HR Important Questions MBA Essay

HR Important Questions MBA Essay.

Question- Briefly discuss the implications of change in the profile of people, technology & environment on managing people in organization. Suggest measures to make HR management in India more effective. Answer- As Human resources means the collection of people and their characteristics at work and these are distinct and unique to an organization in several ways. So any change in the profile of people, technology & environment causes a change in working and managing people in any organization. To make HR management in India more effective, the changing needs and expectations of the customers should be met effectively.

There should be clear cut goals, direction and future focus of the entire organization. Proper planning and execution of every program in the organization should be done. Optimum utilization of resources and cost effective engagement of labor should be there. Help in developing, managing and sustaining the skills and knowledge of the human resources. Coordination among various departments and continuous scanning of external environment is required to make HR management more effective.

There should not be lack of support from the top management and rigid HR practices in the organization.

Question- Why & how HR is superior to physical resource. Elaborate the function of HRM. Answer- Human resource management is concerned with policies and practices that ensure the best use of the human resources for fulfilling the organizational and individual goals. HR is superior to physical resource as- * HR alone appreciates over a period.

* HR achieves in higher performance output than its actual input.
* HR brings value to all other assets.
* Operational flexibility is possible with HR.
Functions of HRM can be categorized into 2 i.e. managerial functions and operative functions. Managerial functions include planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. On the other hand operative functions include procurement, development, compensation, maintenance and motivation, integration and industrial relations.

Procurement includes job analysis and design, HR planning, recruitment, selection, placement, orientation and socialization. Development includes career planning and development, workers training, executive development and organizational development. Compensation includes job evaluation, performance evaluation, wages administration, incentives and benefits. Integration includes industrial relations, discipline, grievance redressal, dispute settlement, collective bargaining.

Question- Describe vividly the various models used to discuss the application of strategic management in HRM. Answer- The various models used to discuss the application of strategic management in HRM are as follows-

* Business-oriented model
* Strategic fit model
* Strategic Labor Allocation Model (SLAP) model

Business-oriented model aims at value creation by developing a HR system that creates and sustains the competitive advantage through human resources. Strategic fit model focuses on matching the HR capabilities and resources with the external opportunities. It also focuses on developing HR practices in such a way that they complement one another. Vertical fit and horizontal fit are the two types of strategic fit model. Strategic Labor Allocation Model (SLAP) model focuses on the interdependences among HR strategies, business strategies and organizational changes. It also acknowledges HRM as a continuous process of balancing the demand for and the supply of labor.

Question- Discuss the step involved in the strategic management process in detail Answer- Strategic human resource management is a process of aligning HR strategies with the business strategy to accomplish the performance goals through the employees’ competency and commitment. The various steps involved in the strategic management process are as follows-

* Determination of vision and mission.
* Analyzing the environment.
* Strategy formulation.
* Strategy implementation.
* Performance evaluation.

The purpose of determination of vision & mission is to clarify the vision for the business. This stage consists of identifying three key facets:

First, define both short- and long-term objectives. Second, identify the process of how to accomplish your objective. Finally, customize the process for staff gives each person a task with which he can succeed. Analysis is a key stage because the information gained in this stage will shape the next two stages. In this stage, gather as much information and data relevant to accomplishing the vision. Forming a strategy is to review the information gleaned from completing the analysis. Determine what resources the business currently has that can help reach the defined goals and objectives. Successful strategy implementation is critical to the success of the business venture. This is the action stage of the strategic management process. Strategy evaluation and control actions include performance measurements, consistent review of internal and external issues and making corrective actions when necessary. Any successful evaluation of the strategy begins with defining the parameters to be measured.

Question- “Growth of strategic HRM in organization is primarily due to economic liberalization & globalization”. Comment Answer- Each era in the history of HRM demonstrates the thinking and attitude of the employers and their workforce at that point of time. There are various factors that affect the human resource management of an organization. With the change in time that is with the economic liberalization and globalization strategic human resource management has gained a lot of importance. As the focus is on all the aspects of managing and keeping the working and management of the organization on a global scale

Question- Examine critically the steps in the job analysis process with relevant examples Answer- Job analysis is a process of gathering relevant information about various aspects of a job, including its content, context and the job performer’s skill requirements. The steps involved in the job analysis process are as follows-

* Determining the purpose of job analysis- should identify purpose of job analysis because that will determine what job analysis method, what data will be collected * Gathering background information about the job.
* Choosing representative jobs for analysis.
* Collecting relevant job information- Collecting data on job activities, employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job and using one or more of the job analysis methods to collect data.
* Reviewing the information gathered- must review all data collected. This will help you to confirm that the information is factually correct and complete.
* Developing of job description and job specification- Develop a job description and job specification from the job analysis information. A job description is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, working conditions and safety and hazards…A job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required for getting the job done.

Question- List out the strategies available to HR managers for enriching jobs in an organization Answer- Job enrichment refers to the development of work practices which challenge and motivate the employees to perform better. The various strategies available are as follows- * Self managing teams- They have the overall responsibility for the accomplishment of work or goal preparatory requirements for self-managing teams * Job rotation- refers to moving employees from one job to another in a predetermined way and enables an employee to perform diverse roles and gain exposure to the techniques and challenges of doing several jobs.

* Job reengineering- the process of streamlining jobs in the form of combining a few jobs into one, redistributing the tasks among various jobs and reallocation of resources. * Job enlargement- aims at making the job more attractive by increasing the operations performed by a person in the job. It transforms the jobs to include more and/or different tasks. * Participative management- means allowing employees to play a greater part in the decision-making process. * Peer performance review- team members evaluate one another’s performance. Thus, performance appraisal for employees becomes more personalized and is conducted on a regular basis. * High performance work design- Presence of highly skilled, dynamic and loyal employees and existence of flat, flexible and modern management etc.

Question- Enumerate the various techniques & its relevance to forecast the HR needs of an organization. Answer- Forecasts involve estimating the future requirements of the organization in terms of the nature and the number of people. Forecasting techniques commonly used for human resource forecasting are as follows- * Trend analysis—analysis is done based on the trends.

* Ratio Analysis- analysis is the analysis of the relationship between any two numerical variables. * Delphi technique- is basically a group-based systematic forecasting method. This technique does not require any face-to-face participation by the experts. * Normal group technique- It is an interactive mode of decision-making. Each expert in a group independently develops HR requirements and presents it before other experts in the group. * Managerial judgment- The forecasting in managerial judgment is based on the managers’ subjective views on the possible human resource requirements in the future. Forecasts are made about the HR requirements, usually by the senior managers of the organization based on their experience.

* Work study- It aims at examining the business operations to achieve the optimum utilization of the human and physical resources available. The major purpose of this technique is to improve the employees’ productivity and organizational efficiency. * Zero-based forecasting- Zero-base forecasting requires lines managers to justify the need to continue with the positions or jobs that fall vacant in their department. It does not consider any position as eligible for routine continuance.

* Simulation model- Simulation model is a mathematics-oriented, software-enabled technique. This model simulates the HR requirements and availability to determine the likely gap between the demand for and the supply of human resources. * HR allocation model- This method allows comprehensive modelling of the interaction among the components. The matching model deals with the allocation of different jobs to employees. An organization would make HR forecasting based on the specific outcome of the matching model.

Question- What are the key recruitment practices followed in Indian organization. Answer- Recruitment is a search for promising job applicants to fill the vacancies that may arise in the organization. Recruitment is a positive act and involves a series of planned activities. It helps in developing applicant pool and represents the first contact between the organization and the potential employees. It intends to locate and reach out to potential applicants. The various key recruitment practices are as follows-

* Existing employees
* Employee referrals
* Advertising
* Private employment agencies
* Internet recruiting

Question- Analyze the merits & limitations of psychological test as a tool of measurement Answer- Selection is a systematic process of identifying suitable candidates for the available jobs from the available applicant pool. The objectivity of the psychological test is the validity and reliability of the measuring tools. There are various types of psychological tests- ability test (intelligence test, aptitude test, and achievement test), personality test, interest test, integrity test. The merits of the psychological tests are as follows-

* Objective in evaluation.
* Ideal for large groups.
* Predictor of intangible talents.
* Goal-specific and target-oriented.
* Record for future.

The limitations of the psychological tests are as follows-
* Lack of flexibility.
* Unsuitable for smaller groups.

Question – What do you mean by job placement? What are the challenges faced by organization while placing employees in the organization. Answer- Job placement is the placement of individuals in jobs matching their abilities. Personnel offices interview and test applicants for the purpose of achieving suitable job placements where there is a good match between management needs and employee qualifications.

Question – “Training is not an expense but a long term investment on people” Discuss. Answer- Organizations spend a huge portion of their operating budgets compensating employees. In return, they expect them to provide excellent products and services to their customers. Yet half of all employees say that they don’t receive the training they need to do their job well. Cost reduction is the order of the day for most industries. What is often forgotten, is the fact that there is a big difference between an expense and an investment. In public education for example, clearly a long-term investment, more often than not cost reduction is the leading motive. And now the training industry risks falling in the same trap, this is understandable, as appearances are against the skill training industry when it comes to return on investment (ROI).

Costs are made for a nice location, the pricing model is unclear (in company prices suddenly drop by 40%) and the raving evaluations at the end of the training hardly match the tangible results at the office. It seems to make sense therefore, that many training providers lower their prices and shorten the training’s duration. Or: they lower the costs. But a training should be an investment and an investment has a return. The task is now up to training companies to undisputedly prove this return.

* Business owners should track and measure their training efforts. If you want to know whether a particular training has worked for your employees, ask them. If employees have benefited, you should see some evidence of improved skills, increased productivity and enhanced job satisfaction. * Use training as a source of competitive advantage. Numerous studies have highlighted the positive impact that employee development can have on a business’ productivity and profitability. Training is one important way to bring less-qualified employees up to acceptable standards of performance and to increase productivity.

HR Important Questions MBA Essay

About Damro Essay

About Damro Essay.

1.1 Which contains the recruitment and selection criteria you are going to use to attract a new member of staff.

About Damro

DAMRO is the world’s largest furniture manufacturers company in Srilanka. It is offering a diverse range of modern and traditional furniture. Since Damro was established in 1986 it has achieved a rapid success and has expanded to over 150 showrooms globally, which now having 106 showrooms island wide. Damro’s success has grown from it’s ability to produce high quality furniture at affordable prices with outstanding customer service.

What is Recruitment?

Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs.

Methods of recruitment/sources
Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs We can use internal sources and External sources for damro
Those are
1. Internal sources
2. External sources

Internal sources of recruitment :-
Internal sources of recruitment refer to obtaining people for job from inside the company.

There are different methods of internal recruitment Internal recruitment methods are

Promotion :-

We can give promotion to existing our employees. This method can be saves a lot of time, money and efforts because the company does not have to train the existing employee. Since the employee has already worked with damro company. He is familiar with the working culture and working style. It is a method of encouraging efficient workers.

Departmental examination:-

This method is used by departments to select employees for higher level posts. The advertisement is put up on their notice board of the department. People who are interested must send their application to the HR department and appear for the exam. Successful candidates are given the higher level job.

Transfer :-

We can adopt transfer as a method of recruitment. The idea is to select talented personnel from other branches of damro and transfer them to branches where there is shortage of people.

Internal advertisement :-

In this method vacancies in a particular branch are advertised in the notice board. People who are interested are asked to apply for the job. The method helps in obtaining people who are ready to shift to another branch of the same company and it is also beneficial to people who want to shift to another branch.

Employee recommendation :-

In this method employees are asked to recommend people for jobs. Since the employee is aware of the working conditions inside the damro he will suggest people who can adjust to the situation. The damro is benefited because it will obtain.

External methods of recruitment are

External sources of recruitment refer to methods of recruitment to obtain people from outside the company.
These methods are
Management consultant :-
Management consultant helps the company by providing them with managerial personnel, when the company is on the lookout for entry level management trainees and middle level managers. They generally approach management consultants.

Employment agencies :-

Companies may give a contract to employment agencies that search, interview and obtain the required number of people. The method can be used to obtain lower level and middle level staff.

Campus recruitment :-

We can do companies for fresh graduates or new talent they opt for campus recruitment. Companies approach colleges, management, technical institutes, make a presentation about the company and the job and invite applications. Interested candidates who have applied are made to go through a series of selection test and interview before final selection.

Newspaper advertisement

Advertisements for the job are given in leading newspapers; the details of the job and salary are also mentioned. Candidates are given a contact address where their applications must be sent and are asked to send their applications within a specified time limit. The method has maximum reach and most preferred among all other methods of recruitment.

Internet advertisement :-

Companies and candidates have started using the internet as medium of advertisement and search for jobs(eg:- There are various job sites like and etc. candidates can also post their cv on these sites.

This method is growing in popularity.

What is selection?

Selection can be defined as process of choosing the right person for the right job.

Process of selection :-

A general procedure of selection can be framed. This process of selection can be explained with the help of following diagram These process can be used for Damro

Job analysis :-

The very first step in the selection procedure is the job analysis. The HR department prepares the job description and specification for the jobs which are vacant. This gives details for the jobs which are vacant. This gives details about the name of the job, qualification, qualities required and work conditions etc. Advertisement :-

HR department prepares an advertisement and publishes it in a leading newspapers. The advertisement conveys details about the last date for application, the address to which the application must be sent etc. Interview :-

Candidates who have successfully cleared the test are called for an interview. The entire responsibility for conducting the interview lies with the HR department i.e. they look after the panel of interviewers, refreshments, informing candidates etc. Medical examination :-

The candidates who have successfully cleared the interview are asked to take a medical exam. This medical exam may be conducted by the Damro itself.

1.2 Give careful consideration to all the factors or events that apply and identify which are the most important and relevant of legal, regulatory and ethical considerations to the recruitment and selection process

About Damro Essay

Blinds to Go: Staffing a Retail Expansion Essay

Blinds to Go: Staffing a Retail Expansion Essay.

Executive summary:

The main objective of this report is to evaluate the problem faced by Blinds To Go in recruiting the right set of people and developing them in order to achieve the company’s growth objectives. The report starts with a brief summary of BTG wherein there is a discussion about the company’s hiring objectives and the changes made to the compensation structure along with reasons for the same. In order to find more suitable employees, BTG is using several channels of hiring like employee referrals, internet sourcing, newspaper advertising etc.


There were few problems which have been observed in the case that made them make certain changes to the recruitment strategy, such as the quality of workforce and unprecedented growth due to which they want to open 50 stores per year and cultural differences wherein some people agreed to the commission structure while some were satisfied with the salary based structure. `The solution objectives are about analysing the two huge periods of unrest faced by the company and also help look into why people were not interested to work with BTG once the commission structure was changed to salary based.

We have recommended a few solutions through which they can implement the job requirements in a phased manner that consist of a comprehensive understanding of the job, problem definition phase, understanding the behavioural terms of the executive and then finally a list of competencies that are required in the new employees. The company can hire people in the short time they have, by giving rewards to employees who make use of their employee referral program and customer referral programs etc. Apart from this the company must use certain schemes and development programs for its employees in order to retain the right talent. These include skills development programs, giving surprise gifts to its employees and an employee reward program.


Blinds To Go (BTG) is a retail fabricator cum retailer of window dressings and has been very successful in its field due to a unique business model and a dedicated workforce. The company has always placed tremendous importance on having knowledgeable and dedicated sales staff who are able to answer any query of a customer. In such a business, where the sales staff guides and informs the customer regarding the product, having an excellent service level is key to improving customer satisfaction. The stores usually had four positions for employees and promotions were based on performance. The four positions were – sales associate, selling supervisor, assistant store manager and store manager, with new joiners usually joining as a sales associate. The hiring process focused on ensuring that the quality of employees was good and in-line with certain criteria that BTG wanted in their sales force.

This stringent hiring process involved a store visit for the interested candidates, a telephonic interview and two personal interviews. BTG also ensured that their staffs were very diverse with an equal mix of both genders and a diverse spread age-wise from 18 to 50 years. Initially BTG implemented a total commission based structure for its sales force that not only promoted healthy competition, but kept the employees motivated as they knew their earnings would have no limit as long as they could close many sales. Subsequently this structure was changed to incorporate a salary section as well, but this was soon revoked as this structure was not motivating the employees sufficiently. Currently, BTG has in place a commission based structure that also guarantees a minimum amount even if the employee can’t make sales.

Both times that BTG changes its commission structure there was a certain amount of attrition within its sales force. Currently, BTG has several channels through which it conducts hiring – Employee referrals, Internet sourcing, professional recruiters, newspaper advertising and store generated leads. Those who join BTG through referrals are most likely to stay with the company as they are already aware of the culture and job expectations. The turnovers usually came from the first 4 months of an employee’s stay at BTG. Turnovers also occurred later if employees felt like they could not keep up with the better performers in their group. The professional recruiters hired by BTH were able to recruit only four people in a month whereas BTG needed to hire that many people in a year.

Problem Statement:

The company has been steadily expanding the number of stores across North America. In the year 2000, the company is experiencing tremendous growth, with plans of adding 50 stores per year in Canada and the United States. The vice chairman is concerned with the lack of staff in some of these newly expanded stores. Along with plans of an initial public offering within the next 2 years, senior management at BTG is concerned over recruiting the right people for its stores and determining changes necessary in the recruitment strategy and how to develop staff that will help them achieve the company’s growth objectives.

Underlying reasons due to which BTG faced difficulty attracting and retaining retail staff: •Unprecedented growth rate; planned to add on an average 50 new stores per year for the coming 5 years •Quality of staff much more important than bulk staffing when in emergency •All the 6 qualities difficult to be found in a single individual •Different culture across US and Canada especially with regards to pay •Paradoxical paying problem. If pay was salary based hiring in bulk became easier but the quality was not great •If commission based pay system was used the quality of the sales personnel were excellent but turnover was higher as people left when they though they weren’t doing as well as their peers •The hierarchical system of promoting the sales associates to supervisors and who in their turn became the assistant store manager and then the store manager was too strict and did not keep room for outside talent acquisition

Solution Objectives:

•Analysing the cause of two huge periods of unrest. Once the sales dropped 10 to 30% across stores when the compensation based system was changed to salary based system. Again there was huge employee turnover when the salary based system was changed to the semi-flexible compensation based system and providing solution to prevent such abrupt employees’ turnover. •There were two major turnover points per year which have to be targeted 1.After 4 months the initial turnover

2.The larger turnover of people who were terminated due to under-performance 3.Also during the same time employees who could not perform as well as their peers left.


•Attrition rate at starting few months are very high which need to be handled properly. At the 4 month period the employees leave because they are disillusioned about their jobs. Thus before looking for candidates, the company should understand what the job opening demands for and then they can focus in finding a suitable fit for the post offered. But the following should be kept in mind before-hand: oA team should be formed who will command the job requirements in coherence with the company’s strategy oThus a general overview of the company’s situation is also required. For example, a company going for a joint venture needs different skills than a company looking to diversify into new markets. Implementation of the job requirements can be done in a planed and phased manner as described below: oFirstly, gain a comprehensive understanding of requirements of the job opening by using certain questions.

Then prioritized them, the search team needs to identify the ‘critical incidents’ or situations that the incoming executive needs to face in the future. By polling similar managers within the company, the critical incidents can be understood. Previous jobholders can also help in this regard. Listing critical incidents is however time consuming, thus, this is normally left out of the hiring procedure. oSecondly, comes the problem-definition phase. A list of competencies starts emerging however to create a final list of key competencies, a search team should start with the minimum level of educational qualification and experience required for the job. For long-term success, the search team should focus on the key competencies.

Thirdly, Care should be taken to describe them in behavioural terms in order to impose clarity. Only mentioning the adjective as a key competency tends to create an ambiguous picture. For example, the word ‘marketer’ may be construed by different people in different forms. Giving a proper definition of the word helps impose clarity to the job definition. Every job description should have the emotional intelligence competencies critical to getting the work done. oFinally, a consensus has to be reached that the list of competencies prepared ably defines the job of the new executive. Thus BTG could ask what their aspirations were and try to fulfil them accordingly.

•The employee referral program was the best source of hiring for BTG. Thus there should be better incentives for the employees. They had already set targets for the DSMs to achieve in a particular month; they could do the same with the employees. •They were ignoring a big hiring pool and not giving it enough attention. That was the walk-ins. It is said it was only successful in densely populated areas, which could be improved by making the sales job an inspirational job in the small towns and sub-urban areas. Or it can organise Walk-ins in big cities/towns and then can offer candidates with the option of joining remote location along with high reallocation amount and other fringe benefits

•Further customers referral programme can also be focused on by giving customers good incentives like discounts and other lucrative offers if they could refer to some employees. •The hiring quota for the coming year is given below. The normal course of action would be to promote 50 assistant stores manager to store manager, and then 50 supervisors to assistant store managers and then 50 sales associates to supervisors and finally hire 550 sales associates from external sources. There could be a change brought in this, that if at any level the employees are found lacking, at that particular level of job hiring would be done from external sources and not only of sales associates. PositionCurrent complementExtra personnel needed for expansion Sales Associate1000500

Selling Supervisor15050
Asst. Store mangers15050
Store Manager15050

•As evident from Exhibit 1, that in current situation the top performing managers (Top 20%) are given $67500/yr. This remuneration is $7500 less with respect to original situation. So BTG can increase the variable component of salary from 1.5%-2.5% to initial level of 1.5%-3%. This will help the company retain top performing managers with little extra cost involved. •At the 8 month end employees are either terminated for underperformance or they leave because they are not doing as well as their peers. If BTG sees an employee with potential they could retain them by putting them through special training programs under successful sales associates.

•Internet as a source is not being much used. They could use banner ads in popular websites. •Launching Skills Development Program: Everyone is always eager to learn new things and move ahead in their career path. Thus if BTG can offer certain technical certification courses then this can act meet the soft requirements of employees in-terms of enhancing knowledge.

•Surprise benefits and Gifts: Giving some gifts at the time of one or two festivals to the employees can really make them feel good and similar activities like taking employees to free trips with families, celebrating anniversaries, sports activities, etc will help in improving the relationship between employee and the organisation. So they would be more emotionally liked with the organisation. Thus can help increase productivity and reduced turnover •Employee Reward Program: A positive recognition inspires the motivational levels of employees. Recognition can be made explicit by providing awards like star performer award or punctuality award. These employees can be award in terms of gifts or token money.

Blinds to Go: Staffing a Retail Expansion Essay

Gmr Case Study: Managing Hr in a Global Environment Essay

Gmr Case Study: Managing Hr in a Global Environment Essay.


This report is a case study of GMR International Company, which analyzes the different components and challenges of Human Resources Management faced by GMR in a global environment and through a theoretical review, establishes possible improvement strategies towards the creation of best practices.


This report is part based on the interview held with the HR manager of the company complemented with primary research from books and electronic sources listed at the references and lecture and seminar’s contents.


In a global market, how companies manage and handle their employees determines a key strategic role that ultimately creates a competitive advantage.

Companies operate on an international operational level locating outbreaks in different countries and facing different cultural challenges.

“Managing resourceful humans requires a constant balancing between meeting the human aspirations of the people and meeting the strategic and financial needs of the business.” (Torrington, Hall and Taylor, 2008, p.3)

A company through any domestic and internationalization process must identify the basic needs of its employees in relation to their business guidelines, creating a balance between strategic and operational resource management.

Businesses are valued for their intellectual capital and are projected by the management of intangible assets

The purpose of this report lies in the evaluation of the different variables that a global company such as GMR must study, understand and reflect on its corporate strategy for the optimal development of their global operations, based on a adequate personnel management and the creation of sustainable policies for the management and development of intangible capital.


GMR Group is a Bangalore headquartered global infrastructure major with interests in the Airports, Energy, Highways and Urban infrastructure, with its International Headquarters based in London. GMR holds interests, directly and through its part ownership of InterGen, in 15 operating power plants with over 8,800MW of generating capacity. In addition an impressive portfolio of approximately 12,000MW of gas, coal and hydro plants are in various stages of construction and development both in India and internationally.

GMR has shareholding interests in 4 international airports (New Delhi International (P) Limited; GMR Hyderabad International Airport; Sabiha Gokcen Airport LTD; GMR Male International Airport Ltd)) handling 40 million passengers p.a and 9 road projects exceeding 700 kms of paved roads. GMR is fully committed to the development of infrastructure assets, and in the past two years has raised over US$ 3 billion for the development of airports and another US$ 2.2 billion for the development of power and infrastructure assets including US$1.1 billion for the acquisition of 50% of InterGen N.V, a global power generator.

The Group through the dedicated GMR Varalakshmi Foundation, manned by committed professionals is actively engaged in Education, Health, Hygiene and Sanitation, Empowerment & Livelihoods and Community-Based Programs, reaffirming its grass root presence as change agents of society in the field of Corporate Social Responsibility.

“Recruitment is defined as searching for and obtaining potential job candidates in sufficient numbers and quality so that organization can select the most appropriate people to fill its job needs.” (Dowling, Engle and Festing, 2008)

“Recruitment is the discovery of potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational activities. Two conditions must exist for selection to occur, (1) the organization must have a candidate whom it is willing to employ; (2) the candidate must be willing to accept an employment offer. Recruitment is the process of finding applicants who meet both of these conditions.” (Andrews 1993)

“Organizations do not operate in a vacuum, and recruitment drives are one of the times an organization has direct contact with the outside world. Amongst other factors affecting recruitment, are the framework imposed on legislation and that no organization will want to spend money on unnecessary activities.” (Foot and Hook, 2005)

3.1 Recruitment Strategies
There are 4 recruitment strategies, which are defined as such. These are
1. Ethnocentric
2. Polycentric
3. Geocentric]
4. Regiocentric
Ethnocentric| Polycentric| Geocentric| Regiocentric|

Ethnocentric is a belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group. The firm basically believes that parent-country nationals are better qualified and trustworthy than host country nationals.| Polycentric is a belief that local people know the local environment better than outsiders.| Geocentric is the notion that the best people should be employed, regardless of their nationality.| Regiocentric is the variation of staffing policy to suit particular geographic areas.| 1.Based on Paul Coldwell’s seminar slides, 2011.

GMR International uses all four of the above-mentioned strategies, depending upon factors mentioned below, * The requirements of the job position to be filled in. * The position of the job in the hierarchy of the firm. If the job were a high position one, they would use the geocentric approach; and if it were for a more junior position, they would probably use a polycentric approach. * They would not like to waste too much time or money on the hunt for the right candidate. * Even when they are looking for a candidate for a high position job, they have certain restrictions to be cautious about from the UK Border Authority and the Government. When using the geocentric approach.

E.g. The Head of Airport is an Italian working in South Africa and would report to the UK. Because he was an expert on airports, he was hired for the job. E.g. recently, when trying to bring in a Malaysian to UK, the UK Border Authority refused his sponsorship, so it did not work out. When using the polycentric approach.

E.g. When looking for administrative support, GMR looks for local people to do the local jobs, as they would not like to waste the time and money to do a whole UK or EU based search for something small such as skills.

3.2 Challenges for hiring people at GMR International
* GMR, as a brand, is not that well known in the UK and tit is also not as strong as some of their competitors, therefore, there is a hurdle of recognition. * GMR International is a non EU and non US organization

* People are varying of working for a company, which is Indian by origin, yet headquartered in London. * People are not prepared to leave their jobs to work for a company with less work experience; limited recognition as a brand; and with limited track record.

3.3 Outlining the Recruitment Process

“In the process of recruitment, in the first instance, sources of prospective employees are located. In other words, from where the employees would be available. Thereafter, these sources are approached and efforts are made to attract the interested people to the organization.” (Foot and Hook, 2005)

The recruitment process at GMR International is not too different from those of other companies in UK. They look at the activities set out for the year ahead and map it out according to the capacity that they have in their organization. When they do this, there are obviously, some gaps that need to be filled in, in order for them to work on some projects.

In order to fill in these gaps, the organization makes certain decisions as to how to do this. This can be done by 4 methods,
1. They could recruit temporary people
2. They could get people on contract
3. They could get that particular piece of work done somewhere else (outsource)
4. They could hire someone to do that job

When they go ahead and choose the fourth option, they look at as to how to approach the market, in the following ways, * E- enabled vehicles – for the more junior staff as a lot of such recruitment takes place on web based applications. * They do not give much importance to the employees referral program * They tend to use agencies; search firms for the bigger, more senior positions * For the more junior staff, they recruit within UK.

* As the position increases with seniority, they tend to engage colleagues from other offices to help them out, in case it can be managed within the GMR family.

3.4 Post Recruitment & Selection

At GMR, they are not very firm in their services to keep an employee with them. They do not have a support system or an evaluation program. “Normally, at a firm, there is an evaluation program and a support system for the first 6 months. In this program, they make a check on the new employee on day 1; week 1; month 1; month 6. While, they have tried to be stricter in this aspect and tried different techniques for keeping an employee happy and with them, it has not always worked well with them.


With globalization shaping our world, organisations are trying to expand their marketplace in order to increase their competitiveness. In the industrialized countries, international working has become a common feature and the contact between different cultures becomes a regular thing in people’s social and professional lives.

“International HRM involves striking an appropriate balance between global integration and local adaptation in terms of resourcing, training and developing personnel, reward and performance management, employment relations including communications, and health and welfare” (Porter, Bingham and Simmonds, 2008, p.400).

So in this process of internationalisation, companies need to move people around and they have to make sure that they do it in an effective way because of the high costs involved. Expatriates have to deal with the changing they are going to occur, in culture, workplace, country and many more, the company must be sure to prepare them appropriately in order to get the best from their experience both in the new location and back home when they finish their period.

According to Tayeb (1996), some companies such as Natwest in the UK, Philips in the Netherlands and Groupe Total in France conduct extensive international in-house seminars. In these courses they cover national culture differences, family adaptation, local politics and laws and international finance, more over some firms send their future expatriates, together with their family, to special language courses.

Paul Colwell, former lecturer and HRM manager at Regents College states that an expatriate cost on average $250.000, or even more, which shows the importance of a good HRM strategy. An expatriate should receive the right support before, in the mean while and after his experience abroad. Before he leaves, the company should prepare him to live in another country, through teaching the culture aspects (food, climate, politics and laws, standard behaviour etc.), suggesting him not to sell his house in his home town, because if something goes wrong with his experience it would be way better to have some place in which he can to return.

The language is an important factor in order to make him effective in his new workplace and the company should provide him the possibility of language classes to attend. All of these pre-departure trainings should be joined by the whole family, in fact while for the local employees the company don’t care about their family affairs, when you take in examination an expatriate the whole family becomes the company’s business. Experience shows that the majority failures in expatriate’s program come from family problem and complaints.

After the departure, a good way of managing expatriate, according to the theory, is to take care about their house in the origin country (rent it or doing the maintenance needed) and to find a house where they are going to live in the new country, taking in consideration the location and the comfort they might need. A good communication with the expatriate during the whole experience should be maintained in order to prevent possible problems and to show him that the company doesn’t leave him alone.

The company should take care of the partner job in the new country (or/and hobbies) and register their children in schools in order to make sure that the employee’s family is comfortable in the new location.

The return of the expatriate is an important moment, too often underestimated. The company priority is to make sure not to lose all the money it has invested on him by making him decide to change job.

An interview at the return it is a necessary step, as offering him the right position deserved in the company and not the same job he had before he left in order to maintain him motivated and happy, so they are not losing all the know how he gained through his years abroad.

The period of the experience abroad it is variable, but following Paul Coldwell experience 3 years is and ideal length, because after that the employee may lose some of the attraction and interest in the job and start to decrease his learning.

4.1 GMR Policy

Following the interview with the GMR HRM Manager, we found out that they do very little for their expatriates, mostly because they just started their internationalisation and they are a medium entity in the business.

They don’t offer any pre-departure preparation, leaving it to the employee’s arbitrariness, they only thing they offer is a period of time that they could spend in the new country with their family in order to decide or not to go.

GMR take about their VISA and immigration laws, moreover they find and pay the house in the new country, making sure that it is nice and well located. Moreover they pay for the double taxation (when it occurs) and they offer help in moving their employee’s furniture when requested, paying for it. Their typical expatriate appointment last 2 years, according with GMR HRM manager.

As seen so far their expatriate strategy is very poor and just offer little helps to their employees, leaving a high risk of failure and waste of money.

4.2 Proposed Plan

GMR in order to increase their competitiveness should set a better strategy for its expatriates. First of all the pre-departure preparation should be compulsory for everyone who decides to apply for an expatriate experience and should comprehend the whole family (especially for language classes), because they shouldn’t take the risk that their employees arrive in the new country and they are not able to integrate in the new position.

GMR services to their expatriates, such as find a house, take care of the VISA and pay for the possible double taxation, are a good starting point but it is not enough if they want to make sure their expatriate’s program will be more effective.

The company should take care of their expatriates’ proprieties in their home country, they definitively have to be more connected with their employees’ partners, in order to find them a job in the new country that would fit their current position, or/and taking care about their hobbies and their children necessities (such as school and sports).

Eventually they have to develop a better repatriation system with complete feedback interviews and placing them in the position they deserve in order to gain value from their experience.


“The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the member of one category of people from another” (Lewis, 2006, p. 17)

5.1 Organizational Culture

“The culture of an organisation refers to the unique configuration of norms, values, beliefs, ways of behaving and so on that characterize the manner in which groups and individuals combine to get things done. The distinctiveness of a particular organisation is intimately bound up with. (Brown, 1998)

It is always said that the knowledge sharing culture is part of good knowledge management initiative. It is said that effective collaboration and communication across a whole organisational structure spreads knowledge throughout. In order to change the current culture of the organisation the change needs to be initiated at individual level. Employees have a sphere of influence along with their own individual knowledge, and this is where he believes a knowledge sharing culture can begin.

GMR as an Indian based company, headquartered in Bangalore with offices in different countries as well such as U.K, Turkey, Singapore and Dubai, have identified the need of bring the different cultures together.

As this company has to hire multicultural staff as part of their induction programme, most of their staff goes to India, to learn GMR history, values and operations through education workshop and its annual performance reviews.

Working for an Indian company, which has strong culture and values and beliefs, employees have to manage the transition from their experiences. GMR has employees from the multicultural regions. Whereas, it is an Indian family business organisation and they glue the bonds whether it is Singapore, Turkey or Dubai. They share their values to India and initially they engage with their employees for first 4-5 years of the company to give them awareness about the company whether they can live by them and able to promote them to other positions.

That is how they bring multicultural nationalities under the GMR brand. Therefore, there is a lot of difference between the 2 cultures. There are a lot of differences and similarities between the companies in which people have seen few things before in their previous organisations or the things they haven’t seen before, in GMR.

“Individuals will have to adjust for the organisation but organisations will not adjust for individuals.”

As GMR is an entrepreneur company, it has a very high regard for social responsibility. It has a set of values and cultures that can be shared and they are not company confidential.

5.2 Shared knowledge

Culture is a shared phenomenon that people develop over time in response to shared experiences, which engender agreed values and mode of behaviours and which foster a similar outlook on the world.

Working patterns that encourage people to engage in closed co-ordination and communication, which encourage them to identify the same problem and share the certain solution, and goals will be conducive to the formation of sub culture. (Brown, 1998) In GMR has focused knowledge transference culture among their 500 employees on the multiple layers. Employees have ongoing dialogues with the CEO on the day-to-day basis and once in a month everyone comes over for a breakfast in order to promote feedback in two-way direction.

The biggest challenge for GMR is that how they leverage the knowledge within the Indian organisation with international organisation and back and forth. As Indian organisation is very process orientated and has a lot of process put in place around knowledge sharing. It hasn’t gained that much attraction outside India as it could have.

The company is still improving in the knowledge sharing aspect. The firm still need to put some enthusiasm in the knowledge sharing as knowledge sharing is not a common concept in UK, Turkey, Singapore and with the Bangalore colleagues and then back to the international locations. Whereas, people think it’s a burden instead of an opportunity. They need to change the mindset of the people that they can learn something by being a recipient of knowledge.

Gmr Case Study: Managing Hr in a Global Environment Essay

SG Cowen: New Recruits Essay

SG Cowen: New Recruits Essay.

Reading questions:

1. Do you have prior experience with recruiting and hiring (as a candidate)? If so, based on your experience, what were signs that the process was going well or was not going well? Based on my experience, the most important signs that the process was going well were: – The interviewer acted interested, polite, listened carefully, asked good questions and the discussion went smoothly. – The job interview lasted more than the scheduled time. – I was introduced to the other team members.

– The interviewer spent time answering my questions. They told me many details about the job duties, responsibilities, company culture, workplace environment, etc. – The interviewer asked for my references.

– They did not answer phone calls during the interview. On the other hand, I felt that the process was not going well when: – The job interview lasted less than the scheduled time. – The interviewer was not interested in your talking: did not smile while talking to me, kept looking at his watch when I was not looking, looked bored.

– The interviewer did not ask detailed questions.

– He or she did not look friendly.
– They shake my hand coldly with no eye contact.
– He or she did not mention the next interview stage – wanting you to call the secretary.
– The interviewer mentions that he already has other good candidates.

2. What are the key decision points and the decision process used by the company to make its hiring decisions? Cowen looks for loyal candidates with a strong cultural fit as well as people who are fast learners since “Wall Street doesn’t have the patience to allow someone to develop slowly”. Cowen has three different methods to recruit its candidates. People who had employed as analysts could be promoted to associates at the end of their third year with the firm; people who started as interns and have gained experience with the firm could be promoted to associates. And finally, new people associates could come from hiring processes. It starts in the “core business schools” that participate in the on-campus recruiting programs. Firstly, the company makes company presentations in these business schools.

However, students from other schools can also participate in the recruitment by assisting in these meetings. The selection process starts with “informal interviews” conducted by Cowen’s professionals, which are a chance for SG Cowen to evaluate how serious and enthusiastic the candidates are and a chance for candidates to learn more about the firm and the industry. Rae (recruitment director) assigns a team captain to each school, who makes informal interviews and takes notes to evaluate each candidate. Some team captains tell students to get in touch with them; it is a way to self-select students who really want to be prepared for the official interviews.

Then team captains choose the candidates who could assist to Super Saturday. Super Saturday, which is considered the final round of the process, begins on Friday afternoon when candidates convene with many of the interviewers for dinner. On Saturday morning, interviews begin and each candidate and interviewer have five half-hour sessions to convince Cowen’s bankers. At the end of the day occurs the final decision, all the Cowen’s bankers take the decision together about which candidates would be hired. Successful candidates receive offers to join investment banking. By the time training program starts, each new associate is assigned to a group.

SG Cowen: New Recruits Essay

Benefits for Tesco in providing a training program Essay

Benefits for Tesco in providing a training program Essay.

There are enormous benefits for Tesco in providing a structured training program. Tesco now have 2,200 stores and approximately 280,000employees in UK and over 460,000 worldwide. These figures indicate Tesco has a large business worldwide. For such a large organization, structured training programs are necessary in order to manage employees in such a large number. Training is itself a large investment and large investments require justification. Tesco also uses methods to get feedback from subordinates, peers, and mangers in the organization which helps more in making everything in order and structured.

There are enormous benefits for Tesco in providing a structured training program. Tesco now have 2,200 stores and approximately 280,000employees in UK and over 460,000 worldwide. These figures indicate Tesco has a large business worldwide. For such a large organization, structured training programs are necessary in order to manage employees in such a large number. Training is itself a large investment and large investments require justification. Tesco also uses methods to get feedback from subordinates, peers, and mangers in the organization which helps more in making everything in order and structured.

Tesco provides well structured monitoring and evaluation of training and development. It also uses informal approach to development by asking employees directly. Managers and trainees weekly held informal review session as well as formal sessions to track process against the persona development plans. Feedbacks are carefully monitored and scored. Such kind of constant ,monitoring and evaluation, training achieve a return on investment. Tesco provides well structured monitoring and evaluation of training and development. It also uses informal approach to development by asking employees directly. Managers and trainees weekly held informal review session as well as formal sessions to track process against the persona development plans. Feedbacks are carefully monitored and scored. Such kind of constant ,monitoring and evaluation, training achieve a return on investment.



Tesco is the biggest private sector employer in the UK. The company has more than 360,000 employees worldwide. In the UK, Tesco stores range from small local Tesco Express sites to large Tesco Extras and superstores. Around 86% of all sales are from the UK. Tesco also operates in 12 countries outside the UK, including China, Japan and Turkey. The company has recently opened stores in the United States. This international expansion is part of Tesco’s strategy to diversify and grow the business.

In its non-UK operations Tesco builds on the strengths it has developed as market leader in the UK supermarket sector. However, it also caters for local needs. In Thailand, for example, customers are used to shopping in ‘wet markets’ where the produce is not packaged. Tesco uses this approach in its Bangkok store rather than offering pre-packaged goods as it would in UK stores.

Tesco needs people across a wide range of both store-based and non-store jobs: • In stores, it needs checkout staff, stock handlers, supervisors as well as many specialists, such as pharmacists and bakers.

• Its distribution depots require people skilled in stock management and logistics. • Head office provides the infrastructure to run Tesco efficiently. Roles here include human resources, legal services, property management, marketing, accounting and information technology.

Tesco aims to ensure all roles work together to drive its business objectives. It needs to ensure it has the right number of people in the right jobs at the right time. To do this, it has a structured process for recruitment and selection to attract applicants for both managerial and operational roles.

Workforce planning

Workforce planning is the process of analyzing an organization’s likely future needs for people in terms of numbers, skills and locations. It allows the organization to plan how those needs can be met through recruitment and training. It is vital for a company like Tesco to plan ahead. Because the company is growing, Tesco needs to recruit on a regular basis for both the food and non-food parts of the business.

Positions become available because:

• jobs are created as the company opens new stores in the UK and expands internationally • vacancies arise as employees leave the company – when they retire or resign – or get promotion to other positions within Tesco

• new types of jobs can be created as the company changes its processes and technology.


Tesco uses a workforce planning table to establish the likely demand for new staff. This considers both managerial and non-managerial positions. In 2008/09, for example, Tesco calculates that to support its business growth there will be a demand for around 4,000 new managers. This planning process runs each year from the last week in February. There are quarterly reviews in May, August and November, so Tesco can adjust staffing levels and recruit where necessary. This allows Tesco sufficient time and flexibility to meet its demands for staff and allows the company to meet its strategic objectives, for example, to open new stores and maintain customer service standards.

Tesco seeks to fill many vacancies from within the company. It recognises the importance of motivating its staff to progress their careers with the company. Tesco practises what it calls ‘talent planning’. This encourages people to work their way through and up the organisation. Through an annual appraisal scheme, individuals can apply for ‘bigger’ jobs. Employees identify roles in which they would like to develop their careers with Tesco. Their manager sets out the technical skills, competencies and behaviours necessary for these roles, what training this will require and how long it will take the person to be ready to do the job. This helps Tesco to achieve its business objectives and employees to achieve their personal and career objectives. An important element in workforce planning is to have clear job descriptions and person specifications. A job description sets out:

• the title of the job
• to whom the job holder is responsible
• for whom the job holder is responsible
• a simple description of roles and responsibilities.

A person specification sets out the skills, characteristics and attributes that a person needs to do a particular job. Together, job descriptions and person specifications provide the basis for job advertisements. They help job applicants and post-holders to know what is expected of them. As they are sent to anyone applying for jobs, they should:

• contain enough information to attract suitable people
• act as a checking device to make sure that applicants with the right skills are chosen for interview
• set the targets and standards for job performance.

At Tesco these documents are combined:

Job descriptions and person specifications show how a job-holder fits into the Tesco business. They help Tesco to recruit the right people. They also provide a benchmark for each job in terms of responsibilities and skills. These help managers to assess if staff are carrying out jobs to the appropriate standards.

Benefits for Tesco in providing a training program Essay

Analysis: Organize A Successful Job Fair Essay

Analysis: Organize A Successful Job Fair Essay.

A job fair is a unique networking opportunity that puts many different employers under one roof to network with potential employees, usually over the course of just one day. Job fairs can put participants on the fast-track to gaining a job, help companies fill vacancies and solve workforce issues in the community. In order to organize a successful job fair, you’ll want to cater to both the job seeker and the company looking for future employees.


1. Form a committee or group of individuals who will be in charge of plans for the job fair in clearly defined roles 2.

Set a date and time for your job fair at least 4 months ahead of time. Detail a budget that includes money for the venue and advertising. 3. Find a place to have your job fair and reserve the space. Make a detailed diagram layout of the space and block out areas for company booths, registration tables, concessions and so forth. 4. Invite companies to participate in the job fair.

Aim for a mix of companies from a variety of industries that have jobs openings available, so you can cater to a broad segment of job seekers. As you get confirmations, ask if a company has any special equipment needs for the day.

5. Distribute marketing materials. Place fliers and information at nearby colleges and high schools, and throughout community gathering places like coffee shops, libraries and grocery stores. Consider placing ads in local and regional newspapers, as well as trade journals. Arrange for media coverage the day of the event, as well. 6. Design a professional job fair packet that each job seeker will receive upon entering the fair. The information should include a map and list of companies represented at the fair. 7. Set up booths at the venue. Consider having an interview room or place away from the other booths that employers can use for on-the-spot interviews. 8. Consider placing company vacancy listings at the entrance and at key areas throughout the job fair venue, along with a map of where the company’s booth is located. 9. Prepare name tags and signs for the event.

During the Fair:

10. Place volunteers at strategic points throughout the fair to take questions. You should definitely have people stand by at entrances and exits. Periodically, ask employer representatives if they need anything if they’re having trouble getting away from their booths. 11. Take video and pictures at the event that you can use in promotional materials next year. 12. Survey exiting job seekers to can gain valuable feedback.

After the Fair:

13. Evaluate attendance and analyze the completed job seeker surveys. 14. Send thank-you notes to employers about 1 week after the event and include a survey to gain their feedback. 15. Share the success with stories on your website and community media outlets. 16. Gather with your job fair team one last time to discuss what went well at the job fair and what can be improved next time.

Analysis: Organize A Successful Job Fair Essay