Factors Contributing the Unplanned Pregnancy Among College Students Essay

Factors Contributing the Unplanned Pregnancy Among College Students Essay.

Being a mother is the most important and challenging role for a woman. A woman should be financially and emotionally ready to get pregnant, give birth, and raise her child. However, at present there are many risks of unwanted pregnancy among young female university students, as the majority of today’s university students have prematurely engaged in sexual intercourse. Consequently, without preparation, some of them face with unwanted pregnancy while studying.

Unwanted pregnancy among university students can cause many serious problems which can affect the body, mind, and social status of female university students who are not yet ready to be a mother.

Unwanted pregnancy sometimes forces university female students to face a tragic or dead end in their lives. They are nervous as they can’t solve the problem and their parents may not accept this. Some female students may finally seek illegal abortion which can cause their lives.

Even though they do not terminate their pregnancy, some of them are too young to give birth and they may have problems of miscarriages or great pains and difficulties when giving birth.

These can affect the health of both the mothers and their children. Pregnant university students in some way are directly or indirectly forced to quite their studies to stay at home until they give birth. These unprepared young mothers often inevitably encounter financial problems.

Stress and worries can harm their mentality. Many of them lack knowledge to deal with the problem and don’t know how to take care of their children. The problem can be two-folded. Typically, young people aged 10-20 years are not ready to become parents. Both financial stability and emotional maturity are the problem for parenting or caring responsibilities. Getting back into the education system is very difficult. University female students have to worry about losing the educational opportunities.

They have to quit university to escape the pressures of society while university male students can still go to university regularly. Therefore, women are responsible for the problem unilaterally and live in society difficulty. Unwanted pregnancy among university students is caused by sexual intercourse which is they will be pregnant while they are not ready in all aspects. So, they should realize that unwanted pregnancy can cause many serious problems. Despite modern methods of family planning, and idespread information about how to use it, unplanned pregnancy is one of the most common medical problems faced by sexually active women under 45.

Abortion, the most usual solution to the problem of unplanned pregnancy, is the most common operation among women in the fertile age range. It is impossible to calculate precisely just how many pregnancies each year are accidental. When medical sociologist, Anne Fleissig, asked a number of women who had given birth six weeks previously about whether their pregnancy was planned, she found that 31 percent of them were not.

She concluded in a paper subsequently published in the British Medical Journal that almost a third of births could be the consequence of accidental pregnancies. If this were the case it would mean 310 000 accidental pregnancies in Britain every year. In fact, this is likely to be a conservative estimate. Because Anne Fleissig conducted her research into the circumstances in which women’s new babies were conceived, her sample did not include women who had conceived but ended the pregnancy by an abortion.

When these unplanned pregnancies are considered as well, it suggests the real extent of accidental pregnancy is even higher than, perhaps as high as 50 per cent of all conceptions. According to the Olaitan Olukunmi Lanre, 2011, Research Journal of Medical Sciences, 5: 336-339, the findings were that unprotected sexual intercourse and poor parental care are the causes of unwanted pregnancy while termination of educational programme and medical complications for both the mothers and children are the effects of unwanted pregnancy.

Abstinence and adequate teaching of sex education have been seen as measures to prevent unwanted pregnancy among the adolescents. It was recommended among others that sex education should taught as a subject at the secondary level and government should enact laws to compel parents to take proper care of their children to avoid all forms of immorality among the adolescents.

Factors Contributing the Unplanned Pregnancy Among College Students Essay

Analysis of the Movie “Juno” Essay

Analysis of the Movie “Juno” Essay.

Sixteen year-old Juno MacGuff is the type of girl that beats to her own drummer, and doesn’t really care what others may think of her. She learns that she’s pregnant from a one-time sexual encounter with her best friend, Paulie Bleeker. Juno and Paulie like each other, but don’t consider themselves to be exclusive boyfriend/girlfriend let alone be ready to be a family complete with child. Although she would rather not be pregnant, Juno is fairly pragmatic about her situation.

Paulie really leaves all the decisions about the baby to Juno. Initially, she decides that she will have an abortion, but that’s something that she ultimately cannot go through with. So she decides to have the baby and give it up for adoption. But first she has to tell her father, Mac, and stepmother, Bren, that she is pregnant.

Although they would have preferred if Juno was on hard drugs or expelled from school, Mac and Bren too are pragmatic about Juno’s situation.

The next step is to find prospective parents for the yet unborn child. In the Penny saver ad section, Juno finds Mark and Vanessa Loring, a yuppie couple living in the suburbs. Juno likes the Lorings, and in some respects has found who looks to be a kindred spirit in Mark, with whom she shares a love of grunge music and horror films.

Vanessa is a little more uptight and is the one in the relationship seemingly most eager to have a baby. On her own choosing, Juno enters into a closed rather than open adoption contract with the Lorings. During the second and third trimesters of Juno’s pregnancy which she treats with care but detachment, Juno’s relationships with her family, with Paulie, and with the Lorings develop. She gives the baby to Venessa, when she gives birth. At the end, Juno and Bleeker get together and they realized their feeling to each other.

After summarizing the movie, I want to analyze it. The 2007 film release of Juno offers certain challenges to past conceptualizations of girlhood, yet the representation of female sexuality as tied to traditional notions of ‘‘femininity’’ remains substantially unchanged. Juno represents a cultural artifact of changing ideologies of girlhood, yet it also functions as an example of the pervasive ambivalence towards the sexual subjectivity of girls.

The representation of girls as sexless is challenged. Rather than a stereotypical depiction of the female body as sexual object, sexual desire is visibly expressed and acted upon by the girl character. Throughout the film, Juno is shown as agentive in the decisions she makes about her body, sexual desire, and modes of self-expression; her classification as a girl who identifies as a ‘‘freak,’’ cares little about what other people think of her, and dresses in grunge style clothing connote an independent self-confidence that is apparent in all of her intimate relationships.

Although Juno has received praise for its originality, the story is most notable as a surprisingly familiar cultural fairy-tale. Juno’s character is understandable as a metaphor for conditions of female sexuality that continue to limit girls’ full expressions of sexual desire. Like the character of Juno, girls today are caught between increased expectations of agency on the one hand and continuing restrictions of their sexual expressions of desire on the other.

In conceptualizing Juno’s agency it is important to recognize the material and social ways in which Juno’s agentive ‘‘choice’’ is constrained. Juno is not a free agent; her actions and her agency operate in connection to material and social structures influencing her daily livelihood. The central paradox within Juno is that it celebrates agency for girls while simultaneously linking that agency to their physical desirability and role as potential reproducers.

Analysis of the Movie “Juno” Essay

The Role of the Midwife Essay

The Role of the Midwife Essay.

This essay examines and outlines the roles and responsibilities of Practising Midwives in the United Kingdom, as well as exploring the role that the midwife plays in association with other Healthcare providers.

The basis that underpins the midwifery profession is that women should be at the forefront of their maternity care and valued as individuals with distinct and specific needs (Midris, 2012).

Practising midwives in the UK must follow and abide to a certain set of rules and guidelines set out by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) known as ‘The Code, Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics for Nurses and Midwives’ (NMC, 2008) (Baston et al.

, 2009).

Midwives are able to be the sole carer of a mother and baby from early pregnancy to around 28 days after the birth and attend over 75% of births in the UK (Baston et al., 2009) and generally view care from a holistic perspective and consider the care they offer from a psychological, emotional, spiritual, social and cultural context (Baston et a.

, 2009).

The word ‘midwife’ simply means ‘with women’ (Alberta Association of Midwives 2012). According to the International Confederation of Midwives Council (2005) the midwife is a conscientious and accountable trained specialist in ‘normal’ pregnancy and birth. They work in ’partnership’ with the woman, her partner and family to offer the vital care, support and advice required during the prenatal, interpartum and postpartum period to independently guide the women through the pregnancy and birthing process and provide care for both the new born and infant. The scope of the midwife includes the support and encouragement of normal birth, identifying complications with the pregnancy and performing emergency procedures. Midwives play a significant and critical role in the delivery of health counselling and education which should include antenatal education not only with the women but with the family and network and wider community.

Pregnancy and antenatal care are essential parts of midwifery care. A vital part of this care is carrying out assessments of well being which is not only a process to measure the woman’s and child’s health but is also effective in testing whether the wellbeing of the woman and child is at risk. In order to accurately assess wellbeing the midwife must have relevant practical skills such as, taking and recording blood pressure to screen for hypertension, listening to the foetal heartbeat, taking bloods which can for example determine her rubella immunity status, measuring the growth of the foetus, dating the pregnancy and administering medication (Mander, 2009).

The midwife is equipped with extensive knowledge and dexterity of the female anatomy, how the body works and the changes and processes in pregnancy as well as the ability to examine this competently. The midwife is expected to have comprehensive knowledge of the normal progression and different stages of pregnancy, the bodily and psychological changes and common discomforts women experience and has the ability to interpret results of basic screening laboratory tests, for example, urine tests which look for the presence of protein or glucose in the urine which can be an indicator of infection or diabetes (Mander and Fleming, 2009, Medford, 2011).

The midwife works jointly with other health care professionals to provide multidisciplinary care to the woman, these health care professionals include, obstetricians, general practitioners, paediatricians, health visitors and physiotherapists. The midwife is obligated to seek advice or turn to the appropriate professional if there is a complication within the pregnancy that falls outside the midwife’s scope of practice (ICM 2002, 2005). The clear and concise record keeping is an important aspect and legal requirement of midwifery practise and is a vital tool that supplements the care process, which include consultations and sometimes referrals by improving communication between the care providers and the clients, for example information that should be included if this is a full assessment and care plan that should be followed by the woman and child (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), cited Medforth et al., 2011).

Midwives are only able to care for women for are deemed as experiencing a ‘normal’ healthy and physiological pregnancy although a midwife would be
aware and have knowledge of abnormal and pathological aspects of pregnancy. If a complication arises that is deem outside a midwife scope of practise the midwife would no longer be able to be the woman’s primary care provider and the care would be transferred over to an obstetrician. An obstetrician is a trained specialist in the foetal abnormalities and complications of pregnancies and childbirth and who are also legally allowed to deliver babies. Although the woman’s care has been transferred to the obstetrician the midwife still participates in her care to act as the woman’s avocate and offer her support (Mander and Fleming (2009).

The midwife can also expect to be in contact with the Health Visitor to discuss newly booked clients and at some point after the birth and to hand over the care of the woman and the child, the midwife will give the Health Visitor an extensive amount of information on the family during the pregnancy and birth experience so that the they can offer direct individual support. Modern midwifery sees midwives also working with social services as some women and their families have additional needs separate to those from the pregnancy.

Midwives may seek advice from a social workers for example, surrounding child protection issues, housing and benefit queries in order to offer the women adequate social support and to signpost them to appropriate services or work in partnership with the social services because the women belongs to a vulnerable group, for instance teenage mothers or disabled mothers or women at risk of domestic violence. It is common for a midwife to also work closely with GP’s, and in the community may be based within the GP surgery, woman may be referred to the GP from an antenatal clinic for minor problems, for example to symptomatic occurrence of urinary infection. (Peate and Hamilton, 2008).

In conclusion, this essay looked into the roles and responsibilities of the midwife and the role they play in association to other health providers, the reoccurring theme upheld by this essay is that midwifery has to be a diverse and ever changing profession in order to meet the needs of modern society. Modern midwifery is not just about ‘delivering babies’ but encompasses so much more. Midwifes are often the primary care provider from early pregnancy and into the postnatal period. Midwives act as advocates for women to help them make informed choices and prepare for birth and parenthood. (Medford et al., 2011).

The Role of the Midwife Essay

Argumentative Paper – Abortion Essay

Argumentative Paper – Abortion Essay.

Abortion is a huge problem throughout the United States. It needs to be stopped. Abortion can be defined as the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy. Abortion is not justified for three reasons. One, having an abortion is taking away an innocent life.

Two, there are not many reasons that make it okay to kill an unborn baby. Three, every child needs to be given a chance to live, because every child is wanted. To begin with, having an abortion is taking away an innocent life. It’s not the baby’s fault that it was brought into the world, and it should not be punished for that. Every month, more lives are aborted than the total amount of lives taken in the Vietnam War. Statistics show that 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 babies are aborted annually. The bible tells us that God hates hands that shed innocent blood.

God views the unborn as human and precious. He says, in Jeremiah 1:5 of the bible,” Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee, and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations.

” (Wilson) Next, there are not many reasons that make it okay to abort a child. People may give the following reasons that they think make it ok to have an abortion: rape, deformed children, or that the mother can’t afford a child. In the case of rape, abortion is an act of violence that kills a living human being. The circumstances surrounding the conception do not change this simple reality. In the case of deformed children, there are children of all ages, and adults too, who are alive today, and are living with diseases and disabilities. These physical limitations do not make them any less human.

If the mother can’t afford the child, there is a solution. There are many crisis pregnancy care centers that offer financial assistance to pregnant women, and then afterwards they will place them up for adoption if necessary. (“Poverty, rape, disability”) Finally, every child needs to be given a chance to live his/her life, because every child is a wanted child. Whether the parent wants the child, there are still many people in the world who would love to adopt a child. The National Council for Adoption states that there are “between one and two million infertile and fertile couples and individuals who would like to adopt children.” There are also a large number of couples whose hearts are ready to adopt terminally ill babies, including babies with AIDS. Adoption is a responsible, helpful solution to abortion.

Although the mother still has to carry the baby for the duration of her pregnancy, she is also able to give the baby a chance to live his/her life. No child should be given up because every child is a wanted child. (Gans) In conclusion, adoption is a huge problem in the United States. It is not justified for many reasons. Having an abortion is taking away an innocent life. There are not many reasons that make it okay to have an abortion. Every child in this world is a wanted child. Whether the parent of the child wants the child there is another option other than abortion. Adoption is a great option that saves a child’s life.

Works Cited
Wilson, Gregg. “ABORTION AMERICA’S #1 KILLER.” http://www.jesus-is-savior.com/Evils%20in%20America/Abortion%20is%20Murder/abortion_americas_killer.html. Web. 19. Nov.2012.

“Poverty, rape, disability or “unwantedness” do not morally justify abortion.” http://www.abort73.com/abortion/common_objections/. 2005-2012.Web. 19. Nov. 2012.

Gans, Olivia. “Every child a wanted child and other social arguments.” http://www.nrlc.org/abortion/facts/responseargument3.html.1998. Web.19.Nov.2012.

Argumentative Paper – Abortion Essay

’’A Simple Exchange of Niceties’’ by Joanne Fedler Essay

’’A Simple Exchange of Niceties’’ by Joanne Fedler Essay.

’’A Simple Exchange of Niceties’’, a short story by Joanne Fedler, 2007. In the text ’’A Simple Exchange of Niceties’’ the narrator lives in what could be a big town. In this town there is a park which she often visits, in this park there is a certain bench that she likes better than the others, and she calls it her own bench. The theme is teenage problems and about teenagers developing into the adulthood. The narrator’s language is very normal and is what every other American citizen could be speaking.

The language contains a few curse words and slang words too. Example given: ‘’ She seemed so bloody keen on kids ‘’ (Page 11 line 133). The narrator does not have much self confidence; she had a one night stand with a Damien from the bar, which resulted in her getting pregnant. Damien told her that he never wanted to have kids with a ‘’trashy whore’’ like her after he had fertilized her, which made her feel like a trashy whore too.

She has lost the sympathy of her mother too; the narrator is a very troubled person who is shop-lifting and has been impregnated at a very young age; this shows that she is not very sure of herself, and has not grown up yet.

Her mother does not even want to bail her out from the prison after she had been caught shop-lifting. The narrator is a bit arrogant against people she does not know. Example given when the old lady has issues untwisting her bag, and the narrator just ignores it; which shows that she does not like to communicate with strangers, which she also mentions – ‘’When I’m sitting on my bench, I’m generally not in the mood for small-talk and chit-chat.’’ – (Page 9, line 43). She complains about when she is sitting on her bench and people come and sit down without asking if she is okay with it; this is a very two-faced action, would she herself even ‘’exchange niceties’’ if she was the one approaching a stranger on a bench? Her arrogance is also shown when a lady with a book and a bottle of water comes along; the lady says that she should not smoke.

Her attitude is very typical for the society of youth, and the fact that she smokes while having a growing fetus in her stomach and not even caring about it truly enlightens that she has not grown up yet. From her oasis which is the bench, the narrator seems to be developing from being a late teenager who is acting very cool and not really caring about other than herself, to realizing the qualities of life, and understanding other people. As she speaks with the lady with the book ‘’When Fertility Fails’’, she seems to develop a kind of sympathy for the lady as she speaks of her and her husband’s problem. The fact that the lady cannot be fertilized by her husband makes the narrator act different than she is used to.

Example given when the lady says that she would sells everything that she possesses if she could be a mother, and the narrator replies by – ‘’ ‘’It wasn’t meant to be,’’ I found myself saying, which really wasn’t me speaking. ‘’(Page 10 line 115-116) and she refers to as if it was her Nan speaking. As this is not how she normally would react, it is an obvious sign that she is developing into a young woman, particularly when she decides to give away her coming baby to the unhappy lady. When the narrator tells her mother that she is pregnant, the mother seems to state that she actually cares for her – ‘’ don’t you DARE give my granddaughter away, ‘’ (Page 12 156) which made the narrator believe that she is actually worth something. And when the narrator gives birth to the baby and the mother tells her that she remembers when she was an infant lying on her chest. This truly shows that the mother is happy and has realized that her daughter has grown into a young woman.

’’A Simple Exchange of Niceties’’ by Joanne Fedler Essay

Maternal Mortality in India Essay

Maternal Mortality in India Essay.

According to the World Health Organization, a “maternal death” is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration or site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or the management, but not from accidental or incidental cause. Maternal mortality is not only related to the health-care provided by a country, but also to the country’s socio-economic and cultural aspects, in which women are usually at a great disadvantage.

Most maternal deaths are avoidable and should be avoided. This essay discusses the relation between high literacy rates and low mortality rates in different states in India. The Office of the Registrar General, India, under the Ministry of Home Affairs compiled a Special Bulletin on Maternal Mortality in India for the years 2007-2009 using the Sample Registration System (SRS). This Special Bulletin was published in June, 2011 and shows that the number of states that have realized the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) set by the United Nations have gone up three against one.

One of the main goals was to reduce the Maternal Mortality Rate to 200 maternal deaths per lakh of live births by the year 2007 and to 109 maternal deaths per lakh of live births by the year 2015. In order to understand the changes more appropriately, the states in India have been categorized into three main groups. The first group was called the “Empowered Action Group” (EAG) states consisting of Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Assam.

The second group consisted of the “Southern” states including Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The third and final group consisted of “Other” states which included the remaining states and Union Territories. The Maternal Mortality Ratio is shown to have declined from 254 in 2004-2006 to 212 in 2007-2009. As per the data in the Special Bulletin, the Maternal Mortality Rate for each group of states is calculated by dividing the total Sample Female Population of each group by the total number of Maternal Deaths per group.

The survey shows that Maternal Mortality Rate in the EAG states is much higher than in the other two groups, with Assam having the lowest Maternal Mortality Rate within the group. Although there have been advancements in the health-care provided to mothers and new-borns, illiteracy and inaccessible health-care in the rural areas of our country (India), illiteracy and inadequate health-care are the main factors resulting in maternal deaths. Other factors are usually medical-related problems, which are also avoidable most of the time.

According to another survey conducted by Chryssa McAlister and Thomas F. Baskett which was published in their article “Female Education and Maternal Mortality”, statistics show that the Maternal Mortality Rate is higher in those countries in which the male population has a higher percentage of literacy and education. In this case, women who are not educated or literate tend to have low self-esteem and feel unconfident. This is because education and literacy is directly related to the status of a woman, her decision-making powers, her age at the time of marriage and most importantly, her ability to demand and access adequate medical health services.

In a Press Note released on 19 May 2010 by the Press Information Bureau on “Education in India 2007-2008: Participation and Expenditure” conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization, the states included in the “Empowered Action Group” (excluding Assam) are said to have a low literacy rate, whereas the states included in the “Southern” and “Other” groups are said to have a higher literacy and education percentage.

This information collaborates with the theory of McAlister and Baskett in saying that the Maternal Mortality Rate is lower in areas having a lower rate of literacy and education of the female population, as compared to the educated male population percentage. In conclusion, women who are uneducated or illiterate have been proven to be more prone to maternal mortality at the time of pregnancy due to lack of confidence, status and decision-making abilities. Therefore, states in our country which have high rates of maternal mortality should concentrate on educating their female population in order to reduce deaths at the time of child-birth.

Maternal Mortality in India Essay

A Place Where the Sea Remembers: Character Like Candelario Marroquin Essay

A Place Where the Sea Remembers: Character Like Candelario Marroquin Essay.

In A Place Where the Sea Remembers, the author talks about a lot of unique characters. Candelario Marroquin is a man who has had a very hard life, but now that he has been promoted it looks like his life with Chayo, his wife, is looking up. He is a big character in the book and is greatly affected by fate.In the opening of the book, when Candelario Marroquin is first introduced in the story, he is painting the door of his house blue as a celebration that he has just gotten promoted to a salad maker.

It is expressed that Cande is very fond of the color blue and all of its meaning to him. As the story goes on, Cande gets fired from the job after he makes an inedible salad, although his boss, Don Gustavo, is the one who had created it.Candelario is affected by many things that go on in the story. For instance, he is indirectly affected by rape because his sister in law, Marta, gets raped.

This also ties in with abortion because Marta wants to get an abortion, but Cande offers to take care of the baby once it is born.

When he finds out that Chayo also gets pregnant he decides not to take Marta’s baby because they are unable to take care of both, so then Marta is forced to have the baby and take care of it on her own as a single parent. Moreover, she becomes desperate and puts a spell on their unborn baby. Later on in the story, his nephew Richard, Marta’s son, dies in a terrible storm and gets washed away into the sea. It can be considered karma that Marta’s son dies. Candelario’s wife Chayo is connected with all of these events as well. It is fate for them that they have a baby and therefore cannot take care of Marta’s baby, which cause her to do what she did and put a spell on their baby. It is also fate for them that Cande got fired from his job as a salad maker. Most of the events related to Cande that I earlier mentioned are also fate for Marta. Marta and Cande’s action are closely related. It is also fate that Marta goes to Rememdios to ask her to put a spell on Cande to change his mind and take her baby.

However, Remedios does not want to do that because she does not want Marta going to “El Norte”, she thinks it will ruin her. Remedios is indirectly affected by rape in this sense. Remedios is someone who is indirectly affected by everything through other characters. People go to her when their relatives die, she is the one who knows how to wrap them up and bury them. She is affected by fate because she is the “curandera”, the healer, which brings all the people from Santiago to her, and it is fate that brings her to the sea. Cesar Burgos is not affected by rape or abortion but he I extremely affected by single parenthood and death. Cesar had a wife and three young sons, but one day his wife and two of his kids went on a trip and they died in a car accident. He then had to be a single parent and raise his remaining son, Beto.

Fate affects him through these two major events. It is fate that his wife and two kids died, which causes his son to change and make him feel guilty for their death. Don Justo is also not affected by rape or abortion, but he is affected by single parenthood and death. He had a wife who died, and had five children at a time and only two survived. Don Justo is forced to take care of his two remaining daughters, he also ends up remarrying As the story continues, he receives a telegram that his oldest daughter Justina died. This causes him to get drunk and he then unwillingly kills his own bird. A time after, his dog also dies of old age. All of this is related to fate, it is fate that his life is looking down because of having so much death in his life, but in the end he picks his life back up and lives on. Rafael Beltran is only affected by rape and single parenthood.

Rafael does not have a father figure and he lives with with his mother because she is sick. He meets Esperanza through his mother because she has is her nurse. Rafael is indirectly affected by rape because Esperanza was raped when she was 17. Rafael ends up falling in love with Esperanza and they get married. His mother also brings Ines into his life because she is her maid, he teaches her how to write, with that he is able to grow and let go of only being focused on his job and his mother. It is fate that he lives with his sick mother, which brings Esperanza and Ines into his life. Esperanza is only affected by rape and fate. It is fate that she was raped when she was 17 because this causes her to leave her boyfriend at the time and go into a depression. She also takes nursing classes which lead her to become a nurse. This lets her and Rafael fall in love and be together.

You may also be interested in the following: a place where the sea remembers summary, a place where the sea remembers

A Place Where the Sea Remembers: Character Like Candelario Marroquin Essay

Cause and Effect: Unprotected sex Essay

Cause and Effect: Unprotected sex Essay.

In today’s society, many young teens have begun to experience unprotected sex. Having unprotected sex may result in sexually transmitted diseases (also known as STD) and/or pregnancy. Although some STD’s are curable, they would have to be cured immediately. As for the main focus, teenage pregnancy, many teenagers do not realize the responsibility, commitment, and hard work they have to put into raising a child. It is not only being there for them, but also having both parents being financially stabled.

Teenagers must protect themselves properly in order to avoid these incidents at an early stage in life because they, themselves, have not yet fully developed. In my opinion, the three main causes that lead to teen pregnancy are unprotected sex, lack of sex education, and sexual crimes. Unprotected sex is probably the most well-known factor leading to teen pregnancy. The cause of this can be from highly aroused young kids who don’t want to stop having sex because they have to get a condom.

A condom is the best teen pregnancy prevention item sold in the United States. A lot of other young adults think that they don’t need a condom so they move onto the “pulling out method” so that they don’t ejaculate into the female’s reproductive system that can soon lead to pregnancy. What most young adults don’t know is that this method isn’t always safe. It’s way better to just be prepared and be safe with a condom in hand. Unprotected sex is the main cause to pregnancy at a young age. In my opinion, and I’m sure a lot of other individuals will agree with me on this one, but it is way better to spend three dollars on a small pack of condoms than a lifetime expense on a baby because you didn’t “Wrap it Up”. Carelessness is a reason to unprotected sex leading to teen pregnancy.

Sexual education is needed in the classrooms of young adults today. It teaches them how to be safe, and how to still have sex but prevent pregnancy. Lack of sexual education can lead to pregnancy and other things like sexual transmitted diseases. With more information about sex taught to these teenagers, the pregnancy rate in young adults will drop. Take Tony from “The Other Wes Moore” for example. He didn’t have the knowledge needed to prevent him from getting his girlfriend pregnant at such a young age. The cause of lacking education in sex leads to these young kids getting themselves into situations they shouldn’t be getting into. They need to be taught better to prevent this from happening.

The crime rate in America constantly goes up and goes down depending on where you are located. Rape is another cause for the young pregnancy that is happening. Police need to do a way better job at locating these rapists to protect these young female teenagers from getting harmed. Rape is when someone forcibly takes an individual and obligates them into having sex, most of the time this is unprotected sex. These crimes usually take place in the cities. Because of rape, not only do these young females get pregnant but sometimes they either won’t know who raped them or they would have to raise a baby on their own.

Cause and Effect: Unprotected sex Essay

Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy Essay

Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy Essay.

Description: Preferred language style: English (U.S.). Each student will complete a 15–20 page paper in which they will discuss current issues facing adolescents today and how a counselor should deal with these areas. The paper must be in APA style with a minimum of 15 current references (within five years). This paper is to be 15-20 pages in length, and that means the body of the paper itself -not the title page, abstract, etc…The topic is Adolescent Sexuality: PREVENTION OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY.

Adolescent Sexuality: PREVENTION OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY
Name:
School:
University:
Adolescent Sexuality: Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy

Abstract: One of the commonest problems faced by teens in the several nations, has been the issue of teenage pregnancy. Although, the rates of teenage pregnancy are decreasing, there are still several problems associated with the issue. As teenage pregnancy can be a huge social issue and most of them do not want a child, such pregnancies can create a negative impact on the quality of life of the teenage couple.

The rise in teenage pregnancy has been due to several issues including faster onset of maturity, greater occasions of premarital sex, etc. Besides, teenage pregnancy is usually not preferred due to several issues such as greater rates of defects in the developing child, greater amount of maternal problems, social concerns, difficulties of the mother in bringing up the child, etc. In all cases, efforts should be made to support the pregnant teenage girl rather than ignore her.

A teenage pregnancy prevention program should look into several areas that encompass teenagers including career development, education, STD’s, contraception, counseling, drug abuse, women’s health, etc. It should involve several parties including the parents, politicians, social workers, child and women groups, NGO’s, etc. The two techniques that are utilized frequently include abstinence and contraception. Studies have shown that school-based prevention program were successful in decreasing the rates of pregnancy amongst teens. Efforts should be on to include the entire society in the teenage pregnancy prevention program.

There are several factors that may cause the teenager to indulge in irresponsible sexual behavior including social factors, psychological factors, family factors, etc. The counselors should always try to include the parents, family and the entire society in the prevention programs. If abstinence-based programs seem to be difficult, then the contraception-based programs may seem to be effective. The counselor may have to follow a holistic approach in solving the problems of the teens. The counselor should determine the characteristics of the teens and accordingly use these characteristics to motivate them further. Teens whose academic performance is superior may seem to gain more from pregnancy prevention programs.

The teenage pregnancy program should also look at various issues that surround teenagers including STD’s, contraceptives, drug abuse, careers, higher education, etc. It is also important that the teenage pregnancy prevention program helps pregnancy teenage girls to quality life without any problems. They should be taught how to handle the social and family pressure that may develop resulting from unwanted pregnancy. It is important that the teenage program involve the teenagers. The US HHS and the CDC have shown a lot of interest in the teenage pregnancy programs in recent years.

In developing nations, the rates of teen pregnancy are on the rise. On the other hand, in the developed nations such as the US and Canada, the rates of teenage pregnancies are decreasing due to greater awareness levels. In the US, about 97 per every 1000 teenage girls (usually between the ages of 15 to 19 years) get pregnant each year. Most of these pregnancies (about three-quarters) are usually not wanted. During the years 1999-2000, the rates of teenage pregnancies have dropped. The rates of teenage pregnancies are about 28 %, and the rate of teenage childbirths is about 21 %. There may be several reasons for teenage pregnancies (Weiss, 2000 & Huberman, 2005). These include: –
1. Girls are maturing faster, now between the ages of 12 to 13 years.
2. Teenage sex is very common. Before the girl reaches adulthood in the US, about 80 % of them would have had sex.
3. Teenagers are less likely to take precautions in order to prevent pregnancy.
4. Teenagers are not aware of the reproductive problems that can develop during the pregnancy period (Weiss, 2000).

Teenage pregnancy can have serious consequences and implications (Weiss, 2000). These include: –
1. Several problems such as miscarriage, neonatal death, stillborn baby, maternal sickness, etc are higher in teenage girls than in pregnant women.
2. Children born from teenage girls have several problems including developmental problems, congential defects, low birth weight, neglect, child abuse, etc.
3. Socially, teenage pregnancy is not accepted.
4. The teenage mother is more likely not to take care of the child. She is more likely to smoke, consume excessive alcohol, subject the baby to abuse, etc.
5. The government has to spend a huge amount to solve the problems related to teenage pregnancies. These include public health problems, housing, assistance, childcare, legal issues (Weiss, 2000).

Teenage pregnancy prevention programs should have a specific objectives and goals. Studies have shown that from previous teenage pregnancies that the Socio-economic life, standard of living, etc, would be very poor following teenage pregnancy. As it is one of the major public health concerns, the politicians should take up the issue on a priority basis. It is important that the teenage parents be supported rather than being ignored. The main goals of any teenage pregnancy program are to: –

1. To bring down the teenage pregnancy rates by at least 50 % by the year 2010 (this is an objective of the Healthy People 2010).
2. To include the teenagers themselves in the program so that the initiatives made come from this group of the population itself. Teenagers should be educated, trained and employed in the teenage welfare programs. Special emphasis should be made on focusing on the teenage pregnancy prevention.
3. The teenage pregnancy prevention programs should also focus on other areas including drug abuse, gynecological issues, career development, counseling, etc. This would ensure that all-round the teenager is given attention.
4. Voluntary services should be oriented towards understanding teenage behavior and changing them in order to bring about better attitudes and practices.
5. Several stakeholders including the politicians, government, judiciary, social welfare groups, public, women’s groups, etc, should be involved in these programs.
6. Efforts should be organized at the national, regional and the local levels in order to help teenagers to develop appropriate attitudes and behaviors towards teenage pregnancies.
7. Adoption of better prevention techniques such as sex education, contraception, avoiding the risk factors, etc.
8. Supporting the teenagers and their parents so as to help them develop a good future. Also, to ensure that the teenagers get appropriate help in problematic situations.
9. Ensuring that the pregnant teen mother is given special attention during the pregnancy period. This would ensure that both the mother and the developing child is healthy and is able to get appropriate medical attention. Many may think that in a teenage pregnancy prevention program, the issues relating to the pregnancy period need not be considered. However, this should be an area of focus, as it would help to prevent further problems (Blank, 2003).

The Government has begun to include teenage pregnancy prevention programs as one of the priority areas for the social cause. Initially, the government had a lot of problems associated with these programs. However, following a few initial hiccups, these programs have turned out to benefit the teenagers and their families in developing a fruitful life.

One of the programs meant for teenage pregnancy prevention program is the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006 or SHPPS 2006. It is basically performed to study the various health programs and policies conduced at the classroom level. in the year 2000, about 45 % of the states belonging to various middle schools taught about pregnancy prevention, and in the year 2006 it increased to about 59%. With relation to high schools, this figure similar. The number of hours spent teaching on pregnancy prevention also varied in high, middle and elementary schools. In high schools it was 3.5 hours, 2.7 in middle schools and 1.3 in elementary schools. In high schools, 2.0 teachers were required to teach about pregnancy prevention in the year 2000, which increased to 2.6 in the year 2006.

About 38 % of the districts and about 20 % of the states provided about pregnancy prevention services. These services were either provided on a one to one basis or on a group basis. About 28.4 % of the district authority provided for services on the local property rather than on the schools property. About 97 % of the schools provided for pregnancy prevention.

About 28.7 % of the schools provided for pregnancy prevention programs through arrangement from outside organizations. The number of staff members who received training also varied. About 30.6 % of the staff had training on pregnancy prevention, 17 % had training on prenatal care and 14 % had training in childcare, 2 years before the program started. 20 % of the psychiatric service staff had training in pregnancy prevention and 13 % had training in child care (SHPPS, 2006).

Currently, there are several issues, which could be responsible for promoting teenage pregnancy prevention. Many of the teenage prevention programs may not be successful, as they do not involve the society as a whole. The program strategy may be such that it lacks some amount of reality leading to a failure. Hence, the social blanket needed for the program to be a success should be greater. Furstenberg considers that the conflict present on sexuality needs to be resolved especially the cultural and the political tendencies. As the attitudes and behavior of the society towards teenage pregnancies has not been corrected so far, it may be difficult to control teenage pregnancy. Hence, methods adopted to prevent pregnancy can be adopted. The intervening variables include: –

1. Controlling age of entry to the sexual unions – There has been a dramatic increase in the number of teenagers who have sex before the marriage. In the 1950’s and the 1960’s, this figure was about 10 %, and in the 1970’s and the 1980’s this figure was 20 %. There could be many causes for this including peer pressures, lack of pressure from the home, trend in dating, etc. There has been also a rise in the cases of venereal diseases affecting the teenage population. Many a times, the teenage population is not exposed to family or parental discussions on sex and childbearing. This has created even greater number of problems.

Family discussions usually create healthy practices and attitudes. Studies conducted in schools on teenage boys and girls demonstrated that family teaching had a great role. When family opposition was present without any kind of support or understanding, the teenagers indulged in sexual activity. One important fact to note was that it was not always true when there was an increase in the teenage sexual activity, there would be an increase in the teenage pregnancy rates. In the year 1979, there was an increase by about 50 % in the rates of sex in teenage girls. However, there was also a rise in 50 % in the contraceptive use. Studies have shown that use of contraceptives always did not help to prevent pregnancy, and hence something more was required (Kohli, 2007).

2. Contraception use – Studies conducted in the US and the Western European region demonstrated that even though the teenage sexual activity rates were similar in both the regions, the rate of teenage pregnancy rates were higher in the US compared to the Western European region. One of the main reasons as to why teenage girls become pregnant is that they do not stress upon the need to use a contraceptive. Some teenagers feel that they are not sexually active and feel that they would not need a contraceptive. Teenagers would also not like to make long-term decisions about their life.

They may behave in an immature and irresponsible way due to their young age. Teenagers may always feel shy of purchasing a contraceptive. They may also not consider the risk of getting pregnant as real and may not use their knowledge to help prevent the pregnancy. Many girls fear that they would be losing a boy friend due to rejection if they did not have sex with him. This type of fear has lead to several problems. In true fact, it has been seen that girls usually prefer long-term relationships and boys prefer short-term relationships. Most boys would have no idea of contraception and pregnancy, and would usually leave it up to the female to prevent herself from getting pregnant (Kohli, 2007).

3. Use of abortion
4. Use of adoption

Psychological factors associated with teenage pregnancy – Most of the teenage girls do not intent to have a child during their teenage period due to a variety of factors including the need to grow and develop academically, social factors, etc. Only a small proportion of teenagers would like to have an infant and improve their mission in life. The bringing of a child would also increase the relationship and the bonding to their boyfriends. Teenage pregnancy would also improve the chances of becoming independent, stepping into their motherhood, etc. However, the psychological problems created by teenage pregnancy are more often negative.

It creates a sense of low self-esteem. Teenagers who become pregnant may not be given the same amount of respect and esteem as before. This is mainly due to the engagement in sex. These psychological pressures would invariable lead to poor academic performances. Poor performance in academics may in turn create a lot of psychological pressure for the teenager and may lead to irresponsible sexual behavior. If the sexual behavior is responsible and if the child was intelligent and understanding, it was found that the academic record was also good (Kohli, 2007).

Family Factors – Family communication holds a vital key in helping prevent teenage pregnancy. The mother and the daughter need to hold vital discussions on how should teenage pregnancy are prevented. The teenage girl would use contraception infrequently and incorrectly if not advised by the mother. In the other side, important discussions between the father and the son would hold the key to responsible sexual behavior of the male teenagers. The parents and the child needs to invariable discussion about sex-related issues. This would certainly prevent anything untoward from happening. Frequently, it was found that the sexual behavior of the parents did not have an important role to play in permitting the child to have sex.

Sons were less likely to follow the parental advice on sex than the daughters. Parents, who were friendly and attentive towards their children, resulted in the teenagers becoming less sexually active. If the parents take up the issue of contraception and sexual activity with the teenager at a young age, then the chances of the child staying close to the parents is high. Studies have shown that even if the parents approves of the child’s sexual practice through non-verbal means, the chances of developing healthy sexual behavior was high. In traditional families, the chances of having a binding daughter were higher, than the son. If the mother was a homemaker, the chances of the daughter sticking to the mother’s advice were higher.

It was found that in the males, peer involvement had an even greater role to play than family factors. This is because boys may not want to discuss any sexual issue with the parent and instead prefer to discuss it with the friends. Boys may only want to discuss sexual issues with individuals of the same age and belonging to the same sex. Any bad company would create irresponsible sexual behavior.

On the other hand, when it comes to girls, they are more often affected by the advice of the male teenager than with the advice of their female friends. When a single parent existed at home, the chances of developing irresponsible sexual behavior was higher. Sexual abuse and problems in the family, was more likely to be responsible for undesired sexual behavior in the teen. The teenager was likely not to give importance to self. Teenager who previously suffered from certain mental disorders or those who were involved in crime were at a greater chance of becoming pregnant (Kohli, 2007).

Social factors – Children belonging to certain social groups are more likely not to indulge in sexual activity or use contraception as a mean to prevent pregnancy. It is usually seen that in restrictive societies, the chances of becoming pregnant during the teenage period are lesser. This is due to the restrictions placed by the families on the child to stay away from sex. Socio-economic status also plays an important role in helping to prevent getting pregnant. Hispanics and other sexual minorities due to their lower Socio-economic backgrounds are less likely to receive sexual advice from home and from school. They may also lack medical facilities and contraception (Kohli, 2007).

A counselor conducting teenage prevention programs should use various methods to prevent the teenage girl from becoming pregnant. Some of the most frequently utilized methods of preventing teenage pregnancy include use of contraception and abstaining from sex. The counselor needs to ensure that both these methods are used either alone or in combination with one another, depending on the situation (Kohli, 2007).

Children who belong to societies, which are having strict sexual code, would like the teenagers not to indulge in sexual activity. There may pressures from the family, school and society for the teenager to abstain from sex. The teenagers may be told to delay all sexual relationships until marriage. In such a circumstance, the counsellor would have to create attitudes and behaviors in the teenager so that they would delay all sexual activity until adulthood. One of the laws developed in the year 1996 was the Welfare reform law and this gave birth to the development of the Abstinence education program.

Federal funds were being utilized in such a program to counsel and educate the teenagers of premarital sex and the need to abstain from it. Every year about 50 million dollars was spent on the program. Several activities were a part of the program. The HRSA developed a community-based abstinence program in the year 2001. Federal funds were utilized to educate the public about premarital sex. They also conducted education programs for students between the ages of 12 to 18 years. More than 20 million dollars was being spend every year on such programs (Kohli, 2007 & USHHS, 2002).

The counselor would have a role to play in addition to that of the family. He should work in close association with the family and the school-based activities. Frequently, the counselor would be advising the school of the increased need to have school-based sex education classes. Some parents may not want their children to have school-based sex education classes and instead prefer to give them advice personally. In such circumstances, it is the duty of the counselor to advise the parents of the importance of such activities. In teenagers it is found that abstinence-based program may be difficult to prevent them from indulging in sexual activity, but would definitely help to prevent them from indulging in sexual activity until the age of 18 years (Kohli, 2007 & USHHS, 2002d).

As teenage pregnancy has multiple factors responsible, the program to be successful and effective needs to adopt a holistic approach to solve the problem. One of the issues that the counselor needs to emphasis on is the need to continue education and literary to a higher level. Teenagers having higher intellectual capacity are more likely to get motivated and continue with education on a longer term.

Some teenagers may also like the issue of getting employed and standing on one’s own feet. It is found that such students are more likely to follow the advise of the counselor and respond. The counselor should continuously motivate the teenager to use contraceptive during sexual activities or if possible to abstain from sex (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006).

The counselor should also use the family as a role model to ensure that the teenager adopts healthy sexual practices. The teenager should be convinced about the strong family ties that are present. They should be told to take their mother and father as role models and lead a life that is going to be constructive in the future. Students belonging to various colleges may have a lot of creativity housed within them. They would like to use this skill to build a future. This could also be used as a point on which further motivation can be performed (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006).

The intervention performed should not be single measures as a number of factors are involved that are related to teenage pregnancy. Some counselors would utilize various psychotherapy techniques to help the teenagers to adopt healthy sexual practices. Some of the psychotherapy techniques that could be utilized included family therapy, group therapy, support groups, couple therapy, etc (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006).

All the issues that encompass sex and teenage matters need to be sorted out in a teenage pregnancy prevention program. Some of these issues include HIV/AIDS, responsible sexual behavior, use of contraceptives, drug abuse, etc. The teenagers should be motivated to lead a fruitful and a productive life. Many teenagers may feel depressed and hopeless in case they fall pregnant. However, a counselor should also be available to tackle such situations and offer the teenagers a way out. The counselor would have to adopt a stand that would encourage the teenager. Some of the points over which the teenager could be encouraged include: –

1. Make the teenager understand that young blood could be utilized for constructive purposes.
2. Helps the teen to build a life filled with purpose and responsibility.
3. Building a very promising future.
4. Helping teenagers who have had previous pregnancies and abortions to lead a life filled with hope and quality (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006).

However, this is not always the case with teenagers who have had previous pregnancies. Teenagers who have had previous pregnancies may be pressurized from various quarters. They may be forced to lead a life filled with poverty, misery, hopelessness and depression. The counselor should in such situations be available to uplift such teenagers to lead a quality life. The counselor should consider such teenagers to be at a high risk for depression and suicidal tendencies.

He should be able to assess the presence of such risk and accordingly take measures to protect the teenager. Teenagers under the difficulties of life, require love and care. For this reason, they may indulge in sexual activities. However, the performance of such activities may result in a critical error leading to the female girl becoming pregnant. The counselor should provide hope and motivation for the teenager to lead a fruitful life (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006).

One of the most effective programs when it comes to social issues such as teenage pregnancy, community-based approaches seems to be very superior. The US Health and Human Services is one organization that is supporting the use of community-based programs for the prevention of pregnancy amongst teenagers. They would be using various resources such as financial, human, supportive, infrastructure, material, etc, to perform various activities such as building partnerships, researching, monitoring, evaluating, planning, disseminating knowledge, etc (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006 & US HHS, 2002).

The CDC has taken the issue of teenage pregnancy prevention on a priority basis since the year 1995. The programs support various activities in order to help prevent teenage pregnancies. These include community actions, coordinated efforts, identify shortcomings, identifying and allocating resources, evaluating the project, etc. Several governmental and non-governmental would be taking part in such activities, including local, regional and federal (US HHS, 2002).

Several other issues need to be considered in the teenage pregnancy prevention program. For the provision of reproductive health services, several health insurance options should be available to the teenagers (such as Medicaid and Medicare Services). Several of the State, Regional and Federal Public Health programs such as the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant, etc are meant for adolescent health and to prevent pregnancy in young teenage girls. Teenagers should also have facilities to help them with several other issues such as drug abuse, alcohol abuse, legal issues, etc (US HHS, 2002).

In a teenage pregnancy prevention program, during the implementation certain principles need to be adhered to: –
· The objectives, goals and the expected outcome of the program should be clearly defined.
· The mode by which these objectives are to be achieved need to be determined.
· Collaboration should exist between the governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and private organizations.
· The involvement of teens in the program.
· The activities and the content of the program performed should be attractive to the teens.
· All activities should be constructive in nature.
· Cultural activities and local resources would provide huge amount of benefits.
· Use of local volunteers and counselors would also help in the program.
· Long-term support should be provided to the teens in helping to carve out something constructive for the future.
· The two measures by which the program would be acting include abstinence and contraception. Abstinence can delay the interest in indulging in sexual activity by the teen. Contraception methods and techniques should be taught. Males should be encouraged to take up contraception use, as it is more convenient and reduces the load on the females.
· The programs should be developmentally appropriate.
· Decision-making skills and problem-solving methods should be taught to the teenagers.
· Several health services such as gynecological services, obstetrics services, adolescent health, pregnancy testing, prevention and treatment for STD’s, contraceptive counseling, etc. The health services should incorporated certain features including confidentiality, informed consent, flexibility in appointments, free services, etc. (Davies, 2007).

References:
ASPE-HHS (2007). “Involving Health Care Professionals in Teen Pregnancy Prevention.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from ASPE-HHS Web site: http://aspe.hhs.gov/HSP/get-organized99/ch10.pdf

Blank, L., Goyder, E. & Peters, J. (2003). “Teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives in New Deal Communities.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from The University of Sheffield Web site.

Center For Maternal And Child Health (2007). “Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Advocates for Youth Web site: http://www.fha.state.md.us/mch/html/teenpreg.cfm

Children’s Aid Society Carrera (2006). “Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Children’s Aid Society Carrera Web site: http://www.stopteenpregnancy.com/ourprogram

Connelly, M. T. & Inui, T. S. (2004). “Principles of Disease Prevention.” In: Braunwald, E., Fauci, A. S., Kasper, D. L., Hauser, S. L., Longo, D. L. and Jameson, J.L. (Eds) Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Davis, L. (2007). “Components of Promising Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Advocates for Youth Web site: http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/iag/compnent.htm

Huberman, B. (2005). “National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Month (NTPPM) Planning Guidebook.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Advocates of Youth Web site.

Kohli, V. & Nyberg, K. L. (2007). “Teen Pregnancy Prevention through Education.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from California State University Web site.

Ontario’s Maternal, Newborn and Early Child Development Resource Centre and the Sex Information and Education Council of Canada (2007). “Update report on
Teen pregnancy prevention
.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from OMNECD Web site:

PCL (2007). “Unplanned Pregnancy Counselling.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from PCL Web site: http://www.pcl.org.au

SHPPS (2006). “Pregnancy Prevention.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from SHPPS Web site.

The National Campaign To Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy (2006). “Teen Pregnancy – So What?” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Teenage Pregnancy.org Web site: http://www.teenpregnancy.org/whycare/sowhat.asp

US HHS (2002). “Preventing Teenage Pregnancy.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from US HHS Web site: http://www.policyalmanac.org/health/archive/hhs_teenage_pregnancy.shtml

Weiss, D. (2007). “Reducing Teenage Pregnancy.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Planned Parenthood Web site:
http://www.plannedparenthood.org/news-articles-press/politics-policyissues/teen-pregnancy-sex-education/teenage-pregnancy-6240.htm

University of Richmond (2003). “Teenage Pregnancy Prevention.” Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from University of Richmond Web site: http://www.solutionsforamerica.org/healthyfam/teenage-pregnancy.htm

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Abortion Should Be Illegal Essay Plan Essay

Abortion Should Be Illegal Essay Plan Essay.

How would you feel if someone took away your ability to live? Imagine not having any say in whether or not you want to have a life. That is how aborted babies are treated, which is why abortion should be illegal. Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by the removal or forcing out from the womb of a fetus before it is able to survive on its own. If a woman decides to abort her baby, the baby cannot do anything about their life being taken away from them, and their entire future is demolished.

Abortion is murder. The embryo is a person from the moment of conception. According to Shettles, “Scientists identify the first moment of human life as that instant when a sperm cell unites with an ovum or egg cell” (18). Most pro-choice supporters do not believe the fetus is a person until the first or second trimester. Pro-choice people do not think abortion is murder because they consider the aborted fetus a mass or cells or tissue (Shettles 20).

Abortion is the taking of innocent human life, which is wrong under virtually any circumstances.

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An unborn baby is more than potential life. An unborn baby is meaningful human life that should not be considered expendable. After conception, no event occurs in the development of the fetus that indicates a change in the fetus from not being human to becoming one (Foster 33). Human life begins with conception. A middle-aged person, a teenager, and an unborn baby are all in stages of human life. Killing the unborn baby is no more justifiable than killing the two other people. Abortion is a practice that should be prohibited by law because it basically amounts to murder.

Another reason why I don’t support abortion is because it can harm the mother as well. You are highly risking the mother’s life and affecting her. Not only does it have an effect on the USA but, it affects other countries as well like Spain. According to psychiatrist and member of the Right to Life Committee, Carmen Gómez-Lavín states that: “Sixty five percent of women who abort suffer symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome after undergoing the procedure.” Many women are regretting that choice around the world making it a controversial issue.

Abortion Should Be Illegal Essay Plan Essay