Poverty Eradication Programmes in India Essay

Poverty Eradication Programmes in India Essay.

1. The National Food for Work Program

The National Food for Work Program was launched on 14 November 2004 in 150 of the most backward districts of India with the objective of generating supplementary wage employment. The program is open to all rural poor who are prepared to do manual, unskilled labor. It is implemented as a centrally-sponsored scheme. Food grains are provided to the States free of cost. 2. Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana

Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana for providing self-Employment to Educated Unemployed Youth was announced by the Prime Minister on 15th August, 1993 to provide self-employed opportunities to one million educated unemployed youth in the country.

The Scheme has been formally launched on 2 nd October, 1993 . The PMRY has been designed to provide employment to more than a million Person by setting up of 7 lakhs micro enterprises by the educated unemployed youth.

3. Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) with effect from 1st April, 1995 . Its objectives are * To generate employment in rural areas.

* To develop entrepreneurial skill and attitude among rural unemployed youth. * To achieve the goal of rural industrialization. * To facilitate participation of financial institutions for higher credit flow to rural industries.

4. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) is an initiative launched by the Government of India on April 1, 1999. The SGSY aims at providing self-employment to villagers through the establishment of Self-help groups. Activity clusters are established based on the aptitude and skill of the people which are nurtured to their maximum potential. Funds are provided by NGOs, banks and financial institutions.

5. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana It was introduced in 2000 – 2001 with the objective of focusing on village level development in five critical areas, i.e., Primary Health, Primary Education, Housing, Rural Roads and Drinking Water and Nutrition with the overall objective of improving the quality of life of people in rural areas. Rural electrification was added as an additional component from 2001 – 2002.

6. The Antyodaya Anna Yojana The Antyodaya Anna Yojana was launched on December 25, 2000. It contemplated providing 25 kg. of food grains per month at highly subsidized rates of Rs. 2 per kg. For wheat and Rs. 3 per kg. for rice to each Antodaya family. The total number of families to be covered under this scheme was placed at one crore. Antyodaya Anna Yojana has started in six States – Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and the UT of Dadra & Nagar Haveli.

Poverty Eradication Programmes in India Essay

Poverty in Africa Essay

Poverty in Africa Essay.

Poverty is a dangerous weapon that can hinder the growth and development of any society, where it is prevalent. Poverty in Africa has contributed to the spread of preventable diseases, the exploitation of woman and children, violent conflict over scarce resources and political instability. It is important that the world community not only acknowledges the reality of poverty in Africa, but nations and individuals should focus their energy and resources to do something about it. With poverty being so high in Africa it is hindering production and economic development.

Africa is the world’s second-largest and second most populous continent. As well as the world’s poorest inhabited continent, as measured by GDP per capita It accounts for about 14.72% of the world’s human population. In 2006, 34 of the 50 nations on the United Nations list of least developed countries are in Africa. Many nations in Africa, GDP per capita is less than $200 per year, with a majority of the population living on much less.

There is 64% population live in rural areas, and a 2.5% annual population growth. Because of the poverty in Africa it is causing a chain reaction, which is hindering Africa’s productivity and economic development.

One of those chains being health, 90% of all malaria cases are in sub-Saharan Africa. 3,000 children under the age of five die each day from malaria in Africa. 1-5% of GDP in Africa covers costs of malaria control and lost labor days. 17 million people in Africa have died of aids. Incidents of malaria, cholera and even polio are on the rise in Africa, all undermining social and economic development on the globes most impoverished continent. Along with health being part of the chain comes education. 62% of children in Africa do not complete primary school. 19 nations in Africa are under 50% literacy rate. Illiteracy is said to be one of the many causes of poverty in Africa. –

This graph shows the economic growth that africa has been having over the past couple decadeds. Africas economic growth has been low for many years and is show a little progress, but very little. Africa has stayed below $5,000, and continues to show little promise for economic growth if something doesn’t change.


Poverty creates ill-health because it forces people to live in environments that make them sick, without decent shelter, clean water or adequate sanitation. Some illnesses which have been eradicated from the developed world and others parts of the globe keep recurring in this continent. Rates of HIV/AIDS, malaria, polio and various other diseases are highest in this region(Cooper, 2012). About 34% of the population in Africa suffer from malnutrition. 1 in every 6 children dies before turning 5 due to malnutrition and starvation. With those statistics Africa is going to continue to suffer in poverty.

With people Africa dying it is causing productivity to slow down due to some many deaths. The people of Africa are not able to afford the proper healthcare needed to stay alive, which is hurting not only the economy, but the families that are continualy losing their loved ones to disease that can be preventable. The spread of diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria, etc keep increasing in Africa as a result of poor health facilities that are put in place for the control of such diseases. Most families are poor, and cannot afford going to good hospitals where there are better drugs and equipment that will help to improve their health condition.

Inability of getting proper healthcare lead to premature deaths in Africa on a daily basis. With health being so bad in Africa it is preventing the increase of production. With people out sick and/dying productivity goes down as well as worker per capita. By the governenment improving healthcare and maiking it more accessable to more people who can’t afford healthcare could help improve their productivity and increase development. (poverty, 2009) By eraticating poverty it will help increase the health of the people in poverty which will intern increase the productive and economic development. Its not onlt health that is preventing Africa from overcoming poverty, education has a huge part to do with it as well.


This graph shows the large differences in school attendance between rich countries and the countries in Africa. How can we expect Africa to escape from poverty if this doesn’t change? But of course, this is a vicious circle the main reason for children not going to school is precisely poverty. The poverty of the families in those countries is making it impossible for them to send their children to school, and the poverty of the state as the authority responsible for providing education. (spangnoll, 2008). With those numbers being so low economic development and productivity will never increase. The government needs to start providing funds to not only increase the number of students in primary school, but secondary and post secondary school.

Although many African leaders have stated that there are limited resources to educate their people, Dambisa Moyo has stated that “there is more than $1 trillion in development aid that has been transferred from rich countries to Africa over the past 50 years, then this money, coupled with the continent’s own resources, leave no reason for Africa to remain one of the most illiterate continents.” The African leaders recognize that education is important, but things remain the same, especially for girls in Africa who are often denied education altogether. If education continues to be put on the back burner the continent will continue to lag behind in human development. To fix this this problem all African countries must provide free and compulsory education at least at the elementary and fundamental stages, as required by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights also known as the UN (Kaifala,2011).

Eradication of Poverty

The first thing that needs to be done to eradicate poverty in Africa to increase production and economic development is to one achieve universal primary education. By at least offering universal primary education will kids an opportunity to learn and receive an education could potentially encourage the kids further their education in secondary school or post-secondary school. Another thing that needs to be accomplished to reduce the poverty rate in Africa is reducing the child mortality. Thirty years ago, one in five children in the world died before their fifth birthday. Now it is less than one in ten. Better access to vaccinations and other basic health services and improved living standards have contributed to a steep decline in global deaths among infants and children over the past 30 years.

By reducing the child mortality it would increase productivity and increase economic development. As long as Africa continues to offer vaccinations and other basic health services they will continually be contributing in the plan to eradicate poverty. Ensuring environmental sustainability is another way to eradicate poverty in Africa. Some of the poorest people in Africa depend on Natural resources for a healthy diet, water, shelter, and medicines. This means these people are often more vulnerable to disasters and hazards such as flooding, landslides and pollution brought about or exacerbated by environmental degradation. By ensuring environmental sustainability it ensures that the government will help the people out in coming up with ways to avoid damages and losses during an environmental degradation.

The next thing that Africa needs to do to eradicate poverty out of Africa is to develop a global partnership for development. “The targets in the global partnership for development millennium development goal include a fairer trading and financial system. Getting rid of barriers to trade could lift almost 300 million people in the developing world out of poverty (poverty, 2012). By accomplishing these things it will not only help to eradicate poverty, but to also increase economic development.

Achieving these goals doesn’t just happen over night it takes time, and the participation of the communities as well as the government in Africa. Although there is a lot that needs to change in Africa to eradicate poverty to increase productivity and economic development Africa has already begun to try and make a change. With programs like the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which aims to cut poverty statistics in half by the year 2015, Africa is headed on the right track to come out of poverty.

Progress So Far/ Conclusion

Over the years there has been some great progress to eradicate poverty, which is helping productivity and economic development in Africa. Although it has been small changes everything adds up. IN the last five years, Mozambique has reduced poverty from 70% to 55% and has doubled the number of children in school. Kenya has introduced free primary education, which has brought 1.2 million children back into school. Along with those accomplishments Uganda has reduced HIV from 20% in 1991 to around 6.5% in 2001. As well as 1,000 new schools have been built and 18,000 teachers recruited to teach in Tanzania. With this accomplishments so far there is no telling how much better Africa will get with the continued work that is being done to eradicate poverty in Africa to increase productivity, and economic development.

Works Cited
“..:: Child Poverty in Africa ::..” ..:: Child Poverty in Africa ::.. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2012. . “Africa Statistics Health.” Africa Statistics Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2012. . “Children’s Rights (8): The Numbers of Children in School, in Developed Countries and in Sub-Saharan Africa.” P.a.p.-Blog, Human Rights Etc. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2012. . Cropley, Ed. “Africa News Blog.” African Poverty Falling Faster than Thought? N.p., 04 Mar. 2010. Web. 6 June 2012. . “Effects Of Poverty In Africa.” Xomba. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2012. . “How the Lack of Business Has Affected Africa.” Poverty in Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2012. . Kaifala, Joseph. “PolicyMic.” PolicyMic. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2012. . N.p., n.d. Web.

“The Poverty of Africa’s History.” – Editorial. N.p., n.d. Web. 6
June 2012. . Shanta. “Poverty in Africa and Elsewhere.” World Bank. N.p., 15 Oct. 208. Web. 6 June 2012. . “World Poverty,.” Poverty in Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2012. .

Poverty in Africa Essay

The Global Issue of Poverty Essay

The Global Issue of Poverty Essay.

As an individual, raising one’s awareness on the causes of poverty and its manifestations is the first step in the effort to help reduce poverty. The knowledge that change can not be effected through individual efforts but through collective endeavors will motivate one to join organizations and initiatives that aim to mitigate specific poverty issues (www. marininstitute. org, 2006). However, we should not be chauvinistic enough to treat the poor as if they do not have the capacity to realize change for themselves.

Our role should be as a catalyst for change and with a faith in the innate ability of the poor to work together to alleviate their economic and political conditions. We should in turn build the awareness of the poor about their situation, educate them in the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for them to lead and work for themselves, organize them around common goals, mobilize them for concrete actions and help them evaluate their experiences and learn from them.

On the other hand, society can eradicate poverty by assessing the economic, political and cultural systems that perpetuate it and implementing necessary reforms.

Social class plays a role in marginalizing people while others acquire so much more then they can spend or use. The political power associated with economic status is another aspect. As long as the wealthy hold the major decision-making positions in government and exclude the sector of the poort, situations of poverty will continue. A culture that accepts poverty as the status quo is another area for change. Educational institutions, the church and the media should work to expose social realities from the perspectives of the poor. Inequality and injustice should not be made to be tolerated as the norm.

At the same time, society should not only look at the plight of its citizens but also on how its foreign policies affect other nations. Trade relationships should be based on mutual benefit and mutual consent on the rules governing the relationship. Imposition of trade policies for the benefit of developed countries only will not do any good in equalizing the first-world and third-world gap (Irogbe, 2005). Lastly, more powerful countries should recognize the right of other nations to chart their own destinies instead of intervening through covert ways or through waging war against those countries.

The Global Issue of Poverty Essay

Helping the Less Fortunate Essay

Helping the Less Fortunate Essay.

If I were a president of an organization, that made millions of dollars each year; I would create an organization within my organization that caters to the less fortunate. My organization would help to remove people off of the streets and give them a place to live, feeding the homeless in soup kitchens while passing out clothing, and also funding the education of those who cannot afford it.

I believe that taking random people off of the streets and giving them a place to live is very important.

As president of a million dollar a year business, I would definitely give the homeless a place to live. For example, I would send people out into the streets to search for random homeless people. I would pay for motels for a single person for a month and two for families because there are much more people to provide for. I will not just give people a place to stay; I would also find jobs for them.

The jobs may be low paying, but it will help the homeless to get off of the streets. This may not help everyone, but it will take many off of the streets.

Opening a soup kitchen will definitely increase my interaction with the “little people”. I think that having actual former poor people serve the poor is what will set my organization apart from others. I would do this because I know that the servers will connect with the poor on a personal and emotional level. This will ensure that the servers are very passionate about what they are doing. As president of the organization, I would also personally serve the homeless food while interacting with them to make them feel comfortable. I would ensure that they have faith that one day things will get better. Also, I would collect clothing and give to the homeless while feeding them. This will give them food on their stomach and clothes on their back. The clothes may not be in the best condition, but something is always better than nothing. My organization would also stress the importance of education. I believe that education is everything.

I would ensure that everyone that enters my program have a very fortunate future. I would go into high schools and find that are below the poverty line. I will not stress the GPA of an individual. The person may have had to leave school for a period of time to help provide for his or her family. Although finding these individuals may be difficult, I am sure the process will run smoothly with the help of the school staff. I would focus on students that have the drive to want to go to college. I may be funding the education, but I will need the student’s full cooperation. The individual’s will have to provide documents proving that he or she is has little income, or receiving no income at all.

My organ will provide funding for everything that an individual needs to attend college. This will include tuition, books, meal plans, housing and anything else the child needs for school. These procedures will be taken to ensure that the students have no worries while pursuing an education. It is very important to give back to the “little people”. Providing, shelter, jobs, food, clothes and education; will decrease poverty. This may not benefit the majority, but it will at least help some people out. Every homeless person that receives help counts. A million dollar a year organization would definitely remove many people at least a step away from the poverty line.

Helping the Less Fortunate Essay

Evaluation of the Effects of Poverty in Alexandra Informal Settlements Essay

Evaluation of the Effects of Poverty in Alexandra Informal Settlements Essay.

A vast majority of people in the World’s population live in extreme poverty. Poverty is multi-faceted. It can be linked with hunger, unemployment, exploitation, and lack of access to clean water, sanitation, health-care or schools. It can be about vulnerability to crisis and homelessness. While clearly many of these issues are related to not having enough money, it is simplistic to ignore the non-material aspects of the experience of poverty. The poor are not concerned exclusively with adequate incomes and consumption.

Achieving other goals such as security, independence and self-respect may be just as important as having the means to buy basic goods and services. The research is focused on the evaluation of the effects of poverty in Alexandra, in particular, people living in informal settlements. There is evidence from several studies that indicates high levels of poverty in the numerous informal settlements in Alexandra. Various reasons such as lack of skills, unemployment and retrenchment have been pointed out as the cause.

In informal settlements of Alexandra, most people live in corrugated iron shacks and where they are often unable to acquire basic needs such as food and clothing. This condition is further exacerbated by environmental factors such as lack of proper toilet facilities, the absence of employment opportunities that result in feelings of helplessness, which in turn leads to drug and alcohol abuse. Thus the family and home in this environment becomes dislocated which in turn affects the wider community and society as a whole.

The choice of Alexandra for the study was made due to its history of neglect during the apartheid era which has made it one of the most impoverished towns in South Africa, notwithstanding that it borders the most affluent part of Johannesburg. In order to gain an understanding on the effects of poverty in Alexandra, a literature study and site analysis will be employed as research method. Data will be collected using a literature review and empirical investigation. The research will help the government on how they can assist the people of Alexandra to alleviate poverty.

Evaluation of the Effects of Poverty in Alexandra Informal Settlements Essay

Homelessness in Ireland Essay

Homelessness in Ireland Essay.

What is Homelessness

The Housing Act 1988 defines a homeless person as somebody who has no reasonable accommodation to live in or lives in a hospital, institution or night shelter because of a lack of home.

Human Dignity Issue

Shelter is a basic human need, yet throughout the word there a people looking for a place to live with dignity. Being homeless is more than just not having a roof over your head – it usually means that a person’s security and belongings needs are also not met.

You can become homeless for many different reasons. These could include:

* Being evicted
* Losing your job
* Health problems
* A disaster such as fire or flooding

In 2009 there were up to 4,000 people reported to be homeless. 800 of them were children and two hundred of these children were under the age of 12.

Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist, designed a pyramid to explain the basic needs required to protect human dignity. In this pyramid he not only names shelter as a basic human need but also names the need for security.

Security needs include the need to be safe and protected when if homeless, is broken. To protect human dignity the local authorities have to take action.

Duties of Local Authorities towards Homeless People

While the 1988 Act does not impose a duty on housing authorities to provide housing to people who are homeless, it does clearly give responsibility to the local authorities to consider the needs of homeless people and expands their powers to respond to those needs. For example authorities may house homeless people from their own housing stock or through arrangement with a voluntary body. (Simon Community, St Vincent de Paul) The Act also enables the local authority to provide a homeless person with money to source accommodation in a non -governmental institution. In addition to the provisions relating to direct responses to people presenting as homeless, Section 10 of The Act enables local authorities to provide funding to voluntary bodies for the provision of emergency accommodation and long term housing for people who are homeless.

The 1988 Act requires that local authorities carry out recurrent assessments of the number of people who are homeless in their administrative area, as part of their housing needs assessment. The Health Service Executive (HSE) has responsibility for the health and in-house care needs of homeless people. In terms of funding, this means that local authorities are responsible for the costs of providing accommodation while the HSE Areas will provide funding for homeless persons’ care and welfare needs, including in-house care.

Making a Difference
There are many charities and voluntary organisations towards homeless people in Ireland such as:

* Simon Community
* The Salvation Army
* St Vincent de Paul
* Sonas Housing
* The Peter McVerry Trust

One of the biggest in known charities is Focus Ireland. Focus Ireland is a non-profitable organisation made specifically to help homeless people.

Ireland, though a relatively modern country has many people, even children ‘sleep rough’ every night and it is our responsibility to help them.


Homelessness in Ireland Essay

Swot Analysis for Maybank Essay

Swot Analysis for Maybank Essay.

Food and agriculture is at the heart of our civilizations. Many religions and cultures celebrate various aspects of food and agriculture due to the importance in our continuity. For an issue that goes to the heart of humanity, it also has its ugly side. 26 articles on “Food and Agriculture Issues” and 4 related issues: East Africa Food Crisis 2011

Posted Sunday, July 31, 2011.

Into mid-2011, the world’s worst food crisis is being felt in East Africa, in Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. Despite successive failed rains, the crisis has been criticized as avoidable and man-made.

This is because the situation had been predicted many months before by an international early warning system. Both the international community and governments in the region have been accused of doing very little in the lead up to this crisis. In addition, high food prices have forced food out of the reach of many people, while local conflicts exacerbate the situation. As the international organization Oxfam describes: 12 million people are in dire need of food, clean water, and basic sanitation.

Loss of life on a massive scale is a very real risk, and the crisis is set to worsen over the coming months, particularly for pastoralist communities. This page also presents news coverage from Inter Press Service on this crisis. Read “East Africa Food Crisis 2011” to learn more.

Global Food Crisis 2008
Last updated Sunday, August 10, 2008.

The global food crisis that has made headlines in 2008 has been simmering for a while. The rise in food prices, affecting the poorest the most, has a variety of causes, mostly man-made. It has resulted in riots, an overthrow of a Prime Minister and many deaths, around the world. It has been common to attribute causes to things like overpopulation but that seems to miss the real causes as food levels continue to outstrip demand even in a growing population. While media reports have been concentrating on some of the immediate causes, it seems that deeper issues and causes have not been discussed as much. Read “Global Food Crisis 2008” to learn more.

Food Aid
Posted Monday, December 03, 2007.

Food aid is a crucial part of helping tackle world hunger. However, food aid comes in various forms, and is often criticized for benefiting donors and their interests more than recipients. For example, during the Cold War in particular, food dumping was common place. Today long term food aid is giving way to emergency relief. While this is important it also has its challenges. Ultimately it seems that food aid still helps the rich more than the poor. This section provides an overview of food aid. Read “Food Aid” to learn more.

World Hunger And Poverty
Last updated Sunday, August 22, 2010.

Meaningful long-term alleviation of hunger is rooted in the alleviation of poverty, as poverty leads to hunger. World hunger is a terrible symptom of world poverty. If efforts are only directed at providing food, or improving food production or distribution, then the structural root causes that create hunger, poverty and dependency would still remain. While resources and energies are deployed to relieve hunger through technical measures such as improving agriculture, and as important as these are, inter-related issues such as poverty means that political solutions are likely required as well for meaningful and long term hunger alleviation. Read “World Hunger and Poverty” to learn more.

Causes Of Hunger Are Related To Poverty
Last updated Sunday, October 03, 2010.

There are many inter-related issues causing hunger, which are related to economics and other factors that cause poverty. They include land rights and ownership, diversion of land use to non-productive use, increasing emphasis on export-oriented agriculture, inefficient agricultural practices, war, famine, drought, over-fishing, poor crop yields, etc. This section introduces some of these issues. Read “Causes of Hunger are related to Poverty” to learn more. Solving World Hunger Means Solving World Poverty

Last updated Sunday, October 24, 2010.

Solving world hunger in the conventional sense (of providing/growing more food etc) will not tackle poverty that leads to hunger in the first place. Further, there is a risk of continuing the poverty and dependency without realizing it, because the act of attempting to provide more food etc can appear so altruistic in motive. To solve world hunger in the long run, poverty alleviation is required. Read “Solving World Hunger Means Solving World Poverty” to learn more. Food Dumping [Aid] Maintains Poverty

Last updated Monday, December 10, 2007.

Food aid (when not for emergency relief) can actually be very destructive on the economy of the recipient nation and contribute to more hunger and poverty in the long term. Free, subsidized, or cheap food, below market prices undercuts local farmers, who cannot compete and are driven out of jobs and into poverty, further slanting the market share of the larger producers such as those from the US and Europe. Many poor nations are dependent on farming, and so such food aid amounts to food dumping. In the past few decades, more powerful nations have used this as a foreign policy tool for dominance rather than for real aid. Read “Food Dumping [Aid] Maintains Poverty” to learn more. Food Aid As Dumping

Last updated Monday, October 31, 2005.

The way the food aid programs of various rich countries is structured may be of concern. In fact, food aid (when not for emergency relief) can actually be very destructive on the economy of the recipient nation. Dumping food on to poorer nations (i.e. free, subsidized, or cheap food, below market prices) undercuts local farmers, who cannot compete and are driven out of jobs and into poverty, further slanting the market share of the larger producers such as those from the US and Europe. Read “Food Aid as Dumping” to learn more.

Myth: More US Aid Will Help The Hungry
Posted Saturday, November 25, 2000.

With kind permission from Peter Rosset of the Institute for Food and Development Policy (or FoodFirst.org as it is also known), chapter 10 of World Hunger: 12 Myths, 2nd Edition, by Frances Moore Lappé, Joseph Collins and Peter Rosset, with Luis Esparza (fully revised and updated, Grove/Atlantic and Food First Books, Oct. 1998) has been posted here. It describes in detail the issue of food aid and the United States of America’s aid policies, the problems it causes and who it really benefits. Read “Myth: More US aid will help the hungry” to learn more. Population And Feeding The World

Last updated Monday, July 09, 2001.

The food scarcity part of the argument in the population debate is an interesting one — people are hungry not because the population is growing so fast that food is becoming scarce, but because people cannot afford it. Food may be scarce, but it is international trade, economic policies and the control of land that have lead to immense poverty and hunger and therefore less access to food, not food scarcity due to over population. Read “Population and Feeding the World” to learn more.

Consumption And Consumerism
Last updated Sunday, March 06, 2011.
Read “Consumption and Consumerism” to learn more.
Last updated Wednesday, July 02, 2008.

In this section, we look at the example of tobacco consumption. Smoking kills millions. Furthermore, it exacerbates poverty, damages the environment, and (through diversion of land resources away from food production) contributes to world hunger. Read “Tobacco” to learn more.

Last updated Sunday, November 21, 2010.

Obesity typically results from over-eating (especially an unhealthy diet) and lack of enough exercise. In our modern world with increasingly cheap, high calorie food (example, fast food — or junk food), prepared foods that are high in things like salt, sugars or fat, combined with our increasingly sedentary lifestyles, increasing urbanization and changing modes of transportation, it is no wonder that obesity has rapidly increased in the last few decades, around the world.

The number of people overweight or obese is now rivaling the number of people suffering from hunger around the world. Obese people were thought to be mainly from richer countries or wealthier segments of society, but poor people can also suffer as the food industry supplies cheaper food of poorer quality. Environmental, societal and life-style factors all have an impact on obesity and health. While individuals are responsible for their choices, other actors such as the food industry are also part of the problem, and solution. Unfortunately, the food industry appears reluctant to take too many measures that could affect their bottom line, preferring to solely blame individuals instead. Read “Obesity” to learn more.

Last updated Friday, April 25, 2003.

In this section, we look at the example of sugar consumption; how it has arisen (as it was once a luxury, now turned into a necessity). We look at things like how it affects the environment; the political and economic drivers in producing sugar (for example, historically, sugar plantations encouraged slavery); its health effects today; its relation to world hunger (as land used to grow sugar and related support, for export, could be used to grow food for local consumption); and so on. As we will also see, it is an example of awasteful industry. That is, so many resources go into this industry compared to what might be needed. This wastes labor, wastes capital and uses up many resources. Read “Sugar” to learn more.

Last updated Sunday, August 22, 2010.

Beef, like sugar, is another vivid example of using resources wastefully, degrading the environment, contributing to hunger, poor health and more. More than one third of the world’s grain harvest is used to feed livestock. Some 70 to 80% of grain produced in the United States is fed to livestock. A lot of rainforest in the Amazon and elsewhere are cleared for raising cattle — not so much for local consumption, but for fast food restaurants elsewhere. There are enormous related costs of what is an inefficient process when considered as a whole. Subsidies in farming in the US and elsewhere end up encouraging unhealthy foods to be cheaper than healthy foods. Just factoring in the cost of water alone, a more realistic estimate of the real cost of common hamburger meat would be $35 a pound! As with sugar, beef was a luxury turned into an everyday item. Like sugar, it is also an example of how people’s tastes are influenced and how demands can be created (or very much expanded), rather than meeting some natural demand. Read “Beef” to learn more.

Posted Friday, September 07, 2001.

The banana industry in Latin America and the Caribbean also touches many other issues. Rainforest destruction is one effect of the banana industry. Dependent economies is another, where bananas are grown not to feed local people and meet their demands, but to create exports for Europe and America. The recent trade disputes between those two regions have received the most attention. However, the focus of the debate is limited. It continues to leave both dependent Latin American nations, and the Caribbean nations in poverty and hunger, while Latin American nations, large multinational American banana corporations and the American government seek to destroy the Caribbean banana economy, via the World Trade Organization, in order to gain dominant access to the European markets. So many resources are poured into the banana industry, and like the sugar and beef examples, there is a lot of unnecessary use of resources that could otherwise be freed up to help local people in a way that is also less degrading to the surrounding environment. Read “Bananas” to learn more.

Swot Analysis for Maybank Essay

Professional Beggar Problem Essay

Professional Beggar Problem Essay.


Police in Shanghai published a list of beggars who have been caught most often on metro trains over the past four years on 21 August 2012, sparking
debates about the problem of “professional” beggars. The scorekeeper, who has been caught 308 times, is 22-year-old young man from Anhui province in perfect health, following by an 88-year-old woman with a record of 292 times[1]. Of the various problems which our country faces today, the problem of begging is one of the most acute ones. Every one of us has seen numerous kinds of beggars.

Some are blind, lame or crippled, and so take to begging. Child and orphan beggars also are very common. However, others, who are physically sound before they join the begging “career” but undertake is as their profession, for it enables them to earn their living easily. The causes of begging are many, and they are very similar between inland China beggars and those in other developing countries (e.g. India, Pakistan etc.

)[2]. First of all, some people, mostly the elder and the very young, are physically incapable of doing any work and have no other skills.

The only way of getting food open to them is begging. They also deserve the sympathy of others. Secondly, some people take to begging due to natural disasters. Thirdly, some criminals when they come out of jails are not treated sympathetically by society. They are not given any chance to begin their life afresh. Becoming a beggar is the only way to find a shelter. On the other hand, mostly in the big cities, some people, who do not suffer from poverty and handicap, see the trade of begging flourishing and beggars earning their livelihood in a very easy way, they just enter the profession. In order to earn more sympathy, they broke their own legs or putrefied their own skin; or even worse, some kidnapped other people’s children and handicapped them. There are also illegal organizations which train children in the art of begging. One can argue that improper social rehabilitation and salvage mechanism may cause the problem in the above paragraph. But the truth is the mature Homeless Shelter & Aid Station system in China’s big cities leaves little room for criticism.

We not only provide food, water and shelter in these aid stations, we also provide job consultancy service for the health ones and train tickets to send them home. So, what is the motivation of these people (some even with a college degree) to become professional beggars? Let us compare the following two income numbers first. The average monthly income of a middle-level manager in Beijing is around US$1440 ($65 daily) before tax; the average daily income of a professional beggar who “work” on metro trains in Shanghai is US$130, and tax-free.

To top it all, on 13 November 2012, a male beggar carrying a kid was spotted getting on his Audi A6 sedan after “work” in Qingdao city, east China’s Shandong province.[3] These professional beggars also refuse any kind of help from the social and private charity groups. In China’s big cities, the professional beggars seem to live a better life than ordinary working class people. Based on the evidence and arguments above, we will now use the PATH model to find out the truth beneath the problem and try to find a way (or several) to tackle this conundrum. Why does the problem of professional beggars so severe in China’s big cities? What is the motive under the career choosing? Can we help them to establish a correct value of wealth?

1. PATH-Problem: Identifying and defining the problem

According to Buunk and Van Vugt (2008)’s PATH protocol in order to fully understand the root of the problem, we need to diagnose it with brainstorming and various background data. For the professional beggar problem specifically, here is what we need to know: a. What is the central problem that needs to be understood and addressed? Unlike real beggars who are unable to support themselves, professional beggars take begging as a profitable career. Their willingness to beg is the key problem lying behind the social phenomenon. (Hong Ying, Li 2000) Many news reports[4] and social policy articles (Zhi. Li 2006, Chao Li 2005, Jiaqing Zou 2003 etc) have pointed out that the low sense of dignity versus the high income the beggars get may be one of the core issues needed to be tackled in the problem.

We also consider this as our central problem in our PATH model. b. Why is a particular issue perceived as a problem in the first place? The beggars’ personal unwillingness to change their career path is not only the core issue in the begging problem, it is also the root of several other detrimental social problems which we’ll illustrate later in the paragraph. If we cannot change their value, any aid and help from other people and the government will eventually end in vein. As we posted in the introduction part, even though the Homeless Shelter & Aid station mechanism is quite mature (Liulu Zhang 2009) in China’s big cities, the professional beggars still won’t accept these help. c. For whom is it a problem?

We found out besides that the whole society which will be indirectly affected by this problem; there are three types of people/organizations that suffer directly from it. First, are the beggars themselves. Since they have chosen that as their career, they lost chances to be employed as full-time workers with sufficient welfare benefit and medical insurance. In china, the composition of the professional beggars is mostly the floating population, meaning they cannot get the citizenship in the cities they beg and their original places will terminate their pension supply or even their ID after certain years. Second, are the beggars’ families. Their begging behavior humiliates the whole families, even the whole village, sometimes. On practical level, since they may lose their ID after several years’ begging career in big citers, their children will miss the education opportunity due to black hukou (residence registration). Third, the governments of big cities are victims, too.

Not only because the professional beggar damaged the city image and wasted public resources, but they also rose the crime rate especially in child-kidnapping and street violence. (Xiangyu Chen, Na Li. 2011) d. What causes the problem and how do these causes affect the problem? On the larger scale, the mammonism (money worship) of the whole country is the culprit. Just as the ancient Chinese saying goes “prostitution is better than poverty” became the firm belief of the professional beggars (Daming Zhu, 2010). They witnessed the gap of wealth when they arrived at the big cities, in order to attenuate the relative deprivation, they might have tried several job and then found that begging is the easiest way, which leading to another cause. That is the laziness rooted in them. Why is that the case? In most small town people’s child memories, big cities were heavenly places filled with gold. They were never aware of our hard-working principles.

From generations to generations, they enjoy their lay-back lifestyle and envy others’ wealth in the mean time. They just cannot get the simple logic of the positive relation between hardworking and wealth-gaining. However, we cannot simply blame this wrong idea to the professional beggars only; their family education and grow-up environment have a lot to do with. As the floating population, many migrant workers choose to leave their young offspring with their old parent. The lack of parent-child interaction unfortunately causes the apathy among family members. That is why when some professional beggars were interviewed; they said they feel abandoned by the family so there is no need to feel shame in their career. e.who should be convinced of the problem?

Besides the professional beggars, their families and the city government we mentioned above. The citizens and the workers of the Homeless Shelter & Aid Stations are also need to be convinced of the problem. They should form the idea that their sympathy and help to the professional beggars are encouraging postures, which, in the long run, will deepen the problem. f. Whose cooperation is necessary to help solve the problem? The professional beggars themselves, their families, the workers of the aid stations, citizens with superfluous sympathy as well as the city governments. g. Can a social psychological intervention be helpful to tackle the problem at hand? Absolutely.

As mentioned in previous paragraphs, the existing regulations and the help mechanisms do not work in a sufficient way. According to the law, begging is not a crime thus so as to respect their human rights the enforcing authority can only send them to the aid station. However, they will come back to pursue their begging career in big cities after the aid workers send them home again and again. Embracing a social psychological intervention will help us to figure out a solution that may tackle the core of the problem (i.e. the beggars’ willingness to give up begging voluntarily). By applying this, we aim to shift their begging behavior through rectifying their attitude and cognition towards wealth gaining.

The outcome of the problem definition:

Most of the professional beggars are healthy people or the self-mutilated ones who choose to be beggars. Their willingness to beg is solely based on the twisted wealthy-oriented value. (problem) Why do these self supportable people (target population) beg rather than work (behaviours) and what can we do to change their mind and live a normal life? (solution)

2. PATH-Analysis: Formulating appropriate concepts and developing theory based explanations 2.1 The outcome variables In the previous problem-definition chapter we named several variables that influence the behavior of the professional beggars. In this paragraph, we’re going into detail to put these variables into three categories: predisposing factors, reinforcing factors and enabling factors. On the larger scale, the predisposing factors the general money worship mood of the society drive these professional beggars to choose begging as a career path. Besides that, other citizens categorize the problem as separate from their own; they have no incentive to care or to help the government solving the issue.

On the personal scale of the beggars, the gap of wealth they witnessed is one of the strongest drivers for begging behavior. The family pressure can be considered as the main reinforcing factor that influences the begging behavior which has a strong encourage effect. For the beggars themselves, the substitutability of their previous normal jobs will enhance their continuation of begging. Although, tremendous effort has been put into the social aid system, there is always some room to improve. If a social psychology perspective help can be added in the system, which will sure be more helpful than mere material and advising aid.

2.2 Brainstorming: Explaining “willingness to live a self-support life” For the professional beggars themselves, no trust in the welfare system, lack of work motivation and the “easy money/ quick money” that they can acquire through begging largely weaken the desire to give up. For their families, fear of poverty is the largest negative factors which influence the willingness. At the other end, the shame they feel when they get to know that their family member is a beggar might pressure these professional beggars to live a self-supported life. To the city governments, how to increase the willingness of the professional beggars to give up the career voluntarily is a thorny problem. Because on one hand, stricter regulation and laws will violate their human rights, on the other hand, the current rules and aid system do not seem to work in a productive. The governments need to find a way that can produce positive result as well as minimize the waste of public resources.

2.3 Provisional Explanation

Based on the above analysis and brainstorming, we came out with the provisional explanation of our professional beggars’ problem which shows the graph below: On the left hand, five personal and external determinants are listed that will directly influence the willingness to live a self-support life. The environmental conditions with the outcome variable (i.e. give up career begging) is showed to the right. [pic]

2.4 Issue related approaches

Several study papers written by domestic policy researcher have shown us certain possible reason for this existing phenomenon: – Instability of job position (Wei Guo, 2012). A lot of people can find a labor job, but since it is mostly not skill related and therefore they are highly replaceable. In comparison, being a professional beggar, they are at least “self-employed”. – Lack of understanding from the society (Xiangyu Chen, Na li, 2010). The society mostly fails to really understand the difficulty of professional beggar without having been in similar situation.

With the idea of not being understood, professional beggars then have doubts about the readiness of social help, which negatively effects their willingness to try to start a self-dependent life. – Polarization of social wealth (D Xue-hui, 2003). As a popular theory goes, 20% of the population possess 80% of the resources, so that the rich become richer, the poor then poorer. The professional beggars in this environment face a higher likelihood to think they are lower level human being and of no use to the society. That’s why they also have only little willingness to give up the begging career.

2.5 Conceptual approaches

To incorporate to the social psychological level, we try to look at this problem with some field related theories: – Emotion on decision making. One of the braches of it is Self Defense Mechanisms (Phebe Cramer 2006). SDM in simple words are psychological strategies brought into play to maintain a socially acceptable self-image. In our case, choosing the professional beggar career is a cause of shame and embarrassment. When they categorize themselves in a lower level of social life, they have doubts about the truthfulness of the society. Thinking that they are only pitied and not understood, they become closed to themselves and fail to trust in the true kindness. As consequence, they are not ready or open to accept possible help which could help them to start a independent life. – Social comparison (Naomi Ellemers, 2002).

To be more specific for our case, we need to understand Relative Deprivation Theory. It refers to the discontent people feel when they compare their positions to others and realize that they have less of what they believe themselves to be entitled than those around them. Most professional beggars are not enough educated or maybe even have not been through the obligated education phase, which leaves them with no competitive skills to set food in the job market. They also don’t see themselves with any potential success in the society. Alone with this, they still need to face the unrealistic high expectation from the family.

When they want to go back home, in order not to “lose face”, they will need to have enough money, which, considering their situation, is hard to earn other than being beggars. – Risk perception. Affect being a important part of the risk perception, we will here take a look at how Mood Congruence Effect (Seo et al., 2010) can influence our problem. According to this effect, if positive feeling responds to positive outcome, a prospective positive outcome will be rated as more likely. In our case, the amount of money earned is very close to the amount of a normal employee, which for the beggars is a surprisingly good income level. Combined the positive income and the happy feeling, they are more convinced about the “bright future” in the begging career, and therefore not willing to give it up.

2.6 General theory approach
Expected Utility

At the end it all comes to expectation: individuals expect a higher social status; families expect the children to be successful; the society expects the professional beggars to disappear. We will see a bit closer from these three aspects: – Personal: individuals leave home to try to make a career so that they can feed their family, make them proud and be useful to the society. But having a goal without having corresponding skills to actually live up to their expectation, leaves them in frustration. Being a professional beggar in this situation becomes their lifebuoy. The money they earn from it in some level creates them the illusion of having a career and it amends for the feeling of losing social status. – Family: every parent thinks that their children can be successful in the society one way or another.

The money the beggars bring home is the “proof” of their success, which, when the family is not aware of the method how they earn it, is sometimes more than enough for the family to believe that their expectation has been met. – Society: the society deep down wishes that the professional beggars won’t, one day, be a problem anymore. With this in mind, people try to donate material or offer voluntary help. The material/monetary help in some way actually assures the beggars that they will be able to make a life being in the career. When the society doesn’t see the improvement of their expectation over time, they lose the motivation to keep on helping.

3. Test – final answer

Before we can come to the final graph, we go through again all the possible relevant elements with 2 criterions: relevance and changeability. The same time we try to eliminate the elements with low relevance and/or low changeability, also the ones that overlap with others. – Substitutability (in a job position): it means that it’s hard for the beggars to find a stable job. It then overlaps with “easy money”, which says that the beggar career offers them the possibility to have a “job” that also earns them money easily. – Experience similarity (from the social help side): having a similar experience brings a bigger chance to actually understand the difficulties that others are facing. With appropriate understand the help can then be genuine. It therefore overlaps with “sympathy”. But then in order to understand most of the time is a issue of willingness. The society has already rated the beggars negative without seeing the actually reasons of the phenomenon.

Some who have faced the same situation but came out being actually successful may despite the others who couldn’t. In the way, the similar experience is not so relevant to solve the problem. – Skill learning opportunities: as the quote goes, you give a man a fish and you feed him for a day, you teach a man to fish and you feed him for lifetime. Learning a practical skill is the approach which will eventually have huge impact on this issue. The opportunities are actually widely offered, but then the beggars are not willing to take them, since they think the learning then finding a job process is taking the time away from them earning easy money. So the skill learning opportunities is here not so relevant. – Awareness of manipulation: some beggars did not start the beggar career on their own intention. They might have been talked into the line of work. Those people who talked them into form this company-like group, they act like their “manager”, assign their tasks, location etc and also take profit from them.

But then it’s hard to notice that they are manipulated while they are actually having income. This element is hard to be changed. – Over-valuation of material life: in the big environment money talks. Money can’t do everything but then without money nothing can be done. Generally accepted idea is that a good material life is the basis of a successful life. This element exist worldwide so that it would be really difficult to change people’s believe in it. |Determinants |Changeability |Relevance |Overlap (Y/N) | |Substitutability |+ + |+ |Y | |Experience similarity |- – |+ |Y | |Learning opportunities |+ |/ |N | |Awareness of manipulation |- – |+ |N | |Over-valuation material life |- – |+ + |Y | |Establishment of dignity |+ |+ + |N | |Disbelief in society |- |+ |N | |Easy moneys |+ + |+ |N | |Empathy/Real solicitude |+ + |+ + |N | |Family pressure |+ |+ + |N |

After the eliminations, we can now here draw a final graph:

As illustrated above, there are three main variables (Establishment of dignity, Empathy/Real solicitude and Readiness to accept help) hold positive relation with the “give up begging” outcome, and two negative ones (Family pressure and Easy money). [pic]

We believe that “Establishment of dignity” from the personal side of the sbeggar and “Empathy/ Real solicitude” from the society/government side serves as the most important positive fact in the whole relationship. Not only because they are more initiative variables than others, but also, as shown, they get more positive determinants.

3.2 Tests

With the final graph presented, now we will incorporate the social psychology theory and the real life issue together to understand the existence of the problem and eventually find out the possible solution to solve it. – Readiness to accept help. If the beggars get to earn more self-esteem, it will reduce the feeling of embarrassment or shame. Alone side they will more likely to think the society is not just pitying them but instead try to understand and help them. With these two influences, the self defense mechanisms would play a less important role. In the end they will be more ready to open themselves to the help. – Family pressure. The high expectation from family doesn’t match with the actual skills is the core reason why the beggars experience the relative deprivation. If they feel that there are no ways that they can be useful or appreciated, they will lose the willingness to improve themselves. In this case the families need to understand them too.

They should not only compare the monetary income but more the skills learned and the independence of their lives, to value the individual improvement more. – Easy money. Compared to the income of a normal low skill required labor work, the money they earned being a professional beggar is rather nice. Therefore, their belief in future gain becomes a strong moderator in the relationship between easy money and the willingness to live a self-support life. The unexpected income level leads to positive emotions, with which they have more expectation towards the continuation of this career. If they think they can earn a living from it, then they won’t be willing to give up and try to start a self-supported life.

PATH – Help

4. Hypothetical conclusion

After trying to analyze the phenomenon, we came across some possible steps that we can take to improve the situation, among which the measures on a personal base seem to have the ability to create the biggest impact. It means a change of their way to think. Only when they believe in self value, in the genuine help from the society, can the other measures or policy do their work. To do that, truthful communications between families and individuals as well as between individuals and the society should be encouraged t to take place. The openness will improve the understanding, which eventually improves the social situation.


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Professional Beggar Problem Essay

Population Explosion in India Essay

Population Explosion in India Essay.

Population explosion is a problem which is faced by the country at an alarming state. The way at which the population of the country is increasing is a cause of concern and so me of the causes of population explosion are: High birth rate which is caused by: Universal marriage system where everyone necessarily needs to get married in the country. Early marriage where the average age of marriage is extremely low as compared to other countries of the world. Illiteracy is a problem which is facing the country and the low literacy rates lead to traditional, superstitious and ignorant population.

Poverty is another issue which faces the country and needs to be solved. Poor people are illiterate and see a child as a “gift of God” which indirectly leads to population explosion. Tropical climate of the country leads to girls and boys attaining puberty at an early age which is also one of the reasons for a huge population. The joint family system also leads to a division of socio-economic responsibilities among everyone in the family which leads to Women are given a low status in the society and are seen as a person for cooking and begetting and are not free to speak up for their rights.

Along with this the decreasing death rate is also one of the reasons for population explosion. India’s population has already crossed the billion marks. Thus, the country having only on 2. 4 per cent of globe’s area has come to hold 16 per cent of globe’s human beings. Its current annual increase at 16 million is the highest in the world. Soon we may achieve the dubious distinction of becoming the most populous country in the world. The debate about population explosion in India is now over half a century old. It acquired a new perspective when the 2000 National Population Policy (NPP) was drafted.

There was a marked shift from the target-oriented approach of the 70? s and 80? s to the one that envisioned the ‘development is the best pill’ outlook. The demographics experts, women’s groups, health organisations, social activists and academicians were able to convince the policymakers that in order to achieve the socio- demographic goals of the reduction of inequalities, provision of education, services and creation of awareness were to be taken on a priority. The main causes of big size and high growth of population can be broadly categorised into social and economic causes which are as below:

i) Marriage is almost inevitable among men and women; (ii) Motherhood is nearly universal among married women; (iii) The custom of early marriage followed since many centuries has facilitated a wider range of reproductive period; (iv) The Net Production Rate (NPR) is greater than one, which means that women replace themselves by giving birth to more than one daughter which leads to constant rise in birth rate; (v) Wide¬spread illiteracy among people, especially woman is also a major contributor. It has been proved that there is a direct relation between illiteracy and fertility; (vi) Superstitious beliefs and myths that a male child is a must for salvation, social security and continuation of the family tree; and (vii) Misconceptions that the use of birth control measures lead to diseases, defects or general weakness.

The economic causes include (i) Children are considered to be an asset not a liability by the poor who look at them as source of income; (ii) Statistics also prove that the cost benefit ratio for a child is favourable to the poor; (iii) Lack of proper medical facilities and high mortality rate of infant to want more children; and (iv) There is also total lack of economic security for widows and elderly people which makes people go for children as economic security.

There are other reasons which cannot be classified as either social or economic reasons like lack of proper family planning techniques and facilities, high birth rate and low death rate. Overpopulation has far-reaching consequences on every aspect of life of a country. These consequences will have to be studied in length before we can find appropriate measures to stem the root. Overpopulation not only leads to but also perpetuates poverty. The economists are of the opinion that there are four main factors that make a country rich or poor:

1. National factors like location features and mineral resources available in the country. 2. Historical factors, i. e. whether a country has remained a colony of some other country and has suffered long economic exploitation, e. g. India under British rule. 3. Demographic factors, i. e. the size and growth of population. 4. Economic factors, i. e. availability of capital, technology, infrastructure, etc. The demographic factors assume greater importance because natural factors remain constant and history cannot be changed. The large size of population means employment of lion’s share of the resources for the production of goods for the satisfaction of the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter.

The high rate of growth of population means continuing additional burden on these resources. It is only due to unfavourable demographic factors that poor countries remain in perpetual poverty. The per capita income which is the indicator of richness of a country does not increase even with an increase in total income because the population which is a divisor in this equation also increases. The economists affirm that the sure way for a poor country is to increase its productive capacity by producing more capital goods like machinery.

But as the overpopulated countries need consumer goods in large quantities to satisfy people’s wants it becomes difficult for them to employ their resources for the producing ‘producer’ goods and thus they remain under the vicious circle of poverty. Another drawback of population explosion is that it makes all plans made for development of the country go haywire. Our own country created an autonomous Planning Commission and started a series of Five-Year Plans from the year 1951-52.

But we have not been able to bring rapid development because our population which was 36. 1 crore in 1951 has grown about three times today at approx. 108 crores. Naturally any development plan made for one person cannot be adequate for three. The age composition of our population is also not favourable. It has been found that the working age group constitutes 60% of the total population falls in the dependent age groups of a high dependency ratio of 67% calculated as follows: If we take into account the unemployment disguised unemployment and quasi unemployment into factor this would present a gloomier picture of our economy.

Still further, if we consider that a high portion of those who are engaged in some type of work or the other are not technically trained and fall in the category of unskilled labour, we shall realise that our productive capacity is quite low. Under such conditions a high growth of population adds to the burden of our economy. The large size of population also has an adverse impact on our natural resources. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, minerals and forests are being excessively used to set up more industries to manufacture various consumable articles to satisfy ever- increasing wants.

As these resources are limited and exhaustible, they have been dwindling so drastically that soon they would exhaust completely. Forests are being cleared to bring more land under cultivation to provide food for increasing population and to make more settlements for their living. Burning of fossil fuels in factories, vehicles and households has created another menace of environmental pollution. Injudisions use of water resources like rivers like, ponds, wells, streams and even oceans has caused water pollution.

Many diseases have arisen to afflict human beings and affect vegetation as it is, the deforestation is likely to continue unabated which would further aggravate the problem. Yet another problem is the migration of rural people to urban areas in search of better earning opportunities. The statistics show an alarming increase of 57% from 34% after independence. The crowding of urban localities demand more infrastructure, civic services, transport, health, sanitation and educational facilities providing which is not only a challenging task but also means an additional burden on the already inadequate economic resources.

As the stabilisation of population is the most significant task ahead of us, stringent measures are required in this direction. Some countries have sought to enforce legal remedies for this chronic malady. For example, China has applied the one child norm lay law. Some Indian states have barred the candidates having more than two children from any election. Such strict measures may work but their side effects may outweigh their benefit to society and country.

We need to address the problem of overpopulation in the broader sense and in a socially controlled way. This an be done by creating awareness among people and providing them the required means. India’s population has already crossed the billion marks. Thus, the country having only on 2. 4 per cent of globe’s area has come to hold 16 per cent of globe’s human beings. Its current annual increase at 16 million is the highest in the world. Soon we may achieve the dubious distinction of becoming the most populous country in the world. The debate about population explosion in India is now over half a century old. It acquired a new perspective when the 2000 National Population Policy (NPP) was drafted.

Population Explosion in India Essay

Poverty and Homelessness Essay

Poverty and Homelessness Essay.

Over the years , we as a society have become insensitive to the major issues faced by the mankind and homelessness is one of those major issues. Millions of people, including children, families , babies ,veterans and elderly live day after day without food, water or a roof over their heads. People who are mentally ill also have it tough on the streets, which can be extremely confusing to them and dangerous to the rest of society.

As the con side of this argument, it can be understood as a problem that must be solved soon and therefore should be addressed as major crises affecting the society.

At the same time, I argue that it is not as big problem as it is made out to be. There are various reasons for why people are homeless and some of those reasons ,along with their effects as well as solutions are mentioned in this essay. The majority of homeless people are adult men. Many of these men choose to be homeless because that is the free lifestyle they want to live.

Same is the case with many women and children. Homelessness life is not always as bad as it seems. Homelessness people have all the time in the world, they are free to do whatever they like without any restrictions. They can read books, take walks, go for hang outs and enjoy nature. There are the drawbacks of diminished health, alcohol and drugs and looks of disdain from other people, but any homeless people just live in their own world and enjoy it. According to my thought, homeless should just be allowed to live their lives.

Second reason that can be considered as important for homelessness is that there are those people who do not make the choice of becoming homeless, but are forced of becoming homeless because of economic issues. For example, as the population is increasing at a very fast pace , it is getting difficult for everyone to find a job and as a result, unemployment prevails which directly leads to the issue of becoming homeless. There are the people that we need to help out financially.

Thirdly, there are some people who make the choice of being homeless because they simply do not want to support themselves, these are the people that need to receive professional medical help. Our society can be seen as adversely affected by the problem of homelessness. Having no home can make it extremely hard for adults to get or keep work, being one of the causes of poverty which in addition to helping to maintain homelessness also helps turn households trying to be useful rospering citizens into victimized anti-social problem households breeding further poverty, drug addiction, alcoholism and crime. Homeless young people are much more likely to be not in education. In other words, the homeless people can not get access to a better education because they do not have the resources to fulfill their basic needs. Poor qualification, in turn, act as a barrier in finding job, as a result, future of the homeless people is spoiled. Poverty and desperation means some homeless people turn to crime.

This further decreases the chances of them finding work and escaping their situation. Homeless young people are more likely to be the victims of crime. Their situation puts them at risk of exploitation, particularly if they become homeless at a very young age. Homelessness has a huge effect on an individual’s both physical and emotional health. Homeless men and women suffer from cold that they can not get rid of because they have no access to medicine, food and warm housing. They also are more at risk for dependency on drugs and alcohol and contracting HIV.

They suffer from vitamin deficiencies and often don’t get adequate sleep. Homeless people have no housing to protect themselves from physical violence and even rape. These can lead to emotional breakdowns that lead them to become institutionalized. In sum, homelessness is not a big issue for those who desires to be homeless, for instance , people who do not want to have social contacts with others , but , for the persons who are forced to become homeless ,it is a huge problem and needs to be solved. There seems to be two main elements in saving a homeless person.

The government needs to help homeless people get back on their feet. They need to make sure also that homeless people do not abuse systems such as social security and housing. Also, homeless need to get up on their own two feet, for themselves. Finding jobs, such as selling “Homeless Newspapers” seems to be a common first step. To illustrate, a vendor gets the papers for free or low cost, sells them for something like a dollar and keeps 55 cents, or a little more than a half, for each sold. The homeless can then use this money to pay for food, shelter and other basic necessities.

Many shelters exist whose primary goal is to provide homeless with a job and home. We help these people everyday without knowing as a proportion of our taxes go back to the community in many forms and one form is helping out the homeless. One can also help the homeless by volunteering at shelters. So if the government is willing to help get the homeless roused into the wanting of a better life, and they wish to follow through, then I suppose we could find a better, faster way to end the nation’s problem of homelessness.

Poverty and Homelessness Essay