Informative Speech Essay

Informative Speech Essay.

Shay McNeal’s Secret Plot To Save The Tsar states that, On July 17, 1918, the Tsar, his wife, and their four daughters and ailing heir were led down to a basement in Ekaterinburg, Russia, and murdered in cold blood by a Bolshevik firing squad. The DNA analysis and identification of the bones were the conclusive proof the world was waiting for, and the case was considered closed. But is that the real story of the Romanovs?

Good afternoon. I’m Abby Cuenca and I’ll share to you today the controversy in regards to the possible escape of Grand Duchess Anastasia Romanov to the Philippines from the 1918 execution.

I will also discuss the evidences presented such as her similar picture with Czarina Alexandra Romanov, coincidental name, grandeur childhood and how she landed in the Pearl of the Orient Seas.

Last May 2012, the Philippine Daily Inquirer published an article wherein a lady called Catherine is expressing the possibility that her grandmother could be The Anastasia of Russia.

She wrote this article in search of her grandmama’s, her nickname for her grandmother, lineage because she was intrigued ever since she was a child about her past. One thing is definite; Catherine’s grandmama is Russian but the rest of her story about whom she really is still a mystery to be unfold. At the end of my speech, I will be handing out some pictures and the copy of the article around for you to look at.

Catherine’s journey of self-discovery started when she traveled to St. Petersburg on May 2009 to trace her Russian roots and to hopefully reunite with her grandmother’s relatives when her mom mentioned the similarities between Czarina Alexandra Romanov and her grandmamma through the photographs Catherine emailed to her. For this reason, Catherine was able to piece together the information of what could be a story begging to be told.

To begin with, Catherine’s grandmama’s name is Tasia, a diminutive for Anastasia, which happens to be similar to one of the Czar’s daughter, Grand Duchess Anastasia Romanov of Russia. Second, her last name was Kazzuhina, or so how they say and spell it because no one in the family can pronounce it right. But suspiciously, Kazzuhina is similar Knyazhna, which comes from Grand Duchess’ Russian name, Velikaya Knyazhna Anastasiya Nikolayevna Romanova that means Duchess.

So if Catherine is saying the truth, then how did the Duchess end up in the Philippines? Grandmama Tasia said she was 18 when she arrived in the Philippines after escaping the Bolshevik Revolution when it escalated in 1918. She disembarked in a Philippine port and brought to a monastery or orphanage somewhere in Manila, where nuns looked after her for some time until she met Catherine’s grandfather, Lope Pelayo.

Furthermore, grandmama shared in her stories that “she was the youngest of four daughters, and the fifth and youngest child of the family was the only boy, Alexei.” She also mentioned on how they lived in a house surrounded by massive walls covered with jewels and enjoy the freshest butter, breads and cheeses because they were made right in their own house and how she rode around in a golden carriage drawn by eight white horses whenever she and her family traveled and that whenever Catherine and her siblings protested on how it all seemed a bit extravagant, she merely smiled and said that it was how they did things back then.

But what’s really intriguing is that, Tasia refuses to go out even to the supermarket or church and keeps on rejecting Catherine’s incessant pleas of writing to the Russian embassy about locating their Russian relatives. She always replies in a stern tone of warning: “If they discover I am here, we will all be killed.” What does this imply?

The Romanov case will never be closed despite what some experts say. There will always be theories and stories that circulate and compel people about the truth behind what happened on the dawn of July 17, 1918. Catherine’s grandmama’s story showing compelling evidences such as her name, similar faces, grandeur childhood and arrival to the Philippines is only a part of it. Remember, there will always be two sides of the story. The question is, which side do you believe on?

Informative Speech Essay

Soviet Union Essay

Soviet Union Essay.

Name_____________________________________________
Unit Four: Ethnicity
1. Define ethnicity:_____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

3. List the four ethnicities mentioned in your text and list their regional location and percentage of the U.S. population: Ethnicity
Region
% in U.S.

4. List two cities where African Americans are concentrated and give the percentage of population they make up in these cities: 4.a._________________________________________________________________________________ 4.b.__________________________________________________________________________________ 5. List three cities where Hispanics are concentrated and give the percentage of population they make up in these cities: 5.a._________________________________________________________________________________ 5.b.__________________________________________________________________________________ 5.c._________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Name and describe three major migration patterns of African-Americans that have shaped their current distribution in the U.

S: 6.a._________________________________________________________________________________ 6.b.__________________________________________________________________________________ 6.c._________________________________________________________________________________

7. Contrast ethnicity and

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Soviet Union Essay

The October Manifesto Essay

The October Manifesto Essay.

Assess the following statement: ‘The October Manifesto marked the formal end of autocratic government; for the first time the Tsar was forced to share his law-making powers’ The October Manifesto was a vague but insincere promise of political reform, issued by Tsar Nicholas II at the height of the 1905 Revolution (J. Llewellyn et al, “The October Manifesto). The Manifesto, a document proposed by Sergei Witte, which demanded civil liberties and the creation of a Duma, was an important stage in the 1905 Revolution, as the revolutionaries thought they had finally gained power and influence over the tsar.

Effectively, the Duma would rob the tsar of his autocratic power, have influential legislative powers and successfully mark the formal end of autocratic government. Nonetheless, the tsar’s cunning and devious ways prohibited this from happening. By granting concession and implementing his fundamental laws, the October Manifesto did force the Tsar to temporarily share his law-making powers, but it did not cease autocratic government in Russia.

American philanthropist Howard Hughes once said ‘Once you consent to some concession, you can never cancel it and put things back the way they are’, and when first reviewing the Russian Revolution of 1905 it would seem that this quote would be extremely accurate. In theory, the tsar would have signed the manifesto out of defeat, the Duma would have been created and he would have lost his cherished autocratic power. However, the tsar agreeing to the manifesto was actually him giving the revolutionaries concession.

Not only was the tsar giving the people what they wanted, he was correspondingly eliminating their disapproval of him and his autocratic power. Whilst his opposition was distracted by the small concession he had granted them, the tsar was able to plot and plan how he would maintain his power. He took to the throne swearing to ‘protect the principle of autocracy as firmly and unwaveringly as did my late father. ’ It is clear that Nicholas’s intentions were to retain his family legacy, something he found exceedingly difficult.

He had originally stated that ‘I am not yet ready to be Tsar. I know nothing of the business of ruling. ’ However once he was put under pressure, his family legacy and autocratic beliefs paved the way for Nicholas to deceive his opposition and ultimately prevented the end of autocratic government in Russia. With the Duma ready to be inaugurated, the tsar realised he could not retain his autocratic power with The Duma. He needed to demonstrate to not only his followers but his adversaries that he was not willing to be efeated, and with his power he could get around the Manifesto, and that autocracy was the most beneficial option for the future of Russia.

“Nicholas believed wholeheartedly in autocracy. He thought that democracy with elections and parliaments would lead to the collapse of Russia’. (GSCE textbook)To achieve, just before the signing of the Manifesto, Nicholas published his fundamental laws. The laws were a set of 124 decrees which categorized individual rights, including religion and changes to the succession of the throne, but they also undermined promises for political reform that were made in the 1905 October Manifesto. Unknown, Alpha History).

The three main laws that denied the Duma of their power and consequently weakened the October Manifesto were: 4. The Emperor of All the Russia’s possesses Supreme Sovereign Power. Obedience to His authority, not only out of fear, but in good conscience, is ordained by God Himself 8. The initiative in all legislative matters belongs to the Sovereign Emperor. Only upon His initiative may the Fundamental Laws be subject to revision by (in) the State Council and the State Duma 86.

No new law can be enacted without the ratification of the State Council and the State Duma, and cannot go into effect without being approved by the Sovereign Emperor. It was clear through this the antagonistic relationship between the Tsar and the First Duma further highlighted the Tsar’s unwillingness to relinquish his hold on absolute political authority, which he had so brashly moved to abandon in 1905.

It can conversely be discussed that the October Manifesto and the succeeding events did in-fact end the reign of autocratic government in Russia; and because it was the first time the tsar was involuntary forced into sharing his power, it marked a defining moment in the Romanov dynasty and Russian politics; and although the tsar did eventually counteract the conditions of the Manifesto and regain supremacy, the conception of the Duma put an official end to Tsarist Russia. As the tsar was forced to sign the Manifesto, it officially signified his defeat by the revolutionaries and the end of autocratic government in Russia.

A newspaper bulletin published by St Petersburg in 1906 is a useful piece of evidence, a primary source that officially signified and documented the rules of the Manifesto and its imminent impact on the population and Tsarist reign. The Tsar was bullied into creating the Duma; there was no other option if he was to avoid a revolution. Official end of full autocratic government was celebrated by many and history was made as it was the first time in the Romanov dynasty a tsar was required to sacrifice some of law-making power. The 1905 Revolution was an uprising of the people of Russia calling for a change in their government. Bowman, the 1905 revolution)

The October Manifesto was a defining moment in the revolution and in the history of Russian politics. It marked the first occasion on which the tsar was forced into giving up his autocratic power. Nicholas II made promises of political reform, and once these concessions were given; the revolution was essentially doomed to failure -leaving the Tsarist regime shaken but not brought down. “Nicholas believed wholeheartedly in autocracy. He thought that democracy with elections and parliaments would lead to the collapse of Russia’’

The October Manifesto Essay

Vladimir Putin Essay

Vladimir Putin Essay.

Introduction

            Vladimir Putin was born on October 7, 1952 in Leningrad, former Soviet Union. He is the president of Russian Federation. In 1975, Putin attended Leningrad State University and obtained the degree in International Law. He was the member of Communist Part of Soviet Union in his university. He continued to be an active member till the party was disbanded in December 1991. His career as a President started in December 31, 1999 when he became acting President, coming after Boris Yeltsin.

He won the 2000 presidential elections and was appointed for a second term which will end on May 7, 2008.

Previously, he was a KGB agent in East Germany. In 1990s, he acted as the vice mayor of St. Petersburg (Fitzpatrick, 2005). Ensuing the accomplishment and achievement in deflection of invasion of Dagestan in Second Chechen war, Putin’s reputation and status in Russia escalated, allowing him to win the presidential elections of 2000, with 52% of support.

President Vladimir Putin as a Leader

It should be noted first that Putin’s leadership potential instigated in his childhood.

Vladimir Putin revealed that he was beaten by physically powerful children in his violent and rough locality in Leningrad. He further mentioned that he was able to react without delay to any assault. He mastered the art of sambo which is the Russian form of judo and wrestling. His next pursuit was to master judo and eventually he became a black belt and city wide champion. Putin’s training in judo educated and trained him to control his sentiments and feelings. The skillfulness and ability he showed in his younger years helped in his adulthood to be more structured and strategic (Fitzpatrick 2005).

The ability of using planned approach aided with problem resolving demonstrated that he was destined to become most powerful person in the country. Vladimir Putin made his voters remember why they are fond of him so much by paying a surprise to the troops combating the combat in Chechnya. The war of Chechnya is the key factor that boosted his reputation and status and also the victory in support of governmental parties in recent parliamentary elections. Mr. Putin’s incantation of patriotism at present fits the image of a leader who has been presented by pro-Kremlin media as a tough protector and champion of countrywide welfare (Fitzpatrick, 2005).

As President of Russia, he once stated that one has to be hard and constant in their proceedings. Without these, a leader will fail as the head of state. Putin affirms that it is essential to be responsible. There is no need to hide behind the government, the rules and regulations or the military. He confidently asserts that losing temper is completely intolerable and it is vital to appoint appropriate people for the job. He then states that being patient and forgiving is the most difficult thing but a leader is a leader who has these capabilities who can distinguish between candidates for the errands and responsibilities in hand.

            Being the head of the state, he is the person who has to acknowledge and understand the greatest responsibility and take the toughest decisions. His fame and recognition among the people of Russia shows his integrity according to a Pew Global Attitudes Survey conducted in April of 2004 which showed that three out of four Russians expressed assurance and reliance in Putin to do the right thing in world affairs (Sakwa, 2004)

He has the ability to deal with facts. For example, there is constant instability in Chechnya which proves he know how to deal with unstable conditions and how to find a solution for it.  Putin is very influential on the people in his team. His team members show their loyalty and confidence in him because he is a powerful leader. The positional manner depicts his uniqueness and distinctiveness as extremely organization minded and strong work ethic. Putin’s government is a characteristic case where particularized leadership can mold its predilection on a period. Putin’s charisma is distinguishing but clearly of mass type.

He is a powerful leader who has a vision for his country. Brilliant case that depicted President Putin as a magnetic and compelling head of the state had taken place in Guatemala City when one member of International Olympic Committee Jean-Claude Killy remarks the actuality Sochi selection as a city for Olympic Winter Games in 2014. Putin’s personal charismatic personality glittered when he heard Killy tell the story, which made a difference. Putin spoke in English and French which he never did publicly. Putin is also recognized as he brought stability in Russia’s industrial sector.

He struggles to organize, direct and manage his work with the work of the group he heads, to establish responsibilities, to place promotion and support of proposals and activities, to bring affairs and issues to a conclusion in spite of the complicatedness and problems. He is oriented at joint hard work. He seeks to comprehend an individual not because of his idiosyncratic characteristics, but in full with no separation between business and non-business traits.

Vladimir Putin’s Impact on Political Structure of Russia

The political attitude of Putin’s government is mostly portrayed as sovereign, independent democratic system; the expression used both positively as well as negatively. Russia has had its bumps on the way to democracy but now it seems it is under the power of Putin’s management and ruling alone. President Vladimir Putin has destabilized limitations and equilibrium within the state, weakened political and legal clearness, and made it impossible for media, political parties, etc to practice free speech.

Most of the people think that Putin has the power of state in hand and has converted into a controlling undemocratic form. If the statement is held true, it commenced before the year 2008. In, 2000 Putin had introduced authoritarian policies and sets of rules to consolidate the government’s power (Colton, 2003). The authority moved from the local governors, groups, and committee to the hands of Putin’s management. Putin’s management reestablished the governments’ power and hold strong and also had the ambition to eliminate anything and anyone who will try to talk against it.

Vladimir’s Impact on Russian Economy

Under Putin’s management, Russia’s economy saw improvement in GDP. From 2000, the GDP was 10%. In 2001, it was 5.7%. In 2003, the GDP was 7.3%. In 2007, the GDP was found out to be 8.1%. The industrialized and agricultural production rates, construction industry, genuine incomes, the amount of user credit increased forty five times. The amount of people living in abject poverty decreased from a figure of 29% to 15.8% in 2007(Aslund, 2007). Russia’s financial system continued to expand, improving after suffering economic catastrophe in 1998. A number of significant modifications in retirement, in the field of banking, income tax, the legalizing tender’s benefits and others have taken place.

Vladimir’s Impact on Foreign Policy of Russia

Vladimir Putin has tracked a planned pattern that exhibits fundamental element of conviction in the foreign policy of Russia, regardless of the significant and often agonizing changes since the failure of Communism; Russia preserves the capability to act as a superpower. Instead of establishing their country’s security on the implementation of polygonal standards and institutions, the creators of Russian foreign guidelines have preserved a customary conception of security as a purpose of power and sovereignty.

Russia’s foreign policy under Putin has accentuated strategic planned litheness and prudence as it searches for an inhalation room to recover the country’s power. If Putin is successful in this strategy, Russia will be influential. Although, the success or failure of Putin’s aspiration of Russian foreign policy will not be identified for certain period of time, it symbolizes a determined and rational aspiration that Western leaders would also want to achieve (Petro 2004).

The ascension of Vladimir Putin to the presidency in January 2000 assisted to strengthen Russia’s foreign policy. Putin has implemented a secure controlling effect on foreign policy pronouncement, reducing the Foreign Ministry to fundamentally a perpetrator, instead of initiating the policy. As a result, Russia’s attitude towards the foreign policy has shown great consistency in the last few years. By consolidating foreign policy, decision making is the basic constituent of what Putin’s stipulates as the increase of power. Putin has successfully removed the thoughts about the values supporting foreign policy from the forces of partisan politics (Petro, 2004).

Putin’s aspiration to make Russia the independent player in global affairs by strengthening the state and continuing a amiable world order has the seal of true majestic strategic aspiration. Despite his capacity to control the political and bureaucratic background, Putin’s capacity to carry on unhindered in the field of foreign policy is to a great amount dependent on his devotion to the universal tactical agreement that has existed in Russia since late 1990s.

Putin has been cautious to conserve Russia’s liberty of maneuver, never identifying entirely with either Westernization or Eurasianist inclination in Russian political thinking, but balancing between the two. Despite his wish for cordial relations with Russia’s neighbors, Putin is open about his goal to fortify Russia as a perquisite to play positive role globally (Petro, 2004).

Vladimir Putin’s Impact on Media

Putin was widely criticized in the West because of his wide scale attack on media freedom in Russia. In 2005, the share of Russians supporting restriction on TV grew from 63% to 82%. In an interview conducted in 2007 by newspaper journalists, Putin supported that the period of president in Russia should be more than four years. The president is elected for a period of four years in accordance to the constitution of Russia. On September 12, 2007, Russian news agencies testified that Putin suspended the government on the request of Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov. The Russian government has cracked down hard on independent media. Censorship has been introduced to any news channel or newspaper which has criticized any government policy.

Vladimir’s Impact on Other Issues

Putin suggested to create Public Chamber of Russia in September, 2004 and introduced an initiative to substitute straightforward election of governors and presidents of Federal subjects of Russia with a system that they will be planned and put forward by President and approved or rejected by the local legislatures. He also commenced the amalgamation of number of federal subjects of Russia into superior bodies. According to various reports, one of the major internal issue concerns for President Putin were the troubles taking place from the continuing demographic and social trends in Russia, such as the death rate is higher than birth rate, extreme poverty conditions and housing concerns within Russia.

Four national projects were introduced in 2005 in the areas of education, housing, healthcare and agriculture. Putin in his annual speech gave the proposal of escalating maternity benefits and prenatal care for women. Putin introduced reforms in judiciary and initiated “Sovietesque”, in which several judges pass the same judgments as they would under the former Soviet judiciary structure, and favoring a judiciary that understood and put into practice the code to the present situation. The duties for centralized prisons were reassigned from the Interior Ministry to Ministry of Justice in the year 2005. In 2005; responsibility for federal prisons was transferred from the Interior Ministry to the Ministry of Justice (Fitzpatrick, 2005).

Personal Assessment of Vladimir Putin

The man Vladimir Putin is an effective leader and head of state who is trying his best to bring Russia into the world of economics instead of competing in the stable race of weapons of mass destruction. He is a wise and valuable leader in his country by trying his level best to fortify Russia. In his reign, the financial crisis of 1998 when Russia was on the verge of economic breakdown was reversed with strong economic growth recorded in many years. President Putin has turned out to be a real strong leader for his people. Russia has become more open and cost-effective country. Russia has become liberal by allowing the Russians flourish as operational based economy making own money.

Vladimir Putin is a visionary leader of Russia. Putin has become the actual power and strength for modifying and working in and through the United Nations where he’s has obtained the status of a respected and influential leader many countries. President Putin’s popularity cannot be questioned. He’s has the ability of a good speaker. Vladimir Putin has earned the respect of many countries as he speaks against the continuous arms build up by any super power.

However, the Russians support Putin’s attentiveness of political influence and control and strongly support him. However in his reign, media censorship was present. In spite of Putin’s popularity in Russia as well as public support, Putin has also been the victim of criticism. Wide variety of restructuring and modifications were completed under Putin’s term as a President have been disapproved by some confidentially owned Russian media and numerous Western critics as against democracy.The issues of citizen rights  is highly debatable topic, when someone thinks on the issue of democracy. Indeed the rights of citizen are essential. However the constancy and sanctuary are of significant importance for the public. Although, Putin has some negative traits but they can be ignored because as a leader he has played a positive role in changing Russia.

 Reference

Catherine A. Fitzpatrick (2005). First Person: An Astonishingly Frank Self-Portrait of Russia’s President, Vladimir Putin. New York: Public Affairs.

Timothy J. Colton (2003). Popular Choice and Managed Democracy: the Russian elections. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.

Richard Sakwa (2004). Putin: Russia’s Choice. London: Routledge.

Nicolai N. Petro(2004). Russian Foreign Policy: From Empire to Nation-State. New York: Longman.

Anders Aslund (2007).How Russia Became a Market Economy.Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

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Vladimir Putin Essay

Evolution of Power Distance in Russia Essay

Evolution of Power Distance in Russia Essay.

Several authors such as Hofstede, Shwarz and Trompenaars investigated the characteristics of power distribution in different societies, each with their own accents. Hofstede uses the criteria of power distance. It describes to what extend a countries population accepts that power in organisations and institutions is unquelly divided. In other words ; is the power distribution mainly based on vertical or horizontal relationships? (Nardon & Steers, 2006 ; Robins, Judge & Campbell, 2011)

In countries with a high Power Distance Index (PDI) the population seems to accept that there is a high inequality of power distribution.

The use of that power is not necessarily abussive. The population actually believes that the inequality will produce more welfare for it’s society (Nardon & Steers, 2006). A good example of a high inequality acceptance can be found in ancient Rome: The senate used to transfer it’s authorities to a dictator when war was to be expected because Romans believed that one strong person was more fit to rule in times of crisis.

The population of countries with a low PDI rather expect a more egalitarian and participative distribution of power. They expect to be consulted on various key issues that affect them in a substantial way. E.g. : Ireland (PDI : 23) held a referendum to decide whether to approve the European Lisbon-Treaty.

Hofstede originally estimated that Russia had a PDI of 95. This put Russia in the top three among 53 countries that had been investigated. (Hofstede, 1993) Taking the countries previous historical evolution into account, this high number doesn’t seem that surprising. Russia has a long tradition of centralisation of authority and authoritarian leadership. The pre-Revolutionary period was characterised by a lack of democratic structures and a strong centralization in the hands of the state wich resulted in a relatively high level of unequal distribution of power. The coming of Stalin’s regime, where the communist Party was used as an uncontestable stratification framework, did not bring any major changes on that account.

More recent studies show a strong decrease of Russia’s PDI. Naumov & Puffer estimated Russia’s PDI to be only 40 points in 2000, which puts the country close to the average and next to developed countries such as the Netherlands (38), Canada (39) and the USA (40). Veiga, Yanouzaz and Buchholtz confirmed that power distance in Russia dropped significantly after the perestrojka was announced. Two of the main reasons for the decrease might be attributed to the economic en political decentralisation following the post-communist reforms and the privatisation of economic power that led to a separation of the lather (Naumov & Puffer, 2000).

It should be stressed that a high PDI seems somewhat typical for communist countries. Russia had a significantly higher power distance acceptance in earlier studies when it recently had experienced the communist regime. China, also a country with communist roots, scores quite highly on the power distance index. Now that both countries take a more market-oriented approach, the PDI is dropping. This is quite surprising in a certain point of view : Wasn’t it Marx’s goal to create an equal society grid for the whole population? This result illustrates the gap between theory and practice that’s inherent to the communist policy. (Fernandez, Carlson, Stepina & Nicholson, 1997).

Evolution of Power Distance in Russia Essay

The Harp Seal Essay

The Harp Seal Essay.

No other seal on earth can truly be represented as the most studied as well as the most exploited as the Harp Seal is. There are number of various products that are derived from this particular seal. This happens to be a major source of business in certain countries. Those such as Norway, Canada, and China rely heavily on the products for a good portion of their import and export income. At this time there is nothing suggesting a slowdown in the seal products.

The consumers keep the demand for the products at a steady stream. The Harp Seal too many is considered a beautiful and gentle creature. However the sealers (seal hunter), often refer to the animal as a type of fish. They could not be more incorrect. The Harp seal is an aquatic mammal that is related to the sea lion and the walrus. Further breakdown in the classification system shows the mammal belongs to the Suborder of Pinnipedia.

A Pinnipedia basically means a flipper footed animal.

Then they are put in the Family of Phocidae which means that the true Harp Seal lacks an external ear. The Harp Seal lives separated into three groups which are determined by where they will breed. The seal can be found living in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans from Russia to Newfoundland and St. Lawrence and Canada. Specifically they are located in the White Sea, The West Ice and the Northwest Atlantic. Fossil remains studied by expert’s points to an existence from about twenty million years ago.

They were found to be living in the northern hemisphere and are derived from a group of meat eating land based mammals. The Harp Seal is named so because of the distinctive pattern on the fur as an adult. They have a base color or white or light cream shades with a black face and the black horseshoe or harp shaped design across their back. Young seal pups however, are called “white coats” due to the fact they are born with an all white coat. This is the typical picture that people imagine when they think of the cute fuzzy animal.

Unfortunately this stunning coat helps contribute to their own demise. Although killing the animal before it loses the all white coat is prohibited, many sealers still fiercely seek out the pups to then make fur coats. The seal will begin to lose the soft white coat when they are about two weeks old. Then is replaced with a permanent coat that is short, thick and has variations of the white or light cream color with the face being black and of course the black harp shaped design across their back.

All three populations are hunted each year for commercial use. The majority of sealers are in Canada, Norway, Russia and Greenland As mentioned earlier, the Harp Seal is used to make many products. They produce a type of oil, medications and the meat is sold for a source of food for some animals and humans. As odd as it may be, even the penis is used and is sold as an aphrodisiac. The idea that is most under fire by advocates is the manner by which the mammal killed.

Most sealers club the animal in the head with a baseball bat or another heavy object. Even more disturbing is the fact that some sealers have seen skinning the animal while still alive sometimes conscious! In 2001 a group of advocates posed as tourists and took the guided tours to where the animal is slaughtered. One of the guides went so far as to tell the people that page 3 the seal population needed to be decreased and that the seal was to blame for the cod shortage.

This is where it was discovered that many animals had to be struck a second time and forty-two percent of the seals where in fact being skinned alive and often still conscious. If the seal is not killed prematurely, they may live an average of thirty years. Although a seal pup starts off relatively small, at about twenty pounds, they end up becoming about three-hundred pounds. The average length of an adult is about five feet, five inches. The females are typically somewhat smaller than the males.

The Harp Seal Essay

Why did the Revolution occur in Russia in 1917? Essay

Why did the Revolution occur in Russia in 1917? Essay.

The Russian Revolution of 1917 occurred for a number of different reasons, all of which are strongly tied up with the Romanov family. For one, the people of the Russian Empire felt exploited due to a series of political, social and economic grievances. Also, it was widely thought that the Tsar, Nicholas Romanov II, was unfit to rule his people. Finally, with the onset of World War 1 (WW1) and the crippling impacts that it had on the lower classes of Russia, the Russian people finally revolted against their ruling authorities, which resulted in the March Revolution and Nicholas’ abdication of the throne.

This marked the end of the Romanov Dynasty and the start of Communist Russia.

Russia modernized extremely late, relative to other European countries, and this mid-modernizing period played a large role in the lead up the revolution. Up until then, Russia was still stuck in the social constructs set up in medieval times, such as the hierarchy triangle, in which the Royals were most important, then the Clergy, then the Army, then the Capitalists and finally the working class and peasants.

Because of this system, the peasants were the lowest of the low, and although they made up the largest percentage of the population, they had the least rights and had no way of getting out of their social position. They felt the continual onslaught of political, social and economic grievances from the government, for example, up until the early 1880’s, they were not allowed to own land, and even when Tsar Alexander – Nicholas’ father – emancipated them and allowed them to own their own land, they were constantly crippled by taxes of crops and money.

These poor living conditions were only magnified when peasants heard stories of the emancipation in other countries in Europe, which eventually resulted in a cry for peasant rights that was not answered fully until the revolution. A new class had also arisen due to the modernizing of Russia – the working class. This class was mainly made up of poor farmers who moved to the cities in order to find work in the many factories that were appearing. These people lived in even worse conditions to the peasants. They worked 12 hour days, lived in disgustingly small, cramped, filthy living environments and only earned just enough money to survive, as food was more expensive in the city.

Even the nobility, those stuck with lots of money and land but no promotional opportunities, felt the strain of those political, social and economic grievances caused by the government. They felt the government had stolen their land to give to the peasants, because of their emancipations, which had caused a lot of nobility to loose their land. Because of this, they were stripped of their natural authority, as they did not owned all of the land anymore, and were no longer so far above the peasants. These three people groups strongly felt taken advantage of by the acts of the government through the political, social and economic grievances. They were discontent with their current situation, and this restlessness is what exploded at the start of the revolution.

The failure of the Russian Tsar, Nicholas Romanov, was also a contributing factor of the 1917 Revolution. It was widely acknowledged that Nicholas had not received the correct instruction for the ruling of a country, as his father had died while he was still quite young. This could be seen through his acts as a ruler. Nicholas was ignorant of constitutional matters, and he believed that it was his ‘right’ to rule because he wanted to keep the ruling power in his family. Nicholas did not have a strong character and would often listen to useless advice from his most trusted officials, while disregarding any advice that did not allow him to keep his absolute power. One of his most trusted officials, Gregory Rasputin, constantly fed the Tsar useless and potentially damaging advice, which he listened to. In fact, it was advised by some of the Russian officials that the Russo-Japanese War would leave Russia crippled, but Nicholas ignored them and suffered a terrible defeat in 1904-05.

He had wanted to obtain Manchuria as a colony so that Russia could start to build a fleet as the other nations had done, however after the disastrous defeat to the Japanese, the war served to bring the opposite affect, undermining the trust his people had in him and showing them the shortcomings of an autocratic government. An outcry arose all across Russia and strikes broke out in St Petersburg. This discontent among the people rallied them together, which lead to the 1905 revolution. Lead by Georgy Gapon, the revolution went from January 1905-June 1907. During this time, a petition was drawn up and over 150, 000 signatures were collected from the people of Russia. The petition called for 8 hour working days, increases in wages, better living conditions, universal suffrage and the end of the Russo-Japanese War.

Along with thousands of striking Russian workers, Gapon marched on the Winter Palace to present the petition to the Tsar, but he was not there. Instead, the Russian people met the bullets of the soldiers, and it is estimated that between there were between 400-4000 causalities. In the aftermath of this massacre of the Russian people, later referred to as ‘Bloody Sunday’, The Tsar wrote the October Manifesto, giving the people the rights to vote and hold parliament.

Personally though, the Tsar retained the right to rule absolutely and to disband the people’s government, called the Duma, at any given time. And so it was that although the October Manifesto seemed to answer the peoples cry for more rights, the Tsar retained all of his power and really changed nothing, as all laws could only be passed if he deemed them right, and he could make instantaneous laws without the approval of the Duma. This political struggle for power and instability ultimately led to the 1917 Revolution and the end of the Romanov Dynasty.

After years of struggle with the Dumas, being constantly dissolved and set up again by different political parties, there was finally a hint of political stability in Russia. This was crushed by the onset of WW1. As a developing nation, Russia had millions of soldiers entering the war, however almost no equipment. The war was a chance for Nicholas to regain some of the respect from those he ruled, however it ultimately exposed his inadequacy to rule to the nation. The war was badly organized, and troops were often sent to the front line with only a few weeks of training, if even that. They often only had one rifle between two soldiers, and were issued with only 6 bullets per day. In the freezing temperatures of Northern Europe, many of the soldiers did not even have boots, and there were many deaths not caused by German soldiers, but by disease and frostbite.

Nicholas appointed himself as Commander-in-Chief of the entire army, and considered it important to remain on the warfront, overseeing his troops, instead of ruling his country back at home. While he was away, his wife Alexandria ruled, however it is suspected the Rasputin was actually behind many of her decisions. As Alexandria was not Russian but German, and Rasputin not of royal blood, this caused dissention among the people. The war sapped all of Russia’s resources, and led to the transport system left in disrepair, massive inflation and a shortage of food. Strikes became a common part of everyday life, and small revolts across Russia started to appear. Finally, while Nicholas was at the warfront, a revolution sweeps across Russia, and this time there will be no peaceful resolution.

Violence increased and demands for food turn into demands for the Tsar to abdicate his position to his son and give power to the Duma. In the meantime, the Duma formed the Provisional Government to govern. The Tsar was asked to share power with the Prime Minister, however he refused. This led to the Tsars ministers being arrested, and the Provisional Government taking control of the army. Nicholas, seeing the absolute destruction raging across his country, finally decided to abdicate his power to his brother, Mikhail, however he refused. Because of this, the order to arrest Nicholas and his entire family was called for, and they are all taken to a palace outside St Petersburg and put under house arrest.

However, Nicholas still had some supporters, and they fought for his release. As the new government was formed from the Bolshevik party, those who supported Nicholas called themselves the ‘anti-Bolsheviks’. As they continued to fight their way towards Nicholas in an attempt to rescue his, the order was given by the Bolsheviks to kill the entire royal family. They were all shot and their bodies were hidden – a final end to the struggle for power. Because of this internal collapse, Russia had pulled out of WW1 in 1917, however it was the sapping nature and Nicholas’ failure to rule during the war that lead to this rebellion and the murder of the entire royal family.

Out of this chaos and confusion, Communist Russia stepped up and took control of the country. The Romanov Dynasty had finally come to an end, and this was caused by a number of reasons. The political, social and economic grievances felt by the people of Russia started the collapse of their faith in an autocratic rule, and the failures of the Tsar continued this belief, however it was the disorder caused by WW1 that finally brought about the 1917 Revolution, Nicholas’ abdication and the end of Romanov Rule in Russia.

Why did the Revolution occur in Russia in 1917? Essay

Assess the Reasons for the February Revolution Essay

Assess the Reasons for the February Revolution Essay.

He was also Anti-semitic, a quality which is why he did nothing about attacks by the black hundreds or the like, and this is also why many Jews joined the revolutionary parties. Nicholas also appointed many bad ministers, who actually worsened the situation, rather than keeping the better ministers such as Stolypin and Witte, who had aimed to reform Russia, instead dismissing them. He refused to grant political reforms such as those demanded in the 1905 revolution. His government’s failure to politically reform also led to problems.

They promised reforms that weren’t carried out, didn’t pass reforms that could have been extremely helpful to Russia’s situation. They also didn’t accept ideas such as liberal freedoms, and Stolypin’s own reforms soon proved to be too little, too late. Nicholas’ Failure to reform due to his conservatism, as well as his government’s failure, proved to be its downfall. Lack of reform left the working classes in poor conditions, which let Socialism grow rapidly, with the middle class becoming Critical of the Tsar and his system.

The Government didn’t deal with the peasantry and the land hunger, and Stolypin’s reforms did not aid the situation in the end. They increasingly used suppression as War grew closer, causing more and more discontent. As well as this, if Nicholas II hadn’t been the way he was, there wouldn’t have been the revolutionary parties that pushed for change. The First World War is a highly important factor, and Russia’s entry into it was due to its foreign policy, and it ties to France due to loans. There were three years of very little success, which demoralised the people.

The army was highly inefficient and unorganised, with massive casualties in battles. The war caused a great strain on the economy, which affected the working class and the peasantry, in that the peasantry were pushed to produce food which was hard to produce in the harsh conditions of Russia, and the working class were pushed hard to produce weaponry in the factories. And this caused discontent among the many classes of Russia. There was also a strain on social cohesion, with people beginning to grow more discontent on the whole, and with less unity.

As well as this the incompetence of the government was revealed, which was shown to all the people of Russia now that it couldn’t be hidden. To add to this, the government began to increase its use of suppression, forcing Russian culture on Minorities, persecuting Jews, using reactionary actions to deal with protest, and continuing with the oppressive Okhrana. The government also showed its lack of understanding on how to deal with protest, as it most often simply reverted to suppression rather than negotiation, which just led to more discontent and riots.

Industrialisation is another important factor, as well as the working class. The proletariat was growing, with poor conditions and overcrowding, combined with the lack of reforms by the government. Socialism was becoming huge in working class circles, and they began to move for change. There were many working class strikes, especially during the February revolution. The higher industrial demand of the war as well as the growing industry put strains on the peasantry, with high taxes, which caused mass discontent.

The peasantry as well as the land hunger in Russia was also a factor of fair importance. The Peasants wanted the land that belonged to the gentry, and Stolypin’s reforms hadn’t resolved this, as peasants began taking land for their own. As well as this, the peasants that were conscripted into the army became disillusioned and would eventually join the others in the February revolution against the Tsar and his regime. There was also a lack of food, and the failure to supply sufficient amounts of grain led to urban unrest.

The Middle class’ opposition towards the government began to grow in the lead up to this period. There was a growth in Political debate, despite Autocracy’s ongoing reign, as well as a growing middle class involvement in the Zemstva and a general belief in the need to widen the basis of the regime. There began a development of Professions, and the Intelligentsia that had been educated in the Universities began to see what was going wrong. As well as this, Education was becoming more widespread, so more and more people were becoming disillusioned about the government and its actions.

The lower classes began seeing what was wrong with the country and its government, and began wanting change. Alexandra and Rasputin were a strong influence on Nicholas II, and she reinforced his belief in autocracy. As well as this, Alexandra’s German origins led to fake rumours of her treason against Russia, which although fake, still sowed discontent among the people, especially in Petrograd. Rasputin gained influence over the Royal Family, leading to people being unsure who was really in power.

Nicholas was influenced by both of these people, and this means they too contributed to Russia’s problems. The Revolutionary parties only really took control after the revolution, but they still had their part to play in it, albeit a more passive part. Their propaganda undermined loyalty to the Regime, and they reduced the quality of the Bureaucracy by drawing away the able young ministers. The Government grew afraid of them, and tried to use increasing amounts of suppression to try and control them, which just increased discontent.

Overall, Nicholas II is the most important factor in the outbreak of the Revolution. If he had not been there, the other factors would probably not have existed. He caused the discontent and protest simply because of the failure of his government to reform, rather they chose to uphold Autocracy and not give any power to the people of Russia. The least important factor is the Revolutionary parties, as although they played a more active and important part in the aftermath of the Revolution, they were mostly passive in the largely spontaneous February revolution.

Assess the Reasons for the February Revolution Essay

Animal Farm Essaytechniques Essay

Animal Farm Essaytechniques Essay.

Orwell believes that communism is dangerous to the public and is a form of enslaving the population of a free nation. In order to express his attitudes towards Russia’s political system Orwell wrote the text animal farm in the form of a satirical allegory, and utilized narrative elements such as Plot and Themes to deliver his moral, which elicits his attitudes, or feelings towards communism. In order to increase the target audience of the text and thus further raise awareness Orwell wrote animal farm in the form of a satirical novel.

The effect of this decision was that the novel captivated its audience and despite a greater meaning, while still understandable by the younger populace. A satirical allegory is a text that ridicules aspects of something whilst utilizing symbolic characters or references. An example directly from the text itself is Orwell’s portrayal of Soviet Russia’s political leaders Stalin and Trotsky. In the text Orwell portrays these men as pigs, which are often associated with greed and selfishness.

Such selfishness occurred with Russia’s political leaders, who oppressed the population and lived the high life while their people suffered.

This idea of greed in political leaders is also further reinforced by the progression of the characters through the plot. As mentioned earlier, being an allegory Animal farm symbolically references both people as well as events. The events, or actual plot of animal farm was intended to mirror the events of the Russian revolution, albeit portraying them in a fitting way. As the plot unfolds, and the characters develop we begin to see through events the greed, and slow class stratification that results. We begin to see as Orwell intends, that under the communist system hat animal farm assumes after the revolution; that when rivaling parties are chased out, and only one political party remains, a free nation slowly transforms into one of oppression under a totalitarian leader. These events act to elicit the idea of communism being very dangerous to the freedom of society and the general public, which were virtually enslaved by their leaders and worked to death for the sole benefit of their leaders. Another method of communication used by Orwell to display his attitude towards Soviet Russia’s political system is themes.

Orwell makes extensive use of the themes of greed and the control of society through propaganda to show the negative effects of a communist government. In Animal Farm, the greed of the pigs causes them to enslave their fellow animals through the use of a consistent bombardment of propaganda which literally brainwashes the animals into believing they are working for themselves rather than their tyrant leaders. This mirrors communist Russia in the forties where propaganda and even religion were used to control the population and make them believe that they were all working to benefit themselves, when in reality this was not the case.

George Orwell’s combination of these parallel events in the plot with real events in communist Russia, and use of themes to reinforce his ideas contained within his satirical allegory, act to elicit the idea that communism itself. Whether it be in Russia or elsewhere, it is destructive on the lives of the entire working population of the nation, and even though equality is promoted, greed consumes the leaders. This results in extreme class stratification, which leads to a society by which the population is almost lifeless and where are all working for the benefit of the political leaders.

Animal Farm Essaytechniques Essay