Ode on Intimations of Immortality Essay

Ode on Intimations of Immortality Essay.

The Romantic Poet William Wordsworth wrote “Ode on Intimations of Immortality” in the midst of the Romantic Period during the early 19th century. This was a time of new scientific thought, observing nature, and social reform.

Critical Appreciation

This great poem gives expression to the human instinct for a belief in immortality. The poem is built around what may be called the doctrine of reminiscence. The child remembers the life he led in heaven before his birth in this world. The child is, therefore, sur¬rounded by a heavenly glory.

His memories of a pre-natal existence invest all Nature with a divine light. In other words, when the child looks at Nature, he finds all objects of Nature wrapped up in a dream-like splendour. But, as the child grows, he falls more and more under the influence of this world and, therefore, his memories of heaven become dimmer and dimmer till they fade out of his mind. The child remembers that he lived in heaven before his birth, while the grown-up man has no such recollection.

Therefore the child is greater than the man.

The child may be called a great prophet, a great seer, a great philosopher. But there are occasions in the life of a grown-up man when his memories of childhood bring him certain vague intimations of immortality. In other words, while the child’s feeling of immortality is based upon his memories of a heavenly life, the grown-up man’s feeling of immortality is based on his recollections of childhood. In maturity one misses the heavenly light which one saw as a child in the objects of Nature. But maturity has its own compen¬sations. With maturity comes the faith in a life after death. Maturity, too, brings reflection (or “the philosophic mind”); while the sight of human suffering gives rise to “soothing thoughts”. In this temper, even the meanest flower can arouse in a man thoughts which are so deep that they cannot be expressed even through tears.

As an ode, Intimations of Immortality has an irregular form. However, it is by general consent one of the greatest of Wordsworth’s poems. It is built on a simple but majestic plan. The first four stanzas tell of his spiritual crisis; of a glory passing from the earth, and end by asking why this has happened. The middle stanzas (v-viii) examine the nature of this glory and explain it by a theory of reminiscence from a pre-natal existence. Then the last three stanzas show that, though the vision has perished, life has still a meaning and a value. Wordsworth has very vividly described the psychology of the child. The child is an imitator, an actor who performs all parts, and who copies every action and gesture that he sees. The poem is mainly autobiographical and reminiscent of the poet’s past life.

The radiance and glory of Nature, which he declares as having seen in his childhood, was a part of his own personal ex¬perience, while he also felt the unreality of the outward objects to which he refers in the ninth stanza. We have his own statement in support of this. Wordsworth’s pictorial gift or image-making power may be noticed in this poem.He gives vivid pictures of the rainbow, the rose, the moon shining in a cloudless sky, the star-light falling on waters, the children collecting fresh flowers, the babe leaping on his mother’s arm, etc. Wordsworth was a keen worshipper of Nature. He is the grea¬test Nature poet in English Literature. ‘The ode clearly brings out the difference between his love for Nature as a child and his love for Nature as a man. As a child, he had a passion for Nature, and he experienced intoxicating joys on seeing it. But he developed a spiritual love for Nature when he became a man.

His love for Nature was now meditative, sober and reflective and even the most ordinary objects of Nature gave rise to deep and profound thoughts in him. Having witnessed human suffering, he looked at Nature thoughtfully. The ode is not written in the language Wordsworth regularly used in his poetry. Its tone is high and stately. Wordsworth thought his subject so im¬portant that he treated it in what was for him an unusual manner, and for it he fashioned his own high style. The poet has used such rhythmic and effective phrases that many of them are now commonly employed in the English language. Words used to express thoughts and emotions in this poem are very appropriate. The grandeur of langu¬age befits the grandeur of theme. There is thus a perfect harmony between thought and expression.

Although the ode contains a metaphysical doctrine, yet there is in it a deep and sincere personal emotion which gives it a lyrical character. The first four stanzas in which the poet expresses his sense of loss and the last two stanzas where he refers to the compen¬sations which make him happy are intensely emotional and possess a singing quality. This has been expressed in the ode. The poet refers to human suffering which he has witnessed and the sympathy which he feels for his fellow human beings. This sympathy for man¬kind is common to almost all the romantic poets. The sober close of this great ode has been compared to the close of a splendid evening. In other words, the reflective mood of the poet deepens in the last stanza. No one can remain untouched by the restful and soothing effect of the music at the close.

Ode on Intimations of Immortality Essay

To the Rose Upon the Rood of Time Essay

To the Rose Upon the Rood of Time Essay.

The rose as a symbol had mytho-historical and personal overtones for Yeats, and this poem is the opening song of his early collection of poems entitled “The Rose”. As a symbol for Ireland it represents both the Romantic movement and the Irish Revival centering around Lady Gregory and the Abbey Theatre, and the rose atop the cross in particular evokes the Christian conversion of the indigenous Celtic people between the fifth and seventh centuries.

As part of the part aesthetic, part political effort to forge the Irish character through literature, Yeats and his peers drew material directly from the ancient myth cycles of the pre-Christian Celts, and infused their poetry and drama with the heroic characters and ethos, and sometimes the language, of the time before the British invasion and occupation of Ireland.

Hence, Yeats’ invocation of the Rose in a manner reminiscent of the ancient Greek and Roman poets’ invocation of the muses to aid in the composition of the epics of their race.

So Yeats asks the rose to be near “while I sing the ancient ways”, and as he recalls the mythic figures in the reconstitution of his race.

The Druid stands as a general symbol of the Celtic world ethic before the Christian missionizing; Cuchulain is an Achilles-like hero who single handedly defeats many of the enemies of his people before succumbing to his own weaknesses battling against the sea; Fergus is a mythic king of Ulster and symbol of the golden age of Gaelic civilization.

Personally, the rose symbolizes the figure of, and his undying — though unrequited — love for Maud Gonne, at once a personal love and a realization of his vision of Romantic Irish womanhood. It is therefore fitting to learn that “the conjoined rose and cross” (“the rose upon the rood of time”) also “symbolised a mystic marriage”, according to A. Norman Jeffares, in his edition of Yeats’ selected poems.

In all this, Yeats wants to discover behind the edifice of all the “poor foolish things that live a day”, and hidden in the pastoral simplicity of the folk tales and livelihoods of rural Ireland that are the source for much of the mytho-poetic material he uses, “Eternal beauty wandering on her way”.

So he sings, “Come near, come near, come near”.

But “Ah”, he exclaims after the verse break, not too near, but “leave me still / A little space for the rose-breath to fill”. Yeats here acknowledges the danger of losing the idea behind the symbol; the objects of his effort behind their abstraction. Like Stephen Dedalus, who acknowledges the importance of experience to forging “in the smithy of my soul the uncreated conscience of my race”, Yeats guards against over reification at the expense of the material reality.

Lest he adopt the patriarchal tone against the poor and under-educated he was trying to influence that many of his contemporaries were guilty of, and “seek alone to hear the strange things said” and “chaunt in a tongue men do not know”, he would allow a little space for the material and sensuous “rose-breath” to remind him of the realities of Irish life in his own time.

Thus his almost Burnsian concern for “the field mouse” and “the weak worm”, and the reality of “heavy mortal hopes that toil and pass”. Though somewhat a product of the sentimental Romanticism of his youth, this very accomplished and important poem is a premonition of the hard and by turns cynical lyrics of his later career, where we will see the Romantic rose of Ireland transformed into the rape of a Swan, and, in some ways too, the rough beast “slouching towards Bethlehem to be born”.

For now, he will sing with innocent hope of the utility of “the ancient ways” for moulding the cultural and political identity of his people, some twenty years before the events which will make him proclaim “Romantic Ireland’s dead and gone”. In 1893, if nothing else, the uncreated conscience of a race seems secure in the symbolic weight of the “Red Rose, proud Rose, sad Rose of all my days”.

To the Rose Upon the Rood of Time Essay

Enlightenment and Romantic Views on Nature Essay

Enlightenment and Romantic Views on Nature Essay.

The Enlightenment and Romantic periods had different views on nature through writings and paintings; however they also sought to recognize the limits in human knowledge through the study of nature. The Enlightenment was a period where it tried to explain and study the true nature of mankind and how it progressed. Natural history was the science of Earth’s development. G. L Buffon was the foremost practitioner and he was able to produce a multivolume ‘Natural History of the Earth.

Buffon tried to classify the data of nature and provided a description and theory of Earth’s development with the drawings of fossils.

The Romanticism was a movement in philosophy and the arts which focused more on the traditional ideas of nature. There were many artists who arranged their paintings to look natural, with trees and with flowers of varied colors and heights. Theodore Gericault was a painter who emphasized vibrant colors in his paintings.

Both Enlightenment and Romantic periods also had different religion views.

The enlightenment saw God as rational and distant which led to the idea of Deism. The Deists views stated that the belief in God is based on reason rather than revelation. The Romantics disagreed with the deist views and explained events with their inner feelings and God was as human views Both the Enlightenment and Romanticism periods sought to recognize the limits in human knowledge through the study of nature.

There have been Romantic artists such as William Wordsworth whose work was inspired by his reverence for the natural world. Wordsworth always paid close attention to his surroundings. Also, Isaac Newton had made contributions to mathematics, physics, astronomy, and optics. Newton’s masterpiece, ‘The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy,’ claimed that everything Newton said was proved by experiment or by mathematics.

Enlightenment and Romantic Views on Nature Essay

“The Sandman” Analysis Essay

“The Sandman” Analysis Essay.

The Sandman is about a man named Nathanael’s life and the monsters he faced. In his childhood he was told stories about the sandman. These stories tormented him for years because he was told the sandman took children’s eyes. Every night he would hear the “Sandman” walking down the hall to his father’s room. One night Nathanael hid in his father’s room and waited to find out who the “Sandman” really was. Come to find out, it was Coppelius, a man that had dinner with his family a few times in the past and was always tormenting the kids by touching their sweets with his big hairy hands.

No one liked Coppelius. “Mother seemed to dislike this hateful Coppelius as much as we did. For as soon as he appeared her cheerfulness and bright and natural manner were transformed into sad, gloomy seriousness” (E.T.A Hoffman). Even their mother didn’t like him. Nathaniel was caught by Coppelius who threatened to take his eyes.

After that night he wasn’t seen again till about a year later.

Coppelius showed up and murdered Nathanael’s father. In E.T.A Hoffman’s The Sandman, Coppelius is the monster. Ever since his father’s murder Nathanael was obsessed with Coppelius. It ruled his life. “I am determined to deal with him, and to avenge my father’s death, be the issue what it may” (Hoffman, 5). Nathaniel was determined to avenge is father at all costs. It also ruined his relationship with Clara. “Clara was cut to the heart, and wept bitterly. ‘Oh! He has never loved me, for he does not understand me’” (Hoffman, 12). Clara did not like his sad poem about his fear of Coppelius so they fought. The monster in The Sandman is Coppelius. He causes fear in Nathaniel after he murders his father. “But in the dead of night, when no one can hear, even a hero might admit that the monster inspires one thing more than any other: fear” (Blake).

This quote is saying to everyone a monster only equals fear. Nathanael was always paranoid that he might run into Coppelius. He wrote a poem about what Coppelius was doing to his relationship with Clara. Clara did not like the poem. She wanted Coppelius out of his funk and wanted her life with him back. Something Nathaniel didn’t understand was the warning of the Sandman. The warning of the sandman is not to give yourself up to an evil power in your life. “Lothaire adds that if we willingly yielded ourselves up to the dark powers, they are known often to impress upon our minds any strange, unfamiliar shape…” (Hoffman). Hoffman is saying that dark powers alter our minds and make us do things we wouldn’t normally do. Coppelius is the evil power in Nathaniel’s life. They also affect the people around us.

Dark powers change us as people. Nathanael gave himself over to the dark powers in his life and he changed after his father’s death. Nathanael’s writing became dark and he wasn’t able to come out of it. Clara got fed up with his dark moods. She pushed as hard as she could to get him to change but nothing worked. In the past I have given myself over to a dark power that changed the way I acted in high school. My grades started to plummet. I barely graduated because of my poor choices my freshman year of high school. I was pretending to be something I wasn’t to fit in. It affected my attitude when I was at home a little. I got lazy and only wanted to hang out with my friends.

I made no time for homework. I was afraid that if I didn’t have cool friends and didn’t fit in that my high school experience would have been terrible. “People can face the darkness within themselves by embodying it in a monstrous form and finding ways to conquer it” (Blake). This quote says that to conquer your darkness you must find ways to overcome it. I conquered the dark powers in my life by getting rid of a lot of my friends that were negative influences on me and focused on my school work. I made that my number one priority.

In the end I felt much better only having a small group of friends. My attitude changed completely, and I matured a lot after that. The Sandman is a warning against giving yourself up to a monster or dark power in your life. It may ruin your relationships and will change you as a person. You’ll do things you wouldn’t normally do and hurt the people around you. I gave myself up to a dark power and was able to overcome it, but Nathanael wasn’t able to. His monster ended up killing him. Clara ended up happy with another man because Nathanael wasn’t able to keep her happy. Monsters take things from you. You must overcome them to get those things back.

Works Cited
Blake, Brandy Ball, and L. Andrew Cooper. “Introduction: Hunting Boundaries.” Monsters. Editors Brandy Ball Blake and L. Andrew Cooper. Southlake TX.: Fountainhead Press, 2012. 1-10. Print.
Hoffman, E.T.A. “The Sandman.” Translated by John Oxenford. Richmond VA.: Virginia Commonwealth University, 1999. Print

“The Sandman” Analysis Essay

Romanticism, Its Influence on French Revolution Essay

Romanticism, Its Influence on French Revolution Essay.

Romanticism evolved in response to the French Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment that followed. Rather than focus on reason and rationality to explain man, romanticism focused more on emotions and feelings to explain nature and portray them.

Inspired by the ideas of Jean Jacques Rousseau romanticism emerged as a reaction to 18th-century values, asserting emotion and intuition over rationalism, the importance of the individual over social conformity, and the exploration of natural and psychic wildernesses over classical restraint. Major themes of Romantic art and literature include a love of atmospheric landscapes; nostalgia for the past, a love of the primitive, including folk traditions; cult of the individual hero figure, often an artist or political revolutionary; romantic passion; mysticism; and a fascination with death.

Jean Jacques Rousseau is of course mother of Romantic movement but we have seen many other sowing seeds of romanticism. Thomson, Collins, Gray, Richardson, and Prevost are those whose theology and art are the most marvelous romance of all.

Many other includes William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lord Byron, and Walter Scott in Britain; and Victor Hugo, Alfonse de Lamar tine, George Sand, and Alexandre Dumas in France. Above all Rousseau matured the seeds of romanticism in the hothouse of his emotions and delivered its offspring’s, full grown and fertile from birth in his works which include Discourses, the Contrat social, Emile and the Confessions.

Romanticism is an important literary movement which began in Western Europe during 17th century and went on till the second half of 18th century. Romanticism is a movement that emerged as a reaction against Neoclassicism, the age preceding the Romantic Movement. The Neoclassical age was also called the ‘The age of Enlightenment’, which emphasized on reason and logic. The Romantic period wanted to break away from the traditions and conventions that were dear to the Neoclassical age and make way for individuality and experimentation. The Romantic movement is said to have emerged in Germany, which soon spread to England as well as France, however, the main source of inspiration for Romanticism came from the events and ideologies of the French Revolution.

To understand Romanticism better, it is very important to learn about the Romanticism characteristics which are as follows:

1. Love of Nature: The Romantics greatly emphasized on the importance of nature, and one of the main characteristics of Romanticism in poetry is the beauty of nature found in the country life. This was mainly because the industrial revolution had taken man from the peaceful country life towards the city life, transforming man’s natural order. Nature was not only appreciated for its physical beauty by the Romantics, but also for its ability to help the urban man find his true identity. Written in the first person were being accepted, as the poetic persona became one with the voice of the poet.

2. Nationalism: The Romantics borrowed heavily from the folklore and the popular art. During the earlier periods, literature and art were considered to belong to the high class educated people, and the country folks were not considered fit to enjoy them. Also, the languages used in these works were highly poetic, which was totally different from that which was spoken by people. However, Romanticism changed all this. Their works were influenced from the ballads and folklore that were created by the masses or the common people, rather than from the literary works that were popular. Apart from poetry, adopting from the folklore and ballads is also one of the very important characteristics of Romanticism in music. As the Romantics became interested and focused on developing the folklore, culture, language, customs and traditions of their own country, they developed a sense of Nationalism which reflected in their works. Also, the language used in Romantic poems was simple which was usually used in everyday life.

3. Supernatural: Another characteristic of Romanticism is the belief in the supernatural. The Romantics were interested in the supernatural and included it in their works. This fascination for the mysterious and the unreal also lead to the development of the Gothic romance which became popular during this period. Supernatural elements can be seen in Coleridge’s, ‘Kubla Khan’ and in Keats’ poem ‘La Belle Dame Sans Merci’.

What we mean by the Romantic Movement: It is the rebellion of feeling against reason, of instinct against intellect, of sentiment against judgment, of the subject against the object, of subjectivism against objectivity, of solitude against society, of imagination against reality, of myth and legend against history, of religion against science, of mysticism against ritual, of poetry and poetic prose against prose and prosaic poetry, of neo-Gothic against neoclassic art, of the feminine against the masculine, of romantic love against the marriage of convenience of nature and the natural against civilization and artifice, of emotional expression against conventional restraints, of individual freedom against social order, of youth against authority, of democracy against aristocracy, in short of man verses the state.

French Revolution The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a period of political and social upheaval in the history of France, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. These changes were accompanied by violent turmoil, including the trial and execution of the king, vast bloodshed and repression during the Reign of Terror, and warfare involving every other major European power. Subsequent events that can be traced to the Revolution include the Napoleonic Wars, two separate restorations of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape.

Influence of French revolution on Romanticism:

The French revolution that began in 1789 is an important event in our history and it had a great effect on Romanticism influencing romantic writers, inspiring them to address themes of democracy and human rights, which resulted in a complete transformation of society. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge were the first important English Romantic poets. Whenever in history, human right is suppressed for long time, revolution started. The French king Louis XVI and the aristocrat class spent their life on pomp and lavishness. There was a gulf of difference between the court life and the life of common people.

The common people did not get enough to meet their basic needs whereas the upper-class people led a life of luxury. To equalize this difference the people got together and revolted against the king and beheaded him. The slogan of the French revolution was “Equality, liberty, fraternity”. The spirit of the French revolution spread all over Europe, particularly in England. The theme of revolution, human existence on earth, liberty of human mind – all these aspects influenced the romantic poets like Shelley, Wordsworth very much.

The period before the beginning of French revolution was a period of monarchy. The revolution began as an attempt to create a constitutional monarchy, where the powers of the king would be limited by a parliament. And now as the revolution had begun the absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapses just in three years which brings a great transition all over France as the old feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges gets evaporated under a sustained assault from liberal political groups and the masses on the streets.

Old ideas about hierarchy and tradition succumbed to new Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights. Of this whole inferno of French revolution there is a great influence on literature in which most prominent effect is found on Romanticism as then romanticism changes the whole thinking of man reliving him from the restrains of material world and relaxing him by taking him into a world of imagination which never had any harm on him which not only calm down his mind but also his soul, setting him free from an invisible prison that not even was factual but still it was.

A majority of the population was greatly in favor of romantic movement as they had been suffering oppression for many years. The French Revolution came, bringing with it the promise of brighter days. William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, and Percy Shelley all shared the same view of the French Revolution as it being the beginning of a change in the current ways of society and helping to better the lives of the oppressed. Literature began to take a new turn; it got molded and took new better shapes when the revolution engulfed the whole nation, turning things in a whole new direction and above all providing freedom.

The newly acquired freedom of the common people did not only bring about just laws and living but ordinary people also had the freedom to think for themselves, and in turn the freedom to express themselves. Enkindled by the revolutionary spirit, the writers of the time were full of creative ideas and were waiting for a chance to unleash them. Under the new laws writers and artists were given a considerable amount of freedom to express themselves which did well to pave the way to set a high standard for literature.

Although the poets mentioned earlier (Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, and Shelley) all share the common theme of approving the French Revolution, they each have their own unique ideas regarding the Revolution itself that have greatly shaped their work. This can be seen by analyzing some of each of their works. Shelley

Ever since he was young, Percy Shelley was very nontraditional, in fact he is said to have been opposed to tradition. He was born a freethinker and “in spite of all his lovable and generous traits he was a born disturber of the public peace”. At school he was known as “Mad Shelley, the Atheist”. According to Hancock, “The Goddess of Revolution rocked his cradle.” Throughout his life Shelley’s opposition toward religion grew less violent, however he never professed a belief in immortality or religion of any sort. His poems declare a belief in the permanence of things that are true and beautiful. Common themes that Shelley incorporated into his works include the hatred of kings, faith in the natural goodness of man, the belief in the corruption of present society, the power of reason, the rights of natural impulse, the desire for a revolution, and liberty, equality and fraternity. These are all clearly shaped by the French Revolution.

Byron While Shelley had faith that was founded upon modern ideas, Byron has faith in nothing. He stands for only destruction. Because of this he was not a true revolutionist and was rather “the arch-apostle of revolt, of rebellion against constituted authority.” This statement is easily defended as Byron admits that he resists authority, but offers no substitute. This is supported by what Byron once wrote, “I deny nothing… but I doubt everything.” He then said later in life, “I have simplified politics into an utter detestation of all existing governments.” Byron believes neither in democracy nor in equality, but opposes all forms of tyranny and all attempts of rulers to control man. In Byron’s poetry, he incorporates deep feeling, rather than deep thinking, to make his characters strong. Often, Byron portrays his characters as being in complete harmony with nature, causing the character to lose himself in the immensity of the world. The French Revolution played a huge role in shaping Byron’s beliefs and opposition to monarchy. Wordsworth

While Shelley and Byron both proved to support the revolution to the end, both Wordsworth and Coleridge joined the aristocrats in fighting it. Wordsworth, however is the Romantic poet who has most profoundly felt and expressed the connection of the soul with nature. He saw great value in the immediate contact with nature. The French Revolution helped to humanize Wordsworth as his works transitioned from extremely natural experiences to facing the realities and ills of life, including society and the Revolution. From then on, his focus became the interests of man rather than the power and innocence of nature. Coleridge

Unlike Wordsworth, Coleridge was more open and receptive to the social and political world around him. He was a very versatile man and he lead a life that covered many fields and his work displayed this. He was a poet of nature, romance, and the Revolution. He was a philosopher, a historian, and a political figure. The French Revolution played a great role in shaping Coleridge into each of these things. According to Albert Hancock, Coleridge tended to focus his life on two things. The first, being to separate himself from the surrounding world and to submerge himself in thought, as a poet. The second, to play a role in the world’s affairs, as a philosopher, historian, and politician, as mentioned earlier.

Romanticism, Its Influence on French Revolution Essay

Enlightement And Romantic Thinkers Essay

Enlightement And Romantic Thinkers Essay.

Despite sharing some similarities, the Enlightenment and Romantic movements differed sharply in terms of their character and values. While the former movement embraced a balanced, sober mindset oriented toward harmony and productivity, the latter reacted by espousing the dramatic, exotic, unconventional, and uncultivated.

The Enlightenment, which dominated the eighteenth century, embraced a logical, rational world view based on the classical notions of harmony and balance, in terms of both temperament and intellect. Enlightenment thinkers tended to idealize utility and productivity, taking a distinctly materialistic view of the world.

They approached most things from a political and economic standpoint; for example, nature was meant to be controlled, cultivated, and harnessed for political and economic ends. Partly to accomplish this, they valued science and rigorous, methodical thinking

Their approach toward economics and politics reflect this. Their prevalent thinkers included economists like Adam Smith and David Ricardo, considered the founders of capitalist thought, and they advocated free trade, commerce, and manufacturing, laying the foundations for modern-day capitalism.

In politics, they embraced the republican ideal (based on Greek and Roman models), believing it morally superior to monarchy; in this regard, Thomas Jefferson is one of the model Enlightenment thinkers in a group that also includes Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Locke, and Paine. The Enlightenment inspired both the American and French revolutions; while the first succeeded, the latter arguably failed, leading to the reign of terror and demonstrating the excesses of rational thought.

Its art was oriented toward the realities of contemporary life. Enlightenment painters depicted the times’ important figures but also painted how ordinary people actually looked, lived, and worked, as well as how capitalism was changing European society. (In a sense, it was the forerunner of modern realism.)

Its most important thinkers were not artists who conveyed passion, drama, and wildness. Instead, they were involved in rational, productive pursuits, guided by their own emphasis on empirical, logical thought. Smith and Ricardo were its guiding economic thinkers, while Thomas Jefferson borrowed from classicism to frame his vision of the ideal republic; Locke and Paine emphasized human liberty and argued against the divine right of kings; and Malthus’ evolutionary system influenced both economics and demographics. Enlightenment thinkers were creative, but in a sense different from the Romantics; they were fundamentally builders, inventors, and producers.

On the other hand, the Romantics were far less restrained in both life and imagination. Defying the Enlightenment’s emphasis on the balanced, rational, and orderly, they frequently shunned convention, cultivating odd appearances, living emotionally turbulent lives, favoring the emotional and transcendent over the rational, and being unrelentingly individualistic. Byron is perhaps the most infamous example, with a controversial private life full of sexual indiscretions, travels, and a sense of being an outcast; in addition, he died an early death while serving as part of what he considered a noble cause (fighting in Greece’s war for independence).

Rising around 1815, in reaction to what they considered the Enlightenment’s confining mentality, the Romantics embraced feeling, intuition, and the intangible. They found inspiration in nature rather than science, preferring to depict its wild, uncultivated state (where Enlightenment thinkers wanted to harness nature and make it serve mankind). Romantic visual art is dramatic and passionate; Goya’s paintings expressed passion and outrage at Spain’s royal family, while Constable painted wild, uncultivated landscapes not yet spoiled by industry, and Delacroix presented images of the Greeks fighting for liberty.

This affinity for the untamed also manifested in their approach to the arts. They revered “the folk” and native cultures, frequently borrowing from historical lore and art forms in their own art. Romantic-era authors were generally fascinated with their own national heritage (Scott with Scotland, Pushkin with Russia, and Hugo with France), and their view of history embraced grand narratives of national evolution, rather than simply a series of events. Romantic literature is commonly heroic and dramatic, involving a quest for truth and salvation.

Byron’s life influenced his poetry, as did that of his friend Shelley, who embraced despair and died prematurely. In music, they emphasized emotion and grandeur, as best exemplified by Beethoven’s dramatic, passionate symphonies. In addition, Romantic composers drew from folk traditions to evoke the past; Chopin, for example, drew freely from his own Polish heritage.

Politically, they occupied the extremes (where the Enlightenment figures favored the center) and fervently embraced nationalism, believing that each culture had a distinctive history and deserved liberty. Though disenchanted with the French revolution’s bloody excesses (which gave rise to Napoleon), they were nonetheless taken with the notion of revolution and supported wars for national liberation.

Enlightenment and Romantic intellectuals had some common ground, though their approach radically differed. The Enlightenment throve on logic and helped lay the political, economic, and scientific foundations for the modern world, while the Romantics tried to curb their predecessors’ excesses and retain some of the emotional, intuitive, and uncultivated in their works. In a sense, they were opposite sides of the same proverbial coin, complimenting each other’s differences and approaching the same things in distinctive ways.

Enlightement And Romantic Thinkers Essay

The happy couple – descriptive writing Essay

The happy couple – descriptive writing Essay.

The lights were dimmed that the room gave off a vibe of relaxation and compassion. Burgundy silk curtains draped around the tall glass windows at the restaurant wall with a certain pattern to each. The young couple sat at the round table closets to closed window curtain. The table cloth was silk and the chairs was an old Victorian theme, swirls and designs engraved in its ivory wood. The couple stared into each other’s emerald eyes and gave each other a warm smile.

A violinist came to their table playing a soft tune from the romantic period. The violinist bow skid across the strings as it crescendo its notes. The perfect vibrato of the violinist’s hand, made the tune bounce off from the walls of the small restaurant. The waiter finally arrived with the happy couple’s dinner. Pasta of the Sea for the young girl and Soup of the Sea for the young boy, the waiter politely made a small bow, leaving with the violinist.

Read Also: Easy Descriptive Essay Topics

The young couple ate under the murmured of the other guest and the soft violin tune but they were silence eating without saying a single word to one another. The sea food dinner was filled with delicate spices and ingredients that made anyone’s stomach growl in hunger by just the smell of it. A mixture of well cooked octopus legs, crab meat, shrimp and oyster all mixed in with their chosen ingredient. For the young girl it was thin long pasta that was tangle with all the sea fruits. For the young boy the soup was a red tint with the saviors of each sea fruit in the mixture.

Before the young couple was finish with their meal, the young boy stood from his chair allowing to slightly scraping against the tiles and kneeled down in front of the young girl. The restaurant grew into a quick silence that only the opening and closing of the kitchen door was heard. The young boy poured his heart out in a poem of stutters trying to keep his head straight asking the girl her loved with passion of no other to marry him.

The guests were in awed at the young happy couple when the young girl said yes. The people in the restaurant burst into a sea of claps and cheers. The
violinist played his tune once again, letting the romantic tune stand above the claps.

The happy couple – descriptive writing Essay

Annabel Lee as a Representative of Poe’s Poems Essay

Annabel Lee as a Representative of Poe’s Poems Essay.

Annabel Lee as a representative of Poe’s poems about death of beautiful maidens It’s always a little hard to separate the life of the legendary Poe from his works. In this case, there are some striking similarities. „Annabel Lee“ is the last complete poem written by Poe, published shortly after his death in 1849. Like many of Poe’s poems including “The Raven,” “Ulalume,” and “To One in Paradise“, it explores the theme of the death of a beautiful woman, “the most poetical topic in the world”, according to Poe.

In particular, although the poem’s stanzas have a somewhat irregular length and structure, the rhyme scheme continually emphasizes the three words “me,” “Lee,” and “sea,” enforcing the linked nature of these concepts within the poem while giving the poem a song-like sound. The work shows Poe’s frequent fixation with the Romantic image of a beautiful woman who has died too young unexpectedly. As indicated more thoroughly in his short story “The Oval Portrait,” Poe often associated death with the freezing and capturing of beauty, and many of his heroines reach the pinnacle of loveliness on their deathbed.

The narrator, who fell in love with Annabel Lee when they were young, retains his love for her even after her death. Most people agree that Edgar Allan Poe wrote “Annabel Lee” about his departed wife, Virginia, who died of tuberculosis two years earlier. Some critics, however, contend that in the seventh line of the poem he states, “I was a child and she was a child,” and he certainly was no child in 1836 at twenty-seven when he married his thirteen-year-old bride. Maybe the poem is about an earlier love, or perhaps it is purely fictional, but addressing Annabel Lee as his life and his bride” in line thirty-eight and writing it two years after his beloved young wife’s death, it seems only logical that it is indeed written about her and is simply embroidered with a bit of poetic license. Local legend in Charleston, South Carolina tells the story of a sailor who met a woman named Annabel Lee. Her father disapproved of the pairing and the two met privately in a graveyard before the sailor’s time stationed in Charleston was up. While away, he heard of Annabel’s death from yellow fever, but her father would not allow him at the funeral.

Because he did not know her exact burial location, he instead kept vigil in the cemetery where they had often secretly met. There is no evidence that Edgar Allan Poe had heard of this legend, but some insist it was his inspiration. The poem focuses on an ideal love which is unusually strong. In fact, the narrator’s actions show that he not only loves Annabel Lee, but he worships her, something he can only do after her death. The poem specifically mentions the youth of the unnamed narrator and especially of Annabel Lee, and it celebrates child-like emotions in a way consistent with the ideals of the Romantic era.

Many Romantics from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries viewed adulthood as a corruption of the purer instincts of childhood, and they preferred nature to society because they considered it to be a better and more instinctive state. Accordingly, Poe treats the narrator’s childhood love for Annabel Lee as fuller and more eternal than the love of adults. Annabel Lee is gentle and persistent in her love, and she has no complex emotions. He explains that angels murdered her. His repetition of this assertion suggests he is trying to rationalize his own excessive feelings of loss.

In “Annabel Lee” the speaker argues in lines eleven and twelve that the angels were jealous of the happy couple: “the winged seraphs of heaven coveted her and me. ” The envious angels, he insists, caused the wind to chill his bride and seize her life. However, he contends, their love, stronger than the love of the older or wiser couples, can never be conquered: And neither the angles in heaven above, Nor the demons down under the sea, Can ever dissever my soul from the soul Of the beautiful Annabel Lee. (lines 33-36)

Unlike “The Raven,” in which the narrator believes he will “nevermore” be reunited with his love, “Annabel Lee” says the two will be together again, as not even demons “can ever dissever” their souls. The first time that death gets mentioned in the poem: A wind blew out of a cloud, chilling My beautiful Annabel Lee; (lines 15-16) The speaker doesn’t say she died. Actually, he never uses the word “death” in this poem at all. The speaker maintains that this world of dream remains even after the death of his bride: For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams

Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And the stars never rise but I feel the bright eyes Of the beautiful Annabel Lee (33-6). The poem’s setting has several Gothic elements, as the kingdom by the sea is lonely and in an undefined but mysterious location. Poe does not describe the setting with any specificity, and he weaves a misty, romantic atmosphere around the kingdom until he ends by offering the severe and horrific image of a “sepulchre there by the sea. ” At the same time, the nostalgic tone and the Gothic background serve to repeat the image of a love that outlasts all pposition, from the spiritual jealousy of the angels to the physical barrier of death. Although Annabel Lee has died, the narrator can still see her “bright eyes,” an image of her soul and of the spark of life that gives a promise of a future meeting between the two lovers. The image invoked by this poem is of enduring love. Both this everlasting love and the conclusion of the poem leave the speaker lying on the grave of his departed wife: And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling-my darling-my life and my bride, In the sepulchre there by the sea,

In her tomb by the sounding sea (37-41). As in the case of a number of Poe’s male protagonists who mourn the premature death of beloved women, the love of narrator of “Annabel Lee” goes beyond simple adoration to a more bizarre attachment. Whereas Annabel Lee seems to have loved him in a simple, if nonsexual, manner, the protagonist has mentally sacred her. He blames everyone but himself for her death, pointing at the conspiracy of angels with nature and at the show of paternalism inherent in her “highborn kinsmen” who “came and bore her away,” and he remains dependent upon her memory.

While the narrator of the poem “Ulalume” suffers from an unconscious need to grieve and to return to Ulalume’s grave, the narrator of “Annabel Lee” chooses ironically to lie down and sleep next to a woman who is herself lying down by the sea. Refferences: A History of American Literature: Then and Now, Radojka Vukcevic, Podgorica, 2005 The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, edited by Kevin J. Hayes. Cambridge University Press, 2002

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Annabel Lee as a Representative of Poe’s Poems Essay