Fire Safety Essay

Fire Safety Essay.

The entire casualty of a fire to a society may be equal to all the fire hazards in the society; this would comprise of the buildings, agriculture, transportation, and so on. A lot of factors contribute to the total cost. With regards to the damage caused by the fires we have, definitely, the direct casualty of life, harm and the real economic losses due to the occurrence of fire. There are indirect or important outcomes because of the disorder of amenities, loss of trade, and means of employment.

There is also community distress and unease, specifically the subsequent chief catastrophes and the cost of any hassle caused. The outlay of fire safety procedures includes costs meant for fire prevention, fire control when they occur, and extenuating their direct and indirect aftermath. This comprises the cost of services such as the fire contingent, fire indemnity, and an extensive part of building power or other variable measures (Rasbash, 2004). The Nature of the Fire Hazard

The hazard of fire is the result of unrestrained, exothermic responses, particularly involving natural resources and air.

It is predominantly connected with flammable materials and energy resources utilized by people in daily life. Although fire intimidates both the living and their property, and its management costs much disbursement, the danger must be situated against the advantage achieved from these properties so that an unbiased view can be attained. Furthermore, existing principles are greatly reliant on the utilization of buildings.

The additional risk when fires happen in an enclosed space, by means of the increased temperature and smoke being trapped rather than moving comparatively safely upward, requires being located against the essential worth of using buildings. It then follows that one cannot, in general abolish the danger of fire, although one can lessen it to an adequately low intensity by appropriate design measures (Kiurski, 1999). Major Fire Hazard Areas Loss and damage caused by fire can occur anytime activity happens. Maybe the most common setting for such activity is inside buildings.

Such incorporate both domestic and nondomestic grounds, and the latter can expand to a broad array of tenure, such as various factories, establishment structures where there are particular dangers to the community, these includes areas of open assemblies and spaces where people sleep, like hotels and hospitals. Business occupancies broaden further than building structures to take in mines, process plants within open, offshore mechanisms, agricultural harvests, and forestry. Lastly there is an entire variety of amenities for highway, rail, marine, and air transportation even lengthening in current period to satellites and space sections.

For most of these danger zones, a substantial and expensive fire incidence conditions has built up over the time being and has known to widespread necessities for fire safety. In the world of fire insurance, particular danger locations are regularly called “risks” (Rasbash, 2004). The Chemistry of Fire Fire is basically a chemical reaction that involves the rapid oxidation of combustible material or fuel, with the subsequent liberation of heat and light. In a typical community, all the elements essential for fire to begin are present – fuel, heat or ignition source, and oxygen (air).

However, recent research suggests that fourth factor is present. This factor has been classified as a reaction chain in which burning continues and even action of the molecules from the material burning with the oxygen in the atmosphere. Fires have been divided into four classes based in the nature of combustible material and requirements for extinguishment: Class A: usual flammable solid equipment, such as paper, wood, plastic, and fabric. Class B: flammable liquids/gases and combustible petroleum products.

Class C: electrical apparatus that are keyed up or energized. Class D: combustible/reactive metals, such as magnesium, sodium, and potassium (Bishop, Fody, & Schoeff, 2004). Fire Extinguishment and Inhibition The most basic and most efficient approach on hand to the architect to guarantee fire safety is to avoid fires from starting, that is fire prevention. If this tactic is successful, then there is no need even to attempt any other fire safety measure. Prevention of ignition and the limitation of the fuel available are the twin methods of fire prevention.

In scheming to lessen the explosion danger, there are two things the architect has to do: firstly plan out the assumed explosion danger or causes; and secondly, to facilitate the infrastructure to be controlled in such an approach that the danger of explosion is get rid of. The actual design against the risk and the design to permit management against the risk must be seen together. The first necessity for the designer is an understanding of the most likely ignition risks in the particular building type under construction: it is essential to know your enemy if it is going to be defeated.

Probably the most common cause of ignition, and certainly the hardest to design against, is human carelessness. Almost all fires started by smoking materials or matches could be avoided, and yet these are one of the major causes of domestic fires and consequent loss of life. Similarly, the continuing high incidence of fires concerned with cookers and stoves are normally due to human carelessness (Stollard & Abrahams, 1999). Types and Applications of Fire Extinguishers Just as fires have been divided into classes, fire extinguishers are divided into classes that correspond to the type of fire to be extinguished.

Be certain to choose the right type – using the wrong type of extinguisher may be dangerous. For example, do not use water on burning liquids or electrical equipment. Pressurized-water extinguishers, as well as suds and multi-use dry-chemical types, are used for Class A fires. For Class B and C fires, on the other hand, multi-use dry-chemical and carbon dioxide extinguishers are used. Halogenated hydrocarbon extinguishers are particularly recommended for use with computer equipment. Class D fires present special problems, and extinguishment is left to trained firefighters using special dry-chemical extinguishers.

Personnel should know the location and type of portable fire extinguisher near their work area and know how to use an extinguisher before a fire occurs. In the event of fire, first evacuate all personnel, patients, and visitors who are in immediate danger and then activate the fire alarm, report the fire, and attempt to extinguish the fire, if possible. Personnel should work as a team to carry out emergency procedure. Fire drills must be conducted regularly and with appropriate documentation (Bishop et al. , 2004). Fire Safety Codes

Fire safety codes and regulations exist to provide a reasonable measure of safety in a building from fire, explosions, or other comparable emergencies. The model code used by most jurisdictions is the Life Safety Code written by the National Fire Protection Association, Covering many of the same concerns with design, construction, and materials as in the building codes, the Life Safety Code attempts to lessen the danger to life from fire, smoke, and hazardous fumes and gases. The intent of these codes is to prevent a fire whenever possible.

However, since all fires cannot be prevented, the codes also focus on fore control. Fire prevention is facilitated by the regulation of hazards and such things as controls on the kinds of material – both construction and furnishings – that can be used in buildings. Fire safety control is facilitated by the requirement of fire sprinklers, fire doors, and the like. Fire codes focus on such matters as egress interior architectural finishes, and fire protection equipment such as sprinklers and smoke detectors.

Fire regulations related to furniture construction and fabrics or finishes are more a matter of federal, state and local regulations (Piotrowski, 2001). Contribution of Fire Safety Engineering Fire safety engineering can be defined as the application of scientific and engineering principles to the effects of fire in order to reduce the loss of life and damage to property by quantifying the risks and hazards involved and to provide an optimal solution to the application of preventive or protective measures.

The concept of fire safety engineering may be applied to any situation where fire is a potential hazard. Although this text is mainly concerned with building structures, similar principles are equally applicable to the problems associated with oil or gas installations or other structures such as highway bridges. The additional hazards from gas and oil installations are primarily caused by the far more rapid growth of fire and the associated faster rates of temperature rise.

This has been recognized by considering the testing of material response under heating regimes other than those associated with the more conventional cellulosic fires. The design methods are, however, similar to those for the situation covered by the more normal cellulosic based fires (Purkiss, 1996). Conclusion: Sticking to Basics Most instructive programs of any kind boil down to making an audience aware of a few key points. A rule of thumb in virtually any kind of education is that the more elementary a skill or given bit of knowledge is the more valuable it is.

A general, fundamental rule can be more generally applied in everyday life than one that is tied to more advanced principles. For the fire service, this means educating an audience on basic means of prevention and coping with emergencies – subjects that professional firefighters might almost take for granted or consider obvious, but about which the average citizen may never have given much thought (Kiurski, 1999). References: Bishop, M. L. , Fody, E. P. , & Schoeff, L. (2004). Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations (5th ed. ).

New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Kiurski, T. (1999). Creating a Fire-Safe Community: A Guide for Fire Safety Educators. New Jersey: PennWell Books. Piotrowski, C. M. (2001). Professional Practice for Interior Designers (3rd ed. ). Canada: John Wiley and Sons. Purkiss, J. A. (1996). Fire Safety Engineering Design of Structures. Oxford: Elsevier. Rasbash, D. (2004). Evaluation of Fire Safety. England: John Wiley and Sons. Stollard, P. , & Abrahams, J. (1999). Fire from First Principles: A Design Guide to Building Fire Safety (3rd ed. ). London and New York: Taylor & Francis.

Fire Safety Essay

Fire Prevention Essay

Fire Prevention Essay.

Some of the safety hazards that are listed in Chapter 7 Fire Prevention would be electrical fires, flammable liquids, poor housekeeping, ingestion, incorrect use of fire extinguishers, bleeding, choking, and forklifts. There are many dangers in the work we engage in every day but its rewarding if we follow the right safety rules. These are some of the safety hazards but there are many more that are not listed. The ones listed are the ones I feel most important in the workplace.

These are listed in Chapter 7 because they are potential hazards for the following reasons: electrical fires are caused by defective wiring or overloading a circuit board. Hot works is a hazard because appropriate clothing must be worn and a fire watch used. Another hazard is flammable liquids which easily ignite and spread quickly. Flammable liquids are liquids that have a flashpoint. Flash points are when the liquids give off vapors. When handling these materials be cautious because the vapors are more dangerous and remain low to the ground because they are heavier than air.

Flammable hazards can be very harmful to your health for instance, inhalation which causes headaches, drowsiness, and disorientation. Skin contact with these liquids is cause for dermatitis and the hazardous material will remove the skins natural oil and wear down on the unprotected skin.

Flammable liquids are present in every workplace. Static sparks are dangerous also they are generated of electron transfer between 2 contacting surfaces. Mechanical sparks are results of friction and could easily start a fire or any other accident. Poor housekeeping is another safety hazard because messy or unclean areas are risks for fires, trips and falls. A work area should be well illuminated, ventilation system working properly and every day equipment maintenance is required. Slips, trips and falls are responsible for 1/7 of all accidental deaths.

Incorrect use of fire extinguishers on the wrong fire could result in death or other accidents Wounds that are not cared for properly are cause for infection. There is a risk of sacrificing a limb to save a life. Choking is a dangerous hazard because you can’t breathe through your airways and can lead to death. Each year 100 workers are killed and 20,000 are injured by forklifts. Forklift overturns make up 25% of death by forklifts. Workplace fires kill 200 and injure more than 5,000 workers per year.

Some of the safety measures to ensure safety would be not to use extension cords too often and as less as possible to ensure no electrical fires. Flammable liquids should be grounded to prevent static build-up. . If extension cords have to be used they should have a grounded conductor. Also have exposed wires repaired promptly. Never pour any flammable liquids down the drain, dispose of the material as instructed. Make sure No Smoking signs are posted around materials. All liquids must be kept in closed containers to ensure no spills. If spills occur promptly clean the area. There are different types of fire extinguishers, A, B, C, D. For wood, paper, and cloth the class A would be used. For gasoline and other flammable liquids Class B would be recommended. Electrical fires require Class C. And finally for metal fires Class D is used.

Poor housekeeping is very essential in the workplace. Regularly cleaning is mandatory. Wearing personal protection equipment when working with hazardous materials is considered. Apply pressure to any open wound to stop bleeding. The Heimlich maneuver is recommended in any choking situation. First you apply abdominal thrusts then you wrap your arms around waist making a fist just above the navel. Grasp fist and thrust. Keep first aid kits around in easy to reach places. In case of a person poisoned, move person away from poison flush contaminated area with water and call EMS. If forklifts are used in you workplace you should make sure it has warning horns to clear areas where it’s operating. No passengers are allowed unless advised and make sure the load is only within the rated capacity of the truck.

A fire prevention plan is mandatory for most businesses because it can save lives as it provides essential rules to follow in case of an emergency. A fire prevention plan must be in writing, be kept in workplace and made available for employees to review. A fire prevention plan must include: a list of all major fire hazard, proper handling and storage procedures for hazardous materials, potential ignition sources and their control and type of fire prevention necessary to control each hazard. Also it should list the name of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent or control sources of ignition of fires. Proper route of escape toward nearest exit is also something to keep in mind. Elevators are off limits because if a fire is burning it could burn up some important wires to the elevator and you would not want to be caught in an elevator.

In conclusion I can use all of this research I have learned in my personal work places in the future. Now that I know all of the safety measures I will enforce them at the workplace. Safety saves employers money, improves productivity, and reduces legal costs. I am not in the field yet but I know about all of the safety measures that are needed to know so when I do step into the field I will be overly prepared. I hear about a lot of people and there accidents and what they could have done to prevent the incursion.

The only major reason for accidents and deaths on work sites is the lack of paying attention. When you get too comfortable on the job you need to snap out of it because you are at risk for an accident right there in that instance. Reading these chapters has really opened my eyes on a lot of things I was not aware of. Staying as safe as possible and as alert as possible will benefit in the long run. I am not currently employed at the time but I will try to keep in mind all of the fire prevention that I have learned from this course and will try to apply this type of lifestyle to my regular life.

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Fire Prevention Essay

Workplace Safety Essay

Workplace Safety Essay.

As you may already know there are many concerns or issues in the workplace. However safety is one of the most common concern. Safety is simply the quality of not causing injury, danger, or loss. Safety in the work place has been one of the most likely “talk abouts” in many companies today. As someone anonymous once said, “Working without safety is a dead-end job.” No matter what job you pick, safety is one of the primary expectations that you seek while you are at work.

Workplace safety is a concept that involves creating a safe working environment. It is the managements responsibility to ensure that safety is inforced in the workplace. There are many accidents that happen each day just for not following the correct instructions on safety. For example just by wearing the correct eye protection or the right shoes could result in being a safer and more successful employee. Besides these two important safety procedures there are many more such as: ensuring that the way work is done is safe and does not affect employees’ health, making sure machinery and the equiptment are safe and kept that way, and by making sure that the employee is trained.

It ensures that an employee can feel secure while they are working with complete determination and confidence just by knowing the safety guidelines. It simply gives a secure option for the interested candidates.

In conclusion you should always remember that no matter what profession you may be in, workplace safety is very important. Employers should always ensure that they follow all of the safety regulations and rules as well. Workplace safety is a concept, which should be taken seriously and followed correctly. Always remember, better safe than sorry.

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Workplace Safety Essay

My Friends Speech Essay

My Friends Speech Essay.

Good morning to the principal, teachers, and fellow students. I am honoured to stand here to give a talk. My talk is entitled ¡°Safety Measures in School, at Home and on the Road.¡± In school, we must ensure that the visitors sign-in is not dangerous. This is a part of responsible to a school guard. So, he must to check carefully whether the visitor has brought the dangerous tool or not. Next, all the students must follow the laboratory rules. For example, if a student want to go into the laboratory, he or she must ask request from the relate teachers.

If not, it can cause some problem. This is because the laboratory has many dangerous things like acidic solution and other toxic substances. Other than that, the fire drills also can happen. Then, the supervision of students during their outdoor activities also can cause the injured. Students sometime may careless to crash with others. However, at home, you should keep away harmful products from children¡¯s reach.

You should put the sharp things such as scissors with a height that children cannot reach there. Moreover, you are advice to place the fire extinguisher in the kitchen for the first aid of safety. On the other hand, you should ensure the bathroom floor is always in the dry and clean condition so that you can avoid to be fallen down. If there is in wet condition, it is easy to fall down and get disease like osteoporosis, especially the older people. You must keep first aid kit in your house for emergency events. Last but not least, you also must take safety measures on the road. The road users, especially all of you who are motorcyclist must use helmet to keep your safety. If you are sending to school by car, you must put on safety belt. Also, you should avoid speeding on the road because this can due to road accident and you may fatal to die.

Therefore, you should follow up the traffic rules to avoid the road accident. I end my speech with some advises for all of you. Remember! No one can expect the unexpected in the next second. So, we must bear the responsibility to take care our safety in everywhere. Thank you for lending me your ears. Good morning to the principal, teachers, and fellow students. I am honoured to stand here to give a talk. My talk is entitled ¡°Safety Measures in School, at Home and on the Road.¡± In school, we must ensure that the visitors sign-in is not dangerous. This is a part of responsible to a school guard. So, he must to check carefully whether the visitor has brought the dangerous tool or not. Next, all the students must follow the laboratory rules. For example, if a student want to go into the laboratory, he or she must ask request from the relate teachers.

If not, it can cause some problem. This is because the laboratory has many dangerous things like acidic solution and other toxic substances. Other than that, the fire drills also can happen. Then, the supervision of students during their outdoor activities also can cause the injured. Students sometime may careless to crash with others. However, at home, you should keep away harmful products from children¡¯s reach. You should put the sharp things such as scissors with a height that children cannot reach there. Moreover, you are advice to place the fire extinguisher in the kitchen for the first aid of safety. On the other hand, you should ensure the bathroom floor is always in the dry and clean condition so that you can avoid to be fallen down.

If there is in wet condition, it is easy to fall down and get disease like osteoporosis, especially the older people. You must keep first aid kit in your house for emergency events. Last but not least, you also must take safety measures on the road. The road users, especially all of you who are motorcyclist must use helmet to keep your safety. If you are sending to school by car, you must put on safety belt. Also, you should avoid speeding on the road because this can due to road accident and you may fatal to die. Therefore, you should follow up the traffic rules to avoid the road accident. I end my speech with some advises for all of you. Remember! No one can expect the unexpected in the next second. So, we must bear the responsibility to take care our safety in everywhere. Thank you for lending me your ears.

My Friends Speech Essay

U.S. History of Building Construction and Fire Safety Essay

U.S. History of Building Construction and Fire Safety Essay.

The construction of modern buildings has been constantly improving in providing world class architectural designs and durable construction materials that can help buildings withstand earthquakes and even fire hazards. It is the prime responsibilities of engineers and architects to ensure the building’s safety. Presence of skyscrapers and other high-rise buildings have become symbols of urban landscape. In planning the construction of buildings the safety of the occupants should always be consider. That is why there are building codes and specific safety measures and devices to make the buildings safe from danger.

Building disasters usually comes from natural cause like earthquakes that is why earthquake proof buildings were constructed. Others are due to human factors brought by neglect or by terrorist attacks which can cause fire explosions inside building infrastructures. The U. S. history of building constructions had undergone necessary improvements and adjustments to their construction and planning in the passage of years to meet the safety standards of buildings therefore reducing the casualties in times of disasters.

Fire safety and preservation of people’s lives are now the main focus in building structures and has been the greatest challenge for engineering firms. It is the goal of developers, architects, engineers and safety officials to conform to safety codes to prevent lost of lives due to fire and earthquake hazards. Building fires and structure failure are investigated and analyzed to understand the factors that contribute to the catastrophe.

The investigations will establish the likely technical causes of the building failures and evaluate the technical aspects of emergency response and evacuation procedures in the wake of such failures. The goal is to encouraged improvements to the way in which buildings are designed, constructed, maintained and used. (National Institute Of Standards and Technology, 2008) History of Building Construction Changes in the Context of Fire Safety and Prevention Fire protection engineers with the help of science and technology develop means to protect people and property from fire.

In designing new buildings or renovations to existing buildings, fire protection engineers develop the plan for fire protection. Fire protection engineering has evolved significantly over the past several centuries. Early application of fire protection engineering was intended to prevent conflagrations that could destroy whole cities. In the early 1900s, the primary objective of fire protection engineering was to limit fire to its building of origin. As fire protection engineering advance, this objective was refined to limit a fire to its object or room of origin.

However it wasn’t until the later part of the 20th century that fire protection engineering had matured to the point that it included the fundamental tenets of professional and personal discipline. (Hurley, 2008) In 1800 English inventor John Carry designed the first crude automatic sprinkler but it went underdeveloped for a long period of time. In 1852 a patent was issued for first sprinkler-perforated pipe system which was the first recognized installation of fire protection equipment. In 1921 California passed a law forbidding wooden shingles on roofs but pressure from the roofing industry brought repeal.

(Aurora Regional Fire Museum, 2008) A comparison of the 1968 and the 2003 New York City building code was conducted where the reference standards, compartmentation, construction, means of egress, fire suppression systems, fire alarm detection, signaling systems, emergency power and smoke and heat venting are analyzed. Reference standards include the standard method of fire test for construction materials, standards test for surface burning characteristic of building materials, installation of fire doors and windows.

It also dealt with installation of air-conditioning and ventilating systems, installation of sprinkler systems, standpipe, water supplies, smoke detection, alarm and extinguishing systems. Safety codes for elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators and moving walks are also improved continuously. Occupancies are classified if they are primary occupants or secondary. Occupancy separation is also important. Roof construction including beams, trusses and framing, arches, dome, shells, cable that supported roofs and roof decks also. Fire and smoke dampers are also important. Means of egress is also evaluated.

The required width of the means of egress should not be obstructed or reduce in any manner. Every floor area should also be provided with at least two approved independent exits. (NIST, 2008) Examples of Major Cases in U. S. History That Led To Changes in Building Construction Major cases of fire incidents happen in different settings like hotel, industrial areas, hospitals, warehouses, restaurants, night clubs, and high-rise buildings. High-rise building fires differ from low-rise building fires. A high rise building can be described as structure more than 75 feet high while aerial ladder reaches only 75 feet.

People trapped in a burning high rise building who cannot be reached by the highest ladder will usually leap to their deaths or remain trapped inside the buildings. (High-rise Fires, 2008) Interstate Bank Building Fires in Los Angeles, California The Interstate Bank Building Fire in Los Angeles, California that happened May 4, 1988 was one of the most destructive high-rise fires in recent United States history. The fire presented the greatest potential for a “towering inferno” scenario of any U. S. fire experience and was controlled through massive and manual fire suppression efforts.

It demonstrated the absolute need for automatic sprinklers to provide protection for tall buildings. The fire destroyed four floors and damaged fifth floor of the modern 62 story First Interstate Bank Building in L. A. , claimed one life, injured approximately 35 occupants and 14 fire personnel, and resulted in property loss of over $50 million. The interior design was found to be a large open area with readily combustible contents that contributed to quick fire growth. The sound-power emergency phone system was also ineffective. Radio communication were overtaxed and disrupted by building’s steel frame. (High-Rise Fires, 2008)

One Meridian Plaza Fire One Meridian Plaza Fire document was one of the most significant high-rise fires in the United States’ history. The fire claimed the lives of three Philadelphia firefighters and gutted eight floors of a 38 story fire resistive building causing an estimated $ 100 million in direct property loss and business interruptions. This fire was a large scale realization of fire risks that have been identified on other similar occasions. The most significant new information from this fire relates to the vulnerability of the systems that were installed to provide electrical power and the support fire protection effort.

In this incident there was an early loss of normal electric power, a failure of the emergency generator and a major problem with the standpipe system, which all contributed to the final outcome. (High-rise Fires, 2008) Rockefeller Center High-Rise Fire On October 10, 1996, an electrical fire in the landmark Rockefeller Center in New York City required a five alarm response by FDNY to control the fire. The damage was cause by five separate fires in various electrical rooms that caused significant disruption to a major television network. At approximately 4 a. m.

on Thursday October 10, 1996 an electrical fire occurred at 30 Rockefeller Center Plaza in New York City. Several fires broke out in five remote locations, filling many areas of the building with smoke. The fires presented a challenge for the New York City fire department because of the varied locations of simultaneous fires and the confusing layout of the building. The Rockefeller Center is actually a complex building that is interconnected. This incident as analyzed by the NFPA has inadequate circuit protection, failure of the building alarm system to transmit the alarm, lack of smoke detection in the areas of the fire.

If the fires have been detected earlier, they probably would have been easier to extinguish. The confusing building layout made the fire fighters to have a difficult time locating the fires. (High-Rise Fires, 2008) The World Trade Center Fire The collapse and fire incidence of New York’s City’s World Trade Center structures following the terrors attacks of September 11, 2001 was the world’s worst building disaster in recorded history killing about 2,800 people. More then 350 fire and emergency responders were among those killed, the largest lost of life for this group in a single incident.

In response to the WTC tragedy, the National Institute Of Standards And Technology conducted a 3-year building and fire safety investigation to study the factors contributing to the probable cause of post impact collapse of the WTC towers (WTC 1 and ) and WTC 7 expanded its research in areas of high priority need such as prevention of progressive collapse, fire resistance and retrofit of structures, and fire resistive coatings for structural steel and is reaching out to the building and fire safety communities to pave the way for timely expedited considerations of recommendations stemming from the investigation.

(NIST, 2008) 9/11 Terrorist Attacks Impact to Building Construction The goal of NIST or National Institute of Standards And Technology was to investigate the building construction, the material used, and the technical conditions that contributed to the outcome of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. It will serve as the basis for improvements in the way buildings are designed, constructed, maintained and used. The revision of codes, standards, practices and improved public safety are recommended.

The primary objectives of the NIST-led technical investigation of the WTC disaster are to determine why and how WTC 1 and 2 collapsed following the initial impact of the aircraft and why and how WTC 7 collapsed. Determining the reason why the injuries and fatalities where so high or low depending on the location, including all technical aspects of fire protection, occupant behavior, evacuation, and emergency response. Identify as specifically as possible areas in building and fire codes, standards and practices that are still in use and needed revisions.

(NIST, 2008) The eight major groups of recommendations included are: 1. ) Increased structural integrity, 2. ) Enhanced fire resistance of structures, 3. ) New methods for fire resistance design of structures 4. )Improved active fire protection 5. ) Improve building evacuation 6. )Improve emergency response 7. ) Improve procedures and practices and lastly 8. )Continuing education and training for fire safety. The standard for estimating the load effects of potential hazards like progressive collapse or winds and the design of structural systems are observed.

Enhanced fire resistance of structures involves procedures and practices used to ensure the fire resistance of structures. It is enhanced by improving the technical basis for construction classification and fire resistance ratings. New methods for fire resistance design of structures includes practices used in fire resistance design of structures. Performance based methods are an alternative to prescriptive design methods. (NIST, 2008) This effort should include the development and evaluation of new fire resistive coating materials and technologies.

Evaluation of the fire performance of conventional and high performance structural materials was conducted. Improved active fire protection systems like sprinklers, standpipes/hoses, fire alarms, and smoke management systems should be enhanced thorough improvements to design, performance and reliability. Improve building evacuation should be improved to include system designs that facilitate safe and rapid egress. Methods of ensuring clear and timely emergency communications to occupants are encourage together with better occupant preparedness for evacuation during emergencies.

Incorporation of appropriate egress technologies was observed. Improved emergency response technologies and procedures should be improved to enable better access to buildings, response operations, emergency communications, and command control in large scale emergencies. Improve procedure and practices are used in the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of buildings. (NIST, 2008) Conclusion Analyzing the factors that cause building fires is necessary to help reduce the number of casualties and loss of property.

There are many organizations responsible in supporting engineers and building construction firms to ensure the safety of their buildings from fire hazards. These include NFPA (National Fire Protection Association), NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology), ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), ICC (International Code Council) and UL (Underwriter’s Laboratories) a product safety testing and certification organization and the Skyscraper Safety Campaign.

Different incidence of high-rise building disasters provides firefighters with knowledge of the extent of damage and how to prevent the disasters to happen again. Safety measures and upgrade of fire safety equipment in building construction should be prioritized. The lessons learned from various building fire cases can provide background knowledge of the factors contributing to fire incidence. The most recent and the worst building fire case is the World Trade Center fires which exposed the vulnerability of public buildings to uncontrolled fires, explosions and other terrorist attacks.

(NIST, 2008) Firefighters and building developers should keep in mind the factors that contribute to success or failure of fire disaster prevention and response. This include basic things like firefighter extinguishment, emergency response, heating and ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVACs), standpipe system, portable radios, building construction and evacuation strategy. These factors contribute to the quality and standard of building construction’s fire safety and prevention.

There are many threats to buildings safety but there are applicable means to reduce the destructive impact of building fire hazards and collapse. Coordination between the government officials, inspectors, fire protection engineers and developers limits the chances for building fires and accident. Buildings safety is achievable by reducing the risks of fire and danger to people’s lives.


Grosshandler, W. , (2003). “Abstract: Research and Development for the Safety of Threatened Buildings.” Building and Fire Research Laboratory. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from http://www. fire. nist. gov/ Hurley, M. , P. E. S. F. P. E. , (2008). “Fire Protection Engineering. ” National Institute Of Building Sciences. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from http://www. wbdg. org/ “Construction Organizations. ” (2008). Dezignare. com. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from http://www. dezignare. com/ “Executive Summary: Final Report of the National Construction Safety Team on the Collapses of the World Trade Center Towers (Draft). ” (2004).

NIST And the World Trade Center Publications. Retrieved October 4, 2008, from http://wtc. nist. gov. / “Final Plan: Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation. ”(2008) National Institute of Standards and Technology Retrieved October 4, 2008, from http://wtc. nist. gov/ “Fire through the Ages: A Timeline. ” (2008). Aurora Regional Fire Museum. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from http://www. auroregionalfiremuseum. org/ “High-Rise Fires. ” (2008). Special Fires. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from http://www. iklimnet. com/

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What is Required for Competence in Own Work Role Essay

What is Required for Competence in Own Work Role Essay.

My Main Duties are:-

1. To work as an integral member of the team, creating a safe, constructive and stimulating environment for the children.

2. To meet the children’s individual needs, appropriate to their stage and level of development.

3. To be involved in the setting up and clearing away at the start and end of each session as required.

see more:shc explain expectations about own work role as expressed in relevant standards

4. To be involved with the planning of activities.

5. To foster children’s growth of development and self-reliance, and to be involved in children’s activities with a view to supporting and extending these activities appropriately.

6. To ensure that toys and equipment are maintained, clean and safe to play with or use.

7. To understand and comply with the Fire Drill Practice.

8. To attend and take part in staff and other relevant meetings.

9. To keep a daily register, first aid box and other relevant records as required.

10. To communicate with parents and carers in a positive, constructive manner.

11. To make time available on a regular basis to discuss the day to day running of the setting with other members of staff.

SCH32-1.2 Explain expectations about own work role as expressed in relevant standards Practitioner’s expectations should be to become a valuable practitioner, to be reliable and build good relationships with children and parent carers, encouraging play whilst learning, and by having children’s best interests e.g. physical activities, outings, this would help them to enjoy their growth in knowledge and assist in enhancing their development as a whole. Also practitioners should work as a team with other staff members and parent/carers in order to support the children to promote the children’s initial learning so that the children will feel confident and would be able boost up their self-esteem, and this will also help them in their future, and prepare them in further education when they move onto school.

Also the expectations that are to be done in placement at a relevant standard is to supervise the children this plays a big role in child protection Act and health and policy. Practitioners should always watch the children closely to prevent and reduce the severity of injury to children. Children often challenge their own abilities but are not always able to recognise the risks involved. Practitioners need to supervise children and identify any risks and minimise injury. It is vital that, when planning sessions and activities that the various standards and policies are observed and followed. Surestart (employer) policies would include the Health and Safety regulations Policy (in compliance with Health and Safety Work Act 1974) as well as Child Protection Policy, in line with the Childcare Act 1974. It is important that I make sure I am apprised of any changes to these National Policies, for the protection and safety of both myself and the children in my care.

For the setting I am working in I need to be aware of the identities of the recognised First Aiders and the location of the First Aid Box. Should any items from the First Aid Box be used, these should be replenished as soon as possible and the contents should be checked regularly. I also need to be aware of the identity of the Safety Officer and apprise myself of the procedures, fire exits and meeting points in case of a fire.

If involved in the preparation of food I should always observe the relevant hygiene and safety practises and ensure all perishable food is stored in the refrigerator. Food served to children should never be more than warm and hot drinks should never be consumed when children are present. Any perishable food taken to outreach venues must not be re-used and should be disposed of at the end of the day. Food should be cleared away and any utensils etc. washed and immediately.

Daily Recording should take place to ensure correct and up-to-date records are kept.

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Principles of safe supervision of children in the home Essay

Principles of safe supervision of children in the home Essay.

General supervision would be when you are aware of what the child is doing and checking on them regularly. This may be interpreted as keeping an attentive eye from a distance e. g when children are playing on a carpet or when a baby is sleeping. The element of danger when adopting close supervision would be less than in the other wo levels of supervision. Once the required level of supervision has been determined, it is important to consider the following disciplines in order to ensure safe supervision and to make all other family members aware of them also.

Do not let children play outside unsupervised All tools equipment and chemicals must be safely stored away in a locked shed or garage All paved areas must be safe Fences should be sound Equipment for outdoors must be checked daily and set up properly (use logs) Gates must be securely fastened Dustbins/wheelie bins/re-cycling bins must not be accessible to children If pets are present then children’s play areas must be free of pet food and waste Areas of water including butts or ponds and sand pits must be securely fenced off or covered.

All plant life in the garden must be safe Clothes lines/rotary driers must be safe and not trailing.

Use of seat belts for adults Tax, MOT, business – use insurance Seats/restraints for children Child locks on doors Getting in and out the car should be safe… Driving safely at all times When using other people’s cars ensuring they are safe. By Public Transport: Checking that everyone stands back from the curb edge when at a bus stop or train platform Ensuring that young children wear safety harnesses Buggies and prams in good working order Knowing your Journey and planning your route beforehand Children should sit next to you on busses/trains Children should be taught how to stay safe when near to/ crossing the road.

Green cross code according to age Always put yourself between the road and the child hen possible Use restraints/reins where applicable Don’t allow children to run ahead Teach children about stranger danger particularly when in parks and adventure playground. Ultimately, once disciplines have been put in place in the different areas when supervising children, then this will ultimately assist when determining the levels of supervision required as the safety of the child is paramount in any home based child care setting. Also having procedures in place when out and about in case children get lost or separated is considered as good practice for any child-minder.

Principles of safe supervision of children in the home Essay

Analysis of Phosphate Essay

Analysis of Phosphate Essay.

The aim of the experiment is to determine the concentration of phosphate ions in unknown samples. A series of dilution of known concentration is performed from the phosphate working solution. Each of the prepared working standards, the unknown samples and the blank are then made to react with a mixed reagent which have been prepared after acid wash of the glasswares Glassware * 2 Beakers * 11 conical flasks * 9 Volumetric flasks 50 ml * 1 Volumetric flasks 1000 ml * Pipette type 1 Pipette 25 ml * Stir rod * 11cuvette * Spectrophotometer Chemical needs; hazards and safety precautions: 1.

Sulphuric acid It is very hazardous in case of skin contact. It is classified as corrosive, irritant and permeator. Safety needs: Lab coats,safety goggles and gloves should be worn to minimize risk of contact. In case of: •Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention immediately. •Skin Contact:

In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.

Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Cold water may be used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention immediately. •Serious Skin Contact: Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek immediate medical attention. •Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.

Get medical attention immediately. 2. ammonium heptimolybdate Ammonium heptimolybdate e is harmful if swallowed or inhaled. It causes irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. It affects kidneys and blood Safety measures: Lab coats,safety goggles and gloves should be worn to minimize risk of contact. 3. Potassium antimonyl tartrate Slightly hazardous in case of ingestion. Non-corrosive for skin. Non-sensitizer for skin. 4. Ascorbic acid Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation.

Safety measures: Lab coats, safety goggles and gloves should be worn to minimize risk of contact. 5. Hydrochloric acid Concentrated hydrochloric acid forms acidic mists. Both the mist and the solution have a corrosive effect on human tissue, with the potential to damage respiratory organs, eyes, skin, and intestines. The HCL should be used in a fume hood and personal protective equipment such as rubber or PVC gloves, protective eye goggles, and chemical-resistant clothing such as lab coats should be used to minimize risk when handling hydrochloric acid.

Procedures and calculations. * All of the glassware’s to be used are to be washed with acid (HCL) and then with distilled water. * Nine standards, a blank and 2 random sample are going to be analysed. * Prepare a series of working standards in the range of 10-500µg NO2-N/L * To 50 cm3 of each working standard and sample add 1. 0 cm3 of sulphanilamide, mix and stand for 2 minutes Calculations 1ml = 0. 5 µg of NO2- 1000 ml of solution contain = 10 ml of NO2- (100 µg) 50 ml of solution contain = 1 ml of NO2- (10 µg)

SN| Volume of standardPHOSPHATE solution (s)| Volume ofwater| Concentration| Absorbance| 1. | 1. 0| 49| 10| 0. 003| 2. | 2. 0| 45| 50| 0. 035| 3. | 3. 0| 40| 100| 0. 058| 4. | 4. 0| 35| 150| 0. 074| 5. | 5. 0| 30| 200| 0. 099| Blank| 0| 50| 0| 0. 000| Sample A1| | 0. 022| Sample B1| | 0. 068| Result A Graph of absorbance (OD) against concentration (µg). Using the equation (y=mx+b) to determine concentration of samples. Let “Y” equal the concentration. This is what will be solved for. Let “X” equal the absorbency of the sample.

This is the absorbency measured by the spectrophotometer Allow “to equal the slope and “b” to equal the y-intercept y= 0. 019 x + 0. 947 Concentration of Sample 1 Absorbance of sample A1 = 0. 022 y= 0. 019 (0. 022) + 0. 947 = 0. 947 Concentration of unknown sample 2 Absorbance of sample B2 = 0. 068 y= 0. 019 (0. 068) + 0. 947 = 0. 948 Discussion The concentration phosphate ion in of samples D and E were determined In this experiment I determined the concentration of phosphate ion in samples D and E.

These values were determined by obtaining data from solutions of known concentration. These solutions were placed in the spectrophotometer and then by plotting a graph of absorbance vs. concentration, an equation was produced from which the unknown concentration were determined Conclusion From the result of the experiment, it was determined that the relationship between concentration and absorbance is linear. The amount of light absorbed by a solution varies directly with solute concentration.

Analysis of Phosphate Essay