Crop Protection and Pest Control Essay

Crop Protection and Pest Control Essay.

“Plant protection” may be defined as all measures taken to protect cultivated plants against diseases, pests as well as competing weed and grasses. We – the staff of Kwizda Agro – always endeavour to support farmers with innovative andenvironment-friendly products to enable them to protect their cultivated plants against pests,diseases and weed and to produce on a more sustainable basis. Besides the best productsolutions, we also offer them know-how and advice. Agriculture faces tremendous challenges as the world population will grow from 6.

7 billion people today to 8. billion in 2030. Usable agricultural areas will, however, hardly expand.

In addition to food, animal feeding stuffs, renewable resources and energy crops have to beplanted on these areas. Plant protection products guarantee that these scarce resources areused optimally. They are therefore indispensable for ecological, economic and socialsustainability in agriculture. Modern farmers rely on “integrated plant protection,” keeping agricultural crops safe from pests, diseases and weed in an eco-friendly way and withoutdetrimental effects on health.

Chemical plant protection products form part of a modern, sustainably managed agriculture.

They help to ensure the high yield that today has become possible thanks to efficient varieties, good supply of the plants with nutrients and innovative agricultural engineering. Without plant protection products, cultivated plants are defenceless against pests and diseases. Fungi, animal pests and weed competing for nutrients, water and light endanger agricultural production, diminish the yield and impair quality. The result: The supply with and range of plant-based foodstuffs is reduced.

The consequence: Prices go up and the supply with foodstuffs is threatened. If the use of plant protection products is reduced by 75%, the production of fruit and vegetables drops by more than 30%, the production of grain by 40% and that of oil seeds even by more than 50%. (Michael Schmitz, University of Gie? en, 2002). To protect agricultural crops in an eco-friendly way against pests and diseases as well as to safeguard the quality and availability of the foodstuffs, optimised chemical plant protection is required.

In the past few decades, the plant protection industry has developed products that have targeted effects, are quickly biodegradable and do not pose any excessive risks to human beings and the environment. “Pest control” may be defined as chemical, physical or biological measures taken to combat plants, animals and micro-organisms regarded as pests which infest flora and fauna as well as people, their homes, workplaces and storage rooms. The principal task of a professional pest controller is to keep our present civilised environment as pest-free as possible.

Despite comprehensive measures in the health and hygiene sector, pests cannot be exterminated but may only be reduced to minimum levels by taking well-aimed measures. Nowadays, we constantly have to “master” new challenges – in the literal sense of the word – due to globalisation in every-day life. SARS, bird flu or other global phenomena are spreading rapidly. As a pest controller, we therefore have to make a contribution to minimising modern threats to human life. Pests are always involved in all these diseases, plagues or epidemics.

From history we know the famous rat flea, which in reality spread the plague and frightened people over centuries. As a pest controller, we have to do our share on a daily basis to make sure that this will never happen again. At Kwizda Agro, we declare quality, environmental compatibility and the connection with people to be the indispensible prerequisites for our successful work. This is because, as a reliable partner of European agriculture, we want to experience secure growth together.

Crop Protection and Pest Control Essay

Marigold Essay

Marigold Essay.

Marigold (Tagetes erecta) plants bear yellow or orange flowers. They have a pungent odor. This is due to terthienyl production. This compound repels mosquitoes and other insects. Farmers usually grow marigold as interval plants in their vegetable garden. Marigold plant is an excellent natural mosquito repellent. Hindus use marigold extensively to worship their deities at home and in the temples. Hindu women wear marigold flowers in their heads.

The rise of the use of essential oils has expanded herbal insect repellent possibilities.

At our house, where summer gardening is a daily effort, we have at various times used the essential oils of Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron L.), Marigold (Tagetes erecta) Citronella, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Geranium (Pelargonium roseum), Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), Peppermint (Mentha x piperita), Red Cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana) and Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) with great success. We use these oils either singly or in combinations diluted into hydrosol or water and sprayed liberally on our skin (taking care to avoid the eyes, of course) and clothes.

An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects. Insecticides are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, meaning they breakdown chemicals important in the nerves. Since insects do not have closed circulatory systems poison will travel faster to terminate the synaptic transmission.

As we know, common insecticides are harmful to the respiratory system. We aim to create an insecticide out of organic materials which will be eco-friendly and human friendly. Thus, the creation of this product will surely lead to a healthier environment. This will decrease the possible complications for respiratory diseases because according to the World Health Organization (WHO) approximately 220,000 people die each year because of pesticides. That’s why catnip turned into an insecticide will surely be a benefit to everyone.

Overall, we are planning to make a product of our own to help the environment and the people, we thought of something new, something that is safer and that is very useful, this product can be brought any where at anytime. It will also help lessen the mosquitoes which will bring harmful dieses in our homes. This insecticide will be eco-friendly, child-friendly and most of all wallet friendly.

Marigold Essay

Fiber Crops Production Essay

Fiber Crops Production Essay.

The Philippines is one of the world’s largest producers of fiber crops. It is blessed with optimal weather conditions, good types of soil, even distribution of rain throughout the year, and other related factors, which make growing fiber crops favorable. Abaca, cotton, maguey, pineapple, and ramie are just some fiber crops grown in the country. These crops are used in making different products sold in local and international markets. The raw materials we get from fiber crops are valued for their strength and durability.

These fiber crops provide us with materials use in making clothes, linen, bags, nets, slippers, doormats, mats, and others. Demands for fiber crops today are increasing in local and foreign markets. Due to high technology, production and processing of fiber crops have been made easy and accessible. Thus, increasing demands for fiber crops are easily met. Today, fiber crops are considered as one of the important agricultural products of the country.


Abaca – one of the valuable indigenous plants of the Philippines.

Abaca is a banana-like plant. The trunk of the plant consists of 92% water. The finer fibers, often about five meters (15 ft.) long, are used for weaving cloth. The outer, courser fibers are used in manufacturing matting and durable cordage. Abaca has numerous uses and products like Manila paper, copra bags, tea bags, coffee filters, and security and currency papers. Abaca leaves are used for shading and wrapping. Leaf sheaths are used for roofing and for shading newly transplanted seedling, while the dried outer leaf sheaths are used for making trays, bags, wall panelling, and place mats. In the Bicol region (Albay, Camarines, and Sorsogon), the most varieties of abaca grown are Itom, Itolus 45, Lausigon, Lausmug 24, Sagurud, Samina, Sugmad, and Tinawagan. Cotton – locally known as bulak. It is the most adaptable and one of the most widely used fibers. Cotton lint is the fiber used for textiles. Its fibers have a great economic importance as a raw material used in manufacturing cloth, knitted cotton, mattresses, pillows, threads, and twines.

Its widespread use is largely due to the ease in which its fibers can be spun into yarn. The strength, absorbency, and capacity of cotton to be washed and dyed also make it adaptable to a considerable variety of textile products. The varieties most recommended for planting are Batangas White and Kapas Purao. Maguey (Agave cantala) – its commercial production began in 1904. Moderate or short rainy seasons and long dry seasons are suitable for growing maguey. Too much rain is harmful to the plant. The fibers are dried and bleached during dry, warm, and bright days. The leaves of maguey are thick and pulpy with sharp points and spiny margins. The stalk or stem is stout and rather short. This plant grows slowly and flowers only once. It rises up to a height of six meters and has unpleasant odor.

Maguey fibers are used in making cloth, coiled basket, cord, fish net, hammock, sole of sued shoes, and others. The three famous varieties of maguey in the Philippines are Maguey (Agave cantala), Henequen (Agave fourcroydes), and Zapupe (Agave zapupe). Pineapple – Cabezine or the Queen Variety is the only variety of pineapple commonly raised for fiber production. This variety is used in producing piña jusi, which is the material in barong and other elegant filipiniana dresses. The Queen Variety has a smaller crown but has long and spiny leaves. The leaves grow to about 100 cm long and 6.5 cm wide. Pineapples may grow in almost every part of the Philippines especially in Cavite, Batangas, and Bukidnon. Ramie – recognized as a valuable commodity even in ancient China, where it is said to have originated.

Commercial demand for ramie is increasing due to its may uses. Ramie fibers are exceptionally long, lustrous, durable, soft, and stronger than cotton. Ramie is also resistant to chemicals and mildew. Ramie is also readily dyed but hard to spin. It is the strongest fiber crown known. Aside from its strength, ramie fiber does not stretch or shrink. Ramie is blended with cotton and other fibers to produce high-quality upholstery materials, tapestries, clothing, bags, ropes, insulation for cables, fish lines, nets, shoelaces, and other materials. The famous variety of ramie is Boehmeria nivea. This variety is indigenous to China and to known as China grass.

Preparing the Soil for Planting Fiber Crops

Land preparation is either done by animal or mechanical power. Harrowing and plowing must be done thoroughly so that the soil will be pulverized well. If harrowing and plowing are done correctly, weeds and insect eggs that might be in the soil will be destroyed. Sites for planting fiber crops (except for abaca) need to be plowed and harrowed twice. Do the second tillage option at least one week after the first to make sure that weeds are already dry.

Planting Fiber Crops


If the planting of abaca is to be done on a cleaned land and if plowing and harrowing have already been done, holes should be dug mechanically. The size of the holes should vary from 40-50 cm in diameter and 30-40 cm deep. Digging holes ca be also done manually. There are three ways of spacing abaca when planting. These are square, quincunx, and double-row methods. Square Method – the abaca suckers or rootstocks are planted in holes three meters apart along the vertical row and also three meters along the horizontal row.

Quincunx Method – the plants are planted three meters apart along the first horizontal row. The first plant in the second horizontal row is set between the first and the second plants of the first horizontal row in such a way that the three plants are equidistant from each other. All the plants in the second horizontal row are also spaced three meters apart. Double-row Method – the spacing of the first two plants along the first horizontal row is three meters apart, the third plant is spaced five meters from the second, the third and the fourth plants are spaced three meters apart, and so on. Each plant in a pair is spaced three meters apart from each other, and each pair is five meters away from the next pair.


Treat the cottonseeds before planting. Seeds should be sown at a distance of 30 cm between rows and 100 cm between hills. Plant three to seed per hill. If the seedlings are overcrowded per hill, thinning can be done. Unless the seeds show a good probability of germination, the number of seeds sown per hill may be decreased.


In planting maguey, the distance between rows is 2.5 or 3 m and 2 or 2.5 m between rows. If plants have been planted very close to one another, the leaves may cross and cut each other during strong winds. If the area for planting maguey is arid and rocky, extra soil preparation is no longer needed. A little weeding and digging of holes for the plants can be done. The propagating materials used for planting maguey are seeds, bulbs, and suckers. Seed are rarely used for commercial planting. If bulbs are to be used, they should be grown first in a nursery bed until they reach a height of about 30 cm before transplanting. On the other hand, suckers of about 30 cm high can be planted as soon as they are cut from the parent plants. Plant suckers perfectly upright so as not to allow soil to fall in between the leaves or else the plants will rot.


Pineapple is asexually propagated using suckers (develop from the leaf axils of the stem), slips (developed from the flower stalks), and crowns (leafy green tops of the fruit). Seldom does a grower use seeds as propagating material. Pineapples are planted two to five rows per bed with a distance of 30-46 cm between hills and 45-50 cm between rows. Crown bear fruits in 22-24 months, slips in 20 months, and suckers in 17 months. To avoid damaging the planting materials and sand sifting into the bud, do not plant them to deep on the ground.


Ramie plant can be sexually and asexually propagated. Seeds are seldom used for planting ramie. The method used in planting is the indirect method, wherein seeds are sown first into a seed box or seedbed. After two to three weeks, seedlings can be transplanted into the field. In the commercial scale propagation of ramie, asexual propagation is employed using mature cuttings or reproductive roots (rhizomes). Choose brown stems (preferably the size of a lead pencil) with three to four nodes and at least half to one foot long. Cuttings are planted in a slanting position at 45 degrees, one to two inches deep in the furrows, and covered with soil. The time of planting depends on the locality, while distance of planting depends on soil variety and fertility.

Appropriate Water Supply for Growing Fiber Crops

Like any other plants, fiber crops need enough water supply. The rainy season is appropriate for planting fiber crops. Water is essential during the time of planting, transplanting, growth, and development of fiber crops like cotton, ramie, and jute. However, drought-resistant fiber crops like abaca, maguey, and pineapple need less water when fully developed. The following methods of irrigation could be used: overhead irrigation, surface irrigation, and subsurface irrigation.

Control of Weeds

Cultivation of soil aids in controlling the weeds before further damage may happen. In the production of fiber crops, weeding is done as soon as weeds are present. Control weeds by practicing the following:

using clean planting materials
preparing the soil thoroughly
observing crop rotation and cover cropping
using recommended chemicals for weeds

Application of Fertilizers

Comprehensive soil testing and analysis should be done before applying fertilizers. The following are the recommendation in applying fertilizers to different fiber crops. Abaca – is a heavy feeder of nitrogen, pottasium, and calcium; it needs less phosphorus than other fiber crops. The application of fertilizers for abaca may differ according to variety. To get the right amount of fertilizer nutrients, detailed soil and tissue analysis is recommended for abaca plantation. The ring method of fertilizer application is done in two equal splits, first on the onset and last towards the end of the rainy season. A farmer may use 75 g of urea per hill three months after planting and 150 g after six months. After nine months, 150 g of urea is applied. On the 12th month, another 150 g is applied.

Cotton – has extensive requirements for macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium). At planting time, all of the phosphate and potassium and at least one-third of the necessary nitrogen should be applied while the remaining nitrogen may be applied two or three months later. Apply two to three bags of urea by side dressing. The next application is done before the flowering stage. The fertilizer to be used for the second stage is two to three bags of muriate of potash. In some situations, complete fertilizer is applied twice or thrice before harvesting. Maguey – a single application of fertilizer through basal or side dressing is necessary. If side dressing is desired, do the application when the plants are two to three weeks old. Apply fertilizers with high nitrogen content. Use four bags per hectare.

Pineapple – apply the following fertilizers with the prescribed amount per hectare: 450-670 kg of nitrogen, 70-125 kg of phosphorus, and 220-460 kg of potassium. Ramie – a rate of 250-450 kg of ammonium sulfate is applied depending on soil condition. Other fertilizer used can be animal manure, guano, cut leaves, tops, flowers, pulp, and bagasse, which are applied at different rates. Fertilizers should be applied as top dressing before planting and after each harvest. Just before planting, apply fertilizers in the shallow furrows of the planted cuttings or as top dressing after cutting and weeding the plants.

Pests and Diseases of Fiber Crops and Their Control

Plant Pests

1.Cotton bug – this pest causes young shoots and leaves to deform and wrinkle. To control these insects, spray any commercial non-selective insecticide. 2.Cutworm and armyworm – this worm usually feeds on foliage and leaves of the plants. To control these worms, apply any available commercial contact poison. 3.Fruit and stem borer – the young larva of this insects bores its way into the fruit and eats its way around the interior. To control these insects, spray plants with non-selective insecticides. 4.Greek leafhopper – this insect destroys the plants by sucking the juice of the leaves. When there is a serious attack, the leaves turn yellow and eventually drop off. Spray the leaves with non-selective insecticides. 5.Japanese snail – this snail eats the leaves and foliage of the plants. Spray with any recommended suspension. 6.Leaf roller – this chewing insect causes unwanted folding of leaves and stunted growth of plants. To control these insects, use soap solution or any available commercial poison.


1.Abaca mosaic – the first symptoms of this disease is the presence of small and yellowish white dots on unopened or newly expanded leaves. Later, mottling will show on the leaves. These leaves then turn brown to reddish brown and eventually dry out. To control this disease, cut and bur the infected plants. 2.Dumping off – this disease affects the seedlings. The seedlings will just fall down and rot until they die. To control this, sterilize the soil before planting and observe proper tillage operation to expose the soil directly to sunlight. 3.Leaf spot – the manifestation of this disease is the appearance of yellow to brown spots on the leaves. During heavy manifestation, this disease may cause defoliation and decrease in the production of fruits. To control this disease, use available fungicides and observe preventive measures.


Like any other crop, harvesting fiber crops requires proper timing to achieve optimum results, maximum yields, and desirable quality of production. Be patient and observe correct timing in fiber crop production to achieve success in the business. Abaca – stalks are ready for harvesting when flowers start to bloom and when flag leaves and narrow leaves appear. Abaca is best harvested from 18 to 20 months after the planting period if seed pieces are used as planting material. Succeeding harvest can be done at an interval of three to four months. Cotton – flowering begins eight to eleven weeks after planting. Each individual ball (cotton fruit) will mature in six to eight weeks after blooming. Harvesting of cotton balls is usually four months after cottonseeds are sown. However, harvest sometimes depend on the variety used. the interval of harvesting may be done at least 5-7 days. cotton is already mature and ready fro harvest when it turns brown and starts to crack.

Harvesting cotton is usually done during dry weather. Cotton balls are usually handpicked and placed in a dry sack or container. Avoid losses and great damage by preventing the balls from dropping on the ground. Maguey – after 5 to 7 months of planting, maguey can be harvested. Harvest first the mature leaves on the base of the plant. As the leaves complete their period of maturity, they can be scheduled for harvesting. Harvesting and retting is usually done during the summer months since the fiber is dries in the open. Generally, ten to thirty leaves are cut from plants cropped once a year, while thirty to eighty leaves are cropped every two years in some places.

Pineapple – as soon as pineapple plants start to bear fruits, harvesting of pineapple leaves to be used in the production of fiber may start. Like maguey, leaves on the base are harvested first before the upper leaves. Careful selection of the leaves for pineapple fiber must be done to be able to get a very long, strong, and pliable material, which at least a year old. Young leaves produce weak and soft fibers, while overmature ones give coarse, brittle,a nd short fibers. Ramie – harvesting ramie can be done after 60 to 90 days or two to three months from the period that it has been planted when brown patches appear at the back of the stem and when most of the panicles (loosely branched flowers clusters) of the leaf clusters turn brown. These changes signal that ramie has reached its maturity and is ready for cutting.

Sources:,; Photos:,,,

Fiber Crops Production

Fiber Crops Production Essay

Malunggay Oleifera as Cleaning Agent Essay

Malunggay Oleifera as Cleaning Agent Essay.

Cleaning agent refers to all compositions intended to be used in connection with and for increasing the effectiveness of cleaning activities. Cleaning agent includes but is not limited to hard surface cleaning compositions (kitchen, bathroom, floor, general household & glass cleaning compositions), detergents, dishwashing and food cleaning compositions, disinfectants and the like. The term cleaning as used here in refers to those activities which involve the removal of undesirable residues from surfaces and particularly includes activities such as chemical, mechanical and thermal cleaning activities as well as combinations thereof.

Malunggay (Moringa oleifera) is called a miracle vegetable because it is not only a food, it is also a medicine. It may therefore be a functional food. This plant tree is not only useful but it is the most nutritional vegetable and a herbal plant. Its flowers, leaves, young pods and roots are being utilized. It is native to India but has spread to other tropical regions; in The Philppines, it grows rapidly and with ease in nearly every backyard when desired.

Its leaves contain different amino acids such as cholesterol enzyme. This study was conducted because the researcher wanted to know if the malunggay leaves can be an effective cleaning agent to household stains. Through this the researcher will determine the effect of malunggay leaves to commong household stains. This is why the research study was conceived.

The purpose of this study is to investigate malunggay leaves as cleaning agent. The malunggay leaves were separated from the stalk, pounded using the mortar and pestle until the extract comes out. The pounded malunggay leaves were mixed with baking soda and then water. The purpose of baking soda is to increase the effectivity of the product. The product was then placed in a container. Using the sponge, apply the mixture on stained areas (kitchen sink, refrigerator wall and tile wall). After applying the mixture on stained areas, rinse immediately. Observation was then done.

Background of the Study This study was conducted because the researcher wanted to know if the malunggay leaves can be an effective cleaning agent to household stains. Through this the researcher will determine the effect of malunggay leaves to common household stains. This is why the purpose of this study is to investigate malunggay leaves as cleaning agent. Research study is conceived.

Malunggay (Moringa oleifera) is called a miracle vegetable because it is not only a food, it is also a medicine. It may therefore be a functional food. This plant tree is not only useful but it is the most nutritional vegetable and a herbal plant. Its flowers, leaves, young pods and roots are being utilized. It is native to India but has spread to other tropical regions; in the Philippines, it grows rapidly and with ease in nearly every backyard when desired.

Malunggay has also earned the name Nature’s Medicine Cabinet because of it has 90 nutrients, 46 antioxidants, 36 anti-inflammatory properties, 18 amino acids, anti-cancer properties, anti-bacterial properties, anti-aging properties, properties that keep bad cholesterol in check, omega-3 oils, and chlorophyll.

Objectives of the Study The study seeks to meet the following objectives: 1. To determine the effect of Malunggay (Moringa oleifera) leaves on common household stains. 2. Besides all of the other uses of Malunggay, the researcher would like to determine a new use of the malunggay leaves (Moringa oleifera leaves) by experimenting. And to compare the Malunggay cleaning agent with commercial one.

Statement of Problem The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1. Can the Malunggay leaves be an effective cleaning agent on common household stains? 2. Is there any significant difference in the effect between Malunggay agent and the Powerclean that can be found on commercial stores?

Hypotheses The researcher considers the following hypotheses of the study: 1. Yes, malunggay can be an effective cleaning agent on common household stains. 2. There is no significant difference between the Malunggay cleaning agent and the commercial one.

Scope and Delimitation In this topic, the branch of science that is being covered is Chemistry. Since this project involves, a mixture of compounds, elements or compounds and elements that is not a chemical substance, but may be called a chemical. This experiments is only after the effects of pounded malunggay leaves on common household stains. Other related matters such as longevity of the effects of the said leaves is no longer honored in this study.

Significance of Study This research study can contribute an idea to young minds (specifically, the students) in creating new alternative cleaning agents derived from any abundant plants. Research studies like this develops the value of resourcefulness and open-mindedness to young researchers and if landed on the right abundant plant, this will serve as an everyday use to clean common household stains.

Definition of Terms Cleaning Agent. A spray substance, usually liquid, that is used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells and clutter in solid surfaces. Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) synonym- Moringa pterygosperma The most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. English common names include moringa, benzolive tree, and West Indian ben. It is also known as drumstick tree, from the appearance of the long, slender, triangular seed pods, horseradish tree, from the taste of the roots which resembles horseradish, or ben oil tree, from the oil derived from the seeds. The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping branches that grow to approximately 10m in height. In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1-2 meters and allowed to regrow so the pods and leaves remain within arm’s reach.

Malunggay Oleifera as Cleaning Agent Essay

Agar Plate and Cobra Vine Plant Essay

Agar Plate and Cobra Vine Plant Essay.

I. Product Background

A. Introduction

In this highly luxurious extravagant world, food and other beverages has always been one of the things which maintain the mainstream of life. Aside from being one of the basics for survival, gatherings are also made perfect by food preparation and stress is now often associated with food. This activities show that food intake nowadays is far different from the conventional times. Furthermore, this lavish lifestyle most of the people have results in an unhealthy body.

On the other hand, poverty and starvation is widespread throughout the whole country. Diseases are common and nourishment is worst. People of this class only earn enough for their basic necessities or even lesser. Some cannot merely afford buying medicine and ignore the complications they have. In response to this situations, the researchers have decided to make a common commodity, juice, out of a native herbal source, cobra vine (Ipomoea nil).

B. Idea of the product

The researchers addressed the problems with costly medicines.

They have decided to make a better and proven alternative. Cobra vine, a native herbal plant, is well known for its medicinal capabilities. It is a perfect alternative in the form of juice.

C. Research of the product

The plant serves as replacement for costy medicine. Based upon the interviews and research, cobra vine seeds produce an alternative low cost and environmental friendly medicine. Since cobra vine plant is commonly found in our locality, it’s never hard to produce such. In the next page is a table showing some of the native procedures in curing diseases. Table 1: Cobra Vine Usage

Diseases| Preparation| Dosage|

FatigueThroat DiseaseHeart Disease| Pulverize 3 cobra vine seeds into fine coarse. Decoction may be considered for this and prepare 500 ml of water and 4-5 cobra vine leaves. Bring to a boil and serve.Decoction must be used. 4-5 cobra-vine leaves with 500 ml of water and bring it to a boil. Or as desired.Pulverize 3-4 cobra vine seeds into fine coarse. Be sure it is pulverized thoroughly that it is already sand-like.| 2-3 times a day or as desired2-3 times a day or as desired2-3 times a day or as desired|

D. Related Literature

Ipomoea is a group of perennial or annual vines as well as evergreen shrubs and perennials. The vine requires support, full sun and humus rich soil. They are frost tender at 45-50F. Red spider mite and white fly can occasionally cause problems. Can be propagated through spring seeds or summer cuttings. They are not related to convolvus arvensis. This annual sometimes taken as perennial in tropical climates, blooms from summer to winter, funnel shaped flowers with purple or red petal lobes (between the edge and midway). Foliage is green on hairy, green stems. Early call is an annual that blooms in white tubes with red tubes in the edge of the midrib. Ipomoea is obviously a flowering plant. It is a vine with long slender stems and simple leaves that occur in pairs. It has an extensive root system.

E. Related Studies

Anti-neurotoxic effect of cobra vine seeds (Ipomoea nil): A potential therapy for snakebites. (Aparente, E.G.)

The project investigates the effectiveness of cobra vine needs (Ipomoea nil) as anti-neurotoxin. The cobra vine seeds were extracted using the solvents ethyl acetate and methanol, and in another set, by methanol and toluene. The filtrates were then dried separately in vacuo and attached to a ROTAVAP apparatus. The gastrocnemius muscle of a frog was used to determine the activity of both the cobra toxin and antivenin in 5 different time intervals in the first experiment and 2 time intervals in the second experiment using a Kymograph. The amplitude (mm) of muscle contraction was measured in the kymograph at regular intervals. The amount of toxin and antivenin applied were the parameters used in determining its effectiveness as anti-neurotoxin.

Out of the kymographic study, clear pictures of the cobra toxin and antivenin action were presented. In the first experiment (solvents Methanol and Ethyl Acetate), within twenty minutes observation period after injection of the venom, the muscle became less responsive to the four volts stimulus as shown in the decreasing amplitude (Plate 8). Twenty minutes after injection of the cobra toxin, the antivenin was injected. The muscle, which was almost paralyzed, contracted vigorously that brought back even higher than normal contraction of the muscle, as shown in Fig 1. The second experiment consists of three set-ups; set-up 1&2 (Fig. 4&5) as the action potential determiners of venom and anti-neurotoxin and set-up 3 a combination of both set-ups. Set-up3 showed the same inhibitory action for the venom and staircase effect after the antivenin was injected, which had a milder effect than the first one (Figs. 2,3,4)

ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference on the amplitude of muscle contraction between the muscle injected with venom and anti-venin (250mg/mL concentration). A Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) test was conducted to know the number of possible components in the cobra vine seeds. In the first experiment, the test showed that there were 7 components in the plant sample while the second revealed 5 components.

Cobra Vine (Ipomoea nil) as Anti-Bacterial Agent
(Kara Valle)

The researchers aim to discover the potentiality of Cobra Vine Leaves as Anti-bacterial agent through an experimental method. The material needed were gathered and then autoclaved to be sterilized. Approximately 15ml of molten agar were poured into sterilized Petri dishes. The researchers allowed the agar to solidify and exposed the plate with agar to the atmosphere for 5 minutes and immediately sealed the dish with masking tape. Incubate at 37 degrees Celsius.

Poured 20ml of sterile agar medium into sterile plates. Then for the preparation of the cobra vine leaves, the researchers got the extract using cheese cloth and mortar and pestle. Five replicates having four wells shall be placed with different treatments. Treatment A, 1ml of pure extract; treatment B, 1ml of alcohol; and treatment C, 1 ml of antibiotic. Measured the zones of inhibition in mm. Took the average of each extract and computed the antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion method.

Two-way ANOVA with replication was the test used. Since the computed value is less than the tabular value, the researchers rejected the alternative hypotheses and accepted the null hypotheses. Therefore, the potential of cobra vine leaves extract as an antibacterial agent does not have a significant difference from the commercial ones.

II. Need Assessment

The fact that alternatives are always sought after because of its safety and cost urge the researchers to propose another herbal supplement. Cobra vine, a native growing vine, is known for curing varying illnesses. Some of these are stomachache, heart diseases, problems accompanied with throat, skin diseases, etc. It is also known to be an energy drink.

III. Market Segmentation

Basis : Demographic
Applied to the product : Middle age and above
Population : Out of the totality of the population, about 50% is in need of the product.
Target Market :Approximately, 80% out of the 50% is willing and able to buy the product.

IV. Product Positioning

Our product is to be positioned as the challenger. There are a lot of herbal alternatives already existing. They have established trust and accountability to people. It is a big challenge for our product to top them all but it really would for it is unique and it is proven effective beyond reasonable doubt.

Agar Plate and Cobra Vine Plant Essay

Pandan as Cockroach Repellent Essay

Pandan as Cockroach Repellent Essay.

Any home can have cockroaches. They are scavengers and a health hazard. While walking on spoiled food in garbage containers, they pick up various bacterial organisms on their legs that they can later deposit on uncovered food. Cockroaches themselves are not implicated in the transmission of any diseases. However, many disease-causing organisms can grow and multiply in their guts and can then be deposited on silverware, plates etc. during defecation. For example, cockroaches can pick up disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella on their legs and later deposit them on foods and cause food poisoning.

People continuously exposed to dust containing cockroach feces and crushed body parts become sensitized and may show allergic reaction and asthma after repeated exposure to such dust. ( american)

Pest repellent plants are herbs, flowers and vegetables naturally capable of driving away pests, insects and animals through normal organic chemical means. Their leaves and other plant parts contain organic compounds that confuses or pushes away harmful pests.

Pandanus amaryllifolius is a tropical plant in the Pandanus (screwpine) genus.

The plant is rare in the wild, but is widely cultivated. It is an upright, green plant with fan-shaped sprays of long, narrow, bladelike leaves and woody aerial roots. The plant is sterile, flowers only very rarely, and is propagated by cuttings. In Southeast Asia, Pandan leaves are used widely as a flavoring and also used as a source of fragrance. However, the same fragrance that attracts people is found to be repulsive to cockroaches. Many people in the Pandan’s native region use the leaves to repel insect pests. The researcher preferred to used pandan leaves because of its availability and to determine its effect in cockroaches in different preparation of mixture.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to produce an effective pest repellant using the extract of Pandan leaves. Specifically, this investigatory project aims to: (1.) To know the effectiveness of Pandan extract in different treatment:

1.1 T1- Control
1.2 T2- Boiled extract of Pandan leaves
1.3 T3- Fermented extract of chopped Pandan leaves
1.4 T4- Mixed extract of boiled and fermented Pandan leaves

(2.) Find out the significant difference in the effect of different treatments in terms of:
2.1 Pest Intolerance
2.2 Number of cockroaches repelled

Significance of the Study

If the study “Production of pest repellent using Pandan Leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius) against Home Cockroach” was conducted and successfully proven, the following person will benefit: To the home owners: The infested house will decrease the population of cockroaches with little or no expense at all. It also helps to avoid diseases that we can get in cockroaches like food poisoning, allergies, dysentery and typhoid. To the community and environment: This will help our community to realize that plants in the environment are not only a herbal plant, food flavorings or a display in our backyard but also to decrease the population of pests. It also helps the environment to conceive how some plants in their environment can alter into useful products To the future researchers: The result of this study will serve as their guide in conducting the experiment related to this.

Scope and Limitation

This study will be conducted to make an effective cockroach repellent through extracting Pandan leaves. The researchers use the method of fermentation and boiling to get the Pandan leaves’ extract. Significant differences on the effectiveness of those formulated solution will be also considered. This study will focus on determining effectiveness of the Pandan leaves in different treatments. The study will be conducted on November to December 2012 at Ramirez residence.

Review of Related Literature

It is said that taxi drivers in Singapore and Malaysia keep bunches of pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in their taxis to ward off cockroaches. An analysis of the volatile essential oils of P. amaryllifolius by MacLeod and Pieris (1982) revealed that this species contains mainly terpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (6-42%), as well as a major aroma component – 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) (Yoshihashi, 2002). The presence of essential oils, i.e. mixtures consisting predominantly of mono- and sesquiterpene derivatives, accounts for the insect-repellent and attractant properties associated with some aromatic plants (Herout, 1970; Rice, 1983). Previous studies have established significant repellent activity of P. amaryllifolius against American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana L.) (Ahmad et al, 1995), but similar effects against other species of cockroaches have not yet been looked into.

Pandan leaves contain a number of essential oils and chemicals that cockroaches find unpleasant. Terpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons make up between 6 and 42 percent of the oils in these leaves, according to the National University of Singapore researchers. Pandan also contains 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, or 2AP, a substance that repels both American and German cockroach species in test studies. (Pandan Leaves for Insect Repellent | http: // 872 662_pandan-leaves-insect-repel lent.html) While pandan leaves contain substances repellent to cockroaches, they actually discourage these pest at a lower rate than other plants from the same geographical region.

Pandan leaves are less potent than lemongrass, cinnamon, clove, ginger and turmeric, requiring a greater concentration of their essential oils to have the same effect. Chemically-extracted oils tend to produce a greater repellent effect than the leaves themselves, but the extraction process sometimes degrades the repellent chemicals. The Singapore study recommends using a combination of 2AP and pandan essence for best effect. (Pandan Leaves for Insect Repellent | http: // 872 662_pandan-leaves-insect-repellent.html)


A 12”x 16” plastic container will be used in the study. A 3” diameter plate will be placed at the center. It is sprayed by the treatment placing the bait on the plate. Ten (10) sprays for each treatment. Five (5) cockroaches will be placed at the container. Home cockroaches (American Cockroach, German cockroach, Oriental cockroach) utilized in the study were gathered at Florague’s residence.

The following treatments that will be use in this study are the following:
T1 – Baygon (Control)
T2 – Boiled extract of Pandan leaves
T3- Fermented extract of chopped Pandan leaves
T4- Mixed extract of boiled and fermented Pandan leaves

Preparation of Different Pandan Extract

A. Preparation for Boiled Extract of Pandan Leaves

Collect 2-3 (10g) leaves of pandan in the garden and wash. Put the leaves into 100ml of water. Boil it for 3 minutes. Let it cool for 5 minutes. Pour the mixture in the sprayer. B. Preparation for Fermented Extract of Chopped Pandan Leaves Collect 2-3 (10g) leaves of pandan in the garden. Wash the leaves and chop it using knife or bolo. Add 100 ml of water and mix thoroughly. Pour the mixture in a container. Wait for 24 hours. Pour the mixture in the sprayer. C. Preparation for Mixed extract of Boiled and Fermented Pandan leaves Mix 50ml of boiled extract pandan leaves and 50ml of fermented extract of chopped pandan leaves. Pour the mixture in the sprayer.

Data to be gathered
The following data will be gathered;

1. Pest Intolerance (mins). This is determined by measuring the time when the cockroach comes into the bait and when it leaves. 2. Number of cockroaches repelled. This is measured by counting the cockroaches repelled by the treatment.

Literature Cited
G.D. Palmer. 2009. Pandan Leaves for Insect Repellent <URL: /info_8725662_pandan- leaves-insect- repellent.html> Accessed 19 July 2012 Li J. and Ho S.H. (2003). Pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) As A Natural Cockroach Repellent <URL: 2003/Proceedings/abstract/NUS_FoS/TDP%20USP/Li%20Jingmei.pdf> Accessed 19 July 2012 New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Environmental Health Services <URL: american> Accessed 15 July 2012

Pandan as Cockroach Repellent Essay

Akapulko Case Essay

Akapulko Case Essay.

Plant Description:

Akapulko is a coarse, erect, branched shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high. Leaves are pinnate and 40 to 60 centimeters long, with orange rachis on stout branches. Each leaf has 16 to 28 leaflets, 5 to 15 centimeters in length, broad and rounded at the apex, with a small point at the tip. Leaflets gradually increase in size from the base towards the tip of the leaf. Inflorescences are terminal and at the axils of the leaves, in simple or panicled racemes, and 10 to 50 centimeters long. Flowers are yellow, about 4 centimeters inn diameter, at the axils of thin, yellow, oblong, concave bracts which are 2.

5 to 3 centimeters long. Pod is rather straight, dark brown or nearly black, about 15 centimeters long and 15 millimeters wide. On both sides of the pods there is a wing that runs the length of the pod. Pod contains 50 to 60 flattened, triangular seeds.

Plant Distribution:

* Abundant throughout the Philippines in settled areas at low and medium altitudes. * Occasionally planted as ornamental or for its medicinal properties.

* Introduced from tropical America; now pantropic.

Plant Parts used:

Leaves, flowers and seeds


* Chrysophanic acid (chrysophanol); oxymethyl anthraquinone, 2.2%; aloe-emodin; rhein; cassiaxanthone; tannins; saponins; alkaloids. * Study of chemical constituents yielded 12 compounds: chrysoeriol, kaempferol, quercetin, 5,7,4′-trihydroflavanone, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1–>6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 17-hydrotetratriacontane, n-dotriacontanol, n-triacontanol, palmitic acid ceryl ester, stearic acid, palmitic acid. * Phytochemical studies of crude extract of stem bark yielded important secondary metabolites – tannins, steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenes, carbohydrates and saponins.


* Saponin acts as a laxative and expels intestinal parasites. * Its fungicide property derives from chrysophanic acid. * Plant considered alterative, abortifacient, aperient, purgative, sudorific, hydragogue, diuretic, vermifuge.

Uses and Treatment:

* External Use:
* Treatment of skin diseases such as Tinea infections, insect bites, ringworms, eczema, scabies and itchiness.
* Mouthwash in stomatitis
* Internal Use:
* Expectorant for bronchitis and dyspnea
* Alleviation of asthma symptoms
* Used as diuretic and purgative
* For cough & fever
* As a laxative to expel intestinal parasites and other stomach problems. Note: A strong decoction of Akapulko leaves is an abortifacient. Pregnant women should not take decoction of the leaves or any part of this plant.


* For external use, pound the leaves of the Akapulko plant, squeeze the juice and apply on affected areas. * As the expectorant for bronchitis and dyspnoea, drink decoction (soak and boil for 10 to 15 minutes) of Akapulko leaves. The same preparation may be used as a mouthwash, stringent, and wash for eczema. * As laxative, cut the plant parts (roots, flowers, and the leaves) into a manageable size then prepare a decoction. Note: The decoction loses its potency if not used for a long time. Dispose leftovers after one day. * The pounded leaves of Akapulko has purgative functions, specifically against ringworms.

It should be noted that the pounded leaves of this plant may be applied thinly on the affected part twice a day. Marked improvement may be expected after two to three weeks of continuous application to the affected area(s) where the prepared Akapulko leaves were applied.


Akapulko. Philippine Herbal Medicine. Retrieved December 23, 2012, from

Akapulko. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Retrieved December 23, 2012, from

Akapulko Case Essay

Jackfruit as Oil Essay

Jackfruit as Oil Essay.

Statement of the Problem

Oil price hike is one of the major problems in the country. To help in the production of oil we must utilize whatever things we have abundantly and use it to lessen if not totally eradicate the problem. This project will try to increase the sources of oil to lower its price and I recommend the use of plant oil like oil from Jackfruit seeds because plant oil is healthier.

It answers the following questions
-Can you extract oil from jackfruit seeds?
-Is jackfruit always available in the market?
-How can oil from jackfruit seed extract help people?
-Is this project beneficial to everyone?

Significance of the Study

This study is an important way to help lessen oil importation.

Jackfruit seeds will be used as an alternative source of oil. It is because of the availability of jackfruit in the market. Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) an indigenous fruit tree is widely distributed throughout many tropical countries, including the Philippines, both cultivated and wild.

It also has the properties and substances good oil has. Basically everyone who uses oil will benefit from this study. It will also have a positive effect on countries that will use it for the supply and demand of oil will be met. As for consumer attitude toward purchasing this product, I believe the key issue is whether consumers” get it”.

Do consumers who purchase sustainable products like cooking oil from jackfruit do so because it’s something new, because the oil is cheap, because they feel pressured to turnover a new leaf by all the problems in the oil industry, or because they believe in the sustainability of sustainability? While any of these motives is better than none at all, it’s not necessarily true that more is better´ when it comes to sale of these products. Only a lasting change in mindset toward production and consumption – not merely the sale of these products will establish sustainability for the long haul. This research can also help future investigation on related topics.

Scope and Limitation

This research was investigated with the help of articles in Wikipedia and Google although there was limited information available, the project was done thoroughly. The coverage of this investigatory project spans from investigating the possible solutions to oil problems, availability of materials, time that will be consumed while making the project and the actual creation of the product. The scope of my investigation is from how to extract the oil from the seeds of the Jackfruit up to how safe the product is, which took me seven (7) days to finish. Doing this project alone made it very hard for me for oil production is a hard and long process. With all the projects and other school works due almost at the same time, my schedule in this project is limited. But as it is, the project was a success and I was able to get the oil that I need.

Review of Related Literature

Information about my topic is limited. Only a few are available in the internet and some can be seen in the high school library. Others have researched about my topic and results vary on the ripeness of the seeds of the jackfruit. I have come to know that unripe jackfruit seeds produce more quality oil than that of the ripe and overly ripe.

Kind of Jackfruit seedAmount and quality of oil
One half kilo of unripe seed2 tbsp. of transparent oil
One half kilo of ripe seed1 and a half tbsps. of less transparent oil One half kilo of over-ripe seed1 tsp. of unclear oil


The materials needed to extract oil from jackfruit seeds are, one half kilo unripe jackfruit seeds, grater, mortar and pestle, fine cloth, pan and stove for heating and bottle container for the finished product. The procedure is to gather the jackfruit seeds and extract liquid from it with the use of a grater, mortar and pestle, strain the mixture pressing the juice out using fine cloth. The juice was boiled until oil starts to appear and the residue turns brown, The oil was removed from the heat and cooled then strained again to get the pure oil from the seed. The process produced a more viscous oil than that of those commercial ones.

Jackfruit as Oil Essay

Mammal and Sloths Essay

Mammal and Sloths Essay.

The sloth is the world’s slowest mammal, so sedentary that algae grows on its furry coat. The plant gives it a greenish tint that is useful camouflage in the trees of its Central and South American rain forest home.

Sloths are identified by the number of long, prominent claws that they have on each front foot. There are both two-toed and three-toed sloths.

All sloths are built for life in the treetops. They spend nearly all of their time aloft, hanging from branches with a powerful grip aided by their long claws.

(Dead sloths have been known to retain their grip and remain suspended from a branch.) Sloths even sleep in trees, and they sleep a lot—some 15 to 20 hours every day. Even when awake they often remain motionless. At night they eat leaves, shoots, and fruit from the trees and get almost all of their water from juicy plants.

Sloths mate and give birth while hanging in the trees.

Three-toed sloth babies are often seen clinging to their mothers—they travel by hanging on to them for the first nine months of their lives.

On land, sloths’ weak hind legs provide no power and their long claws are a hindrance. They must dig into the earth with their front claws and use their strong front legs to pull themselves along, dragging their bellies across the ground. If caught on land, these animals have no chance to evade predators, such as big cats, and must try to defend themselves by clawing and biting.

Though they couldn’t be clumsier on land, sloths are surprisingly good swimmers. They sometimes fall directly from rain forest trees into rivers and stroke efficiently with their long arms.

The three-toed sloth emits a long, high-pitched call that echoes through the forests as “ahh-eeee.” Because of this cry these sloths are sometimes called ais (pronounced “eyes”).

Three-toed sloths also have an advantage that few other mammals possess: They have extra neck vertebrae that allows them to turn their heads some 270 degrees.

Mammal and Sloths Essay

Transpiration Lab Write Up Essay

Transpiration Lab Write Up Essay.

Transpiration is the evaporation of water from plants. It’s not simply a hazard of plant life but it’s the engine that pulls water from the roots to cool the leaf and supply photosynthesis. The concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere is lower than that in the leaf. Because of this difference, water vapor diffuses from the spaces of the leaf, through the stomata in the epidermis. Stomata are in the lower epidermis; the lower surface receives less radiation from the sun that’s why it reduces water loss (Sadava 2010).

Each stoma allows carbon dioxide to enter for photosynthesis white water evaporates through each one in transpiration. The plant uses transpiration to pull the water up against gravity. Water can be pulled upward through tiny tubes because of the remarkable cohesion of water so that they form a continuous stream extending from leaves to root. The integrity of the column is also maintained by the adhesion of water to the xylem walls (Pidwirny, 2006).

These are important facts because when water is sticking together it means more water is pulled up the stem to replace the water loss.

Evaporation is the process of water changing from a liquid into a gas (Pidwirny, 2006). Transpiration is the evaporation of water from a plant’s flowers, stem or leaves back into the atmosphere. That’s how they are linked together. The question is what factors affect transpiration? The environmental factors that affect the rate of transpiration are light, temperature, humidity, wind and soil water (Sadava, 2010). In lab 3b, all of the plants in this experiment will lose a lot of water through transpiration, but those affected by the light and the fan will lose a larger amount of water.

Then the hypothesis can be factors that increase evaporation will increase transpiration. Plants transpire actively in the light than in the dark, lights also speeds up transpiration by warming the leaf. When there’s no wind the air surrounding the leaf will become increasingly humid, causing the rate of transpiration to reduce. So the prediction will be light and wind combined will result in the highest rate of transpiration. Methods I used the lab protocol 3b Plant Transport in the Lab manual to complete this experiment in order to collect all the data. Our group followed exactly very step in the manual.

There weren’t any changes in protocol. Leady, B. (2012). Fundamentals of Life Science Lab Manual. Plymouth, MI: Hayden-McNeil Pubishing. Results This is the data measuring the water loss in different conditions. These are the results of how the water level changed under the control, wind, light and the combination of light and wind in 0-20 minutes. The graph below is based on the numbers on the data chart. Discussion/ Conclusion What factors affect transpiration? The factors that affect transpiration are light, temperature, humidity, wind and soil water.

In lab 3b, all of the plants should lose a lot of water through transpiration, but those affected by the light and the fan will lose a larger amount of water. Therefore the hypothesis can be the factors that increase evaporation will increase transpiration. So the prediction will be light and wind combined will result in the highest rate of transpiration. In this experiment, the factors didn’t affect the plant much so the water level turned out to be the same. The reason the class had to do a control so everyone can compare the collected data to others.

When there is wind and light involved; the results will change. In this experiment the average transpiration rate for the control 0. 03 ml in 20 minutes is 0. 0015 ml/minute. That average transpiration rate is 0. 0015 for the entire time range of the graph. Plants transpire more actively in the light than in the dark. Light also speeds up the transpiration by warming the leaf. This also increases the rate of transpiration, as gasses move faster when heated. In this experiment the rate of transpiration for light would be 0. 0025 ml/minute.

The results didn’t reflect an increase much maybe the bulb wasn’t hot enough that’s why the plant didn’t absorb enough the heat. Wind can modify the rate of transpiration by removing the boundary layer of water. Windier conditions increase transpiration because the leaf’s boundary layer is smaller. When there’s no wind, the air surrounding the leaf will become increasingly humid, causing the rate of transpiration to reduce. The rate of transpiration for wind would be 0. 002 ml/minute. The results are only 0. 02 ml difference from the control; this happened because the wind wasn’t strong enough.

On the other hand, if the wind was heavy, it would alter the results by increasing the movement of water to reach the atmosphere. The rate of transpiration for the combination of wind and light in 20 minutes is 0. 003. These results did reflect an increase but not much either because there weren’t enough sources including wind and light. This is expected to be the highest rate of transpiration because of these two important factors wind and light combined. In the experiment this rate is not the highest due to the results of wind itself and the result of light alone.

The three other factors that could be investigated using this same technique are temperature, humidity and soil water (Sadava,2010). In this experimental design, the weaknesses can be the light was too small. The class would get better results if they provided a stronger and bigger light source. The problems this group didn’t get the results like others can be the aged tap water didn’t age enough and there were bubbles in the water that’s why the experiment didn’t work at all. Or it can be the plant was dying.

Transpiration Lab Write Up Essay