Homelessness Essay Introduction Essay

Homelessness Essay Introduction Essay.

Attention grabber – makes sure audience is listening As today’s people face a world filled with global conflicts, disappearing jobs, and an increasing poverty in America, action is more crucial than ever. We know that hunger and homelessness are increasing epidemics plaguing in the U.S. Thesis (purpose statement) – tells audience what you want them to think or do We can end homelessness in the U.S by tackling its root causes-low wages and a lack of affordable housing-and by improving support services like TANIF, housing vouchers, and health care.


First main idea – reason audience should agree with you hunger and homelessness are increasing epidemics plaguing in the U.S. Detail – Just last year, the national poverty rate rose to include 13.2% of the population. 1 in 7 people were at risk of suffering from hunger in the United States. In addition, 3.5 million people were forced to sleep in parks, under bridges, in shelter or cars. Detail Nearly 39% percent of kids under the age of 18 (1.

3 million) are homeless. Detail 10% of the population is called “chronic” and remains without housing for extended periods of time on a frequent bias. (Transition sentence) However there are great effects on the homelessness. Second main idea – homelessness has a tremendous effect on a child’s education Detail approximately 87% of school-age homeless children and youth enrolled in school, although only about 77% attend school regularly. Detail The homeless youth is 1.5 times more likely to preform below grade level reading, spelling and math Detail fortunately, the law gives homeless students the right to stay in school and receive support so they can succeed. (Transition sentence) Yet there is a cost of the homelessness. Third main idea – final reason audience should agree the homelessness costs taxpayers. Detail the cost of homelessness can be quite high. Hospitalization, medical treatment, incarceration, police intervention, and emergency shelter can add up quickly, making it expensive for taxpayers. Detail according to surveys of homeless individuals.

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Homelessness Essay Introduction Essay

Poverty Essay Introduction Essay

Poverty Essay Introduction Essay.

Poverty is a serious issue that has been going on for centuries. Every day there are people who die due to hunger but there are solutions to reducing, and even stopping, poverty. Global poverty comes in an abundance of shapes and sizes. One of the main sources of poverty is the lack of investment in the future at all levels. The manufacturer outsources to China because he does not want to invest in long-term employees. The government does not want to invest in quality employees through education, infrastructure, health care, etc.

The potential employee does not want to invest in his future through education or training, but would rather have immediate gratification of leisure. A second main source is the lack of certain basic government functions. The government needs to be able to provide stability, through laws and establishing property rights. Without these basic things, there is little incentive for the people to develop new products, or work hard, because it will just be taken away by someone more powerful.

I don’t think government is the solution to everything, but it is necessary for a few basic functions.

Poverty Essay Introduction Essay

Globalization Decrease Poverty in the World Essay

Globalization Decrease Poverty in the World Essay.

Globalization is a set of processes leading to economic integration. All countries open their doors to each other. The wind of globalization has carried a lot of changes . The life nowadays depends on trade and economic relationships. Before globalization, countries were separated from each other. As a result , every one was looking for its interset in a selfesh way which is contrary to what is happening now. However, people nowadays are thinking of ways that help them to communicat with one other.

There are a lot of postive things which have resulted from globalization and have improved people’s lives such as decreasing poverty in the world. In fact, an average of 65% to 70% of citizens all over the world feel thous their lives and that of their families have improved as a result of globalization[1]. Global economy has improved in the last 20 years ,which caused poverty reduction in world. Free trade and outsourcing are the most prominent phenomena which resulted from globalization and played an important role in reducing poverty.

Free trade played an important part in creating a strong economy in the world. There is a vast difference between the country that open itself to world and the country that bonded it self. China is a good example of those powerful industrial countries which have benefited from globalization. “China’s increasing openness since 1978 has handsomely benefited its economy which is now nine times larger” [2]. Free trade creates a competition between countries for better goods.

The poor people were able to benefit from this competition. The increasing variety and quality of products gives the poor people a lot of choices to live a better life “Diversity also becomes important for consumers, with wider choice and access to better and cheaper products and services in globalizing markets”[3]. It is a well-known fact that before globalization all countries were enclosed within themselves but with free trade life became more chipper and more people were able to live a better life.

Miss Zeana who lives in Tanzania said that, her parents were living a taught life because the government owned everything even cars. People did not have the right to own anything and trade was trapped so there were a lot of people who suffered a hard life. However after a couple of years of globalization, there is a lot of enhancement in the quality of life in the country. Free trade allow people to live a better life. Jobs opportunities have been provided by new factories and cheap products are now available to help poor people to live in better life.

Free trade helps the counties economies to grow faster in a way that helps more“A new WTO ” World Trade Organization- Secretariat study published today (19 June) finds that trade liberalization helps poor countries to catch up with rich ones and that this faster economic growth helps to alleviate poverty”[4]. Now, developing counties are playing a big role in world’s trade which is a sign of economic progress that has been achieved in their counties “Today the real dynamism in trade is to be found in the developing world, where Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand all posted double digit growth in exports”. 5] The outsourcing is one of the most widespread phenomena in the world which results from globalization “Many economists argue that outsourcing is just another form of free trade, which increases wealth in the economy”[6]. The big companies which are head quartered in developed countries set up their factories in developing countries so that has helped to increase jobs opportunities. For instance, from 1982 to 1999 an average of 34 million new jobs were created per year by outsourcing, compared with 18 million in 1965-1982[7].

Another positive thing about outsourcing is that companies are able now to produce more products of the same quality but at low cost “Economists say that employing workers at lower cost allows U. S. companies to be more efficient and productive”[8]. That is how outsourcing has affected positively for both the developed as well as the developing countries. On other hand, some may think that rich are countries becoming richer at the expense of the poor and that because of globalization[9]. Developed countries have invested in poor countries for their interest. “Globalization creates great winners but also great losers at the same time”[10].

The winner in this case is the developed country. Globalization has supported rich people in a way that helped them to become richer . As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor became wider, which caused the rise of poverty “The process of integration might contribute to increased inequality and weaken impact for poverty reduction”[11]. Globalization supports inequality in each nation “Globalization has dramatically increased inequality between and within nations”[12] . Underdeveloped markets and ineffective government programs increases economic inequality in developing countries which slows progress n reducing poverty [13]. The government direct its attention to cities which is in the forefront of their economies. Their main goal is to find a way that help them to be more successful economically. There are less young people in China’s poor villages because they migrate to urban areas for a better life[14]. Low income leads to poor children missing out on the education and skills that would maximize their own economic[15]. For instance, Mr. Dwanzhi She is a Chinese man, who moved from his village “Beijing” to a city “Wuhan” to complete his higher studies.

Later he worked in a big successful company as a ‘Foreign consultant”. Since that time his village has not changed and that is because boors are responsible of the infrastructure there[16]. As William Easterly mentions in his article “ The poor performance on economic growth is accompanied by rising income inequality and high open unemployment rates”[17]. Globalization has merged economyies of several countries to create a global market. “Developing countries worry that opening up to trade with the rest of the world may make the poor poorer”[18]. All companies try to penetrate foreign market and to establish their goods.

Most big companies concentrate on the quality of the goods and ignore the rights of workers who are mostly from poor families“Many people believe globalization is a disaster for the workers[19]”. Instead of having a better life, their life became worse. “Good products as a Olympic sportswear as forcing workers to work fast in a short period so that they can generate more production and more profit in bad conditions and under difficult situations for poverty-level payment” [20]. There are three million illegal workers who work in China and they suffer from low income[21]. Governments usually do not protect workers’ rights.

It is true that not all countries benefit from globalization to the same extent but we can not deny that it has played an important part in enhancing the standard of life “Between 1970 and 1980 the average of income of poor people which was US$1 per day was increased 17% to 13% but in 1998 this percentage decreased to 6. 7%”[22]. There are more people who lived above the poverty line from 157 to 892 million people 1870-2000[23]. The ratio of inequality in the world has decrease. Globalization has decrease inequality by opening the gates between the developed and developing countries.

There is a connection between openness and inequality “The more open a rural area is, the faster the reduction in poverty”[24]. Open rural areas have a better chance of enhancing the standard of life and of decreasing poverty. Having a better education and good health standard in these areas are signs of poverty reduction which leads to less inequality. “Promoting education, particularly for the poor people, improving health standard and enhances the productively growth that is the main engine of poverty reduction”[25]. For example, in 1990 the adult literacy rate ( of people aged 15 and over) in India was 49. % while 37. 3% was the percentage of population below the poverty in rural areas. In 2002 there was a tremendous increasing in adult literacy rate ( of people aged 15 and over) to 58. 8% and the percentage of population below the poverty line in rural area dropped to 30. 2[26]. Some people think free trade is a cause of increasing poverty in the world. However, fewer trade barriers and cheap transportation create economic integration and global markets. All that help economy to grow in each country specially the developing counties.

Free trade is an important element that enhances the economic situation in a way that helps poor people to come out poverty. Foreign direct investment creates a lot of job opportunities in developing countries. Many people move to urban areas to work in a better condition with better salaries. For example, Mr. Dwanzhi She who lives in “Wuhan”, an urban city, said that he gets 60 thousand dollars in a year and that is a very fancy life in China. His life is completely different from his parents life who used to live as farmer in a rural area “Beijing” and suffered from tough life[27] .

Many people hate foreign investment in a developing country because they think foreign investment abuses poor people and they does not give them their rights. The answer is that, free trade or the global market has created a lot of enhancement and profit for both developed and developing counties. The fact is that, some people using it in a bad way and misjudge poor people so they get the positives. As Mr. Hang Dong Fand who is a member in a labor activity says that, “Market economy is not bad but some dictator people use it in a evil way”[28].

There are many organizations such as World Trade Organization (WTO) which worked for protecting poor people from those people who abuse them “The World Trade Organization, (WTO), is the primary international body to help promote free trade, by drawing up the rules of international trade[29]” For example, Miss Wu Qin is a Chinese woman who works as a volunteer in a foreign fund, Advise Clinics- says that many companies are abusing poor people’s rights so her role is to provide legal help by giving them the clear idea about their individual rights[30].

The access of foreign product to developing courtiers leads some people to think that globalization for increases poverty. On the contrary, this system has helped a lot of poor people. It is to be noted that socialist system there were barriers to trade in every county to set up in order to protect their industries. Import substitution industrialization was a way that each country tried to create its own industry. That socialist system divided the country into many classes, where the lowest class was the majority of the country. Inequality was a common thing at that time.

The rich people who lived in urban areas were able to live a fancy life. The 1980 was the end of the socialist system and the beginning of globalization. Globalization has changed life of poor people for the better. There grew competition between companies for better products. In the same way they were trying to prepare them selves for more production at low pries. As a result, many people bought good products at low cost “Consumers get cheaper products (nearer world prices), at least in the medium-to long-term. ”. [31] In conclusion, poverty has decreased rapidly with the birth of globalization.

Globalization Decrease Poverty in the World Essay

Electricity and Economy in Kenya Essay

Electricity and Economy in Kenya Essay.

ICT has been the main driver of Kenya’s economic growth over the last decade, growing on average by 20 % annually, and propelling the combined transport and communications sector into the economy’s second largest after agriculture. In chapter three I have discussed the impact of electricity on key economic sectors in Kenya which are agriculture, educational services, banking and communication services, microenterprises and tourism all of which are key pillars of Kenya Vision 2030. It costs approximately Ksh. 5,000 to connect to the grid and about 15 US cents equivalent per kWh of electricity service.

This high cost is a major obstacle to the expansion of electricity connection to low-income households. Chapter 1: Introduction 1. 1 Overview and statement of the problem Broad agreement exists that the level and the intensity of energy use in a country is a key indicator of economic growth and development. A number of researchers claim that for modern energy to make a difference on poverty, it must necessarily contribute to productive uses that generate income and create jobs.

Kenya’s Vision 2030 identified energy as one of the infrastructure enablers of its pillars and it is expected that more energy will be required to realize the objectives of the Vision. The economic pillar of Vision 2030 aims at providing prosperity for all Kenyans through an economic development programme aimed at achieving an average GDP growth rate of 10% per annum over the next 25 years. Electricity remains the most sought after energy source by the Kenyan society and access to it is normally associated with rising or high quality of life.

Its current consumption is at 143 kilowatt hours (kWh) per capita and national connectivity rate of about 28. 9% which is below the average of 32% for developing countries. Electrification plays an important role in the start-up and growth of microenterprises which may lead to sustainable livelihoods and poverty reduction. Energy can be directly linked to improved food security because energy can be used in any part of the food supply chain, from growing, processing, storage and cooking, through to marketing and distribution.

Electricity and Economy in Kenya Essay

Climate Change and Poverty Essay

Climate Change and Poverty Essay.

Over the past few decades, a major concern is the threat climate change possess for today’s economy. Millions of people are affected each and every day by climate change but this is just the beginning of the worst. One thing that seems to go unharmed by climate change is social status; how long will money last as a barrier to the effects of Mother Nature? How does poverty increase the risks associated the devastating powers of climate change? When speaking in terms of poverty many different categories arise.

Poverty in America is different than poverty in Asia or Africa.

Every country has faced poverty. It is inevitable; some countries however, face a disproportionately high percentage of poverty. Climate change affects many different aspects of each country. Each country is at risk of poverty due to climate change; however, poverty stricken areas are more economically, socially, and politically unprepared. Country’s economic standings are greatly affected by climate change Many people are confused as to how the changing climates affect the economy.

Every country depends on agriculture and specific levels of water to generate specific revenues.

The more poverty stricken areas rely on farming and water levels more so than well off countries. Most of these countries have not yet been fully developed like USA, Europe or some parts of Asia. Climate change threatens the potential future crop yields. Climate change could place an additional 5 to 170 million people at risk of hunger by the 2080’s (Rosenzwig and Parry). We are talking about a vicious never ending cycle of devastation. Countries depend on rain fall for agricultural growth; climate change affects the amount of rain fall from droughts to monsoon levels.

Farming is at the mercy of water, leaving communities with the threat of possible starvation. Most of the poverty stricken areas rely solely on farming, not only for revenue, but also for nutrition. This being said, climate change drastically threatens a country’s economic status not just for the more poverty stricken areas but every country as well. Climate change and agriculture are intertwined processes; both take place on a global scale. The problem about climate change is that it has a very slow increase, such as one or two degrees a year. This does not seem to be that devastating.

However, many crops are climate based such as grains and coffee, grapes used for wine production, and other fruits; even the slightest increase of temperature will and can affect these crops. Thus climate change is leaving already poverty stricken areas like India and northern Africa to await their drastic fate. Although low and middle income countries are only responsible for a small percentage of greenhouse gas emissions, the adverse health effects associated with climate change will fall disproportionately on the lower income countries; this inequity will further exacerbate global health disparities.

The greatest social peril of climate change is how it affects health issues, especially those in poverty stricken areas. The changing of temperatures will further effect the ecology of diseases such as yellow fever, malaria, and dengue fever; socially the people most at risk are the elderly, very young, and the poor (McMichael). Millions of people below the poverty line and those in rural areas represent high risk populations who are exposed to myriad health risks, including poor sanitation, pollution, malnutrition, and a constant shortage of clean drinking water (Dhiman).

Climate change is already taking a toll on the economical standings of poverty stricken countries; proceeding with the vicious cycle of social destruction, climate change seems to have no weakness. For instance, the summer of 2010 was the hottest summer on record in India, with temperatures reaching a record average of 122 degrees Fahrenheit. The effects were limitless: crops perish, livestock were killed, and thousands of people were hospitalized or killed (Burke). A study of 12 globally urban areas noted a 2. 80 – 5. 08 percent increase in mortality rate for each one degree increase above 29 degrees Celsius (Hajat).

India has the highest amount of people living and suffering with AIDS; climate change affects the research and possible solutions of fighting off AIDS and other diseases. With limited resources such as water available not only would it be hard to make vaccines and cures it opens up an unprecedented amount of possible deaths. When looking at the corporate businesses and the undoing of the human habitat; the United Nations has sanctioned many organizations to track climate change such as the UNEP, the World Meteorological Organization and the IPCC.

Since the mid-eighties, these agencies have monitored the changes, yet have failed o convey the significance. Studies done by these agencies have concluded that the last fifty years are attributable to human activities and big corporations which lead to the changing in the compositions of the atmosphere throughout the 21st century (Saltori). These activities that are mentioned are those by means of businesses that grew into national conglomerates. Concurrent with business growth, the greenhouse gas emissions have grown seventy percent from 1970 to 2004 (Lehner). Recent studies have shown that 122 corporations produce eighty percent of greenhouse gases (IPCC).

The climate is going to drastically change the world forever, but at whose expense? What exactly does the political eminence of these companies have to do with climate change and poverty? The answer lies in yet another vicious never ending cycle. Corporations employ millions of people enabling the stimulation of the economy. The people in return purchase and live off of the money from the corporations. However, not only are people living off the companies, but they are also contributing to and enabling to the production of greenhouse gas emissions.

Globally, we as a civilization have become accustomed to these conglomerates to survive, or so we ruminate. Poverty stricken areas lack these 122 multinational companies, yet they still feel their wrath. There is, however, undoubtedly a silver lining; the businesses and their bringing of our destruction may also be the key to our survival. We know that these 122 companies have in a way sealed our fate; yet they also bring many more attributes to the table. These companies are capable of stimulating the economy, advancing technology and are accomplished enough to lead the world to better health conditions.

The UN established an adaption fund to help developing countries cope with climate change. With all these efforts only eighty million dollars was raised, which was miniscule to the actual amount needed. The United Nations and their sanctions also developed a refugee program for these underdeveloped countries; becoming a refugee country is harder than conquering world peace. They developed a three level program to help these countries with rules and regulations in place that become more drastic at each level. This program has developed these strict rules, so as to not have a recurrence of the refugees after World War II.

The revenue from the businesses would easily be able to help the disadvantages they have created. Once these sanctions made from the UN and conglomerates can realize that they are the bringer of destruction and also the possible savior, the world may be able to breathe more easily. These companies are reporting constant growth in income. The company’s net worth is constantly on the rise while the poverty stricken areas are in need of help and rendered useless to the businesses devastating effects on climate change. The abundance of revenue would be a great help if donated to those sanctions created by the UN.

In today’s world we face a harsh time ahead. Poverty stricken areas are more economically, socially and politically unprepared. The world is changing and it is for the worse. Climate change is affecting every national resource we as a global community need to survive. Underdeveloped countries are limited to their amount of resources and depend on those to survive. With the climate in the rise the production of many fruits, vegetables, grains and every country’s staples are all at risk. Countries’ livestock are included under the climate change’s pressure.

The changing of the weather affects not only the heat, but also the rain fall from droughts to monsoons’ and floods and leads to unstable clean drinking water supplies. Poverty stricken areas are not able to produce certain health vaccines; climate change and the changing of waterfall seriously hinder their abilities to create more vaccines and provide accurate health care. Many viruses and illnesses “power countries” have and are able to treat and even cure are not as easily treatable in those underdeveloped countries. The most devastating aspect is realizing how the companies we take for granted are leading us to our doom.

Producing eighty percent of greenhouse gases is unimaginable. What is more mind-boggling is that these 122 conglomerates hold the key to our salvation. These companies have the power, the wealth and time to fix their undoing and help right their wrongs. Millions of people are at risk to the effects of climate change. Going “green” is a simple yet wonderful way to help save our planet however, our efforts are useless to those in severely poverty stricken areas. The time to make awareness is now; the time to stand up is now; the time to act is now!

Climate Change and Poverty Essay

Essay on Poverty Essay

Essay on Poverty Essay.

“I often asked what is the most serious form of human rights violation in the world today and my reply is consistent: extreme poverty.” (Mary Robinson, 2002) World Poverty: New policies to defeat old enemies, Bristol: The Policy Press, 2002, p. x1 This essay will account for and assess ways in which contemporary society seeks to end world poverty by doing the following. As poverty mean different things to different societies the essay will give a meaning for poverty that will mirror this; it will refer primarily to theoretical perspectives of, Amartya Sen and will draw on studies of Peter Townsend, then it will examine how malnutrition, lack of education, debt and unequal life chances can cause the cycle of poverty.

Finally, it will inform on how world organizations like World Bank, United Nations and Steven Sinnot Foundation are trying to improve living standards of millions. There is over one billion people living in extreme poverty in the world, Poverty shows itself in many different ways; they include not having a job or any means of earning or making a livelihood; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic necessities; increases the risk of untimely death; homelessness; unsafe environments and social discrimination and exclusion.

(Alcock 2006).

There are two types of poverty; absolute which is where people do not have the means to obtain the basic necessities to survive, they live on less than $1 (US) per day, on the other hand there is relative this is where people have jobs but the wage is so low that they cannot afford the necessities that others in their societies have, they could be relegated to absolute poverty with change of circumstance example becoming ill and having to give up work. (Gibbons, 2006). In 1995 in Copenhagen, the Millennium Campaign was created and agreed by 117 United Nations States at the World Submit on Social Development. The declaration dedicated the UK to the, goal ending poverty in the world through specific actions and with the cooperation of other international communities. After this task, forces were set up focusing upon different aspects of global poverty. Alcock, 2006), p, 48.

Peter Townsend theoretical stance on poverty is poverty equals low income and a disadvantaged lifestyle, people are poor when they cannot afford to buy the normal things like others in the society in which they belong; they are deprived of the lifestyle they should have. He sees poverty as relative. I believe that he was possibly influenced by the benefit system in the UK in which he was born. Whereas Amartya Sen see poverty as “unfreedoms”, his theoretical stance is that poverty is deprivation of “basic capability” not having the ability to work rather than not having any income, some of the reasons suggested are being too young or too old, gender and social roles, pregnancy and child care. He sees poverty as “absolute”. I believe his theories are influences by the society in which they were born and raised, a third world country with most of the population lacking the basic necessities to survive. (Alcock, 2006). Even in richer countries some groups within the society are very disadvantaged they do not have access to health care, education, jobs or any economic security.

America is one of the world’s superpower yet it has the highest poverty rate of any rich nation, According to the census bureau, 15 percent of Americans or more than 46 million people, live below the poverty line, defined as an annual income of $23,000 for a family with two children. Of those, six million live in extreme poverty, with an income of half that or less. (Cornwell, 2012) One of the causes of poverty is malnutrition, the United Nation World Food Program projected that 830 million people go hungry each day, most of them in the developing countries with calorie intake of fewer than 1,800 not enough to keep an adult with the energy needed to lead an active healthy life or to be able provide for themselves and their family, it takes their dignity away.

Of that number 200 million are children under the age of 5 years, they are underweight and ill, every year 12 million of them die of starvation, with so many children dying the future of their countries are gloomy. Another cause is lack of education, According to the United Nations International Labour Organization more than 218 million children one in every four are working in developing countries. 126 million are working in hazardous conditions, some work as servants for rich families, others work in agriculture and manufacturing, hotels they work long hours on very low wage, as result they are unable to go to school to learn skills that would offer them hope of ending the cycle that would most likely help out of poverty, so the cycle goes on. (Giddens, 2009)

Trade, Africa, though one of the poorest countries is rich in natural resources such as timber and oil but trading with the rest of the world is made difficult because of poor infrastructure, corruption the impact of AIDs on the population of working age. The rules of trade are very stringent and benefit the developed countries more than the poor ones, the poor countries are under cut by the rich as a result they are at a disadvantage. They end up with debt which they cannot pay back (Gibbons, 2009) Unequal life chances is another cause, there is an enormous difference in standards of living between people in rich and poor countries. 40 percent of the world’s poor live in poor countries, they live in absolute poverty. Almost a third of them are undernourished and almost all are illiterate, lacking access to basic education.

Many are from tribes or ethnic groups that differ from the dominant group in the society in which they live as a result they are discriminated against. The high income countries accounts for 15 percent of the world’s population they are responsible for 79 percent of the world’s annual output of wealth. They have decent housing, enough food, they have safe drinking water and so many life comforts that the poor countries could only dream off. There are also large numbers poor people in those rich countries but they live in relative as oppose to absolute poverty. (Giddens, 2006)

Education would make such a difference to these children and their families lives; it would provide them with skills needed to do skilled work, which would result in economic growth. Also educated people are less likely to have large families thus reducing toe world population. Education is an investment for the future; it is the quickest way to getting poor people out of poverty as seen in Katine which is an area in north east Uganda, population 25,000. A project called Katine Project is run in partnership with Barclays, The Guardian Newspaper and African Medical Research. It is structured around five key components, health, education, water and sanitation, income generation and empowers communities. It is centered on the schools in the area; its aim is to empower its young students. 4000 text books has been supplied to the schools, there is a 21 percent rise in enrolment with more disabled students, orphans and girls joining. Access to comprehensive education is key to the program. As a result of programs like these children world over will gain the skills needed to be able to compete for jobs, make informed choices, and become productive citizens of their countries. (Engage, Issue six)

World organizations such as World Bank, World Health Organization and The United Nations development program have tirelessly supported the cause of international poverty in different countries across the world. They have put together Millennium goals aimed at helping to get rid of poverty, some of the goals are to reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water set in 2000, and they have produced annual report on the different aspects of the international dimensions of poverty. (Alcock, 2006) With so many millions of rich people in our world there should not be poverty on the scale in which we have examined. What is poverty? It is a type of cancer that needs to be cured, malnutrition saps energy away from people and as a result they are too weak to provide for themselves and their families they are left weak and helpless, Lack of education keeps people lacking the skills needed to give them a fighting chance of getting out of the poverty trap. Governments of the world have created Goals in an effort to end this travesty, hopefully these goals will be fulfilled and in the next decade we would have done enough to eliminated poverty. 1,529 words

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Essay on Poverty Essay

Functional areas in Tesco and Oxfam Essay

Functional areas in Tesco and Oxfam Essay.

1. Introduction

In this report I am going to compare functional areas of two contrasting organisations Tesco and Oxfam. Tesco is aiming at achieving profit, investing and offerring services and products to customers.Oxfam is a non-profit organisation, helping people in crisis. Tesco is a British multinational grocery and general merchandise retailer, it has stores in 14 countries across Asia, Europe and North America and is the grocery market leader in UK, where it has a market share of around 30%. Oxfam is an international confederation of 17 organisations working in 90 countries worldwide to find solutions to poverty and related injustice around the world.

It helps to provide training, education and financial aid to people in developing countries and disaster areas.

2. Functional Areas in Organisations

Functional area is a person, area or department which carries out a particular business function, for example, Administration, Customer Service, Distribution, Finance, Human Resources, ICT, Marketing, Sales, Production or Research and development. The main purpose of having functional areas in business is ensuring that all important activities are carried out efficiently and accurately.

This is important if the business wants to achieve its aims and objectives; specific areas will be responsible for supporting specific types of aims and objectives, for example, sales and marketing will be involved in developing new markets or increasing sales, finance would be monitoring and keeping costs low to improve profitability.

2.1.Functional areas of Tesco

The main activities of Finance department are:

  • Recording all the business transactions (expences and incomings)•measuring the financial performance of Tesco (how well or badly Tesco is doing financially)
  • controlling the finances and cash flow so the company stays reliable (ensuring that there is enough money to pay off debts, bills, employees, as well as invest in new developments to gain more profit)
  • taking timely financial decisions by comparing the predicted performance with actual performance (they would do this by comparing the financial situation from previous years with todays situation)

Human resources:

  • Recruiting, selecting, training and developing new staff
  • keeping all records they have in their possesion confidential (obligation to stand by Data Protection Act)
  • they look after an emploee whilst they work in the company (training, development and promotion)


  • Marketing Research — collecting data from surveys and questionnaires, preparing presentations informing about new developments
  • Customer Care and Services — deals with complaints and problems they have, evaluating service, revieving competitors, recommending improvements
  • Sales Promotion and Advertising — making sure that promotions are clear and understandable for customers


  • responsible for making services that are provided by Tesco (offices, vehicles, retailing products)
  • responsible for delivering the products to customers•ensuring that there is enough stock available ( that is supported by new technology, for example EPOS system, which will automatically re-order if Tesco is out-of-stock)

Administration department:

  • creates an ordered way of working which enables the busines to function smoothly
  • brings together the various parts of the business so they can all work towards achieving the same goals
  • ensures good communication between the management and workers
  • all the methods and procedures should be written down in case staff is beeing changed•proper procedures for controlling and monitoring work — high level of supervision and well-motivated staff

2.2. Functional areas of Oxfam

The Global Ambassadors have been campaigning around the world on behalf of Oxfam. They propagate the knowledge about the issues like, for example, climate change, conflict resolution, women’s rights, international arms trade treaty, and others. Among the Oxfams Global Abassadors are for example:

  • Annie Lennox — she lent her support as the voice for TV adverts for the campaign following the 2012 earthquake in Haiti, she also works hard on AIDS and women’s issues, she also set up “The Circle” — a group of influential women who come together to connect with women living in poverty around the world,
  • Coldplay, they donated acoustic version of their song for a new Oxfam campaign video, perform concerts for Oxfam, drawn enormous attention to the Make Trade Fair campaign ( supports poor people affected by unfair trade rules),
  • Colin Firth, his work ia wide-ranging, he has helped highlight issues, speaks to the media and wright articles, hosts fundraising events in USA and Italy,
  • Helen Mirren supports Control Arms campaign, travelled to South Africa to meet victims of domestic violenceand firearms crimes and Uganda to highlight the civil war there and push for peaceful solution,
  • Scarlett Johansson, she is a part of “We Can” campaign, which aims to break down attitudes that support violence against women, she also supports GROW campaign (fighting world hunger) and Haiti Earthquake Appeal, also designed a handbag for Mango on behalf of Oxfam to raise money for the appeal. Executive Director Winnie Byanyima appointed in May 2013) provides strategic guidance, support, expertise and coordination across the global organisation. Through its 17 affiliates, oxfam works with people in over 90 countries to provide humanitarian relief in crisis, empower poor and marginalised people to gain social and economic equality.

Working with thousands of local partner organisations, Oxfam International works with people living in poverty striving to exercise their human rights and take control of their lives. They focus their efforts in these areas:

  • Development — they work with and through partners and communities on long-term programmes to eradicate poverty and combat justice
  • Emergencies — deliver immediate life-saving assistance to people affected by natural disasters or conflict
  • Campaigning — raise public awerness of the causes of poverty and encourage ordinary people to take action
  • Advocacy — press decision-makers to change policies and practices that reinforse poverty and injustice
  • Policy research — speak with authority as a result of research and analysis, and the real experience of the partners in developing countries Oxfam GB (one of the affiliates of Oxfam International) has a wide range of policy, programme and research staff, whose shared expertise ranges from public health engineering to lobbying international institusions for change:
  • Oxfams Advocacy advisers work to change public policies and practices in ways that will have a positive impacton poor people’s lives. Advocacy can take place at a variety of levels from local communities through to international institutions, and include the variety of methods including lobbying, media work, popular campaigning and changing public attitudes
  • Oxfam’s humanitarian personnel are responsible for a wide range of activities, including advising Oxfam’s international regions on humanitarian response, building regional capacity to respond to emergencies, leading programme development work on key areas such as WASH, public health, food security, HIV and AIDS, protection, gender, and preparedness. They also deliver advocacy on humanitarian issues in developed countries and provide security management advice
  • Programme Implementation — Oxfam’s country and regional staff work with the programme policy advisers to implement our programmes in more than sixty countries. Programme staff work with local partners to develop, implement and evaluate a variety of initiatives, offering a range of support through training and capacity-building, networking with other similar organisations, and financial support
  • Programme Policy — Oxfam’s collective wealth of expertise and knowledge includes development professionals, who provide global advisory support to Oxfam’s large number of projects and programmes across more than sixty countries.Programme policy advisers assist in improving the coherence, quality, and impact of Oxfam’s programmes and ensure that we learn from good and innovative work through facilitating programme-focused learning processes and resources
  • Research enables Oxfam to look ahead and plan strategically for a fast-changing context. It sharpens and underpins the credibility of Oxfam’s campaigns and helps us design, monitor and assess the impact of our country-level programmes.Oxfam’s global researchers lead on researching and writing policy papers and campaign reports, keep abreast of new ideas that may feed into future policies or advocacy work or shape our programme thinking, and build Oxfam’s research capacity and quality
  • Oxfam’s Senior Management staff are responsible for ensuring the quality, effectiveness, and accountability of Oxfam’s portfolio of humanitarian, development, and campaigning work around the world Volunteers play a key role in helping Oxfam achieve its missions to reduce poverty and injustice around the world, they work throughout all the departments, they fulfill the variety of roles and tasks and they are significant part of every non-profit organisation.

3. Conclusion

Despite many differences in functioning between Tesco and Oxfam (where Tesco works for profit and Oxfam is non-profit organisation) there are certain similar areas that ensure that organisation’s activities and tasks are completed properly. This is important for the business if its going to achieve its aims and objectives. So both of the organisations have:

  • IT staff, who deal with website, hardware and software problems, security and confidentiality issues, they are linked with HR department and Administration as most of the communication and storing data happens electronically
  • Marketing and Research who identifies and tries to meet customer needs, works on new solutions and developments
  • Sales team is responsible for direct contact with customers, they also are linked with Marketing and all kinds of advertising
  • Finance department looks at income and outgoings of the business, as well as fundraising and collecting money for various campaigns Tesco’s area is retail and maximasing profit, gaining new customers and keeping the existing ones, so the structure is streamlined and compact. Oxfam’s activities are much more varied, from gaining income from charity shops, concerts and events, through legal work that advocats do to change regulations, to hands on material help and organising rescue for people affected by natural disasters.

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Functional areas in Tesco and Oxfam Essay

United Way Case Study Essay

United Way Case Study Essay.

The United Way is a long established company that is known for helping build stronger communities. Many people may have first been introduced to this organization through their successful commercials featured during professional football games. The ads made many viewers aware of the needs experienced through different areas, and how football players were volunteering to make a difference. This was a great introduction to the United Way, but the organization is much more than what viewers observed.

Vision and Mission Statement

The Vision Statement for the United Way is as follows:

“United Way envisions a world where all individuals and families achieve their human potential through education, income stability and healthy lives.

” The goals for the United Way are reflected in this vision as well. They believe in the importance of education and strive to reduce the number of students who drop out of high school each year. Helping families become economically independent is also of importance. Lastly, they strive to educate individuals to the benefits of a healthy lifestyle.

The Vision Statement of the United Way is a summary of organizational goals and is the basis for how they choose their partners and administer their resources. The Mission Statement of the United Way is where the organization expresses their desire to improve worldwide communities. The Mission Statement states: “United Way improves lives by mobilizing the caring power of communities around the world to advance the common good.” This is how the organization works to improve lives. They collaborate with communities and assess their individual needs. Resources can then be allocated accordingly. It is through these unique partnerships that the United Way has attained many years of success in their mission.

SWOT Analysis

The United Way is an organization that has continually sought ways to stay viable in the hearts of communities. Since its inception, there have been changes and challenges to address. For this non-profit to remain significant to its donors and recipients, it is important that it continue in its tradition of self-examination. This can be accomplished through continual inventory of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats by means of a SWOT analysis.


The strengths of the United Way are many. Their history, size, and reputation are what have contributed to the staying power of this organization. Their roots extend back to 1887 making for 125 solid years of aiding those in need. They have over 3,000 organizations in 45 countries so they are recognized in communities all over the globe. They are unique in their ability to recognize the needs of individual communities and address those needs on a one-on-one basis. They know there is not a single solution to problems plaguing different regions.

The United Way has found strength in some of its donor related partnerships. Many of us recognize the organization from watching NFL football games. The heart wrenching commercials feature star athletes returning to their hometowns and volunteering in their own communities. Seeing the recipients of this attention makes many of us feel respect for the United Way and their contributions. The commercials have a powerful impact on the public.

Another great source of funding for United Way programs is through partnerships with the AFL-CIO labor organization and many large corporations. Among these are Wal-Mart, Exxon-Mobil, Bank of America, and Ford Motor Company. By forming associations with these companies, the United Way benefits by receiving large donations from the companies themselves and individual donations from special programs designed for the employees. This creates a great source of income to help fund programs.


While the strengths of the United Way are long established, there have been a few problems they have been forced to combat. A number of scandals have occurred in the recent history of the organization. One of the largest scandals occurred in 1992 and involved the president and CEO of United Way America. An estimated one million dollars was drained from the organization along with the trust of many donors. While these instances were bad in themselves, the negative press associated with them was even more devastating.

One weakness of the United Way has manifested itself through the desire of the public. People began to want to contribute money to specific charities. The way the United Way was set up, the money went to community programs but it was not always easy to breakdown the exact distribution of the funds. Donors were starting to want their money to go to a specific cause such as pancreatic cancer or diabetes research. A community education program was not necessarily targeted enough.

In addition to this, the marketing of celebrities and big name contributors had a tendency to backfire. Small donors began to question the impact of their contribution. If someone like Bill Gates was giving millions of dollars, they wondered if their gifts were necessary.


Some opportunities for the United Way could be present with the internet and World Wide Web. With many new businesses and the advent of social media, the potential to find new donors is expansive. There are also an array of internet-focused business such as Amazon, Google, and Facebook, with which corporate relationships may potentially form. Having this new source of technology can put the resources right into the hands and homes of individuals and simplify the process of donation. Making it easier could certainly make it profitable.


The threats that loom for the United Way are issues that will remain as long as the organization exists. There will always be competition among other charitable organizations for donations. Maintaining trust and fulfilling goals will help in establishing commitments from donors to secure financial longevity. Keeping their focus on the needs of the communities so the results of their work are evident is also a strong persuader to potential contributors.

Another threat could be an identification issue for the United Way. Identifying the customer and maintaining balance is a delicate issue and how it is handled will affect success. Determining if the customer is the recipient of their services or the donors who fund these services, is a constant situation that can have two sides. Making sure the various organizations are recognized and respected is crucial.

Core Competencies

The United Way of America and the United Way International are non-profit organizations that focus on improving the lives of populations living in more underdeveloped communities. They do so by using the power of their strong volunteer base and the care of its citizens. These organizations establish their core competencies on the over one thousand and three hundred local United Ways operating in the United States, and over three thousand offices operating in over forty-five additional countries worldwide. The United Ways were originally founded by caring people, who understood the need to help and raise awareness of the emotional needs and the living conditions of many neighbors in their own communities. Therefore, these organizations set out to raise funds and to distribute them to local service providers that would distribute them according to the needs of the different communities. It would also seem feasible that these organizations seek the support of the most efficient and effective local providers, who would assure the good use of all the resources made available by the help of volunteers and donors on behalf of the United Way.

This nonprofit organization also works on constructing great alliances with other important charities around the World while coordinating volunteer support groups among them. At the heart of this charity is the strong volunteer presence that helps not only by collecting funds and participating in fund-raising activities, but also contributes countless amount of hours providing services for people in need. Consequently, these volunteers understand the importance of participating in vast amounts of hours of training in order to provide the best quality service as possible. The United Way also sees the importance of building long-lasting relationships with local business communities. Contrary to popular belief, the business community provides more than sixty percent of the donations received by this organization. The business community also assists by promoting and hosting many fund-raising events with the hope of helping the United Way provide services to their own local communities.

Consequently, the importance of establishing long lasting relationships between the United Way and other entities is of vital importance in order to receive the necessary resources and to continue providing services to communities in need. In order for the United Way to continue receiving the necessary funds to operate and provide services for communities in need, it constantly strives to maintain the great amount of trust that exist between this organization, the customers it assists, and the donors who willingly contribute their own earnings.

In the same fashion, this organization must always display good practice models of management and financial accountability in order to maintain this great level of trust. In consequence, it is trust that preserves the existence of this relationship between the charity, the customers, and its donors. This organization also understands the need to behave under the most appropriate and acceptable norms, values, and beliefs according to the majority of its donors. A change in norms, values and beliefs from this institution, may cause many donors to look for other ways of contributing that might be in greater accordance with their set of morals, values and beliefs. Therefore, upholding the trust of the donors is of the upmost importance.

Company Basic Objectives

At the core of the United Way’s basic objectives is the need to increasingly create public awareness of social service issues facing the country today. This organization, through its alliances with other entities, for example the National Football League, strives to bring awareness of the tremendous need some of the local communities are facing each day. The United Way also seeks to become a financial intermediary that provides many vital resources, and participates in fund-raising activities, through the help of donor organizations that participate in payroll deductions programs. This charity also articulates the delivery of these resources to agencies that can actually deliver them to the people in need. Ultimately, the United Way is changing the manner in which it outsources, and intends to have a greater participation in helping communities who are less fortunate. While in the past, this organization was mostly involved with just collecting and distributing funds, today it seeks to make a long lasting impression on people’s lives by addressing and identifying long-term their long-term needs.

Company Basic Business Strategy

American donors have expressed concern about how donations were going to be used and even how their privacy would be protected when giving via the Internet. Due to this the United Way was experiencing problems maintain trust and once that trust was broken it was very difficult to get it back. United Way of America’s CEO, Brian Gallagher, formally initiated a shift in strategy. Responding to the environment, he established new membership standards to enhance the level of accountability and transparency in United Way affiliates’ operations, rebranded United Way as doing “what matters” in the communities it served, and updated the “standards of excellence,” providing a description of benchmark standards and best practices to better reflect the organization’s strategic shift from its traditional role as strictly a fund-raiser to a new mission focused on identifying and addressing the long-term needs of communities. United Way celebrates its 125th anniversary and enters into partnerships with CNN and CNN international to share the LIVE UNITED message in communities around the world (http://www.unitedway.org/pages/history).

Current Strategic Management Issues

  • Financial: Bad Economy
  • Decide where funds are distributed, as many donors have specific areas that they would like to donate to
  • Maintain an inspiring vision for their mainly volunteer workforce, while managing potential conflicts and sharing resources with other United Way in their geographic area

Potential Actions to be Taken to Address Issues

1. Establish New Management Model

There was no accountability and direction at the top which made it easy for all of these scandals to take place. If the management structure at the top was flawed, how could it work at the local level?

2. Conduct a PR Campaign-

United Way needs to boost their image in the wake of these scandals and they need to get themselves back to the top of the charitable organizations in the public eye. Maybe hiring a top PR firm to help them with this? We also think keeping their alliance strong with the NFL would be a beneficial strategy.

3. Set Ethical Standards of Conduct-

They should implement a set of ethical standards that need to be adhered to from the corporate level down to each local chapter. There should also be yearly review measures put in place to determine if the charity is living up to its own ethical standards of conduct.

4. Improve Transparency-

If people are giving significant money to an organization they should be able to see what’s going on inside that organization. They should open up the books. Hire independent auditors? If local chapters were more transparent would local donors be more comfortable giving? If people give money, they should be able to see what % of dollars went towards operating costs and what % actually ended up going to communities in need. 5. Improve Website and Online Presence- They really need to update their website and get current with the times. Their website is hard to navigate and isn’t user friendly at all. When you give money online it is very generic.

It asks for your name and CC# and that’s it. It doesn’t give the option to donate to a specific cause, maybe they can change that? We also discussed that if they couldn’t do that maybe they could send its donors a yearly, personalized letter that thanked them for their donations and told them a specific project in the community in which they helped? (Elgin Boys and Girls Club, for example) 6. Ensure Mission is Clear from the Top Down- Encourge local chapters to buy into the overall mission. Many local chapters had been considered branching out on their own. There is an issue there that needs to be rectified if United Way wants long-term progress and growth. They should involve local chapter leaders in creating their mission and goals and put measures in place to make sure all the local chapters are fulfilling the missions and working towards the goals.

Lessons Learned

The most important lesson we learned what that the managerial framework at the top was broken. The board of directors turned a blind eye to the CEO stealing money because he brought in a lot of money. From there it started happening at the local levels. So, the lesson is that if management at the top is broken, you cannot expect management at the lower levels to be effective.

Another lesson we learned is that United Way needs to change with the time. With so many different charities out there right now, there is increased competition. They need to adapt to the changing times and give donors what they are seeking. Some of the things their donors are seeking are more transparency, in wake of the scandals, and the opportunity to put their money towards a specific cause.


  • http://www.unitedway.org/pages/history/
  • Dess, G.G., Lumkin, G.T., & Eisner, A.B. (2008). Strategic management: Text and cases (5th ed.) (Primus with ten cases). NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBM 10:0390331767

United Way Case Study Essay