“The Mirror with a Memory” by James West Davidson Essay

“The Mirror with a Memory” by James West Davidson Essay.

In Chapter 8 of After the Fact in the article, “The Mirror with a Memory” by James West Davidson and Mark Lytle, the authors tell the story of photography and of a man names Jacob Riis. Riis came from Scandinavia as a young man and moved to the United States. Riis firsthand experienced the bad conditions in the heart of the slums of New York. He worked from place to place, doing odd jobs until he found a job as a police reporter for the New York Tribune.

Riis lived in a slum called “The Bend.” When he became a reporter, Riis aspired to make people see the awful conditions of “The Bend.” Riis was continuously disappointed because his articles did not receive much attention or sympathy he was looking for. He then vowed to write a book called How the Other Half Lives. In his book, he would detail all the troubling settings that people were living in. To stir interest, Riis learned that photography was very powerful and made readers reflect and think.

The article then goes on to talk about actual photography. Photography was relatively new at the time but still detailed an image much more effectively than would a painting or drawing. Photographs at the time were very bland. They only recorded what was there. The camera was given the nickname, “the mirror with a memory.” People who viewed a photograph were occasionally not able to see any aesthetically pleasing images. Later on, developments were made and cameras that were previously large became smaller and more portable. An example is the Kodak camera that shot higher quality shots.

Riis’s goal was not to make pretty pictures. He used a primitive camera and his photos came out bleak compared to those from newer cameras. The picture called “Five Cents a Spot” on page 184 exemplifies this. The picture is clearly artless and bland. However, Riis liked that it showed the true setting. Virtually all photographers at the time had bias, and even Riis was included. Their shots were shot to make it as selective as possible to the photographer. The article goes on to give examples like Matthew Brady who dragged dead bodies in Civil War battlefields to make his picture more, picturesque. The authors tell the reader that a picture must be interpreted like an essay or piece of writing. The motive and goal of the author or photographer must be figured out.

Riis wrote about different ethnic groups when he was living in New York. He wrote about greedy Jews, drunken Irish, and sloppy Italians. Riis also wrote with Christian morality. He blamed the faults of the above mentioned people on the poor living conditions that they were in. Like any other photographer or author, Riis’s motive must be figured out. It was already clear that he wanted change for the slums but in his pictures, the authors of the passage describe some pictures having Riis’s Christian morality in play.

Riis highlights the needs for stable, wholesome families. The picture of page 191 is an example of a non-wholesome family. The home is supposed to be a resting place but factory work made its way into the home, making the entire family work. Photos like these were examples of Riis’s motives behind his photos. The photo on page 193 called “Room in a tenement flat” showed a family portrait. The room that they were in was very crammed and Riis again shows a family in poor living conditions. Riis also photographed many children, like the ones in “street arabs” on page 195. The photo is heart wrenching and captivates any viewer because of the pitiful place they had to sleep in.

Although Riis’s photos weren’t artistic in any way, he effectively conveyed and showed the harsh, unforgiving lifestyle that families and individuals lived in. By using the “mirror with a memory,” Riis was able to actually bring change for the better in the slums and reach his goal. He also proved that pictures really do tell the truth, and that the truth must be uncovered.

“The Mirror with a Memory” by James West Davidson Essay

Pin Hole Camera Essay

Pin Hole Camera Essay.

A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens and with a single small aperture – effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side. Light from a scene passes through this single point and projects an inverted image on the opposite side of the box. The human eye in bright light acts similarly, as do cameras using small apertures. Up to a certain point, the smaller the hole, and the sharper the image, but the dimmer the projected image.

Optimally, the size of the aperture should be 1/100 or less of the distance between it and the projected image. Because a pinhole camera requires a lengthy exposure, its shutter may be manually operated, as with a flap made of light-proof material to cover and uncover the pinhole. Typical exposures range from 5 seconds to several hours. A common use of the pinhole camera is to capture the movement of the sun over a long period of time. This type of photography is called Solargraphy.

The image may be projected onto a translucent screen for real-time viewing (popular for observing solar eclipses; see also camera obscura), or can expose photographic film or a charge coupled device (CCD). Pinhole cameras with CCDs are often used for surveillance because they are difficult to detect. Pinhole devices provide safety for the eyes when viewing solar eclipses because the event is observed indirectly, the diminished intensity of the pinhole image being harmless compared with the full glare of the Sun itself. In the 10th century, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) wrote about naturally-occurring rudimentary pinhole cameras. For example, light may travel through the slits of wicker baskets or the crossing of tree leaves. (The circular dapples on a forest floor, actually pinhole images of the sun, can be seen to have a bite taken out of them during partial solar eclipses opposite to the position of the moon’s actual occultation of the sun because of the inverting effect of pinhole lenses.)

Alhazen published this idea in the Book of Optics in 1021 AD. He improved on the camera after realizing that the smaller the pinhole, the sharper the image (though the less light). He provides the first clear description for construction of a camera obscura (Lat. dark chamber). In the 5th century BC, the Mohist philosopher Mo Jing in ancient China mentioned the effect of an inverted image forming through a pinhole. The image of an inverted Chinese pagoda is mentioned in Duan Chengshi’s (d. 863) book Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyangwritten during the Tang Dynasty (618–907). Along with experimenting with the pinhole camera and the burning mirror of the ancient Mohists, the Song Dynasty (960–1279 CE)Chinese scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095) experimented with camera obscura and was the first to establish geometrical and quantitative attributes for it. In the 13th century AD, Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon commented on the pinhole camera.

Between 1000 and 1600, men such as Ibn al-Haytham, Gemma Frisius, andGiambattista della Porta wrote on the pinhole camera, explaining why the images are upside down. Around 1600 AD, Giambattista della Porta added a lens to the pinhole camera. It was not until 1850 AD that a Scottish scientist by the name of Sir David Brewster actually took the first photograph with a pinhole camera. Up until recently it was believed that Brewster himself coined the term “Pinhole” in “The Stereoscope” The earliest reference to the term “Pinhole” has been traced back to almost a century before Brewster to James Ferguson’s Lectures on select Subjects. Sir William Crookes and William de Wiveleslie Abney were other early photographers to try the pinhole technique. Within limits, a smaller pinhole (with a thinner surface that the hole goes through) will result in sharper image resolution because the projected circle of confusion at the image plane is practically the same size as the pinhole.

An extremely small hole, however, can produce significant diffraction effects and a less clear image due to the wave properties of light. Additionally, vignetting occurs as the diameter of the hole approaches the thickness of the material in which it is punched, because the sides of the hole obstruct the light entering at anything other than 90 degrees. The best pinhole is perfectly round (since irregularities cause higher-order diffraction effects), and in an extremely thin piece of material. Industrially produced pinholes benefit from laseretching, but a hobbyist can still produce pinholes of sufficiently high quality for photographic work. One method is to start with a sheet of brass shim or metal reclaimed from an aluminium drinks can or tin foil/aluminum foil, use fine sand paper to reduce the thickness of the centre of the material to the minimum, before carefully creating a pinhole with a suitably sized needle. A method of calculating the optimal pinhole diameter was first attempted by Jozef Petzval.

The crispest image is obtained using a pinhole size determined by the formula [pic] Where d is pinhole diameter, f is focal length (distance from pinhole to image plane) and λ is the wavelength of light. For standard black-and-white film, a wavelength of light corresponding to yellow-green (550nm) should yield optimum results. For a pinhole-to-film distance of 1 inch (25 mm), this works out to a pinhole 0.17 mm in diameter. For 5 cm, the appropriate diameter is 0.23 mm. The depth of field is basically infinite, but this does not mean that no optical blurring occurs. The infinite depth of field means that image blur depends not on object distance, but on other factors, such as the distance from the aperture to the film plane, the aperture size, and the wavelength(s) of the light source.

Pinhole cameras can be handmade by the photographer for a particular purpose. In its simplest form, the photographic pinhole camera can consist of a light-tight box with a pinhole in one end, and a piece of film or photographic paper wedged or taped into the other end. A flap of cardboard with a tape hinge can be used as a shutter. The pinhole may be punched or drilled using a sewing needle or small diameter bit through a piece of tinfoil or thin aluminum or brass sheet. This piece is then taped to the inside of the light tight box behind a hole cut through the box. A cylindrical oatmeal container may be made into a pinhole camera. Pinhole cameras can be constructed with a sliding film holder or back so the distance between the film and the pinhole can be adjusted. This allows the angle of view of the camera to be changed and also the effective f-stop ratio of the camera. Moving the film closer to the pinhole will result in a wide angle field of view and a shorter exposure time.

Moving the film farther away from the pinhole will result in a telephoto or narrow angle view and a longer exposure time. Pinhole cameras can also be constructed by replacing the lens assembly in a conventional camera with a pinhole. In particular, compact 35 mm cameras whose lens and focusing assembly have been damaged can be reused as pinhole cameras—maintaining the use of the shutter and film winding mechanisms. As a result of the enormous increase in number while maintaining the same exposure time, one must use a fast film in direct sunshine. Pinholes (homemade or commercial) can be used in place of the lens on an SLR. Use with a digital SLR allows metering and composition by trial and error, and is effectively free, so is a popular way to try pinhole photography. Unusual materials have been used to construct pinhole cameras, e.g., a Chinese roast duck. By Martin Cheung Calculating the f-number & required exposure

The f-number of the camera may be calculated by dividing the distance from the pinhole to the imaging plane (the focal length) by the diameter of the pinhole. For example, a camera with a 0.5 mm diameter pinhole, and a 50 mm focal length would have an f-number of 50/0.5, or 100 (f/100 in conventional notation). Due to the large f-number of a pinhole camera, exposures will often encounter reciprocity failure. Once exposure time has exceeded about 1 second for film or 30 seconds for paper, one must compensate for the breakdown in linear response of the film/paper to intensity of illumination by using longer exposures. Other special features can be built into pinhole cameras such as the ability to take double images, by using multiple pinholes, or the ability to take pictures in cylindrical or spherical perspective by curving the film plane.

These characteristics could be used for creative purposes. Once considered as an obsolete technique from the early days of photography, pinhole photography is from time to time a trend in artistic photography. Related cameras, image forming devices, or developments from it include Franke’s wide field pinhole camera, the pin speck camera, and the pinhead mirror. NASA (via the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts) has funded initial research into theNew Worlds Mission project, which proposes to use a pinhole camera with a diameter of 10 m and focus length of 200,000 km to image earth sized planets in other star systems. A non-focusing coded-aperture optical system may be thought of as multiple pinhole cameras in conjunction. By adding pinholes, light throughput and thus sensitivity are increased. However, multiple images are formed, usually requiring computer deconvolution.

Pin Hole Camera Essay

Photography Essay

Photography Essay.

Fashion photography is about portability and malleability. A model can be incorporated into a fantastical environment for which only the word surreal can be used to define. In modern day photography there is a myriad of photographers each striving for a new lens, a new way in which to portray a fantastic image. In the history of fashion, nothing is so transcendental than photography. The image in fashion has been primarily focused on the model and how well the model sells the clothes; it is in the photograph that mutation over the decades has skyrocketed into a true art form.

Fashion photography does not succumb to the norms of portraiture that Daguerre made famous but to focal points of beauty in landscape, cityscape and how well assembled the model appears in those scenes. Body Media With the issue of thinness, the disease anorexia is conjured up; since the advocating of the media towards a thinner woman’s body, disorders such as anorexia and bulimia have become predominant among women and men.

In the Western culture this rising phenomenon has become a central fact for overly conscious people who focus on their appearance, as Dittmar and Howard state, “…they learn to see themselves as objects to be looked at and evaluated by appearance. This pressure is constantly reinforced by a strong cultural ideal of female beauty, and that ideal has become synonymous with thinness” (477-478). With this notion in the forefront of the paper other issues such as model size as they are propagated through the media become a rising concern.

Dittmar and Howard go on to state that roughly 20% of models in the fashion industry are underweight which in term clinically diagnosis them with the condition of anorexia nervosa. These conditions give further rise to other women’s problems. Since the cultural idea of thinness as perpetuated by the media and the fashion industry is to have increasingly thin body types, the average woman or man tries dieting and exercising to keep up with the ‘standard’.

When the average woman or man finds that they are still not ‘normal’ according to the cultural guidelines of the word, they begin to be dissatisfied with their bodies which leads to low self-esteem, “Thus it stands to reason that women are likely to experience body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and even eating disorders if they internalize and strive for a beauty ideal that is stringently thin and essentially unattainable” (478).

The mass media is the continual hindrance to a healthy body image for Americans. The media is a social influence that reinforces these ideals through repetition and product placement. The media is a visual stimulation letting the American public voyeuristically fantasize about ultra thin models and having a body (sometimes these bodies are digitally re-mastered) that provides relative pleasure in shape.

Dittmar and Howard’s article highlights one such concern with the UK government in which they held a conference in June 2000 to discuss this issue of thinness and the media and to in essence debate about banning the use of these too thin models as media advertisement since the image essentially gave permission to the public to suffer and toil over gaining a great body, no matter the public acquired anorexia nervosa or other clinical conditions. The detriment of this fact, the fact that thinness is amounting to such problems as anorexia nervosa raise many social and cultural issues.

The cultural issue may best be summarized in Dittmar and Howard’s article as they quote Naomi Campbell and Claudia Schiffer, both spokespersons for top models, “…(s)tatistics have repeatedly shown that if you stick a beautiful skinny girl on the cover of a magazine you sell more copies…Agencies would say that we supply the women and the advertisers, our clients, want. The clients would say that hey are selling a product and responding to consumer demand. At the end of the day, it is a business and the fact is that these models sell the products” (478).

Thus, the opposite side of the spectrum is arguing that businesses or model clients are merely representing something that already exists within the cultural dynamic. The argument is that thin models represent what people want to see and so the products the model’s are advertising sell more copies. The clients of the modeling agencies are merely tied into the vicious cycle of believing what they want to believe. Although this point seems somewhat valid, the validation stops when such perpetuating leads to serious illnesses (in some cases anorexia or bulimia have lead to death).

It can plainly be deciphered from the above text that body image is created by the media, as Guttman quotes in her article “Advertising, My Mirror” in an interview with Christian Blachas, “That image comes to us from the fashion world. People like to say advertising starts trends like the recent wave of ‘fashion pornography. ’ But this came straight from designers and fashion journalists. The job of advertising is to pick up on trends. It’s rarely subversive because brands don’t gain anything from shocking people too much. Advertising’s a remarkable mirror, but it doesn’t start fads” (25).

Consequently, Blachas is stating that if fault is to be placed anywhere for the over correction of dieting, then the blame is not on the fashion industry but on advertisers who are the ones who pick up trends and allow these trends to filter down to every consumer; thus, while 20% of models are diagnosed as too ‘thin’ this relevant percentage can be related to the American public. Since the blame seems to be resting with the advertisers, another close look at the media needs to be given. The media perpetuates fads and other culturally influential eras, but this seems to have heightened within the past few decades.

The bombardment the public receives from the media and especially from the advertising end of the media is seen not only in commercials but in product placement in music videos, and movies. Magazines also aid in distributing the advertisements’ ideals as can be seen in repeated simulation on television soap operas, just as much as from fashion magazines, as Hargreaves and Tiggemann state in “Longer term implications of responsiveness to ‘thin-ideal’: support for a cumulative hypothesis of body image disturbance? , “Although this evidence appears to support the media’s negative impact on body image, various methodological limitations need to be acknowledged. In particular, the causal direction of correlations between body dissatisfaction and media use remains a challenge. The causal direction is clear in controlled laboratory research…One possible link between individual reactive episodes of dissatisfaction in response to specific media images and the development of body image is that enduring attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about bodies and appearances accumulate over time through repeated exposure to ideals of attractiveness in the media” (466).

Thus, the level of insecurity is maintained in the public through the barrage of repeated body images through advertisements. In the composition of photography there are many elements which define the medium; line, color, focus, brightness, scenery, shadow, etc. The evolution of fashion photography hinged upon the mass reproduction of images in magazines. In Germany, in the early 20th century, fashion became fully popular and available to the populace through Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung and Munchner Illustrierte Presse .

It is in the magazine world that fashion photography began it’s popularity . As soon as fashion hit a mainstream cord with the public, magazines sales soared and thus was born the beginning of the history of fashion photography. There was great demand for magazines; especially fashion. Women and men would see what to wear, how to wear to it, what was in style and the modern world finally had the leisure to pursue the market of clothes as fashion.

With this demand installed in the public, it was up to the photographers of the early fashion industry to come up with new ways in which to depict the model, the clothes and entice women and men to dress according to what was portrayed in the photos. This is where composition of the photo is required to ensure new and deliberate methods of fashion portrayal. With the oncoming age of color introduced in photography in the 1930’s and 1940’s as the encyclopedia elaborates, “Nonetheless, color remained a sidelight in photography until the 1930s because it required considerable patience and expense on the part of both photographer and printer.

The dominance of color in terms of reproduction and everyday picture-taking did not begin until 1935, when Kodak started to sell Kodachrome transparency film, and was completed by the introduction of color-print films and Ektachrome films in the 1940s”. With color photography, the realm of the fashion world drastically changed. The limits of black and white and sepia toned magazine covers gave way to brilliant exhibits of color combinations, and a wide range of fabrics that women and men could now see, duplicate, or buy.

Fashion photography changed from depicting high-class society women to models in every day clothing. Professional photographers were then counted on to resonant the possibility of how fashion should co-exist with society. With Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar photographers were hired full time to create, in the magazine, a gallery of fabric eye candy dressed on a model with a backdrop. The most notable photographers at the time were pictorialists , Edward Steichen and Englishman Cecil Beaton. The incorporation of art into photography made the photographs more believable as high fashion.

Steichen and Beaton glamorized the models with enhanced lighting effects, which lionized the models and made the magazine world believe that fashion through photography was otherworldly. Among new techniques being used, the online encyclopedia states, “American Edward Steichen and Englishman Cecil Beaton, both one-time pictorialists. These photographers began to use elaborate lighting schemes to achieve the same sort of glamorizing effects being perfected by Clarence Bull as he photographed new starlets in Hollywood, California.

Martin Munkacsi initiated a fresh look in fashion photography after Harper’s Bazaar hired him in 1934. He moved the models outdoors, where he photographed them as active, energetic modern women”. So began the movement of high fashion. In the movement, the use of fashion as advertisement was key in developing a market for fashion photography. It is through marketing advertising, that fashion photographers began to be highlighted, as the encyclopedia states, “The new approach to photography in the editorial content of magazines was matched by an increasingly sophisticated use of photography in advertisements.

Steichen, while also working for Vogue and Vanity Fair magazines, became one of the highest-paid photographers of the 1930s through his work for the J. Walter Thompson advertising agency”. These photographers, as well as others, helped to make advertising an art form through use of portraying model’s hands in product placement, and altogether catering to ever-widening audience of magazine buyers. Fashion photography changed through the utilization and realization that product sold only through its modeling and photographic depiction.

Fashion photography is used to studio lighting, general props, and fabricated sets to produce photos for magazines. It was by moving beyond the scope of the pre-fabricated to outdoor life that photography truly changed its face: This revolution in photography was accomplished by Louise Dahl-Wolfe: she created environmental photography. Photographs then became very versatile in their encompassing environment, as Art News states, “Considered one of the world’s leading fashion photographers from the 1930s to 1960, Dahl-Wolfe received universal acclaim for her fashion and portrait photography.

She was one of the first photographers to move beyond the dominant fashion aesthetic of studio props and lighting to photograph naturally posed models outdoors and on location in far-flung places, from South America to Africa. Her depiction of the easy but exotic American style “captured the essence of the new American woman: spirited, sophisticated, and above all, independent,” said co-curator Nan Richardson”.

Through this revolution, the photograph is now allowed to incorporate the natural world in the make-up of the photo, and thus is born on-site location photography. This completely changed fashion – models were now being flown internationally to shoots, and photographers could now broaden the horizon of their compositions. Landscape then became part of the photograph as well as the model and other props. It seems however, that in the course of fashion photography there seems to be a throwback to vintage photos.

In high fashion photo shoots stylish black and white photos are becoming more and more popular; the sleek lines of postive and negative space are the dynamic in the photo, as well as black and white outfits that allow for a slimmer and more direct silhouette. There is a definite nostalgia that is coming forward in recent photography, as Silberman emphasises, “I’d already noticed that vintage photography had been very popular in the last couple of years” said Downes. I’ve seen an increase of people collecting old, black-and-white photography. We thought we would try and grab some of that appeal, and I think fashion photography works very well with that…. And then there was the Jackie Kennedy exhibit. That show has been a hit, and it focuses on a lot of hats and dresses. These events inspired me to take a chance on publishing some fashion images. ” In this way, fashion photography is more and more treated as an art form.

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Photography Essay

How to Take a Good Photograph? Essay

How to Take a Good Photograph? Essay.

* Always remember that: the most fundamental element in taking a good photograph is composition. Modern automatic cameras can sort out focusing, lighting and other matters for you, but you have to chose where to point the camera and how to compose the picture. So take a few seconds to choose a good composition taking on board the following advice. * Any lines in the pictures must be straight – unless you’re deliberately trying to be exotic. So horizons should horizontal and sides of buildings should be vertical (unless you’re looking upwards).

* Background objects should not spoil the composition. So, for instance, avoid a traffic sign or a tree branch appearing to come out of a person’s head. * Remember the ‘rule of thirds’. Imagine that there are invisible lines – two horizontal and two vertical – dividing your picture into nine sections. In many cases, you’ll obtain a better picture if you put any natural horizontal lines – like the horizon – on one of your invisible horizontal lines rather than in the middle and if you locate your subject – such as a person or tree – on one of the invisible vertical lines rather than in the middle.

* If you’re using the ‘rule of thirds’ for a shot featuring a person, ensure that the person is looking into the space and not out of the shot. * If you’re shooting a picture in which the main subject is not in the centre, lock the focus on the subject and then change the composition before clicking the camera. Then your subject will be sharp but the composition will be good too. * If you’re photographing a person, take a full body shot or a head and shoulders shot. In between shots (for instance, from the knees upwards) don’t work. * If you’re taking a full body shot, make sure that bits of the body are not ‘cut off’. For instance, you don’t want a bit of the head or the feet or an elbow out of shot.

* If you’re taking a head and shoulders shot, don’t be afraid to get in close. You don’t have to stand in the person’s face; you can simply use your zoom.

* When shooting people, it’s often a good idea to take two or three quick shots in succesion. People tend to relax a little after the first shot and look more natural. Assuming you have a digital camera, you can easily delete the less satisfactory shots. * When appropriate, it’s fun to invite people you’re shooting to put on a little act instead of just standing or sitting there.

* See if you can ‘frame’ your shot. The frame might be a window, door, arch or simply a tree branch. The framing shot is my signature picture!

* Try shooting from a different angle. Kneeling or even lying and shooting up or shooting down from a chair, balcony or staircase can give you an interesting viewpoint. * Look for different colours. Similar objects in different colours make great pictures. Incense sticks at Hué in Vietnam| Chairs in Trinidad in Cuba This shot also uses shapes and shadows| Silk lanterns at Hoi An in Vietnam| * Look for different shapes. The contrast of a circle or triangle or square or rectangular object with another shape of object can make a great picture.

* If you’re shooting inside, make sure that your subject is not against a window. If you can’t (or don’t want to) avoid this, you’ll need to use fill-in flash. * If you’re shooting people indoors, you may well need to use the anti red eye feature of your camera. * If you’re shooting outside, make sure that the sun is behind you. * if you’re shooting outdoors in sunny conditions, remember that the best time to take photographs is when the sun is not too high.

* Consider whether you can get a reflection shot. One building reflected in the windows of another or a person reflected in a mirror can make a great shot but needs careful composition.

* Consider whether you can get a shadow shot. A shadow on a floor or wall or street can make a great picture but you may need to switch off your automatic flash.

Shadow shot in Trinidad in Cuba
* Finally, remember that these are just suggestions and tips. Experiment for yourself and have fun.

How to Take a Good Photograph? Essay

Ethical Problems in Mass Media Essay

Ethical Problems in Mass Media Essay.

Virtuous decisions of photographers Publishing photographs that show personal tragedy and are questionable in their moral standards with those concerning privacy and those about inflicting additional harm on victims can be supported by Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics. This should be supported because, as a news organization, photographing what is seen shows the magnitude of the situation and documents as it happened. The publication of graphic material such as was seen in the Bakersfield Californian.

Photographer John Harte snapped eight frames after he responded to a all on the police scanner reporting a drowning.

He arrived at a lake northeast of Bakersfield, California to the scene of divers still looking for a drowning victim. When the body of five-year-old Edward Romero was brought to shore a few minutes later, Harte went against what most of the other photojournalists and television crew did, which was opt out, and took photographs of the body while the family members, who were on the lake shore, began to grieve.

His editor, Robert Bentley, made the decision to run the photograph.

The ethical question that surfaced when the public reacted to he photograph was to run personal tragedy photographs and exposing more grief on family members of the boy. Aristotle’s cardinal virtues of Justice, prudence, temperance and courage support what Harte and Bentley did when they ran the photograph of the boy. Harte’s decision to take the photograph shows courage because he did it to the best of his own moral standing. This isn’t the first time photographs that have been graphic and showing personal tragedy have been published.

In “A State of Emergency,” photojournalist Gabriele Stabile took photographs in March 2009. That month, a wave of spring thunderstorms flooded Gaza’s unpaved streets and blew down relief tents for families displaced by Cast Lead” (2011). The reason why the photographs were published and defended through the virtue theory is because “people from everywhere can relate to this: seeing a grown man crying is always heartbreaking, especially if it’s someone whose daily challenges are far tougher than the ones we experience” (2011).

Furthermore, not only is the media used in newspapers but in courtrooms as well, which documents graphic scenes of the crime scene and victims as well. Although the use of such imagery has become the norm, the prejudicial nature of this evidence continues to be a contested issue in courtrooms across America. Criminal defense attorneys routinely submit motions in limine to restrict or exclude crime scene photos on the grounds they put undue focus on the victim and generate sympathy.

Civil defense attorneys submit similar motions, positing that such evidence, which may be relevant for determining damages, has an improper impact on Jurors’ assessments of liability. Under both circumstances, Judges exercise their discretion nd usually allow the Jury to see some, if not all, of the images (2009). This shows that the Judges using the virtue theory have to decide whether it is 0K to show published photographs of the crime scene and victims that have been harmed, or it they avoid snowing it at all because ot the lawyers arguments tor or against it.

Most of the time, the Judge will choose to show some, if not all, of the images. This example is included because Judges are like photographers in that they want the whole story shown and they want to be the communicator in getting Justice r awareness out to the population, no matter how graphic the material is. Counterarguments/refutation People have disagreed in that they take the utilitarianism theory approach which states that it minimizes harm and reduces suffering. Many would argue that publishing photographs that are graphic have caused the family more harm and increased their suffering by having their grief made public.

An example of this would be when Ki-Sak Han was pushed in front of subway train and when his body was brought back onto the platform, many photographers started snapping pictures of the body. Many photo takers have been “desensitized” by watching the traditional news media do “unseemly” things, such as stick a microphone in the face of a distraught person to probe their feelings. In the case of subway victim Han, many people would be “morally offended” that others snapped pictures Just after his death (2012).

The reason why people get offended with personal tragedy photographs is, “We think, ‘What if that were someone in my family? ‘” (2012). It causes more pain on the family from a utilitarianism point of view. Not only is it personal tragedy photographs that raises people’s hackles but hotographs that are graphic in the case of photographer Sandy Felsenthal who was a former photographer for “The Commercial Appeal. ” Felsenthal exhibited 35 photographs on the newspaper lobby walls before nine non-news employees objected to the display as trash.

The photographs that were labeled “offensive” included two male bikers kissing, a Ku Klux Klan rally, an interracial couple, a punk rocker’s throat in action and semi-nude dancers with their backs turned (1983). The photographs were graphic and not directly dealing with personal tragedy but more aboo practices in those times. It can be argued from a virtuous standpoint that he was capturing everyone to document in the news but the utilitarianism standpoint would counter-argue that he had caused suffering to those he photographed by exposing them and to those that had seen his photographs displayed before it was taken down.

The best way to sum this up comes from Ralph Beddard who states: It is therefore the use to which the photographic image may be put which should concern civil liberty activists. Human rights violations are likely to arise where the use is not the ne originally envisaged. Everyone, in the liberty of private life, should be allowed to act in any way which he or she chooses provided that this is within the law and the tenets of public morality. If such conduct is captured on a photograph which is publicized to the world at large, or to any particular named person, it could well prove to be humiliating or embarrassing.

Whilst it is important to be oversensitive to the fleeting inhibitions or vanities of the individual, it is essential that such technology should not be used to rob any person of the sense of personal integrity nd security for which rights of privacy are framed. The value and utility which the photograph adds to the freedom and security of society as a whole must always be measured against the encroachment on the security ot litestyle ot the law-abiding person. In short, we must be aware of the inhibiting role of surveillance.

The comment that the camera only sees what the human eye could see, even if correct, is not a satisfactory response. One does not want everyone to see what one is doing all the time (1995). What this is saying is that capturing someone’s grief for the world to see is nvading their privacy and although the photographer can see exactly what is happening, it does not mean that everyone wants to see someone suffering or graphic photographs of a child drowned or a man hit by a subway.

It also states that the value and utility must be measured against whether it causes an encroachment on the family members left behind by the tragedy that have to deal with the world knowing of their personal loss. The virtue theory defends photographers and their editors decision to publish photographs, that are often graphic, of personal tragedy. This is based on their good ntentions to record the truth as to what they see and to also bring about awareness to situations through capturing moments for the population to see.

The utilitarian would argue that publishing such photographs would not help the families or people suffering from personal tragedy but cause them more harm in broadcasting to the world of their loss and causing more suffering on them that has now been published for the world to see. Although both arguments are valid, the virtue theory is one that most photographers would follow because it is not them trying to cause more suffering to he people suffering from a personal tragedy but more for them to bring awareness to the community.

Ethical Problems in Mass Media Essay

A Discussion of Tim Walker’s Work Essay

A Discussion of Tim Walker’s Work Essay.

Walkers’ upbringing in Guildford, surrounded by country has left in him with a feeling of love when it comes to Britain’s landscapes that he wants to show it off in his images, in any which way he can. This essay compares and contrast two works by Tim Walker that are identifiable as his signature style, however individually differ in diverse ways to each other. Taking into consideration the ideas behind the image and how and where he draws his inspiration from to create images that inspire others.

His style so unique and recognisable, this essay will take into consideration the historical and social contexts to his works and if his style is a reflection of his inner self, childhood and naturally occurring ideas, or if this style is something he created and now lives within. After graduating from Exeter College of Art, where he studied photography for 3 years, Walker worked as a freelance photography assistant in London. However, it was his move to New York and assisting the photographer Richard Avedon that may have forwarded his career so that at the very early age of 25 he had shot his first fashion story for Vogue.

Today a London based photographer, Tim Walker is at the top of his profession and internationally known for his cutting- edge fashion photography; taking fashion further so that fashion becomes seconded to fantasy and surrealism. Walkers innovative photography places him in the midst of the most creative and imaginative photographers out there today. ‘Tim sees pictures in front of him which are not yet there’ (DERRICK, 2008, p124. It is the detailed planning of every image and the ideas that starts the process of the final images he is famous for; for each project of Tim’s, you’ll be able to find a scrapbook full of clippings and ideas found from anywhere. ‘My ideas for all my photographs come from any number of places; a film, or a book I’m reading, a story someone tells me. I take loads of visual references and put them into scrapbooks. I’ve got hundreds of them. ’ (WALKER, 2009, [WWW]) It is these scrapbooks that have provided inspiration for a number of Tim’s shoots.

But it’s to be remembered that the inspiration has come from things that have already been, but that he took interest in. ‘I don’t believe in originality. You take inspiration from whatever moves you and you find your own voice in those things’ (WALKER, 2008, p242) Tim Walker saying this, is almost find ironic because his pictures are often named original. However, if it is replicated from/inspired by something/anything he may have seen before- as like most pictures- it can only be your take with your voice on it. However Walker’s inspiration doesn’t stop at that, he also looks to photographers before him for inspiration. Cecil Beaton took so many photographs that purely to me represent the joy one gets from creating fantasy” (WALKER TIM, 2009, [WWW]) The opening to Tim Walkers book Pictures, like all others, start with a foreword. However, unlike all others Tim has handwritten his as if it was just another page in his scrapbook. Located only six pages in after only the credits and title, this is really the very first thing you see in the book and it gives great indication to the style of the book and if you did not know much about Tim beforehand; a great introduction to him, his style and how he thinks.

Not only is it the actually content of the foreword: ‘as you tour your imagination you want to photograph what you are seeing…you are SO very keen to be able to show what you’ve seen that it somehow becomes true, and the picture you end up taking becomes a souvenir, a piece of proof brought back [all the way] from the daydream. ’ (WALKER, 2008, P6) But the design and the layout of the page also: He cleverly drops the control of the layout, slanting the writing just as he talks about his mind drifting. It’s a clever play on the typography that as we read, we too feel as if we’ve sunken into this relaxed state of daydreaming.

The way Tim describes in depth the path he often goes on that lands him at the conclusion of an image shows deeply how creative it often is, usually because it begins with something as simple as walking round a clothes store. The pictures he takes then become a snapshot almost, and a gift he shares with us from his imagination…from his daydream. Tim’s childhood plays a big part in the ‘fun’ many of his images are filled with. ‘He draws upon his childhood to construct sets for his images that are witty and playful yet sufficiently sophisticated enough to perform for his fashion clients. (THOMAS, 2008, [WWW]) Bringing such essences of an adolescent age into something quite professional could be risky, but it is this that give’s Tim’s pictures that exciting, magical vibe. Tim Walker says in an ICP awards interview, ‘fashion is the dream department for photography and I’ve always been a daydreamer. Tim’s pictures relate to and reflect a time in the 1940’s era and the time of the Neo-Romantic artists, that happened at a time of Britain’s ‘dark hours’. Today, although we might not be in the middle of Second World War, the world is in a state of uncertainty.

For Walker, it may just be that creativity in fashion photography and the understanding of make believe places in his imaginations may just be the sort of images that the world need to see, to remember themselves, how magical and escapist day-dreaming can be. The first image of Tim Walkers I have chosen is this one titled ‘Lily Cole on fish hook. ’ Surrealism is a big factor in the creation of a Tim Walker shoot and it is the surrealism in this image that makes it so striking. It grabs your attention straight away and with little effort in the actual design of the image.

Although the content is completely random, the image works in so many different ways that you almost don’t recognise it until a few moments after looking. The whole image looks calm; the stillness of the water, the sunlight reflected off of it, the grip of her hands on the hook, her expression. This image is magical, because it looks right, for something that shouldn’t ever be. The shoot was located in Northumberland, England and the location only helps set this calm relaxed scene as well as adding to that ‘very English’ feeling he often brings forth to many of his images.

Recreational fishing is fishing for pleasure, with the fisher not really too interested in catching fish, but for the tranquillity and relaxation of it. This shoot, is extremely reflective of this, oozing tranquillity with the colours and calmness. Lily allowing her tip toes to play with the surface of the water, creating disturbance in it, works well within the image; it doesn’t have a negative effect on it, but almost brings her as a model to life. This was not Lily’s first shoot with Tim, and posing as bait on a giant fish hook was nothing out of the ordinary madness.

He loved working with the English model, who first posed for him at the age of 15. ‘Some Models know how to stitch and weave themselves into a picture. Lily instinctively knows how to become part of it. ’ (WALKER, 2008, p124) In this image of Lily on the hook, she really does own it; she pulls of her ‘act’ as bait, attracting the fish just with her stance and beauty, and looking calm and really engaged with the photographer. She’s wearing a random collaboration of 3 tutus and her hair fizzed up to mirror them.

Although quite dainty and delicate in body, she looks strong and very in control – ironic to her state as bait. But this works nicely as the setting of the lake and the fields in the background add to that gentle voice the image has, balancing it nicely. The second image is one that Walker had designed for Italian Vogue. The image named ‘Eglingham Stream’ was shot in Northumberland, England, 2004. The image shows a bedroom with a stream running through it from the fireplace. The room is cluttered, and filled with clear personal belongings of somebody.

The contents of the coat stand and the drinks trolley-in which the whiskey is the most noticeable bottle-all refer to the occupant being a man. The fishes on the stone and those in the basket on the table suggest that the person that lives her is a man that has a fond passion for fishing. These objects that the viewer initially notices, cleverly lead them to be mysterious as to what the image is showing us. When looking further into the image, we notice smaller details such as the images framed on the wall that are not of any family members or portraits of him, but of horses and landscapes.

This could suggest that he has no family members and is possibly quite a reserved man and this is strengthened by the big matter of his room being right by the lake. It raises questions as to how obsessed this man actually is with fishing, that he has moved his bedroom to live within meters of the lake. Although, there are some signifiers that suggest that a woman is present: the pink bedding and net chiffon, the frill trimmed lamps and the two tooth brushes on the chest of drawers. There is also a small portrait of a young boy in the frame above the fireplace.

Because of how out of place this looks as the only one, it seems to be a ‘woman’s touch’, as do the shells on top of the fireplace. The image as a whole has a romantic, feminine and fantastical feel-created by the lighting and whispery stream-that is signature to Walkers style. The shoot seems to be set in the twilight hour, or in the early evening, indicated by the bluely tint to the night and the 3 lamps in the room being on. The absence in the room could well just mean that the man is off fishing with his dog shown by the empty dog basket.

There are many things about both the images that make them similar when talking about them in context of Walkers style. Both images were shot in Northumberland in the same year and although it isn’t stated, the lake that we see Lily suspended above is likely to be part of the stream that is present in the second image. The images both have strong fishing references to them: Lily is suspended on a giant fishing hook, and the setting of the second is the home of someone completely obsessed with fishing. The images are not part of the same set or story, and do not look it either.

However, contextually, they seem to work hand in hand. Having the countryside and fields in the background that run our eyes to the edge of the Fish Hook image just above the halfway line is similar in comparison to the way the Eglingham Stream image is cut off. This image is split by the striking pink/reddish colour of the walls meeting the grey wet slate form the stream that make the bedroom floor. Both splitting factors are of natural earthly objects; possibly representing that county, earthly, English vibe Walker has been known to create in many of his images. There is a terrible truthfulness about photography that the ideas which might work in a painting or a sketch won’t necessarily work in a photograph’ (UNKNOWN, 2008, p254. ) This statement is from Tim Walkers book Pictures and although this was not said in reference to Walkers work, it almost seems as if this is something he fights hard to overcome in his own pictures. He doesn’t let the normal be a limit, he combines familiarity with fantasy and imagination to create what has never been seen before.

This is what gives them that edge over many other fantastic editorials, and sketching ideas to visualise them is a big thing with Tim Walker; something he prides his work upon. Despite all their similarities, the images are in fact very different and not only of location and setting, but of story and design. In the first image of Lily on the hook, that is the surrealism; this beautiful girl dressed in a random combination of tutus with huge frizzy ginger hair hanging on a fishing hook. This is what we are supposed to look at and see the dreamlike, far from ordinary image in front of us.

In the second image, the stream running out of the fire place through the middle of the room is also surreal, but that’s not only what the image is about. It’s about the story the scene creates. Yes you look at the stream and think ‘wow’ and begin to question it, but it doesn’t stop there, your questioning goes on to the room and what the contents of it mean. The images also differ in terms of layout. The first is portrait and works better in this format as it allows the full size of the hook to be appreciated.

If this was on a landscape layout, the surrealism of the hook may not be fully valued due to it physically having to be shrunk on the page. However, the double page landscape layout for the second image allows a full viewing of the room and many details and objects to be noticed. This image in a portrait layout would not be successful as the image would have to be shrunken or cropped- both having negative effects on the way the image is viewed. The subject matter and the use of a model being used in the first image but not in the second is another differing factor between them both.

Lily as a model is the subject in Figure 2 that the viewer connects with; she gives the image that presence so that when we look at it, it’s not just a picture, it’s a situation that we feel as if we are now part of. In Figure 3, Tim Walker is successful in including the viewer, but in a very different way and without using any models; we are invited to look into somebody’s bedroom while they are not there and just by looking at the photograph, the viewer becomes an intruder. But this intrusion plays as a foundation for the story behind the image, the one we seek out and uncover more of the more we look at it.

Although the lamps warm up the image, it still has this cold feel created by the grey stones, real flowing stream and lack of natural light. The absence of anybody in the room assists in creating this ‘chill-in- the-air’ feeling. Figure 2, where Lily is standing on a large fishing hook, has a surprisingly warm tone to it and this may be due to her relaxed pose and the warming colours present in the image: The ginger of her hair, the red of her tutu and the fishing tackle and the brown/copper of the lake.

The colours are softened by the sunlight adding to that warm tone. ‘Photography is a bit like cooking: you take the ingredients out of the cupboard and mix them up- old pictures, characters, colours, landscapes, to create something that is in your imagination that surprises you. ’ (WALKER, 2009, P208) It is clear to see that Walker uses certain ingredients in both of these images; fantasy and surrealism become like the salt and pepper; the underlying flavour and present always.

After looking at Lily On The Hook and Eglingham Stream in comparison to each other, many similarities are because of Walkers ‘style’ that are consistent throughout. Even though both are editorials, contently, technically and visually, there is a big difference between them. Creatively, they are alike. These are just two out of hundreds of Tim Walkers photographs, but as like all of his images, there will always be something magical, fantastical or romantic to hint that the image was photographed by Walker. The images are real in their own terms; that is what they are. As a fashion photographer you are a documentary photographer within a fantasy land. ’ (WALKER, 2009, p210) By Walker referring to himself as a documentary photographer within a fantasy land gives us a clear insight to how he sees fashion photography; in a childlike day-dream way. He escapes to this place in which his imagination can be real and he sees his job as a photographer to document this.

A Discussion of Tim Walker’s Work Essay