corrections is to contain, control, punish, restrain, to rehabilitate and reintegrate offenders in the society. In both past and present times there are prisons that are put in place where offenders are held and are confined there where they face punishment and rehabilitation.
There is however a difference between correctional practices in the 1800s and the present time. First in the 1800s the main aim of correctional practice was punishment that was often accompanied by hard labor and beating of the offenders. This is in contrast to the current correctional practices that aim for rehabilitation of the offenders. Basically we can see that there has been a shift from physical punishment to psychological punishment of offenders. In the 1800s prisons were simple rooms were the offenders were held but in recent times the prisons have been improved greatly with the addition of many programs, farms, shops, classes and also recreational facilities that have led to better control of the prisoners. There has also been the introduction of parole in judicial proceedings that did not exist in correction facilities in the early times. There has also been the separation between child offenders and adult offenders with the introduction of juvenile systems that enable this. This is a new evolution that did not exist in the 1800s (O’Connor, 2012).
Parish, J. (2012). The Evolution of Corrections Philosophy. Retrieved January 18,2013 from http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Evolution-of-Corrections-Philosophy&id=7307184
O’Connor, T. (2012). Early History of Corrections. Retrieved January 18,2013from http://www.drtomoconnor.com/1050/1050lect01.htm.