Teen Pregnancy Research Essay

Teen Pregnancy Research Essay.

Social Construction of Teenage Pregnancy in the United States: Race, Class and Gender In the United States, an estimated forty five percent of all female teenagers have premarital sex. As a result, about forty percent of all female adolescents become pregnant at least once before age twenty; and about four-fifths of these pregnancies are unintended. Twenty percent of these female adolescents bear a child, and about half of them are unmarried (Lawson and Rhode, 2). In a society that associates age appropriate sexual behavior and marital status with the welfare of the family and community, this is a very alarming statistic to many.

Throughout the past several decades American society has developed very strong, and many times mythical opinions about teenage pregnancy, the consequences it has on teen mothers, and the type of women contributing to these statistics. These mythical opinions consistently revolve around race, class and gender. Therefore, in this paper I will be examining the social constructions American society has developed about teenage pregnancy in relation to race, class, and gender as well as the misconceptions these social constructions lead to.

It will be seen that societies views on teenage pregnancy often mask the understanding of the issue, and hinder the development of a solution. Teenage motherhood is an issue that has developed a very negative social construction in the United States. When this social construction is paired with that of racial minorities, the issue becomes even more daunting. While teenage pregnancy in general has attained a very negative stigmatization, the distress about minority groups, and especially African Americans, is expressed much more frequently and dramatically than that of their white counterparts.

This has resulted in many misconceptions about the relationship between race and teenage motherhood as well as masked the understanding of the teenage motherhood trend versus aiding it. When examining the negative social constructions that have been created in the U. S. , that of African Americans cannot be ignored, especially in relation to teenage pregnancy. The African American community has been labeled as the sole proprietors of the teenage motherhood phenomenon. Black mothers under the age of twenty are paid much closer attention to than white mothers under age twenty.

This is especially true when they are single. Black teenage mothers are assumed to be producing problematic children who contribute very little, if anything, to society. If one were to ask a majority of Americans their thoughts on African Americans and teenage pregnancy, they would be very similar to the thoughts of a man recorded on a radio talk show when he stated, “Black teen mothers’ children grow up in fatherless households with mothers who have few moral values and little control over their offspring. The boys join gangs; the girls stand a good chance of becoming teen mothers themselves”.

This man’s opinion very clearly illustrates the negative association between blacks and early motherhood (Kaplan, xviii). The idea that African Americans are solely responsible for the teenage pregnancy phenomenon is highly influenced by the belief that black teenage mothers and fathers are morally unfit. Many believe them to have different moral values than those of non-minority teenagers of similar age. They are said to make their life decisions based on unmoral grounds and aspirations. This is a very inaccurate perception in many ways, however.

When creating this presumption, many tend to look at the results of decisions made by young African American mothers, versus the environment influencing these decisions. In areas around the United States where teenage pregnancy is very common for African Americans, a number of social ills can be seen; unemployment, poor housing, gangs, drugs, and disrupted families are just to name a few (Kaplan, 19). Therefore, it is very important to recognize that the high number of teenage pregnancies seen in these areas is not simply a result of high African American demographics, and their so-called “unmoral values”.

They are a result of the environmental conditions these African Americans are exposed to. One would see the same heightened percentages of white teenage pregnancies in a highly white demographic area, which was exposed to these same environmental and social ills. Another way in that the “morally unfit” argument is unreasonable, is in the fact that the majority of African American teenage mothers have the same life aspirations as their white peers. In a book written by Elaine Bell Kaplan, this very idea is explored in depth, through extensive interviews with black teenage mothers.

In an interview with a mother named Diane, Kaplan asks Diane her reasoning for no longer being in a relationship with her babies father. She stated that, “He had a ghetto mentality. He’s the kind of person who likes a casual living style. I want to get as far away as possible from this life, even if it means giving up my son. My fantasy is to give him to his father, to get married, to live somewhere else, like in another state. To marry a professional, someone who has values and ideals like I have. Have more children, be a corporate attorney, have a big beautiful house, and a car. Have money.

Have four children, all with my husband. Raise them and send them to college. There’s a real good sense of self-worth in that”(Kaplan, 95). The same could be said for many mothers Kaplan worked with throughout her study. These mothers were by no means morally unfit; they had simply made poor decisions, due to the environment in which they found themselves surrounded. The negative association between black women and teenage pregnancy does not exclusively revolve around teenage mothers, but the African American community as well. Many people believe that the black community condones teenage pregnancy.

This could not be further from the truth. The black community shares the same expectations in regards to teenage pregnancy as any other community. In the eyes of the black community, and especially family members, teenage mothers are breaking three very essential social norms about motherhood and sexuality. The first being that, “Young women should certainly not have children until they reach adult status, and not before marriage” (Kaplan, 82). This social norm, which revolves around age, motherhood, and marriage, can be viewed many times as a silent, but mutual agreement within African American families.

Mothers of teenage mothers often feel as though they were taught to follow these social norms as children, and therefore, these norms should be passed on and accepted by their children. In a statement by a mother in Kaplan’s book, this idea is very clearly demonstrated when the mother says, “You better not even discuss sex, let alone have it, with anyone until you get yourself married and talk about it to your husband. No man wants to marry soiled goods” (Kaplan, 81). This first social norm lights the pathway for the second, which is the idea that “sexually active unmarried girls become “soiled goods””(Kaplan, 82).

Throughout Kaplan’s study she found that African American mothers were embarrassed by the fact that their friends and coworkers knew their teenage daughter was sexually active. She was not only embarrassed for her daughter, but herself as well—she found it to be a big blow to her reputation. In another statement made by an African American mother whose teenage daughter was pregnant, it was stated that, “Only poor, ignorant, and mentally ill girls become pregnant at an early age. Nice girls don’t” (Kaplan, 82). This quote clearly exemplifies that approval was the last thing experienced by black teenage mothers in regards to their pregnancy.

The third, and final social norm African American families find to be broken by their daughters is “The notion that successful mothering means passing on social values to children” (Kaplan, 82). Black mothers view their daughter’s teenage pregnancy as an insult to their parenting abilities. They feel as though they failed at passing proper values onto their daughters, and view themselves and their daughters as moral failures. This is a very difficult aspect of the pregnancy for mothers to deal with, as it questions their definition of motherhood, and the views they have developed in regards to what motherhood entails.

In many ways society has turned teenage pregnancy into a black and white issue. It is important to recognize, however, that teenage pregnancy is not simply an issue that revolves solely around race. And it most certainly does not lie completely in the hands of African Americans. The rates of young, white, single mothers have vastly increased in the United States in recent decades. (Lawson and Rhode, 89). Since 1988 young women have been giving birth at a much higher rate, regardless of their skin color (Luker, 7). Therefore, if teen pregnancy rates are rising in all racial communities, other factors contributing to this rise must be examined.

This leads us to the next social construction revolving around teenage pregnancy: class. “It is true that young mothers tend to be poor women, it is much more meaningful to say that poor women tend to become young mothers” (Luker, 12). This statement is one that society has failed to truly grasp, and one that has lead to the social construction and belief that teenage pregnancy causes poverty. The idea that teenage poverty is an automatic sentence to poverty, and a contributing factor to poverty is one that is supported in the media, literature, and by society as a whole.

In an article written by a social scientist named Lloyd Eby, it is expressed that “Teenage mothers and their children experience increased levels of depression, stress, and aggression; a decrease in some indicators for physical health; higher incidence of needing the services of mental health professionals, and other emotional and behavioral problems. All these effects are linked with lifetime poverty, poor achievement, susceptibility to suicide, likelihood of committing crimes and being arrested, and other pathologies” (Eby and Donovan, 44).

Another author states that “Teenage pregnancy—the entry into parenthood of individuals who barely are beyond childhood themselves—is one of the most serious and complex problems facing the nation today…the birth of a child can usher in a dismal future of unemployment, poverty, family breakdown, emotional stress, dependency on public agencies, and health problems of mother and child” (Luker, 73). However, these indicators and symptoms of teenage pregnancy are ones that are also seen within impoverished communities that do not contain teenage mothers.

They are symptoms that plague both communities containing poor teenage mothers and poor communities without teenage mothers, and cannot be pin pointed simply to the latter. Therefore, it can be seen that the concept above, which states that teenage mothers cause poverty should be viewed in a different way, as poverty is the true cause of teenage pregnancy. Eighty percent of teenage mothers come from poor backgrounds (Luker, 112). And, in order to understand the social construction mentioned above we must first examine and understand the reasons why such a large percent of these teenage mothers come from economically unstable backgrounds.

The first major factor that can be explored is the fact that impoverished teens typically begin to have sexual intercourse at earlier stages in their lives. In addition to this fact, when they do start having sex they delay the use of effective contraceptives, and use them very inconsistently. This delayed and inconsistent use gives them many more opportunities to find themselves impregnated. All of these factors are ones that poor teenagers affluent peers tend to not take part in.

They begin having sex at a later age, and when they begin to take part in sexual practices their use of effective contraceptives is much more consistent (Luker, 114). In addition to sexual practices, poor teens are at a disadvantage in terms of educational development and ambition. The majority of teenage mothers, before getting pregnant, show very few educational aspirations, and perform poorly in school. They come from much less affluent background than their counterparts, have lower scores on cognitive and ability tests, as well as have a long history of behavioral problems, truancy, and absenteeism.

In other words these teens are young people who “were already experiencing difficulties in life on several fronts and who had little optimism about their futures” (Luker, 116). This separates poor mothers from their more affluent peers, as those who are more affluent tend to have higher career goals, better overall performance in school, consistent attendance and a greater sense of optimism about their futures. Not only do poor teenage mothers suffer from educational disadvantages, but their environment tends to influence them in a negative way.

They live in poor areas, surrounded by few people who have any hope for their future. A teenager who lives in a poor area, surrounded by poor people, and who has no successful role models, is much more likely to find herself seventeen and having a baby than a more affluent teen living in the suburbs with successful parents. Affluent teens view pregnancy as an obstacle, whereas poor teens many times view teenage pregnancy as a normal stage in life. This clearly plays a crucial role in higher teenage birth rates within non-affluent communities.

The evidence above clearly shows that circumstances the majority of poor young teenage mothers find themselves in are very bleak. These circumstances result in a higher percentage of teenage pregnancies within impoverished communities, and are ones that influence teenage mothers decision-making before conception. However, it is also important to examine the circumstances poor teen mothers encounter post pregnancy, in order to see that, while poverty is a large contributor to teenage pregnancy, the stresses it has on teen moms results in a vicious cycle of poverty, that they very seldomly escape.

The centerpiece for the cycle of poverty teenage mothers find themselves in post pregnancy is education, or lack there of. It is important to recognize that critics of the theory I am examining would argue that teen mothers lack of education is the centerpiece of their argument as well. They believe mother’s lack of education is the attributing factor to the poverty seen throughout the nation, and would therefore state that teenage pregnancy is clearly the main cause of poverty. However, this is not necessarily the case. When teen moms are “faced with the demands of a baby and schoolwork, hey tend to drop out of high school; and teen mothers who have dropped out lose any educational chances they may have had, condemning themselves and their children to lives of disadvantage. But since the teens who become pregnant are discouraged and disadvantaged to begin with, and since the fact that they are living in bleak circumstances increased the likelihood that they will get pregnant” the inference that their missed educational opportunities caused their poverty is incorrect (Luker, 116). Unfortunately, a majority of these young women would experience the same educational deficiencies whether they became pregnant or not.

While a large majority of teenage mothers would struggle with their educational pursuits, regardless of if they became pregnant or not, it is still important to examine the specific ways in which teenage pregnancy effects the education of teenage mothers. As stated above, when teens become pregnant the stress they experience between motherhood and schoolwork is too much to handle. “Pregnancy is the most common cause of school dropout among adolescent girls in the United States”. (Luker, 119) And, once a student drop’s out of school, they find it very hard to go back and finish their degree (Luker, 119).

Adolescents without a high school diploma find themselves with restricted job opportunities, unable to earn wages that will sufficiently support themselves and their child. They are trapped in the cycle of poverty, and the cycle is very hard to escape. It is very clear that the relationship between poverty and teenage pregnancy is very strong. While it would be very easy to assume that teenage pregnancy is the largest contributor to poverty, it is impossible to ignore the ways in which poverty influences young teens to become pregnant, and the role poverty plays in the lives of teenage mothers.

By blaming teenage mothers for poverty we are masking the understanding we need to acquire in order to obtain a true insight into teenage pregnancy and teenage mothers. The third and final social construction I am examining is gender. As a society we have created the idea that in the majority of cases, women are meant to take inferior roles to men, and are here to please them. This idea has carried over into teenage pregnancy, and has had immense effects on teenage mothers before, during, and after their pregnancy. And in many cases has played a major part in why teenage mothers get pregnant in the first place.

Not only does society create gender role expectations that confuse teenage mothers, but it also sends mixed messages about the roles teenage moms are supposed to play in their own life, as well as the life of their child. The first way in which teenage mothers are affected by traditional gender roles is in the fact that they fail to put themselves first in their relationships. They may have sex to please a man, and they may fail to use contraception because the man either objects or makes it difficult by complaining that contraception reduces his pleasure.

Because of the way teenage girls have been influenced by outside sources, they many times read this as a way he is trying to solidify the relationship (Luker, 6). They see contraception as a barrier between them and their relationship, and therefore welcome the idea of not using it. Many teenager mothers have stated they purposely got pregnant in attempts to obtain a committed relationship. They fail to recognize they have as much control over their relationship as their partner, and instead of looking for some forms of control and assertiveness they simply seek acceptance and the feeling that they are wanted.

These feelings are all associated with the idea that men are superior to them, and that women should seek the acceptance of a man more so than finding acceptance within herself (Luker, 4). Another concern within gender roles is that as a society we view young mothers as young women, we want them to be sensitive to the needs of others, committed to relationships and nurturing to the next generation. However, at the same time we want them to be careful, forward-thinking, attuned to the market, and prepared to invest in themselves and not others.

This clash of ideas and messages causes a great deal of confusion in the lives of teenage mothers, and causes them to feel stuck between different sets of expectations and roles. In many ways it causes them to never feel satisfied with the role they are playing, and diminishes their chances of a brighter future (Luker, 6). Not only have we created gender role expectations for women that make teen pregnancy a much more difficult experience, but the gender roles we have created for men have made teen pregnancy a much more difficult experience as well.

Women are given the responsibility of full-time care for their child, whether the male figure has involvement in their life or not. They are expected to deal with the daily stresses and issues that have been talked about above. Instead of assuming men should take these same responsibilities, we expect them not to play a large role, and have low expectations of their performance as teenage fathers. We quite simply let them off the hook. However, in order to aid teenage mothers in their daily hardships these expectations and gender roles need to be heightened for men.

We cannot continue expecting them to fail at being acceptable fathers. In conclusion, we can see that race, class, and gender play large roles in the lives of teenage mothers, and influence their lives in many ways. The roles they play depend largely on the social constructions society chooses to accept, develop, and pursue. By looking past the traditional social constructions society has developed, the ones that we have seen are often misconstrued and misguided, we can obtain a true understanding of the lives of teenage mothers, and the causes of their lifestyles and decision making.

Teen Pregnancy Research Essay

Eradicating Extreme Poverty And Hunger Essay

Eradicating Extreme Poverty And Hunger Essay.

Hunger is one of the determinants of poverty in Africa. Hunger leads to poor health, high mortality rate, low productivity and extreme societal disability. I highly believe that if only we could work on food security in countries like Africa, we could be way up above making half of the world’s poverty level to decrease. Business could go a long way towards assisting this. People here are facing the two prime and significant problems – Extreme Poverty and Hunger.

Have you seen the children and adults of Somalia, Uganda, and Congo; all of them are malnourished and suffer from different diseases due to malnourishment – by the gift of starvation and poverty.

These are some of the poorest people in the world. Sucked into the cities in search of work, they live in shacks made of corrugated iron, near an open sewer. Though poverty is now in decline in Bangladesh, malnutrition rates are still among the highest anywhere in the world. One in every six people in the world lives on less than a dollar, or 65p, a day, and more than 800 million people are malnourished.

The people you see in these TV and newspaper pictures just happen to have been born in the wrong place. While we drink clean tap water, they drink water from a sewage-infested river. While we consume more than is good for us, they eat rice with a little chicken skin if they are lucky. We can’t help having been born here and not there; we can’t stop eating or drinking or shopping. But if people in our street didn’t have enough to eat, we would share our food with them. Just because poverty is a long way away doesn’t mean there is nothing we can do to tackle it.

In 2000, world leaders made a promise to eliminate half of the extreme poverty levels and the number of malnourished people by 2015. They can do it – but only if we keep up the pressure. As Nelson Mandela said: “Ending poverty isn’t about charity. It’s about justice. ” This goal aims to reduce by half the number of people whose income is less than $1 a day, and those who suffer from hunger. In southern Sudan, drought and the effects of 20 years of conflict led to a severe food shortage in 2002, with many children very malnourished.

An NGO called TEARFUND responded to this emergency with a new approach called community-based therapeutic care. Traditional feeding programmes treat children suffering from severe malnutrition in feeding centres. Children and their careers usually stay in the centre, so only a limited number can be treated at any time. This new community-based approach involves setting up many smaller distribution points, often in remote areas. Local people help build and staff them. All the malnourished children admitted to the programme are examined.

If they have a healthy appetite and no medical complications, they are given supplies of a special food called Plumpynut and sent home, to be looked after by their mothers. They get regular supplies of Plumpynut from the local distribution point when they go for a weekly check up. This community-based approach reduces the time mothers have to spend away from their other children, and from their household and farming work. This was especially appreciated at the start of the planting season. Plumpynut also proved very popular with the children.

Severely malnourished children with serious health problems or no appetite are admitted to a stabilization centre for medical care until they have recovered enough to return home. This new community-based approach was a success in South Sudan, and very popular with local people. The programme was able to cover a much wider area. Hundreds more children were treated than in previous, centralized programmes. There was a high recovery rate and a very low mortality rate. Nurses who had spent over five years in feeding programmes initially found it strange to let severely malnourished children leave the treatment centre.

However, they soon became the strongest advocates for the new approach. Mothers attending the distribution points also received health education and supplies of seeds. Some have now formed women’s groups that meet each week to receive further health education. Alleviating hunger and poverty has been and continues to be the pre-dominant policy challenge facing global and national decision makers. Here we argue that policy interventions for addressing this challenge should be designed in the context of emerging global, regional and national trends.

We discuss four major trends that are shaping the future food economy and consequently the prospects for meeting the hunger and poverty goals. These trends are: i) Rapid urbanization in the developing world and its impact on food markets. ii) Increasing integration of global food markets through trade. iii) Deterioration of natural resource base and the degradation of the global and local commons; and iv) Rising transactions costs in the acquisition and use of science and technology for development.

Other ideas to meet eradicate poverty and hunger are as follows – Encourage access to micro-credit; provide free school meals for all school children, using locally produced foods; improve soil fertility through adding manure, making compost and using green manures; plant trees like moringa and leuceana that add nutrients to the soil; and encourage the use of door-sized home gardens. At the turn of the new millennium, 147 nations agreed they had the resources and the political will to eradicate the extreme poverty, hunger and disease that kills millions of people each year in the poorest parts of the world.

UNDP also mentioned that seven years ago the world came together and committed to tackle poverty in all its forms and work to build a better world for everyone. This vision was encapsulated in the Millennium Declaration and the eight Millennium Development Goals that emerged from it, which include halving the number of people living in extreme poverty and hunger by the year 2015; achieving universal primary education; promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment; reducing child and maternal mortality; combating HIV/AIDS and other diseases and ensuring environmental sustainability.

These Goals are underpinned by a commitment to build a global partnership for development, a compact between poor countries that commit to focus on reducing poverty, and the richer world that commits to be an active partner in supporting developing country efforts. The MDGs represent an internationally agreed set of goals that can be achieved if all actors work together and do their part.

Now, at the midpoint towards the 2015 target, it is clear that significant progress has been made in many areas. The number of people living on less than one dollar a day has fallen by roughly 250 million people and so, at the global level at least, it looks like we will meet the goal to halve extreme poverty and hunger. In some regions more children are in school – both girls and boys – and people can expect to live longer and more productive lives.

However this is not happening in all parts of the world. As I saw in my visit to Mozambique, Tanzania and Rwanda last week, while many African countries are making real progress in the fight against poverty, the challenge of achieving the MDGs and other development objectives in sub-Saharan Africa is particularly acute, where only some countries are progressing sufficiently to achieve some of the Goals.

Today, worldwide, more than one billion people still lack access to safe drinking water; 6,000 people die of HIV and AIDS each day; and more than 750 million adults cannot read – half a billion of them women. The impact of climate change also poses a particularly daunting challenge to many developing countries, especially the poorest. But this picture does not have to remain the same. Many of the Goals remain eminently achievable in the vast majority of countries.

For this to happen, though, two crucial aspects of the partnership for development must be respected. The first relates to the theme for the Eradication of Poverty: ‘People living in poverty as agents of change’, where it is clear that developing countries themselves should own their development process and that UNDP’s role is to help build the capacity to empower them to take charge of their own development. It also means that the support we provide will be more effective as it will be given in support of the priorities of poor people, and on their own terms.

The idea that people living in poverty are agents of their own change can be applied at the local level, but also extends through the national level where people can get involved in monitoring policies and reviewing budgets, as well as at the international level where poorer countries must be able to contribute fully to the global institutions and processes that can shape progress in their country. The second component of the partnership is that while poor people must be in the driving seat of their development, we have also committed to provide them with the necessary support.

Implementing the commitments that the international community has already made – on increasing and improving aid, dealing comprehensively with the debt problems facing developing countries, and delivering a trading system that puts the needs of poor countries at its heart – would go a very long way in ensuring that the MDGs can be met. The policies and actions of all countries on issues such as the environment and migration must also be made as supportive as possible of development, lest we give with one hand and take away with the other.

For the Eradication of Poverty we should recommit to achieving the MDGs as a whole, and to these two components in particular in the fight against poverty, so that the world can come as close as possible to achieving the ambitious Goals that has been set for 2015. Former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan also had said that – Today called for simultaneous action on both issues, warning that it will be impossible to eradicate one blight without the other. “Hunger and poverty are ugly siblings.

You cannot get rid of either unless you tackle the other as well… Hunger, after all, is both a source and a consequence of extreme poverty. A hungry man cannot think beyond his next meal… This has devastating consequences for the economic and social development of society as a whole,” Mr. Annan told government representatives and other officials at UN Headquarters. “The world has the resources and the know-how to make hunger history. What we need is political will and resolve. Let us renew our pledge to work together towards the day when no man, woman or child goes to sleep hungry.

Let us resolve to win the fight against hunger once and for all. And I think that, with determination, resolve and will, it can be done. ” Mr. Annan repeated that the theme to eradicate poverty and hunger is the need to bolster agriculture, noting that more than two thirds of the world’s hungry live in rural areas, and increased investment in agriculture is one of the most effective means to help them. He also made a warning that the world has made insufficient progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly goal number one for eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015.

Anyhow, global poverty and hunger are issues that affect all of us. Almost a billion people live on less than $1 a day and approximately half of the world population lives on less than $2 a day (United Nations, 2007). Since 1990, 270 million people throughout the world have died from poverty-related causes. Realizing that there are a little over 300 million people living in the United States, the figure of 270 million deaths is staggering. The majority of those that died were women and children. Every three seconds a child dies of hunger and preventable diseases (Bedell, 2005).

According to CARE (2007), an organization committed to fighting global poverty and helping people become self-sufficient, more than 840 million people in the world suffer from malnutrition. Of those people, more than 153 million are children under age 5, and tragically, six million of those children will die because of hunger. In 2000, the Millennium Declaration was adopted by 189 member nations of the United Nations. These countries committed to achieving eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 to improve the quality of life in developing countries.

Goal 1 is to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Even though the international poverty line is being redrawn, the current poverty line has been set at an income of $1. 08 per day. The poverty line is the minimum income level to meet basic needs. The poverty line varies in different countries such as the United States. Nevertheless, the goal is to reduce by one-half the number of people worldwide earning less than $1 per day. Without financial resources, basic needs such as food, water, shelter, hygiene, education, and access to health care cannot be met.

Poverty is multidimensional and affects the person’s well-being and sense of worth. According to a woman in Tiraspol, Moldova, “For a poor person everything is terrible–illness, humiliation, shame. We are cripples; we are afraid of everything; we depend on everyone. No one needs us. We are like garbage that everyone wants to get rid of” (study conducted by World Bank Group, 2007). Some progress is being made to meet Goal 1 as the number of people in developing countries that are living on less than $1 per day decreased from 1.

25 billion in 1990 to 980 million in 2004 (United Nations, 2007). However, according to the 2007 Millennium Development Goals Report, the sub-Saharan countries are making progress but are not on target to meet Goal 1. Poverty rates in western Asia increased. Poor progress has been made to decrease childhood hunger in sub-Saharan countries and southern Asia. Efforts will need to be accelerated to meet Goal 1. Because the MDGs are interrelated, it is important to be aware of all of goals. They are: 1.

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 2. Achieve universal primary education. 3. Promote gender equality and empower women. 4. Reduce child mortality. 5. Improve maternal health. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. 7. Ensure environmental sustainability. 8. Develop a global partnership for development. Fighting Hunger, Poverty, and Injustice The International Council of Nurses conference in Yokohama, Japan, this summer, also discussed about other international efforts to eradicate poverty and hunger.

One of the presenters at the conference was Barbara Stocking, director of Oxfam International, an organization dedicated to fighting poverty and injustice worldwide. Her presentation included content about the devastating effects of poverty and hunger. As you might expect, her photographs and stories of many of the people suffering from hunger and poverty were particularly poignant. As the late Dr. Martin Luther King said: “We have the resources to get rid of poverty. There is no deficit in human resources. The deficit is in human will. ” So let us work towards make the world a beautiful place

Eradicating Extreme Poverty And Hunger Essay

Native American Poverty Essay

Native American Poverty Essay.

W. E. B Du Bois once stated “to be a poor man is hard, but to be a poor race in a land of dollars is the very bottom of hardships” (qtd. in Rodgers 1). The Native American culture is often overlooked by many people in the United States today. What many people do not realize is that about twenty-five percent of Native Americans are living in poverty (Rodgers 1). A majority of the poverty among Native Americans is due to the United States breaking treaties that promised funds for their tribes.

When non-Native Americans first began migrating to North America, the Indians were slowly having their land stripped away from them, and being pushed to live on small, poorly kept reservations. As well as taking their land, non-Native Americans fought wars with the Indians, wiping out large numbers of their population (Jenkins A9). Living in poverty has caused many early mortalities, alcoholism and crime. Today the few Native American tribes that are still in existence have had enough.

They are ready to take control and make their comeback, in hopes of preserving their culture and livelihoods (Gorospe 95).

Several tribes have begun opening and operating their own casino resorts, some have failed, but several have been successful (Nykiel 51). President Obama has also been making promises of funds to the Native American tribes, hopefully these promises will be kept, and improve the Native Americans way of life (Nasaw 1). Native Americans are beginning to find the determination needed to make a comeback. Much of this determination in from anger, so much has been taken from them that their angry emotions towards the non-Native Americans is quite understandable.

Land has been taken from the Native Americans, they have been forced to relocate several times. While relocating their economic resources are taken from them and they are not given any chance to provide for themselves. The reservations in which the Native Americans are forced to relocate to are hardly livable. Un-fair wars have been forced upon them and no respect has been shown to Native Americans (Jenkins A9). One main reason for poverty among Native Americans is the United States Government being unable to provide the billions of dollars that have been promised to Native American tribes.

A leader from the Sioux tribe states that “they were riding to overcome the poverty, alcoholism and despair that had engulfed their people for more than a century, and said real healing would not be possible until the U. S. Government lived up to its treaty obligations” (Walsh 8). Native American reservations are small and isolated. The living conditions are poor due to the lack of money, so as a result this can cause many health problems for Native Americans. There are poor roads and no sidewalks, which makes it difficult to travel in and out of the reservation, so this would be a main reason for their isolation.

No forms of public transportation are provided for the reservations since there is no money. There is no money for the Native Americans because the United States Government has not provided the funding that they have promised (Gorospe 96). Basically it is a domino effect that is not benefiting the Native American population in anyway. Before the Europeans migrated to America, Native Americans did not face many diseases. Post-arrival of the Europeans, diseases such as smallpox, influenza, measles, typhus, malaria, leprosy, and several others began to effect the Native American population (Grandbois 1002).

Presently these diseases and many other disabilities can be one of the many reasons why Native Americans are in poverty. It is inconvenient for Native Americans to seek help when it comes to being ill, so a majority of the time they rely on natural cures or do not seek help at all. In many Native American cultures they live with their extended families who will provide the disabled member of the family with whatever tasks they are unable to complete, so many do not view themselves as disabled(Gorospe 96).

As well as any other person, disabilities severely affect a Native Americans life. Having a disability or disease causes a person to be unable to work, so as a result this would cause a person to have less income and live in even more poverty than a fully able Native American. In an emergency situation it can be very difficult to seek help due to lack of transportation and isolation of the reservations, this can make it difficult for emergency vehicles to reach the reservations. In 1976 the Indian Health Care Improvement Act was passed.

The act stated that Native Americans would receive the same forms of health care that all other Americans were receiving. In 1992 it was time for Congress to reauthorize the act, but they never did. Since this act has not been reauthorized many Native Americans health systems are out of date and in serious need of improvement. Once this act is reauthorized it will improve disease screening on reservations, provide funding to modernize Native American health facilities, and will also help the Native American population better understand ways to prevent illness and disease (Rodgers 4).

Tom Rodgers states that If providing better health care to Native Americans during a time of Wall Street bailouts seems too costly, we should recognize that we currently spend thirty percent more per capita on health care in American prisons than on Native Americans, whose ancestors aided the Pilgrims, fed the soldiers freezing in Valley Forge, helped Lewis and Clark explore our nation, and proudly hoisted the flag on Iwo Jima (Rodgers 4). It is ridiculous that the Native Americans, who have helped many people, are put behind prisoners that have done wrong.

Health care is one thing that should be offered to all no matter what their ethnicity is. Many Native Americans are unaware of opportunities that are available due to the isolation that they face on reservations. In 1992 only seventy-eight percent of Native Americans received a high school diploma. This makes Native Americans the least likely of all minority groups, besides Hispanics, to obtain a high school degree. One main reason for Native Americans being unable to obtain a high school diploma is having to leave school to get a job.

If a member of their family faces an illness or disability that causes them to be unable to work, the younger members of the family are going to need to help provide for the family. In many cases there is not a disability or illness, Native Americans have very poor wages and are unable to survive on only two incomes. Only eleven percent of Native Americans continues on to college after high school and receives a degree. Being a minority student automatically gives Native Americans a disadvantage.

Parents of minority youth tend to have lower levels of education, and this is directly linked to what kind of performance their child will have in school (Donelan 4). In 1995 Native Americans had an overwhelming rate of unemployment at thirty-two percent. Since Native Americans are likely to obtain lower levels of education this puts them at greater risk for unemployment (Marshall 3). In today’s society many occupations require some type of formal education. For many Native Americans the only option they have is to have a job rather than a career. Being isolated on a reservation causes.

Native Americans to be unable to access many of the well-paying jobs that are offered to the non-Native American population. In 1995 an average annual income for a Native American household was ten-thousand dollars (Marshall 6). Many Native American households include extended families, so this would be the income to support a very large household. A few Native American tribes have begun opening casinos in hopes to become successful and keep their heritage alive. Foxwoods is the first Native American casino to be opened, it is also the most successful casino resort.

Mohegan Sun, another casino resort, follows close behind Foxwoods in their success. Foxwoods casino was created to help save the Mashantucket Pequot Nation from having their reservation taken from them and turned into a state park. In 1992 Foxwoods Resort Casino opened creating nearly thirteen thousand jobs for members on the Mashantucket Pequot Nation and members of surrounding towns. Not only are the casinos benefiting the tribes, they are also benefiting the communities they reside in. Foxwoods has an annual revenue of over one billion dollars.

The casino is also home to a Native American Museum that has become a leading cultural attraction in Connecticut. There are several other Native American owned and run casino resorts throughout the United States that have been successful such as: Mohegan Sun, Turning Stone in New York, Barona in California, Sac and Fox in Iowa, Silver Star in Mississippi, this is just to name a few. Casinos have helped pull many Native American tribes out of poverty and preserve their heritage through the decor of their casinos.

There have been a few casinos that have failed due to poor locations, unrealistic expectations, unfulfilled promises, high debt to income ration, and poor management through the tribe’s members and the management companies hired to help. Now that many of these tribes are out of poverty they are using their income to create more opportunities for young tribal members. Many of their funds are being dedicated to education for all Native Americans, including college. Several scholarships have been created to ensure further education for those who seek it.

Gaming has also created more opportunity to preserve their tribe’s history and culture (Nykiel 51-56) Even though Native Americans and non-Native Americans are on the same continent there are significant cultural differences that can create a barrier between the two different cultures. Non-Native Americans need to have a very strong drive to help Native Americans since there are so many barriers. The Native Americans being isolated on the reservations keeps the two different cultures apart.

The fact that transportation from the reservation is very difficult to obtain causes Native Americans to be unwilling to make the effort to leave the reservations. Native Americans have very different beliefs when it comes to treating health problems. They also handle a person that commits a felony very differently than how non-Native Americans do. These differences can make it difficult for non-Native Americans to help the Native Americans, more training is required to be able to understand how the Native Americans react to some situations.

Native Americans would rather have relationships with individuals than a group or organization, so one on one interaction is very important. Rather than Native Americans working with several different individuals it is beneficial to work with just one and form a relationship. Language differences also causes problems when seeking help from non-Native Americans. Some Native Americans speak English as their second language and feel comfortable speaking in their native language.

There are many differences that non-Native Americans need to take into account before they can try and help Native Americans, sometimes a person is un-willing to take the extra effort to gain the knowledge needed to help the Native Americans (Gorospe 96). John F. Kennedy once stated “for a subject worked and reworked so often in novels, motion pictures, and television, American Indians remain probably the least understood and most misunderstood Americans of all”(Donelan 3). Although this is true, it also takes effort from non-Native Americans to try and communicate with the Native American culture.

It cannot be assumed that if help is needed it will always be sought. Native Americans have had their economic resources taken from them by the non-Native American cultures, they have been driven off their land, and have been given no respect. Some Native Americans may be intimidated or un-trusting since the United States Government has broken so many treaties with them. The United States Government needs to make the effort to help the struggling Native American culture pull themselves out of poverty.

President Obama has vowed to end the neglect of the past two hundred years that the Native Americans have endured. The Native Americans have given Obama the name “One who helps people throughout the land”. Obama has signed a memorandum that is stating that the government is to converse with the existing Native American tribes to try and assist them. President Obama has appointed an Indian from the Cherokee Nation to become an adviser on Indian issues, he has also appointed a member on the Rosebud Sioux tribe to be the head of Indian Health Services.

Hopefully some progress will be made to help the existing Native American tribes become more prosperous in today’s society (Nasaw 1). Alcoholism has become a major problem in the Native American culture. Many people, not just Native Americans, view alcohol as an escape from their problems. The fact that a majority of Native Americans are in poverty and have very few opportunities offered to them has a lot to do with the problem of alcoholism on many reservations. To solve the problem of alcoholism, Native Americans believe in a sweat lodge ceremony rather than alcoholics anonyms meetings.

A sweat lodge ceremony is used to obtain spiritual purification through prayer, many members of the tribe participate to try and purify the person (Donelan 2). Life on Native American reservations can be very violent. According to statistics from 1992 to 1996, one hundred and fifty Native Americans were murdered per year (Donelan 1). Native Americans have a large amount of anger towards the people that have caused them to be in poverty that they are releasing their anger and causing harm to their own people. Poverty among Native American’s is one of the most overlooked forms of poverty.

Native Americans were the very last to be granted the right to vote, it is time for something to be done to change the way the Native Americans have been treated. Many people were unaware that November was Native American Indian Heritage Month and the day after Thanksgiving is Native American Heritage day (Rodgers 2). I am sure that nobody celebrated or gave thanks for the many sacrifices the Native Americans have made for the United States. Any problems Native Americans face can somehow be related to the fact that the United States Government was unable to follow through with their treaty to pull them out of poverty.

It is a disgrace that the first human to walk on the continent of North America are known as the most neglected minority group in the country (Gorospe 95). [pic] Works Cited Donelan, Brenda. “The Unique Circumstances of Native American Juveniles Under Federal Supervision. ” Federal Probation 63. 2 (1999): 68. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. . Gorospe, Martha G. “Overcoming Obstacles and Improving Outcomes. ” Bilingual Review 24 (1999): 95. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. . Grandbois, Donna.

“Stigma Of Mental Illness Among American Indian And Alaska Native Nations: Historical And Contemporary Perspectives. ” Issues in Mental Health Nursing 26 (2005): 1001-1024. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. . Jenkins, Alan. “Inequality, Race, and Remedy. ” The American Prospect 18. 5 (May 2007): A8(4). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. Waubonsee. . Marshall, Catherine A. “The Older Native American Indian With Disabilities: Implications for Providers of Health Care and Human Services. ” Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development 22.

3 (1994):182-194. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. . Nasaw, Daniel. “Obama Vows to End Native Americans’ Neglect. ” The Guardian (2009): 30. Lexis Nexis Academic. 12 Nov. 2009. . Nykiel, Ronald A. “A Special Look at Indian Gaming. ” UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal 8. 2 (2004): 51-56. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. . Rodgers, Tom. Spotlight on Poverty. 2009. 12 Nov. 2009. . Walsh, Catherine. “Perspectives. ” America 173. 11 (1995):8. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. .

Native American Poverty Essay

Winners & Losers of Globalization Essay

Winners & Losers of Globalization Essay.

It is impossible to discuss in one paper all concepts and issues that relate to the winners and losers of globalization, but , this paper briefly discusses who the pronounced winners and losers of globalization are in today’s world economy. The paper pays close attention to the factors that account for the successes and failures of the winners and losers of globalization respectively. To start with, globalization, as Hill and Hernandez described in their book of Global business today, refers to “the shift toward a more integrated and interdependent world economy,” (Charles W.

L. Hill & William Hernandez- Requejo, P 33). Broadly speaking , it is clear that the world Is moving towards ‘a global village’ due to the decline of barriers to cross-border trade and investment, and advances in transportation and telecommunication technology.

However, this does not mean globalization led to a better world for all. Looking into the impact of globalization worldwide, it is profoundly true to say that we have two categories: Winners and Losers .

The parties in either category can be viewed as competitively advantaged or disadvantaged by the process of globalization. Briefly , let us first address who we assume to be the winners of globalization. We have many different parties who we believe that they competitively have the upper hand in today’s global market- Developed nations( The U.S and European countries), large firms who produce exportable goods, consumers who buy imported goods, Entrepreneurs who work for profit, companies endowed with highly skilled and educated personnel, countries that enjoy political stability and favorable government rule, and nations that have favorable economic policies, to name only a few- these are some of the parties that seem to dominate the global economy and enjoy the fruits of globalization in today’s world.

Above all, a few countries in the world dominate global economy and are seen to have greatly benefited from globalization. The U.S. , for instance, is estimated to produce about 25% of the the global GDP. In 2009, the U.S. central intelligence agency reported that the U.S. GDP was valued to be over $ 14.4 trillion. ( factbook,www.cia.gov). On the other hand, those who feel like they were cut off from the many privileges of globalization include: some poor -developing nations (most Africa & South America), domestic firms that produce importable goods, consumers of exportable products, workers who work only to earn wages, small firms that lack skilled personnel, and countries that have political instabilities or under the rule of Totalitarian government, and those who experience unfavorable economic policies.

Many will argue that having possession of some factors of production such as capital, land and labor in abundance accounts for the success of the winners of globalization. Yes I couldn’t agree with them more, but, looking at it deeply, I strongly agree with Amartya Sen who said that “development should be seen as a process of expanding the real freedom that people experience. Hence development requires the removal of impediments of freedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as the intolerance of repressive states ,” ( page,91).

Winners of globalization have been successful because they succeeded in removing these impediments. Conversely, the loser of globalization’s failures can be accounted for a number of factors: “Totalitarian government, economic policies that destroy wealth rather than facilitate its creation, endemic corruption, scant protection of property rights and war,” (P.60). Hill and Hernandez also pointed out some “40 or so highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs) that are trapped in a cycle of poverty and debt which inhibits economic development,” (P.61). Overly, as the trend towards globalization worldwide increases some countries’ economies grow more rapidly while others are dragged into the sidelines. The predominant factors that determine the destiny of the winners and losers of globalization are more of the freedoms, and opportunities that people enjoy than the process itself.

Reference:

Charles W.L. Hill & William Hernandez- Requejo. (2011). Global Business Today (7 ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Factbook, www.cia.gov,

Winners & Losers of Globalization Essay

Selling Organs Should Not Be Legalized Essay

Selling Organs Should Not Be Legalized Essay.

Organ donation affects hundreds of thousands of people and their families worldwide. At the end of October 2008, more than 100,000 people were waiting for an organ in the United States alone. Unfortunately, the number of donors is nowhere near that figure. The development of organ transplantation as a standard medical procedure denotes that there is a substantial demand for organs than is adequate to fulfill the current needs (Barber 234). If the organs were readily available as needed, thousands of lives could be saved each year.

However, an organ market would redefine the act of donating organs and would in turn decline organ contributions (Childress 71). Admittedly, many would argue that the legalization of organ markets is both morally ethical and beneficial for the country. For example, some citizens feel it is the American way to allow people be free to auction their individual organs and do whatever they desire with their bodies. Additionally, many plainly declare that sale would increase the supply and not diminish the percentage of altruistic donation (Rothman 70).

Finally, advocators for legalization state that it would be a natural incentive to help escalate the amount of donations. To summarize, supporters of organ selling believe that financial benefits might encourage people to donate and should be a normal part of a free enterprise system. Indeed, many might believe legalization of the selling of organs is beneficial. However, organ markets should continue to stay illegal in the United States because selling is unjust, promotes unhealthy greed, and devalues human life. Initially, selling should not be legalized because it is unjust. For instance, there is a strong economic motive for low-income families to sell their organs yet none for wealthy people to do so. Likewise, the risk of coercion and exploitation, specially of poor people, is considerable. Some insist the rich have been habitually prepared to allow underprivileged individuals to do similar life threatening things (McClellan 106). Another unacceptable element of unfairness is the fact that wealthy people can always afford to get a hold of these priceless organs but the poor cannot. At one point in time a kidney was put up for sale on the online auction site ‘eBay’.

The price for the organ had gone up to 7 million U.S dollars by the time eBay was notified of the situation. It is reasonable to believe that if sale was legalized the poor would be subject to being to forced to sell to gain this money and only the wealthy would be capable of affording the pricy organs. “We have never accepted the notation that the have-nots should become the source of spare parts for the haves.”, says Goodman. Based on this research, under the weight of poverty, individuals might have to resort to “cashing in” one of their expendable organs. In summarization, the poor have less of a chance to procure the costly organs than the rich and the wealthy have a strong motivation to pressure the poor to sell because of their economic situations.

Furthermore, research shows legalization could promote unhealthy greed on the population. To illustrate, “No longer would donors provide the ‘gift of life’ — they instead would donate the equivalent of the market value of the organs” (Childress 71). In addition, all too often where money is involved, greed overwhelms all other considerations. All too often, those who stand to gain the most will plave more value on the end(money or needed organ) than the means(the mutilation or death of another human being). For example, in the case of Chinese prisoners, it was reported that prisioners with prime organs and ready customers would get bumped to the front of the execution line.

And a suspicious number of prisioners were executed each year, more than four thousand in 1997, many of them for minor crimes. If the laws were changed, the greed of some very bad people would become even stronger. The notion that people might view an organ, or the money derived from sale, as a higher value than the probability of mutilating or slaughtering another human being is utterly disturbing. The stakes are high. What is being sold is in high demand. What is being bought makes a difference between life and death. These facts alone cause someone to do whatever they can to obtain an organ. Evidently, the basis of this view is found in the old saying, ‘Money is the root of all evil’. As a result, we clearly see that cash payments affect moral obligations and all too often when money is involved, greed overwhelms all other considerations.

Ultimately, organ selling should not be legalized because it devalues human life. In particular, allowing the trade of organs would result in the commodification of bodies and their parts. Similarly, commodities would conduct us to be under the impression that expired bodies are merely products and would eventually lead the way to the destruction of social values. Think about the temptation. If you had a relative whose death was inevitable, would you be enticed to stop his or her treatment early if you knew you would get money for the organs harvested? If you wouldnt go that far, would you breathe a sigh of relief when the patient finally died and you would pay some bills or take a dreamed-of trip? That kind of tempation can’t help but make people forget, at least a little, that the dying patient is a human being.

“It is a fundamental abuse of people so desperate that they would have to sell a kidney or half of their sight” (McClellan 106). Commodification has the complete ability to diminish as well as destruct the practice of altruism. Therefore, buying and selling organs devalues human beings and turns them into products. In conclusion, organ markets should not be legalized because it is unfair, devalues human life, and promotes unhealthy greed. Our society has tremendously powerful explanations as to for what reasons the trafficking of organs for money should not be allowed. “We have been quite properly queasy about the free market approach to the human body. There are some things that aren’t and shouldn’t be for sale — among them an ‘extra cornea’ or ‘spare kidney’” (O’Neill 46).

Selling Organs Should Not Be Legalized Essay

Rural – Urban Migration and Ways of Stopping the Migration Essay

Rural – Urban Migration and Ways of Stopping the Migration Essay.

Rural-urban linkage generally refers to the growing flow of public and private capital, people (migration and commuting) and goods (trade) between urban and rural areas. It is important to add to these the flow of ideas, the flow of information and diffusion of innovation. Adequate infrastructure such as transportation, communication, energy and basic services is the backbone of the urban-rural development linkage approach (Tacoli, 2004). There is a positive relationship between adequacy of transportation infrastructure, ease of mobility and access to employment and enhancement of income.

Adequate investments in infrastructure, particularly transportation infrastructure, also improve rural productivity and allow access to markets, jobs and public service by both men and women. (2nd FIG Regional Conference, 2003)

Rural urban linkages have several definitions, out of a desire to express the nature as clearly and concisely as possible. Thereby more recently social scientists, economists, architects and urban planners have been compelled to work together in the rural–urban interface concept seen as the interaction between the two spheres and an explicit acceptance of spatial coexistence of both.

Worries are the necessity to feed and water supply the rising numbers of people that arrive in the cities every day, and also the need to find the best solutions to integrate complementary realms in order to ameliorate policies and governance (Madaleno et al., 2004).

There are different perspectives on “urban” currently adopted in mainland Tanzania:

Politico-administrative perspective

Adopted by the Prime Minister’s Office- Regional Administration and Local Government, a human settlement perspective embraced by the Ministry of Lands and Human Settlements Development and a statistical perspective adopted by the National Bureau of Statistics, The three perspectives differ primarily in their spatial unit of analysis. It applies its own categorization of “urban” to politico-administrative entities, the Local Government Authorities; while the National Bureau of Statistics applies the concept of “urban” to Enumeration Areas (EAs), the smallest statistical unit of analysis in the population and household censuses. A common denominator of the three above-mentioned urban perceptions is that none of them explicitly accounts for population density.

The human settlements perspective

National Human Settlement Development Policy 2000 provides a classification of human settlements “based on population size, level of services, economic base and level of sustenance in annual budget” Based on the policy, the urban hierarchy in Tanzania consists of four urban strata: cities, municipalities, towns and townships (or district headquarters). While the first three urban strata based on the human settlements perspective overlap with the politico-administrative classification of urban centers, the Ministry of Land Human Settlement and Development recognizes a fourth urban stratum, the townships or headquarters of the district councils.

Rural; In general rural is a geographical area in which primary production takes place and where populations are found in varying densities. These areas characterized by activities related to primary and secondary processing, marketing and services that serve rural and urban population. Defining rural is both technically and theoretically challenging and it is unlikely that there will be a universally agreed definition any time soon. The Census Bureau uses population size and density to define what is urban and by default defines rural as that which is not urban.

Counties that are not designated as metropolitan are designated as non-metropolitan counties. These are further divided into metropolitan counties, and “non-core counties” who are often used as proxies for rural. These are overlapping and often contradictory definitions, with more than half (51 percent) of all rural residents, amounting to over 30 million people, living in metropolitan counties, and 41 percent of the nonmetropolitan population (over 20 million residents) living in urban areas (Miller, 2006).

Rural – urban migration phenomena;

The main reasons for rural out-migration in the impact region are largely economic. They include poor pricing of cash crops, lack of alternative activities in rural areas, poor returns from agriculture and following relatives. Consequently, rural out-migration leads to three main drawbacks in the rural areas; namely decreased labour-force in agriculture, decreased productivity in agriculture and threatened food security in the region. On one hand, Bryceson (2000) argues that if poverty alleviation is the objective of development in both rural and urban areas, then the issue of rural labour displacement cannot be avoided.

At the same time, the increase in the cost of food and the introduction of user fees for education and health services has forced many households to seek cash incomes through employment diversification – including non-farm occupations for rural residents, often located in urban centers – migration and urban agriculture The increased emphasis on producers’ direct access to markets, following the dismantling of marketing boards which used to be the main outlet for small agricultural producers, has strengthened the links with urban centers, where local markets and links to wider regional and national marketing systems are located. This is not without problems, however, as limited information, inadequate infrastructure and storage and processing facilities can hamper increased returns for producers.

The following are the ways on how rural areas in Tanzania can be developed hence an alternative discouraging rural to urban migration.

Improving rural farmer’s access to the inputs and services required to increase agricultural productivity. The sharp reduction in subsidies to agricultural inputs has affected the incomes of small-scale, under-capitalized farmers in most regions, whilst the retrenchment of workers in the formal sector has deepened financial insecurity in the urban centers (Tacoli, 2004). Access to land, capital and labour may be far more important in determining the extent to which farmers are able to benefit from urban markets.

Patterns of attendance at periodic markets also show that distance is a much less important issue than rural consumers’ income and purchasing power in determining demand for manufactured goods, inputs and services (Morris, 1997). Nevertheless, access to urban markets is a key to increasing incomes for rural and peri-urban farmers. Three aspects are crucial: physical infrastructure, including road networks and affordable transport; relations between producers, traders and consumers; and information on how markets operate, including price fluctuations and consumer preferences. Land ownership can become increasingly unequal, as large farmers and wealthier urban households purchase land rights from small holders who cannot afford to buy inputs and have limited access to credit (Grand, 2001).

Improving physical infrastructure; this can have far-reaching consequences on producer’s prices, as inadequate roads usually entail prohibitive transport costs. In Tanzania, collection, transport and sale of previously controlled cash crops has been liberalized since the mid-1980. Cashew nuts from the southern region are primarily for export, and a small number of private companies control their purchase, collection and transport to the main shipping port of Mtwara.

Road infrastructure in the area however, is extremely poor; making transport costs prohibitive (Tacoli, 2004). Although private companies are only allowed to buy the nuts from farmer cooperatives in designated locations, in practice these are out of reach for small farmers, who can hardly afford transport costs. Lack of good transport and communication networks is one of the greatest handicap to rural development; agricultural and other rural based products cannot easily reach markets, perishable products rot for lack of cold storage, prices are uncertain as farmers are forced to sell at lower prices to avoid total loss. Often buyers of cash and food crops hesitate to reach areas remote from highway and all-weather roads.

Creating rural non-farm employment opportunities;

Diversification can be described as an accumulation strategy for households with farming assets and with access to urban networks, and who often re-invest profits from urban-based activities in agricultural production and vice-versa, resulting in capital and asset accumulation (Tacoli, 2002). Transformations in the ways in which households and individuals make a living are perhaps the most striking aspect of rural–urban linkages and, in many cases, involve multiple occupations ranging from farming to services to processing and manufacturing.

In most rural locations, there has been an increase among rural households in the time devoted to, and the income share derived from, non-farm activities, although diversification is not new. Nor is it a purely rural phenomenon, and the reliance of hundreds of millions of urban residents on agriculture, either for household consumption or as an income-generating opportunity, is well documented (Baker, 1995). Recent survey data on employment patterns in southern Tanzania show that 67 percent of respondents living in villages and in the intermediate town of Lindi are engaged in more than one income-generating activity, including both farming and non-farm (Tacoli, 2003).

Rural households need a variety of financial products that includes savings, loans, insurance, leasing and means of transfer payment; The degree of demand for these products is however determined by the household size, house hold level of poverty, level of education and skills, life cycles needs and local market opportunities. However financial sector has done little to impact rural household livelihoods. Besides there is reduced funding as well as investment in agriculture which forms the key sector of the economy (Faustine, 2007). Consequently, the performance of the agricultural sector has been declining although its contribution to national GDP is still significant.

Rural areas are hardly served by banks hence limiting access to financial services. With the liberalization of financial sector in Tanzania co-operatives have collapsed, development banks are no longer active and commercial banks have withdrawn from serving rural areas thus creating a supply gap being replaced by informal finance. According to Faustine (2007) recommend that a facilitative intervention by the government in the development of financial market, that address the national poverty reduction development objective through economic growth is required in the desired action are those that focus on improvement in demand for financial services, reduced transaction costs, improved banking infrastructure and reduction of other structural bottlenecks limiting access to financial services.

Rural industrialization;

This is based on local raw materials instead of searching for markets for their products, the producers use them. Industrial processing has the advantage of adding value on low products. So that while primary products fetch ever decreasing prices, secondly (processed) products fetch higher prices. So the greatest gain to primary product producers when such products are processed or manufactured is value added (Kapinga, 2009). Tanzania has not made progress in processing industry; horticultural products are wasted owning to lack of transport and cold storage facilities. Very poor infrastructure makes it difficult to attract even local investors to the rural areas where almost 80% of Tanzanian live ‘This has been another obstacle in promotion of SMEs especially in rural areas’ (SME policy, 2003). Think of oranges and mangoes rotting along the high way in Korogwe and Muheza districts. Therefore if rural industries are put in place, will discourage youth people from migrating to urban areas where they know that the services are available and can make life easy hence fostering rural development.

Rural General Sensitive development;

There is an intrinsic gender Issue where poverty and development is concerned in rural area due to cultural aspects that prevail. One of the ways in which this is manifested is in the shift from women led leadership to man lead leadership as one moves from subsistence farming to market driven farming. Women are important as food producers, managers of natural resources, income earners and caretakers of household food security. The education of women is known to produce powerful effects on nearly every dimension of development, from lowering fertility rate to raising productivity, to improving environmental management.

If women are to fully effectively in contributing to poverty eradication and development, discrimination against them must be eliminated and the value of their role. However, care should be taken not to aggravate the male gender while we pursue the noble task of empowering women if we do not have the support in the local communities, public investments in education are less effective (Mwaniki, 2003). We should as much as it should educate women as they are the ones responsible for reproduction they take a lot of time to produce; therefore this will be a helping tool to develop rural areas.

Good Governance

While it could be argued that all the above interventions are part of good governance, special emphasis on the need for good governance is prudent. All the above strategies can only work in a peaceful, corruption free environment. Part of good governance is the provision of safety nets to vulnerable groups in the case of rural areas. It should also provide for the minority and be totally inclusive in its decision-making with regard to their rural development issues. There is need to delink political interests from the basic needs of rural area in terms of education, electricity supply, water and other social service which are similarly given to urban area. In addition, it is in everyone’s best interest to have only the best handling the issues at hand without political interference from governments and donors alike will have positive role for rural development.

Promoting, encouraging, and supporting rural entrepreneurship; This should be a coordinated effort undertaken by the central government, local governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Such endeavors should increase the number of enterprises and small businesses, increase the volume of employment, consolidate and expand already existing businesses and attract investment. However, it is reasonable to expect that those investments will generate positive economic results as early as in the medium term an increase in the number of enterprises and in the employment rate will spur demand, and local government will benefit from the increased tax base (Przemyslaw, 2001).

There is a need to go beyond the existing patterns of supporting economic activity in rural areas that focus predominantly on agriculture and food processing. A modern approach recognizes that there is a huge potential for developing other industries that can take advantage of the human resources, land, and existing patterns of economic activity in rural areas. The development of entrepreneurship can be a major means of fighting economic inertia in rural areas that are located far from the main industrial center of a country. The notion of “rural entrepreneurship” is not limited to agriculture and related activities such as food processing, but rather it covers industrial development in general. In addition, the concept is not restricted to villages but also pertains to small towns and surrounding areas.

Conclusion

Successful rural development goes beyond increased productivity in agriculture. Expansion of off-farm job opportunities is a necessary condition for reducing the size of the agricultural population and labor force. Changes in the occupational composition of the labor force, formal and informal, prevent overcrowding on the land and make possible higher levels of productivity and per capita income, Youth and adults who seek a transition from farming to off-farm employment often require basic skills in literacy, if not the experience of formal learning and discipline that comes from attending school.

They need to be able to make simple business transactions, to weigh and measure, and to read simple documents Certain policies supported by the central government with regard to rural areas can significantly contribute to rural development; it is the responsibility of the central government to allow for the equal development of all regions of a country by creating opportunities for underdeveloped areas. A viable policy includes decentralizing and providing local governments with more independence. This process means giving up certain rights that the central government enjoyed under the centrally planned economy. Another recommendation involves decentralizing the tax system so that taxes can be spent in the areas where they have been collected. Such a policy will improve the financial position of rural areas. It should be kept in mind that municipalities are better prepared than the central government to tackle local issues

References

Baker, J (1995) Survival and accumulation strategies at the rural-urban interface in northwest Tanzania, in Environment and Urbanization 7:1

Bryceson, D. Kay, C. Mooij, J. (2000). Disappearing Peasantries: Rural labour in Africa, Asia and Latin America: Intermediate Technology Publication

Cecilia Tacoli (2004) Rural-Urban Linkages and Pro-Poor Agricultural Growth an over view. IIED, London, also available at http://www.iied.org/urban/pubs/rururb_wp.html

International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) 2nd Regional Conference (2003). Development Urban-Rural Interrelationship for Sustainable development,
Marrakech, Morocco

Faustine Karrani Bee (2007). Rural financial markets in Tanzania. An analysis of access to financial service in Babati district, Manyara region. Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and Literature in Development Studies at University of South Africa.

GRAD (2001) Potentialités et conflicts dans les zones péri urbaines: le cas de Bamako au Mali,

Isserman, Andrew M (2005). “In the National Interest: Defining Rural and Urban Correctly in Research and Public Policy.” International Regional Science Review 28: 465-499.

Johnston, Bruce, and William C. Clark (1982). Redesigning rural development: A strategic perspective. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lerise, Diyamett, B, M Diyamett, J James, R Mabala (2001). The case of Himo and its region, northern Tanzania, Rural-Urban working paper 1, IIED, London

Madaleno Isabel Maria, Gurovich A., (2004), “Urban versus rural” no longer matches reality: an early public agro residential development in periurban Santiago, Chile, Cities, Amsterdã, vol. 21, no. 6, 513-526;

Masuda R.J., Garvin Theresa, (2008), who’s Heartland? The politics of place at the rural-urban interface, in Journal of Rural Studies, 24, 118-123;

Miller, Kathleen K (2006). Urban-Rural Areas and CBSAs. Rural Policy Research Institute, Columbia, MO

Morris, A. (1997) Market behavior and market systems in State of Mexico, in P. van Lindert and O. Verkoren (eds) Small Towns and Beyond: Rural Transformation and Small Urban Centers in Latin America Amsterdam: Thela Publishers, 123-132 Rural-Urban Working

Mwaniki, A (2003). The Utilization of Locally Grown Plant Materials in the Production of an Intervention Formulation for Malnourished Children in Marginal Areas. The Case of Makindu Location Makueni District. Master’s Thesis University of Nairobi Paper 5, IIED London

Tacoli, C and D Satterthwaite (2003) The urban part of rural development Rural-Urban Working Paper 9, IIED, London; also available at http://www.iied.org/urban/pubs/rururb_wp.html

Przemyslaw Kulawczuk (2001). Sustainable Development in Rural areas its economic impacts to Entrepreneurship, Proceedings of the ECOVAST Conference and workshop held at FOJNICA, Bosnia & Hercegovina

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Problems and Prospects of Bangladesh Essay

Problems and Prospects of Bangladesh Essay.

Despite its poor-country status, increasing numbers of tourists have visited Bangladesh, a new but minor source of foreign exchange earning. Tourism in the early 1980s amounted to some 49,000 visitors per year, but by 1986 more than 129,000 tourists–mostly from India, the United States, Britain, and Japan–visited Bangladesh. According to the Bangladesh Parjaton Corporation (Bangladesh Tourism Corporation), some Tk44.6 million in foreign exchange was earned in 1986 from the tourism industry.

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

The Bangladesh government and the Bangladesh Aid Group have taken seriously the idea that Bangladesh is the test case for development.

In the late 1980s, it was possible to say, in the somewhat patronizing tone sometimes adopted by representatives of donor organizations, that Bangladesh had generally been a “good performer.” Even in straitened times for the industrialized countries, Bangladesh remained a favored country for substantial commitments of new aid resources from a strikingly broad range of donors. The total estimated disbursement for FY 1988 was estimated at US$1.7 billion, an impressive total but just US per capita.

Half of that total was for food aid and other commodities of limited significance for economic growth. Even with the greatest imaginable efficiency in planning and administration, resource-poor and overpopulated Bangladesh cannot achieve significant economic improvements on the basis of that level of assistance.

In examining the economy of Bangladesh, wherever one turns the problems crowd in and threaten to overwhelm the analysis. Underlying problems that have threatened the young nation remain unsolved. These problems include overpopulation and inadequate nutrition, health, and education resources; a low standard of living, land scarcity, and vulnerability to natural disaster; virtual absence of valuable metals; and inadequate government and bureaucratic structures. Yet the brief history of independent Bangladesh offers much that is encouraging and satisfying.

The World Bank, leader of the Bangladesh Aid Group, described the country in 1987 as a success story for economic development and expressed optimism that the goals of the Third Five-Year Plan, and longer term development goals as well, could be attained. Government policies had been effective in stimulating the economy. The private sector had benefited from an environment of greater economic freedom and had improved performance in banking and production of jute, fertilizer, ready-made garments, and frozen seafood. The average growth rate of economy had been a steady, if unspectacular, 4 percent since the beginning of the 1980s, close to the world average for developing countries.

The picture of day-to-day and even year-to-year performance of the economy of Bangladesh is a mixture of accomplishment and failure, not significantly different from that of the majority of poor Third World countries. The government and people of Bangladesh are entitled to take some pride in the degree of success they have achieved since independence, especially when one contrasts their success with the gloomy forecasts of economists and international experts. The international donor community, led by the World Bank, similarly can be proud of the role it has played in assisting this “largest poorest” nation to become a respected member of the family of nations.

* * *

Works that are useful for gaining a basic understanding of the Bangladesh economy include Bangladesh: Emergence of a Nation by A.M.A. Muhith and The Political Economy of Development by Just Faaland and J.R. Parkinson. Rehman Sobhan’s The Crisis of External Dependence provides an insightful critique of the foreign aid sector. Kirsten Westergaard’s State and Rural Society in Bangladesh provides information on agricultural development in the context of the relationship between the state and rural society. Articles by Abu Muhammad Shajaat Ali and Akhter Hameed Khan provide agricultural case studies on the village of Shyampur and the Comilla Model, respectively.

The Far Eastern Economic Review and Economist both carry timely reports on the state of the economy. Among the most important sources of information on the economy, however, is the documentation provided by various agencies of the governments of Bangladesh and the United States and the World Bank. Important among these is the annual Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh published by the Ministry of Planning. The Bibliography of Asian Studies each year carries numerous reports on the macroeconomy of Bangladesh and should be consulted for details. (For further information and complete citations, see Bibliography.)

Problems and Prospects of Bangladesh Essay

Poverty Essay

Poverty Essay.

Introduction Poverty is when someone is not able to afford to buy things most people consider essential or to participate in activities which, similarly are thought to be a minimum requirement of everyday life (Reporting poverty in UK p15). Absolute poverty is a term used in various different ways to denote a poverty level that does not change over time in terms of living standards that it refers to it stays the same even if society is becoming more prosperous.

Absolute poverty line and people below this line lack food, shelter, warmth or clothing (Reporting poverty in the UK p73).

Most people in the UK live in relevant poverty Peter Townsend a leading authority on UK poverty defines it as when someone’s “resources are so seriously below those commanded by the average individual or family that they are in effect excluded from ordinary living patterns, customs and activities” (Reporting poverty in the UK p 15).

There are two main ways to measure social inequality these are inequality of conditions, and inequality of opportunities.

Inequality of conditions refers to the unequal distribution of income, wealth and material goods housing for example is an inequality of conditions with the homeless and those living in housing projects sitting at the bottom of the hierarchy while those living in multimillion dollar mansions sitting at the top.

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Poverty Essay

Families in poverty in Australia Essay

Families in poverty in Australia Essay.

One of the important global plan is to eliminate poverty by 2015 as per UN Millennium Development Goals. Every day approximately 30,000 children are losing precious lives due to living in precarious conditions. (Make Poverty History) It is high time to bring a big change in the lives of people who deserve to meet the minimum needs for living. Not just one nation or two whereas a collective effort of all people beginning from Australia to the remote parts of other nations, is required to completely eradicate poverty.

Especially in Australia poverty is on the rise from 7. 6 per cent to 9.9 per cent between the period of 1994-2004 (Australian Fair Campaign) Poverty levels are at a higher rate when compared with the poverty line of UK and Ireland. In spite of the fact that Australia’s economy is growing, there are two million Australians living in poverty according to (ACOSS) Australian Council of Social Service. Australia is ranked 14th in the developed world for poverty (UN Human Poverty Index) “There are two many areas where Australia is falling behind other OECD nations” “Governments need to ensure the benefits of the economic prosperity are shared with all Australians”(ACOSS President Lin Hatfield Dobbs)

The following indicate the status of people in Australia as on September 2001.

(Australian Bureau of Statistics) (a) There were 672,500 unemployed (officially) (b) There were 563,500 underemployed (c) 800,000 would like to work more This paper picks an issue of families living in poverty especially belonging to Australia which is a renowned nation for tourism and rich in natural resources.

What are the ground reasons for continuous existence of poverty in a nation where there are industries, clean environment and beautiful landscapes which encourage foreign tourists to choose Australia as a destination point to reside either as a tourist or as an immigrant. Similarly, there are reputed educational institutions and universities in Australia which if collectively notified that a greater number of foreign students enroll for career advancements in Universities of Australia than the domestic students of Australia.

This gives out a fact that, people around the world select and consider Australia as one of the best nation to opt for to reside as an immigrant, as a tourist, as a foreign student or for expansion of business ventures. An overall view about Australia as a nation produces a fact that, it invites tourists of all cultures and backgrounds and offers a multi-ethnicity atmosphere to all its residents.

In the order of pursuing other priorities of economic development of nation, Australia could possibly be giving a lenient view to its domestic citizens and families in providing jobs, medical health schemes which otherwise are provided at a lesser cost in the other parts of Europe, in order to take care of its citizens as a premium issue, which is very important economic aspect that resident families are cared and nurtured after all families make societies which in turn make a healthy nation.

In order to find how well and happy families are, a poll opinion was considered by Brother hood of St. Laurence in Australia which revealed that a mindset of middle class economy is prevalent and poverty is always secondary (Stewart 1996). An analysis and understanding of poverty has basically two phases. (1) a phase of listening (2) a phase of dialogue. Brotherhood has considered the poll of general public, group discussions, politicians, academics, telephone interviews, business leaders, community leaders which included both qualitative and quantitative findings. Basing on the general public opinion, the following findings were the result of Brotherhood’s research on poverty in Australia.

Firstly and quite observantly, Brotherhood stated that poverty is least rated at 5 per cent as compared to any other issue such as unemployment, education, health, environment and other chronic issues of narcotics and games of casino or betting. The other ratings are, drugs at 25%, unemployment at 17%, divide between rich and poor at 16%, education at 13%, health at 9%, environment at 9%, gambling at 7% and poverty at 5%. Poverty line as established by Henderson in 1973 explains that an income of $62. 70 is a benchmark which is a disposable income for a family of four. (parents + two children).

Families in poverty in Australia Essay

Thesis Proposal on 4ps Essay

Thesis Proposal on 4ps Essay.

Introduction

Poverty has been a problem in the Philippines since time immemorial. Unfortunately, the number of Filipinos suffering from the aforementioned social problem is increasing every year. This is in spite of the poverty alleviation interventions being implemented by the government and numerous civic society groups.

Former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s nine-year term saw the birth and growth of one of her foremost anti-poverty programs – the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program – popularly known as the 4Ps. Pantawid Pamilya is a conditional cash transfer program that provides incentives for poor families to invest in their future by ensuring that mothers and children avail of healthcare and that children go to school.

It is a human development program of the national government that invests in the health and education of poor households, particularly of children aged 0-14 years old. The program aims to provide social assistance and social development to its beneficiaries. By providing opportunity for the development of the young, it envisions to prevent the vicious transmission of the cycle of poverty.

Pantawid Pamilya helps to fulfill the country’s commitment to meet the Millennium Development Goals.

The aforementioned program has been around for quite some time but there are still doubts as to the awareness of the beneficiaries about the programs thrust, its selection process, and its benefits, among others.

It is the aim of this study to determine the level of awareness of the Pantawid Pamilya beneficiaries in order to present facts that will help the appropriate government agencies implement the program more effectively.

Locale of the Study

The study on the level of awareness of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program will focus on its beneficiaries living in Barangay Lagao. Lagao was one of the four Settlement Districts created by the National Land Settlement Administration (NLSA) headed by the late General Paulino T. Santos in 1939. The town of Lagao was established on March 03, 1939, five (5) days after the first batchers of settlers arrived from Manila via SS Basilan Compania Maritima. It lies 3.5 kilometers Northeast of Dadiangas, (Dadiangas was nameless at that time) the port of Koronadal, was the administration center of distribution of the whole Koronadal project of NLSA. Hence, General Santos and his office in Lagao were occupied by the employees of NLSA. The town of Lagao consisted initially of three (3) barrios namely: first barrio, second barrio and third barrio (first barrio and third barrio were merged into one, now known as Lagao while second barrio became another barangay known as San Isidro).

At present the barangay is home to the city’s major malls, numerous banking institutions, hospitals, and restaurants, to name a few. In spite of these developments, the barangay is also home to quite a number of beneficiaries of the government’s 4Ps.

Statement of the Problem

The study on the level of awareness of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) in Barangay Lagao, General Santos City aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the socio-economic profile of the respondents?

a. Age

b. Educational Attainment

c. Source of Income

d. Number of Children

e. Length(in years) of being a beneficiary

2. What is the level of awareness of the respondents in terms of the program’s :

a. historical background

b. objectives

c. qualifications and selection of the beneficiaries

d. benefits

e. conditions

f. effects on the lives of the respondent

3. Are there significant differences among the respondents awareness with respect to:

a. Age

b. Educational Attainment

c. Source of Income

d. Number of Children

e. Length of being a beneficiary

Significance of the Study

The study will be of great contribution to various individuals as well as to social institutions.

The data gathered will help the Department of Social Welfare and Development to assess the program and make necessary alterations in various areas, if needed.

The study will provide data that will enrich the reader’s perception about the program and how the beneficiaries perceive it to be.

Chapter 2

Review of Related Literatures and Studies and Conceptual Framework

The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is a human development program of the national government. It is also a social protection strategy that invests in the health and education of poor children age 0-14 years old. It is widely known as the Philippine conditional cash transfer program. As of January 9, 2013, the program has 3,843,502 household beneficiaries and operates in 1,605 cities and municipalities in 79 provinces in all 17 regions nationwide. ( http://pantawid.dswd.gov.ph/ )

The program has focused on two objectives:

1. Social assistance: provide cash assistance to address the short-term financial need. 2. Social development: by investing in capability building they will be able to break intergenerational poverty cycle. The poorest among poor families as identified by 2003 Small Area Estimate (SAE) survey of National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) are eligible. The poorest among poor are selected through a proxy-means test. Economic indicators such as ownership of assets, type of housing, education of the household head, livelihood of the family and access to water and sanitation facilities are proxy variables to indicate the family economic category. Additional qualification is a household that has children 0–14 years old and/or have pregnant women during the assessment and shall agree on all the conditions set by the government to enter the program (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantawid_Pamilyang_Pilipino_Program).

Pantawid Pamilya is geared towards attaining the five of the eight Millennium Development Goals: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, (2) Achieve Universal Primary Education, (3) Promote gender equality and empower women, (4) Reduce child mortality, and (5) Improve maternal health, and to promote Department’s commitment to United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Children. The beneficiaries of the program are the poorest households as determined by the use of the proxy Means Test (PMT). Eligible households are those that have been found to meet the following criteria: • are located in the municipalities and barangays selected for the Pantawid Pamilya program – poor families belonging to the top 20 poorest provinces in the country and top 100 poorest municipalities who have children 0-14 years old or a pregnant mother.

At the same time, the cash grants alleviate current poverty by providing immediate relief from cash flow problems. Such extra cash received on a bimonthly basis is especially important for poor households that have irregular or seasonal income.

A household with three qualified children receives a subsidy of P1,400/month during the school months or P15, 000 for the whole year for as long as they comply with the conditionalities set by the program. The amount of grants that they would be receiving depends upon their compliance to the conditions. Beneficiaries receive their cash grants through different modes of payment such as Over-the-counter (OTC), Offsite, Cash Card, and G-Cash Remit. ((http://www.fo4b.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/programs-and-services/foreign-assisted-projects/4ps)

Since the implementation of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program in 2007, significant developments in the lives of poor households have already been observed. Increased enrolment among school children and high availment of health services are some of the early positive results. Researches and studies also reveal that behavioral change and improved perspective in life are some of the outcomes documented to have occurred amount the lives of the beneficiaries which can be attributed to the program. (www.dswd.gov.ph)

According to http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea7lk5.htm, a family’s socioeconomic status is based on family income, parental education level, parental occupation, and social status in the community (such as contacts within the community, group associations, and the community’s perception of the family), note Demarest, Reisner, Anderson, Humphrey, Farquhar, and Stein (1993). Families with high socioeconomic status often have more success in preparing their young children for school because they typically have access to a wide range of resources to promote and support young children’s development. They are able to provide their young children with high-quality child care, books, and toys to encourage children in various learning activities at home. Also, they have easy access to information regarding their children’s health, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive development.

In addition, families with high socioeconomic status often seek out information to help them better prepare their young children for school. Parents with low socioeconomic status often lack the financial, social, and educational supports that characterize families with high socioeconomic status. Poor families also may have inadequate or limited access to community resources that promote and support children’s development and school readiness.

Parents may have inadequate skills for such activities as reading to and with their children, and they may lack information about childhood immunizations and nutrition. Zill, Collins, West, and Hausken (1995) state that “low maternal education and minority-language status are most consistently associated with fewer signs of emerging literacy and a greater number of difficulties in preschoolers.” Having inadequate resources and limited access to available resources can negatively affect families’ decisions regarding their young children’s development and learning. As a result, children from families with low socioeconomic status are at greater risk of entering kindergarten unprepared than their peers from families with median or high socioeconomic status.

Dr. Phil Bartle’s Factors of Poverty on http://cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/modules/emp-pov.htm cited that poverty as a social problem is a deeply embedded wound that permeates every dimension of culture and society. It includes sustained low levels of income for members of a community. It includes a lack of access to services like education, markets, health care, lack of decision making ability, and lack of communal facilities like water, sanitation, roads, transportation, and communications. Furthermore, it is a “poverty of spirit,” that allows members of that community to believe in and share despair, hopelessness, apathy, and timidity. Poverty, especially the factors that contribute to it, is a social problem, and its solution is social.

The simple transfer of funds, even if it is to the victims of poverty, will not eradicate or reduce poverty. It will merely alleviate the symptoms of poverty in the short run. It is not a durable solution. Poverty as a social problem calls for a social solution.

Conceptual Framework

The study uses some conceptual and operational definitions to describe the variables of the study. The relationship among between the variables is illustrated in Figure 1.

Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is a conditional cash transfer program that provides incentives for poor families to invest in their future by ensuring that mothers and children avail of healthcare and that children go to school. As such, it is a human development program that invests in the health and education of children. (http://www.fo4b.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/programs-and-services/foreign-assisted-projects/4ps)

In the study the Pantawid Pamilya is a program being implemented through the Department of Social Welfare and Development throughout the country.

Beneficiaries of the program (per household) receives a total of P6,000 per year or P500 per month intended for health and nutrition needs of the family such as food, medicine, and vitamins. For educational assistance, every household receives a total of P3,000 per year or P300 per month per child for 10 months a year, to a maximum of 3 children per household. (http://www.fo4b.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/programs-and-services/foreign-assisted-projects/4ps)

Beneficiaries are mothers who met the requirements set by the DSWD for at least six months whether continuous or not.

Conceptual Paradigm
Figure 1

Hypothesis

The study on the level of awareness of the beneficiaries of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program in Lagao, General Santos City has the hypothesis that the socio-economic profile of the respondents greatly affects their awareness. Beneficiaries who are older, with higher educational attainment, stable source of income, and fewer children most likely have higher awareness compared to those who have characteristics opposite of those enumerated above.

Definition of Terms

This study used some conceptual and operational definitions to describe the variables of the study.

Awareness is defined by http://www.thefreedictionary.com/awareness as having knowledge or cognizance. It implies knowledge gained through one’s own perceptions or by means of information. The study will measure the knowledge of the respondents regarding the history of the 4Ps, its objectives, qualifications and selection of its beneficiaries, its benefits , and its effects on the lives of its beneficiaries.

Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program or 4Ps (formerly Ahon Pamilyang Pilipino) is a conditional cash transfer program of the Philippine government under the Department of Social Welfare and Development. It aims to eradicate extreme poverty in the Philippines by investing in health and education particularly in ages 0–14. It is patterned on programs in other developing countries like Brazil (Oportunidades) and Mexico (Bolsa Família). The 4Ps program now operates in 17 region, 79 provinces and 1,261 municipalities and 138 key cities covering 3,014,586 household beneficiary.

The term “beneficiaries” refers to the persons and the communities that utilize the project outputs, i.e., the entities that development-aid project (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beneficiary).

Chapter 3

Research Design and Methods

This chapter presents the procedures followed in conducting the study. It specifies the research design, the respondents of the study, data gathering instruments and statistical treatment.

Methods of Research

This is a quantitative survey study. It obtains information from the respondents’ answer of the questionnaire which presents the items in a check-list form.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study will be the beneficiaries of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino program in Barangay Lagao, General Santos City. The respondents have been beneficiaries for at least six (6) months. In case eligible respondents exceed a total of 100, the researcher will use random sampling procedure to identify the respondents.

Data Gathering Instrument

The instrument that will be used to gather the data is a check-list questionnaire which the researcher will distribute once the respondents have been identified. In case vague answers will be provided, the researcher shall contact the respondent and conduct an interview.

Statistical Treatment

The appropriate statistical treatment will be used once the data has been gathered.

QUESTIONNAIRE

To the Respondents: Kindly answer the following items according to the best of your knowledge. The items enumerated will provide data on the study entitled “Level of Awareness of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Beneficiaries in Lagao, General Santos City”.

Instruction: Check the box that corresponds to your answer. Refer to the following scale for items under II:

4 – Highly aware
3 – Moderately aware
2 – Aware
1 – Not aware

I. Socio-Economic Profile of the Respondents

Name: (optional)
Age:
Complete Address:
Civil Status:_____Single_____Married_____Widow/Widower _____Cohabiting Highest Educational Attainment:
_____Elementary Level_____High School Level_____College Level
_____Elementary Graduate_____High School Graduate_____College Graduate
_____Others, specify_______________________________
Source of Income:_________________________
Number of Children:_________________________

II. Awareness of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program |A. |History |4 |3 |2 |1 | |1. |The year it was implemented | | | | | |2. |The President who implemented the program | | | | | |3. |The initial beneficiaries | | | | | |B. |Objectives of the Program | | | | | |1. |To provide cash assistance | | | | | |2. |To build capability of beneficiaries | | | | | |C. |Selection and Qualifications of the Beneficiaries | |1. |Proxy-Means Test as the way to determine the beneficiaries | | | | | |2. |With children aged 0 – 14 years old | | | | | |3.
|Pregnant mother | | | | | |4. |From the top 20 poorest provinces and top 100 poorest municipalities in the country | | | | | |5. |DSWD as the main implementer of the program | | | | | |D. |Benefits of the Program | | |3,000 per year per child as educational assistance | | | | | |2. |Maximum of 3 qualified children per household | | | | | |3. |6,000 per year per household for health and nutrition needs | | | | | |4. |Cash grants released bimonthly | | | | | |E. |Conditions of the Program |

|1. |Regular attendance of children in school | | | | | | |Regular medical check-up (for pregnant women) | | | | | |3. |Regular medical check-up of entire family | | | | | |F. |Effects of the Programs | | | | | |1. |Improvement in health and nutrition | | | | | |2. |Decrease in maternal and neo-natal deaths and diseases | | | | | |3. |Improvement in academic performance of children | | | | | |4. |Improvement in way of life | | | | |

Bibliography

A. Electronic Sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beneficiary

http://www.fo4b.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/programs-and-services/foreign-assisted-projects/4ps http://cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/modules/emp-pov.htm
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea7lk5.htm www.dswd.gov.ph
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantawid_Pamilyang_Pilipino_Program ———————–

Awareness of the Respondents on the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino program

Socio-Economic Profile

Of the Respondents

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