Environmental Security: Bangladesh Essay

Environmental Security: Bangladesh Essay.

Abstract

While reading International Relations I got acquainted with many contemporary issues which are really important to deal with for the competitive survival of Bangladesh in this age of globalization. Bangladesh is a developing country. It has to perform very carefully in order to continue a healthy and sustainable economic system. Bangladesh suffers from both internal and external threats which are both military and non-military. Among them Environmental Security (ES) is a matter of great importance. Because environmental calamities are great threat to economic development and are means of creating dependency on the donor countries.

It is also controlling relation between states and also creating tension between them. So, time has come to take this issue more significantly and take necessary steps accordingly. This research paper contains how environment is having power over the matters of our country; creating balance of relationship with the donor countries; and what Bangladesh should do in order to overcome the problems to establish better economics.

Acknowledgement

In order to provide a valid research paper, I have taken information from the lecture shits given by the department of International Relations. Internet has been a great source of information which I have mentioned in the part of bibliography. Moreover I have taken information from BANGLADESH: Non-traditional security, By Jyoti M. Pathania, and used speeches of George Kennan, Collin Powell in some relevant area. I am grateful to Dr. Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmed (Chairman, Governing Council, Dhaka School of Economics (DScE); Chairman, Governing Body, Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation). He has given me some clear view of the issue of Environmental Security. I have used some information in this research paper from his presentation on The Outcome OF Cancun Climate Change Conference (COP-16) and Bangladesh. My work has also been encouraged by Dr. jashim Uddin, General Manager, Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation, who has great experience in the field of development in Bangladesh.

1.0 Introduction

There have been two approaches to Security Studies: 1) Traditional Approach, i.e., Realist Approach and Non-traditional Approach, i.e., i) Widening Approach and ii) Deepening Approach. Since the end of the Cold War, there has been renewed interest in what is now called ‘non-traditional’ security issues. Among the non-traditional approach to security studies, the widening approach includes that states are functionally like units; states are not like units in terms of capability/power. Some are strong and some are weak. Inter-state relationship is governed by this power differentiation. As a result, anarchy is the ordering principle of international politics.

States are bound to adapt to this anarchic system for their survival. However, in widening approach the referent object of security is state; state wants to secure state sovereignty, physical base of state (territory, resources and population) and political system. It simply includes a wide range of non-military threats to state security: both external and internal and military and non-military. The Environmental Security can be referred to this non-traditional approach of security, which is an internal and external non-military threat to a state that causes huge loss to the physical base of a state, demolishes economic situation and threats the sovereignty of state in this age of globalization.

Hence the Environmental Security has become a matter of great importance in today’s world. Environmental security involves assessing the ways in which the quality of environmental systems relate to or impact the overall health and well-being of a state or society. It also refers to the relative protection of the environment from injury or degradation by manmade or natural processes due to accident, negligence, ignorance, or design from causes that cross national borders and endanger the livelihood or health of humans, the functional integrity of a state, or the stability of the international community.

Most environmental threats to national and international security can be traced to man’s activities interfering into natural processes or the natural ecosystem. Some serious threats, however, may have natural origins, but become exacerbated from man’s activities. Examples of these include hurricanes, earthquakes and floods.

Environmental Security (ES) is a matter of great importance since it also controls international relations between states. As late as 1985, the old cold warrior George Kennan Wrote in foreign affairs:

Affairs concerning international relations and national interests in foreign countries. , identifying the threat to the world environment as one of the two supreme dangers facing mankind. But it was really in the post Cold War era that the world saw a dramatic increase in international activity around environmental issues. The United Nations Environmental Program has reported that about 170 treaties have been negotiated in recent years on various issues of the global environment. (1)

2.0 Importance of ES can be understood further by the following statement:

“Few threats to peace and survival of the human community are greater than those posed by the prospects of cumulative and irreversible degradation of the biosphere on which human life depends. True security cannot be achieved by mounting buildup of weapons (defence in a narrow sense), but only by providing basic conditions for solving non-military problems which threatens them. Our survival depends not only on military balance, but on global cooperation to ensure a sustainable environment.” Brundtland Commission Report, 1987

In 1999, Collin Powell stressed the importance of ES saying:

“Sustainable development is a compelling moral and humanitarian issue, but it is also a security imperative. Poverty, environmental degradation and despair are destroyers of people, of society, of nations. This unholy trinity can destabilize countries, even entire regions.”

We are dependant upon the globe’s life-supporting eco-systems generating water, food, medicine, and clean air etc, but we actually did nothing to maintain this ecosystem. As a result the current and future generations will confront severe environmentally induced changes. The change has already started and is testing our traditional concepts and understandings of security, both national and beyond boundaries. In many cases conflicts are direct results of environmental degradation. Another important dimension of Environmental security is that it knows no state boundary. It affects humankind and its institutions and organizations anywhere and at anytime, which cannot be defended by any means of military defense or political negotiation.

3.0 VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS international relations, study of the relations among states and other political and economic units in the international system. Particular areas of study within the field of international relations include diplomacy and diplomatic history, international law, ….. Click the link for more information.

THEORIES ON ENVIRONMENT

A number of International Relations Theories can be applied to the issue of environment. Many of these theories only deal with the environment indirectly, yet it is useful to review the expanding literature of international-relations theory as it relates to the environment.

Realism: The two central concepts of Realist theory are power and the national interest. The international society is an anarchical state-system. The system is therefore a self-help one. Realism assumes that states and their populations need natural resources to survive. There is a competition between states for these scarce resources. War is often the result of such competition and conflict. It leads to “the struggle for power and peace,” as Hans Morgenthau put it.

(7)

Extreme versions of Realism such as the geopolitical some see President George Bush’s intervention in Iraq as an attempt to secure the oil resources of the Middle East.

3.1 Malthusianism:

Thomas Malthus, an 18th century English cleric, believed that because population grew in geometric progression and food production followed arithmetic progression, there would come a time when population growth would inevitably outstrip and will cause starvation. Thus it will threat the socio-economic security of a nation.

3.2 Liberalism:

Liberalism focuses on cooperation. While liberalism sees people and states competing for scarce environmental resources, it does so in a more orderly way. Thus, “a liberal philosophy applied to global environmental politics tends to treat states as competitive participants–not unlike corporations–in markets they have established among themselves.” (8)

Private enterprise and the market produce efficiency and save nature. For example, the Stockholm Declaration of 1972 forbids states from inflicting environmental damage on each other, because this would be a violation of the state’s sovereignty.

3.3 Institutionalism:

This approach also focuses on cooperation. Here the states have a broader sense of self-interest. They focus on the public good. Their enlightened self-interest includes norms, values, principles and expectations which are the ingredients of International Regimes. The states seek mutually acceptable compromises through international negotiation. The building of International Regimes can benefit the global environment. The Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is a good example of international regimes.

3.4 Ecoanarchism:

This philosophy is humanistic and leftist, and Murray Bookchin is its leading proponent. Ecoanarchists believe that “the state and ‘big’ capital are inimical to the autonomy of humans and nature.” (9) Thus to preserve nature it is necessary to break society into “small, relatively self-sufficient units.” To help nature these units must practice altruism and mutual aid.

3.5 Social Naturalism:

This view sees “culture and nature as bound together” in a kind of social community. Community is used in a very broad sense that includes people, animals, plants, ideas, language, history and the ecosystems. Cooperation between humans and nature is a given. The objective of social naturalism is “the creation of a cooperative ecological society found to be rooted in the most basic levels of being.” (10) This philosophy strongly resembles the worldview.

3.6 Sustainable Growth:

The growth of incomes results in economic development. As the 1990s World Bank President Barber Conable put it: “market forces and economic efficiency were the best way to achieve the kind of growth which is the best antidote to poverty.” (12) So according to the neoclassical economist’s dictum “a rising tide lifts all boats” is associated with the idea that improvements in the general economy will benefit all participants in that economy. The proponents of this theory believe that when the poor of the developing countries become richer then it will reduce pressure on the environment. For example, they will be more able and willing to pay the costs of keeping air and water clean. (13)

3.7 Sustainable Development:

This phrase first appeared in a 1980 report issued by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) or World Conservation Union, international organization founded in 1948 to encourage the preservation of wildlife, natural environments, and living resources. (14) This approach focuses on the “needs” of the world’s poor and calls for a sufficient transfer of wealth from the rich countries to the poor, so that the developing countries can deal with the problem of poverty and environmental damage.

3.8 The Steady-State Economy:

Herman Daly proposed this alternative approach which focuses not on more goods, but on the durability and longevity of goods. More goods are wasteful and cause environmental degradation. It calls for recycling and the minimal exploitation of biological and physical resources. Daly’s unit is the nation-state, and each country must seek to be self-sufficient and spend only its own natural resources. (15)

3.9 Radical Redistribution:

This theory believes that environmental degradation is the result of excessive wealth, the injustices of capitalism and the income inequality between the rich and the poor nations. In 2005, a typical American consumed 51 times as much energy as a typical Bangladeshi. (16) Consequently, two things need to be done. First, the rich must drastically reduce their consumption so as not to burden the earth’s resources and environment. Second, the rich much transfer massive amounts of capital and technology so that the poor countries can grow economically and preserve the environment.

3.10 Ecosocialism and Eco-Marxism:

Not surprisingly, ecosocialists and ecomarxists blame capitalism for environmental degradation. Capitalism is seen as inherently anti-ecological and anti-nature. For seeking cheaper raw materials and fatter profits they impose wastes onto nature. Thus the mode of production matters for the environment. They “emphasize people’s collective power as producers, which directly involve local communities (particularly urban) and increase democracy, which enlist the labour movement and which are aimed particularly at economic life.” (17)

3.11 Ecofeminism:

Although many ecofeminists are not Marxists, they are all leftists or liberal in their philosophical orientation. For ecofeminists “the domination of women and nature are inextricably linked.” (18) “Feminine suffering is universal because wrong done to women and its ongoing denial fuel the psycho-sexual abuse of all Others–races, children, animals, plants, rocks, water, and air.” (19)

3.12 Ecocentrism:

Ecocentrists believe that humans cannot survive without nature. Many ecocentrists are advocates of wilderness or “wildness.” As Henry David Thoreau noted: “In wildness is the preservation of the world.” (20)

3.13 Biopolitics:

The origins of biopolitics can be found in the writings of Michel Foucault. According to Mitchell Dean, a follower of Foucault, biopolitics “is concerned with matters of life and death, with birth and propagation, with health and illness, both physical and mental, and with the processes that sustain or retard the optimization of the life of a population.” (21)

These are some of the basic environmental philosophies that take to mean the global environment and structure practices and policies. Many of these conflict with one another and have diverse explanation of the reasons for environmental degradation.

4.0 A case of Bangladesh:

The first part of this research paper dealt with the security agenda and the philosophies involving ES. Scarcities of renewable resources can generate civil violence and conflict; the degradation of renewable resources causes environmental insufficiency; powerful groups take over precious resources while trivial groups move around to ecologically sensitive areas. Moreover environmental scarcity proves the difference between social groups. Such situation affects governmental institutions and states by making it economically weak. Even environmental scarcity can cause ethnic conflicts. Accordingly the International community can be indirectly affected by these conflicts produced by environmental scarcity. (22)

In the second part I will focus on Bangladesh regarding the issues of environment security. Ours is a country which has to face both external and internal, and military and non military threats. Bangladesh achieved its independence through a devastating war against Pakistan which resulted millions of death and around ten million refugees to India. Even after the war Bangladesh has been facing military threat from the Shanti Bahini of Chittagong Hill Track (CHT).

Guerrilla warfare between the rebels and armed force of the government in CHT and civil conflicts between the Bengali and Non-Bengali residents of this place continue till today. The most recent armed conflict between the Bengali and Non-Bengali residents happened on 19th January 2011; where 6 (six) were killed. Such situation threatens the stability of a state. Circumstances become more vulnerable when environmental degradation doubles the pain. The independent Bangladesh has been facing environmental calamity since 1974. In 1974 famine raged over and was further aggravated by a flood. Later on, the degradation only increased and in recent years Bangladesh has seen devastating cyclones and floods.

The security of Bangladesh must depend on sustainable environment in many ways. Environmental degradation will badly affect economic development, erode social cohesion. Even political institutions face threat. Population growth and lack of economic opportunity will cause demographic displacement both within the country and outside. Migration in other country can cause bilateral conflict Bangladesh is also bearing the result of environmental problems of neighbor countries.

Such situation in water sector is already exacerbating regional tension with India. It can lead to harmful progress towards regional security and can instigate regional cooperation on the other hand. We have to remember that the linkage of environment and security in Bangladesh is through economics and politics. The greater the environmental degradation in Bangladesh the greater will be the political and economic deterioration, thus leading to more national and international insecurity.

5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN BANGLADESH

Bangladesh posses a horde of security problems, which are no longer of conventional nature but have non-conventional nature i.e. Non-traditional security issues which are in the state of constant evolution. These are economic, environmental, political and territorial threats.

5.1 Population

The greatest problem that Bangladesh faces is an unusually large population in a small land area. The population grew from 42 million in 1951 to about 147 million in 2005. (23) It is projected to reach 166 million in 2015. (24) The population density is 1019 per square kilometer. When one compares this with 2 persons per sq. km. in Australia, 3 in Canada, 31 in USA, 191 in Pakistan and 324 in India, one becomes aware of the tremendous crush of population in Bangladesh. The faster the population increases, the more would be the negative effects on its environment. Zero population growth could serve for the environment in Bangladesh.

5.2 Land and Soil

As noted earlier, Bangladesh covers a small area of only 144,000 square kilometers, but 63% of the total land is arable because it is located in the largest delta in the world. Formed by the three mighty rivers–the Ganges, Brahmaputra and the Meghna–it is also “the youngest and the most active delta in the world.” (27) Although Bangladesh is a flat alluvial plain, it does have complex soil condition and land pattern.

Erosion of land by rivers is a serious problem in Bangladesh. Every year due to strong summer winds, powerful waves and shifting rivers thousands of acres of land are eroded away, leaving thousands of families homeless and contributing to the pattern of wholesale migration towards the urban areas, mainly to the capital city Dhaka. But it only creates instability in the society.

5.3 Deforestation

Many decades ago Bangladesh had rich tropical forests. But due to population growth and the need for firewood and timber, the forests have become rapidly depleted. Currently the forest area comprises 13,000 square kilometers, about 10.2% of the total land space, which is much less than the universally accepted minimum of 25%. (28) Located in the southwest of Bangladesh, the Sundarbans is a mangrove, large tropical evergreen tree, genus Rhizophora that grows on muddy tidal flats and along protected ocean shorelines. It is the home for of the famous Royal Bengal Tiger as well as other rich flora and fauna.

The United Nations has declared the Sundarbans as a world heritage site because of its rich biodiversity. Besides, the tropical rain forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, home to high value timber, rich vegetation and wild animals. Many animals are being rapidly depleted due to demand from both agriculture and industry. The Chokoria Sundarbans in the southeastern part of the country near the port-city Chittagong were completely destroyed in the 1980s and 1990s in order to facilitate shrimp farming.

5.4 Drought & Floods

It is ironic that during the monsoon season Bangladesh has too much water and during the winter months too little water when no rainfall occurs. Thus the country is subject to both floods and drought. Barendra Bhumi of the northern part of our country is an example for drought affect. Because of drought people are unable to continue agricultural work and suffer from monga (unemployment). It also causes huge migration towards the capital city and other cities. Heavy drought also causes desertification in this area.

On the other hand, in the rainy season Bangladesh suffers from too much water. About 1360 billion cubic meters of water is discharged annually through the GBM system, 93% of which flows through Bangladesh. If all the water did not flow into the sea, the country had been under 32 feet of water. The 230 rivers with their numerous creeks and rivulets attempt to drain the water into the Bay of Bengal But the situation of rivers, the low river gradients in the flat plain and strong backwater effects slow the passage to the sea, giving rise to the overflowing of the riverbanks. Every year there are floods, in some years it becomes extreme due to extra heavy rainfall.

5.5 Storms & Cyclones

Bangladesh faces huge destruction due to storms and cyclones. The cyclones mainly hit the coastal region. Several severe cyclones emerge from the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. The funnel shape of the Bay increases the intensity, often blowing in excess of 240 km per hour and creating tidal bores 9 km high. One of the worst cyclones occurred on November 12, 1970, killing an estimated 300 hundred thousand people in addition to major damage to livestock, poultry, crops and vegetation. (30) The most recent examples can be SIDR (2007) and AILA (2009).

Environmental Security: Bangladesh Essay

Liberty vs Security Essay

Liberty vs Security Essay.

When the founding fathers created the government of the United States, they wanted the government not to be so constricting with its rule. In other words, freedom, but freedom in its purest can be dangerous so they had to put some security to their newly made country. They did this by giving the executive branch the power to enforce laws and keep the peace. In the beginning, it was all good but things have changed throughout the years where security had to be increased.

Now-a-days, some people think security has been increase to such a point that there isn’t fair anymore but that just isn’t the case. There is now terrorism in the world people live in and the Executive branch is taking the necessary precautions to stay safe. With the Obama Administration’s war on terror, the executive branch is taking the necessary precautions to keep the nation safe with drone attacks, warrantless wiretapping, and advanced interrogation techniques.

[Drone essay Ms. Devine has done]

Wireless wiretapping also keeps the peace of the United States. As Steven G. Bradbury states in the pro CQR Essay about wiretapping, “taking precautions, such as wiretapping, helps keep America from suffering another 9/11” (Clemmitt). He also brings up another point about the enemies being more sophisticated now because of the “advancements in communication causing and allowing the enemies operate in obscurity” (Clemmitt). This is dangerous for the American public so this wiretapping is necessary but that is not the point the con CQR essay brings up.

Koh, the author of the con essay, mentions that “FASA was made to stop spying on the American public and permit a warrant if surveillance on an American citizen is to be done, it should not be done warrantless” (Clemmitt). Koh doesn’t take into account that the enemy could be an American citizen which would be dangerous to leave unchecked. Koh’s point has been the source of many lawsuits in America but has not gone through thanks to some judges. An issue in San Francisco federal court happened where “a group of AT&T costumers filed a lawsuit against the N.S.A. but the U.S. government stopped them” (Levine). This is necessary so America can keep their security intact.

After 9/11 happened, America was scarred for life. It had cause America do begin a war on terror which were the like no one has seen. “One of the things the military did was hold detainees at Guantanamo Bay to interrogate them. The detainees would be brought to interrogation rooms in shackles and would get extensively questioned” (Kirk). In the pro essay about the CIA amounting to torture Kaye states that “these enhanced interrogation techniques are inhumane and wrong” (Jost). As bad as they may seem, according to CIA veteran John Brennan, during a 2007 CBS television interview, “the enhanced interrogation techniques were able to produce useful information, worked against real hardcore terrorists, and saved lives” (Zakaria and Hosenball). If these techniques got that type of information, then it is keeping the nation safe.

And thusly, America has been kept a safer place. There are still some problems but terrorism has been controlled to not happen often. With the executive branch’s moves to use drones, wiretap, and enhanced interrogation techniques, America is in a necessary state of security. Even though some freedoms don’t seem to be, it is only to keep the peace in the United States and to have a safer nation.

Liberty vs Security Essay

Maritime security requirements Essay

Maritime security requirements Essay.

Maritime security refers to the security offered to the shipping industry in a country. It refers to the measures taken by the government to ensure that the port, the employers, the employees as well as the equipments in the ports are well guarded from threats which face them. The ports face risks which may arise due to unlawful acts done on them or even on the persons stationed in them. Strategic planning to cub any uncertainty is thus essential for the well being of a nation and its citizens.

The security of a country like the United States is dependent on the security of the world’s oceans.

There are different forms of threats which face the maritime security. To attain maritime security, it is thus vital to combine the efforts of both the public and private sectors globally. Maritime security may also be used to refer to the comprehensive security for the international shipping which started functioning on July 2004. It forms part of the IMO’s activities.

This is a security practice code which is exercised in ports which is meant to compliment the international ships and the port equipments security.

The IMO/ILO code was implemented to offer security for the whole port area and was approved in March 2004. IMO is an acronym for international maritime organization while ILO refers to the international labor organization. IMO code of practice is not binding and should not replace the laws and regulations of a country. It does not affect the fundamental rights and principles of the workers as provided by the ILO document or the workers access to the ports or terminals and even the vessels. The IMO is thus used to provide guidance to member countries on how to deal with matters relating to security in the ports.

It also helps in identifying a government’s roles and responsibilities as well as for those of the employers and their employees (Pugh, 1994). The main objective of the formation of the code of practice relating to security on the ports was to enable all the stakeholders including the government minimize the risks which may be incurred by the port due to unlawful acts in the port. It was also intended to provide a common basis of approach to security on ports amongst affiliated states. This code also sought to extend the area covered by port security to include the whole port.

Threats and measures used to combat maritime security Maritime insecurity has been on the rise for the past few years with terrorists using this domain to attack most countries. This has called for strict measures to ensure such attacks are reduced or eliminated. For maritime security to be attained, a number of plans have to be put in place to address the different forms of maritime security. These plans form the basic requirements for successful attaining of maritime security. One of the plans which are vital is a national plan to create and achieve Maritime’s domain awareness.

After creating a national awareness, a global integration of intelligence is important and hence its plan. A single country may not be in a position to fight and lead to maritime security thus the need to cooperate with other countries. Other plans are the maritime infrastructure plan and the maritime security plans. The security plans includes the transportation plan, the commerce plan and the facilities plan. Before the formulation of these plans, the country needs to understand the threats which maritime environment faces (Hawkes, 1989).

For a country to formulate the measures it has to take to attain maritime security, it needs to evaluate the threats the oceans are exposed to which in turn affect the countries stability. Different countries have adopted different measures to ensure that their ports are safe. The most common threats that face the oceans include the threat to the maritime security itself. Today’s maritime environment is marked by complexity and ambiguity thus making it difficult to maintain and protect it. This is more pronounced in the maritime environment.

This is enhanced by the operations carried out at the sea which exposes the countries to acts of terrorism. These kinds of attack are more dangerous and pure military actions may not be effective in fighting them. They thus require other measures and the countries exposed to such threats must device ways to combat them. Advancement in telecommunications and the expansion of the international and commercial logistics have led to an increase in the range and also the effects which arise due to the terrorist attacks. They have made it possible to enter even the borders considered to be most secure with great speed and for greater distances.

Terrorists take advantage of such capabilities and cause great damage globally and also in the political and economic environment (Higgie, 2005). Maritime domain could also be used to export illegal goods to other countries thus posing a threat to the other country. Strict measures are thus required to cub this and to ensure that all transported goods are of high standards and are not harmful to the citizens in a country. Terrorism acts are rampant in the maritime domain. Fighting these threats is becoming more difficult since different terrorist groups from different countries have joined together due to the improved telecommunications.

They also operate under the shadows thus making it hard to fight them. Cooperation amongst the member states is required to maintain maritime security. The increasing international trade through the maritime domain has also led to increased maritime related criminal activities. Such activities include smuggling of drugs and weapons to or out of a country. People smuggling has also been on the rise in the maritime domain especially in areas characterized by heavy commercial seas activities. In countries with unstable political environment, this is more rampant.

Illegal immigration through the sea has been rampant in the recent past thus posing a major threat to maritime security and also to the economic and political stability of a country (Pugh, 1994). The main objective for the countries faced by these maritime threats is to eliminate or reduce the activities which pose these threats. One of the major steps towards preventing the terrorist attacks and other criminal and unlawful acts is through monitoring and controlling or patrolling the maritime borders. High seas areas which are of national interest should be safeguarded.

Detecting and stopping criminal activities before they are committed is the main aim of the countries exposed to maritime threats. To be effective in detecting the threats to maritime security, the country has to be aware of the threat and have detective capabilities. Such knowledge helps in deterring and also defeating adversaries early enough before much damage have been caused (Higgie, 2005). Another objective of a country in cubing maritime insecurity is by protecting the critical maritime infrastructure and also the related population centers.

All the main and important infrastructures both physical and network operations should be guarded by military facilities for security purposes. Population should also be controlled so as to make it difficult for people to collect information which could be used in committing criminal maritime acts. Overcrowding in the ports makes it easier for illegal immigration and smuggling of goods and people. The responsibility of protecting these infrastructures should be taken up by both the private and public sectors. A country should also work towards minimizing the damages which may arise in the maritime domain.

Safeguarding the maritime domain and their resources from exploitation is another aim of a country (Pugh, 1994). For a country to attain maritime security, there are a number of things or requirement that it has to meet. There are no international standards which have been set to control, regulate or maintain maritime security and thus a country has to set its own standards and work towards maintaining maritime securities. However, as mentioned earlier the international maritime organization has set guidelines which a country may apply in dealing with maritime related issues.

Attaining maritime security is a continuous activity especially with the emergence of different activities which are posing threats to maritime security. International cooperation and coordination is vital in achieving maritime security. Information sharing and also intelligence assistance are also vital in effective elimination of maritime insecurity. Public and private sectors should also work in cooperation to attain and secure maritime security (Hawkes, 1989). The minimum requirement is the acquiring of an identification card of maritime security.

This card shows that the holder has been checked from his background and thus can work in the port unescorted. This card covers the seafarers and the persons working or who supply oil and gas facilities offshore. This card mainly operates in the Australian waters. For one to qualify to be given unmonitored access to the maritime security zone, one should not have an adverse criminal record and should be a citizen. If he is not a citizen, he must have a right to work in the country. Automatic identification systems are also a requirement in maritime security.

These systems are supposed to be installed on commercial vessels which are on international voyage. This may include vessels used in fishing and even passenger vessels which are over 65’ in length (Office of the Press Secretary, 2003). Prescreening cargo before lading is also another requirement for attaining maritime security. All international cargos should be examined before they are allowed into a country to ascertain their safety and to eliminate possibilities of threats. Procedures to enforce action against a cargo suspected to be carrying illegal commodities or terrorists into or out of a country should be formulated.

These procedures should be implemented and enforced to reduce the possibility of a repeat of the same action. Seizing cargo procedures should also be implemented and streamlined for easier confiscation of the goods or persons (Bahar, 2007). One of the vital requirements in achieving maritime security is by enhancing international cooperation amongst the member states. The oceans cover more than two thirds of the earth’s surface. As such, no single country can achieve maritime security on its own. Cooperation with other countries is thus a vital tool in achieving maritime security.

Countries which are interested in attaining maritime security and are willing to fight terrorism and other maritime crime come together to device ways to combat these crimes. These countries should seek to understand the threats and prioritize them according to there urgency. Unified actions and plans are then implemented to reduce maritime insecurity (Hawkes, 1989). To enhance this cooperation, the nations should endeavor to standardize international security to ensure that all the goods and people going to a country through the maritime domain are not a threat to the citizens that country.

The use of automated systems should be implemented to register maritime vessels, their ownership and also their operations. The crew operating them should also be registered as well as the cargo being transported to enhance transparency. The member states should also develop a mutual fund ensure effective and efficient implementation of measures to interdict criminals before the damages are done. The means of rapid exchanges amongst the government and intelligence agencies should also be enforced by the law and suspected criminals should be persecuted.

Streamlined procedures should also be adopted to verify vessels nationality so as to take appropriate enforcement measures on time (Bahar, 2007). Another requirement for maritime security is the foreign vessel security plans. This requirement has a provision that members of SOLAS are not required to produce their security plans to coast guards for their vessels to be approved. However, those who are not affiliated to this group of SOLAS have to produce their security plans before being allowed to enter into a country. Their security plan should also comply with the measures which are stipulated in the trade agreement.

SOLAS is an acronym for safety of life at seas. A vessel not complying with these requirements is denied entrance to a country. This is in operation in the united stated (Office of the Press Secretary, 2003). Vessel security plans is also another requirement for ensuring maritime security. All vessels are required to have security plans before being allowed to move in the American waters. This requirement however exempts vessels which carry less than one hundred and fifty passengers without considering the number of overnight passengers in the vessel.

Other vessels exempted in this provision are the drilling units which are non self propelling and are operated offshore. Industrial vessels like the dredges are also exempted from the security plans provision for vessels. Facilities are supposed to come up with their individual plans for security. Exempted in this requirement are facilities which only service the passenger vessels but whose vessels do not carry passengers. Others are the public access facilities which are purely used for recreation and retail purposes by the public. Vessels which the public uses for entertainment and tourist purposes are also exempted.

The owners and the operators of these exempted facilities are held responsible and are supposed to implement necessary security measures. These measures are supposed to comply with the area security plan (Office of the Press Secretary, 2003). These requirements are made possible and viable by offering assistance and training to the maritime security operators. Economic assistance is also vital in ensuring that maritime security among the nations is attained. Another way that the governments have done to ensure maritime security is maintained is by expanding the international port and maritime security officer programs.

This ensures that the diverse threats posed by unlawful acts are minimized and awareness is created. The number of agency attaches has also been increased (Pugh, 1994). Deploying layered security is also another requirement for ensuring that maritime security is achieved and maintained. A system of layered security ensures that the capabilities of the member governments and those of commercial interests are integrated globally. Both the public and the private sectors can help in controlling terrorism activities if they could act in concert.

These two sectors may use diverse though complementary measures to eliminate the criminal acts instead of relying on the government alone. A layered approach is not a static approach but keeps on being improved. These changes serve to create uncertainty thus reducing the possibility of terrorist attacks. This approach is mainly used in the most vulnerable areas like the marine transportation sector, passenger and cargo ferrying, staff and also in conveyances. It is also effective in ports and also the route of transportation (Bahar, 2007).

Maximizing domain awareness is a vital tool in eliminating threats and maintaining peace and security in the maritime environment. Understanding the trends and all the events in a domain helps to predict likely events and also the possible threats facing a certain domain. Prior knowledge of the threats is important for securing the security of a maritime domain and also helps in reducing detrimental events. In trying to gain knowledge of the possible threats, the government and all the stakeholders should aim at trying to understand who their enemies are and their capabilities and also their goals.

Factors influencing their behavior and also their organizational structure should be analyzed. A vital area is learning the adversary’s weak points and also the centers of their gravity. This knowledge is used in planning the course of action and also in deciding and prioritizing the allocation of resources. Awareness of maritime domain thus helps in earlier identification of threats and thus prompts appropriate actions to be taken to prevent such attacks (Higgie, 2005). Conclusion Maritime security as discussed above is not only vital to the seas environment but also affects the whole country and the world in general.

No single country is immune to maritime threats and as such, all the countries should work together to attain maritime security. Creating awareness may be costly but should be advocated for to ensure that terrorist attacks and other criminal and hostile acts are recognized and deterred. Stern measures should be undertaken by the international body concerned with maritime security on countries that collude or allow terrorist to operate from their waters. Those convicted of violating maritime security should be persecuted and heavy punishment imposed so as to deter others from engaging in similar acts.

However, while dealing with matters relating to maritime security, extra care should be taken. Damages caused by criminal acts via maritime domain may be devastating thus caution should be exercised. The countries should also strive at protecting the maritime domain from exploitation so as to preserve the ecosystem of the country as well as that of the aquatic life.

Reference:

Bahar M. (2007): Attaining Optimal Deterrence at Sea: A Legal and Strategic Theory for Naval Anti-Piracy Operations Journal article of Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 40 Hawkes K. G.

(1989): Maritime Security. ISBN 087033395X. Published by Cornell Maritime Press Higgie D. (2005): Combating Terrorism: Dell Higgie Surveys the International Counter-Terrorism Scene. Journal article of New Zealand International Review, Vol. 30 Office of the Press Secretary. (2003): Fact Sheet: Maritime Security Requirements. Retrieved on 10th December 2008 from, http://www. dhs. gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0282. shtm. Pugh M. C. (1994): Maritime Security and Peacekeeping: A Framework for United Nations Operations. ISBN 0719045630. Published by Manchester University Press

Maritime security requirements Essay

Biometrics Essay

Biometrics Essay.

Biometric Recognition or Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a person based on intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. It requires physically present at the point of identification. Identification based on biometric techniques lessen the need to remember a password or carry a token like a physical ID. Various biometric traits are being used for real-time recognition, the most popular being face, iris and fingerprint. However, there are biometric systems that are based on retinal scan, voice, signature and hand geometry.

First, a user must be enrolled in the system so that his biometric template or reference can be captured. This template is securely stored in a central database. The template is used for matching when an individual needs to be identified. Depending on the context, a biometric system can operate either in a verification (authentication) or an identification mode. The biometric recognition system is a technology design to monitor the students’ official entry inside the campus.

It will also serve as the Internet and Tool room access pass.

With the issues concern on the monitoring of students, the researchers delve on the propose project study entitled “TUPT using Biometric Technology.” It will also be used to identify students who will use University facilities like Internet Center and Tool Room. This study will help the security system by adopting the biometric recognition to identify the bona fide students of TUP- Taguig. It will also track and manage the end user of Internet Center same with the borrower in Tool Room.

Statement of the Problem This study would utilize the security systems in the campus. Several problems incurred in the campus wherein the security guards encountered difficulties in dealing with student’s admission. To a large extent, borrowing, monitoring and tracking of equipments by the students are also considered in this study. In view, the researchers prompted to conduct this study by enhancing the ID system in which the Biometric Recognition should be adopted.

Objectives

General Objective: This study aims to enhance the University ID system by adopting Biometric Technology. Specific objectives: 1.To create a system that will enhance the security of the campus using Biometric technology. 2.To develop a more efficient management and operation in ID system. 3.To gather information regarding the development of ID system in TUP- Taguig using Biometric. 4.To test and implement the effectiveness of said system in the campus.

Biometrics Essay

Collective Security Essay

Collective Security Essay.

Collective security has been both supported and criticised as a method of preventing the outbreak of war. It’s an idea that has been around for centuries but it wasn’t until post World War I when it was truly utilized. Throughout my paper I will discuss in further detail what is meant by collective security and how the theory of collective security has been implemented. I will discuss the criticisms of collective security and what conditions help it succeed. I will go into additional detail upon the prospects of collective security with modern challenges such as terrorism, civil wars, and secessionist revolts.

What is Collective Security?

Collective security originated from former President of the United States of America Woodrow Wilson (Krause, 2004), and is defined as “a security regime agreed to by the great power that set rules for keeping peace, guided by the principle that an act of aggression by any state will be met by a collective response from the rest” (Kegley, 2010).

In other words, a security system is created in which each state within the system develops a security agreement to collectively respond to attacks or threats to their peace.

The theory of collective security is intended to protect the security and maintain peace through an organization of sovereign states by entering an agreement that will prohibit them from attacking one another. When joining the “alliance”, states agree to, and must rise in defence if one of their member states is attacked. With this theory, it is believed that it will serve better to have a multilateral agreement rather than a large, confusing set of bilateral treaties. According to Inis Claude (1956):

“The twentieth-century hope that international organizations might serve to prevent war, or, failing that, to defend states subjected to armed attack in defiance of organized efforts to maintain the peace, has been epitomized in the concept of collective security. . . .

Collective security can be described as resting upon the proposition that war can be prevented by the deterrent effect of overwhelming power upon states which are too rational to invite certain defeat.” (Boyd, 2007)

Using the Theory of Collective Security The first recognizable form of collective security began with the formation of the League of Nations established at the Paris Peace Conference right after World War I in 1919 (Veatch, 2011). The League of Nations (LON) was built on the single goal to bring world peace and to insure that war never broke out again. After the chaos from the Treaty of Versailles, the League of Nations was looked at by many to bring stability to the world. Sixty-three states eventually became members of the League of Nations, including Canada, but excluding the United States of America and Germany.

The League of Nations had various successes and settled many disputes. Some of their successes have been: the dispute of the Aaland Island in 1921, and whether or not it belonged to Finland or Sweden, the Upper Silesia riot in 1921, and whether or not it was part of Germany or Poland, the conflict of Memel port in 1923, and it belonging to Lithuania, the rescue of Turkey in 1923, and the Greek invasion over Bulgaria in 1925 (Trueman, 2010). Along with its successes came many failures. A prime example of the League of Nations’ failure with collective security is that of the Manchurian Crisis. When Japan occupied part of China, – which was a member of the League of Nations – they were ordered to withdraw from the invasion and failure to do to would have resorted to penalties. Japan responded by simply withdrawing the League of Nations two years later.

Many limitations were associated with the League of Nations such that any state could withdraw from the agreement (in which many did), and that they couldn’t control the great powers (howstuffworks, 2008). Eventually, the League of Nations came to an end during the outbreak of World War II when it failed to prevent the war. After the war, the League of Nations was replaced by the United Nations (UN) where it inherited a number of organizations and agencies from the League of Nations. Currently, the United Nations has 192 member states and is a prime example of collective security. Their main focus is to facilitate cooperation in internal law, human rights, economic development, international security, social progress, and achieve world peace with collective security throughout its 192 member states (Stromberg, 2002).

Another form of collective security is the Collective Security Treaty Organization (SCTO) as well as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). While collective security regimes are to overwhelm power onto aggressors, there are also regional collective defence regimes which are set in place to prevent threats to the peace of the region. Collective defence regimes are “collective security agreements by members of a geographical region to join together to prevent armed aggression by an expansionist state” (Kegley, 2010). Collective defence organizations include: The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the ANZUS pact (Australia, New Zealand, and the United States), and the most commonly known North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Criticisms of Collective Security

Collective security is an “all-for-one-and-one-for-all” idea that has been around for a long time, but when in use, it proved to be somewhat problematic (Miller, 1999). The theory of collective security has been criticized by its limitations and eventual downfalls. As seen with the League of Nations, while it did bring some good and was able to settle disputes between small countries, it didn’t last very long, nor did it accomplish its primary focus, which was to prevent war.

The most popular criticism of collective security is that it’s often viewed as being naive. With collective security, members tend to only act upon defending another member’s state if it is in their own best interest. Before making a decision to take action, states usually consider the expense and potential risk involve with aiding another member within the security regime. In addition, with the collective security agreement set in place, it focuses primarily on military action right from the start and ignores any attempt to seek more peaceful solutions first, such as diplomatic and economic sanctions (Cartmell, 2010).

Another criticism of collective security is that many of the member states will join the system and not pay for its costs. Arguably, the smaller member states tend to free ride on the system rather than add any contribution to it. It’s because of this free-riding that an organization is likely to under-produce to its cause. In contrast, with organizations based on collective security (like the United Nations), it is difficult to acquire the great power states, such as America and Russia.

Conditions Which Helps Collective Security Succeed Even with the many criticisms of collective security, there are still instances for when it can succeed. Take the United Nations for example. The United Nations demonstrates collective security through its 192 member states and has been active since 1945. It actively participates in improving the development and security of states to help achieve world peace

In order for collective security to demonstrate its ability to be an effective and successful tool, there are several conditions in which needs to be met to flawlessly prove it optimal efficacy. Firstly, all threats to peace must be a common concern to everyone (Kegley, 2010). That is, if aggression on a state is ignored, then it will eventually extend onto other countries and be more difficult to stop. Therefore, an attack on any one state within the organization must be treated as an attack on all states.

Secondly, every member of the global system should join the collective security organization (Kegley, 2010). Instead of developing alliances against rival states, every state should join to a single united alliance. With this single alliance including each and every state, it is assumed that it would be strong enough to withhold world peace and put an end to war and terrorism in the world.

Thirdly, members of the organization should pledge to settle their disputes through pacific means (Kegley, 2010). Collective security requires that all members are willing to peacefully change any disputes they may have before it turns violent. Furthermore, other means of decision makers for disagreements include a judicial organ authorized to settle controversial disagreement within the organization.

Finally, if a breach of peace occurs, the organization should apply timely robust sanctions to punish the aggressor (Kegley, 2010). Members must be willing and able to assist any state that is being attacked, whether it is by public condemnation, economic boycott, or military retaliation. Prospects for Collective Security against Modern Challenges

Despite the criticisms of collective security, and its past failures and successes, it still holds prospects against modern challenges such as, terrorism, civil wars, and secessionist revolts. In the case of terrorism, it is the responsibility of the collective security organization such as the United Nations, not individual member states to determine the “rules of the game” for consistent and efficient multilateral action against terrorism (Koechler, 2002). After September 11th or 9/11, the United States in particular, began focusing more on terrorism and increasing its country’s security against and threats or terrorist entering the country. If the United States were in alliance with the United Nations through collective security, then the probability of the attacks would have been greatly lowered.

Alongside terrorism is another type of modern challenge known as civil wars, where a war breaks out between organized groups in a single state. If collective security were emplaced under the United Nations, and applied through every state, then again the probability of wars diminishes. Even with the lack of the great power within the United Nations organization, there is still a prospect for collective security in preventing most civil wars.

The existence of secessionist revolts wouldn’t be an issue if collective security was successfully imposed among every state. Secession or separative revolts are “a religious or ethnic minority’s efforts, often by violent means, to gain independent statehood by separating territory from an established sovereign state” (Kegley, 2010). They attempt to overthrow the authority of the state by withdrawing from an organization or political entity. The way collective security can come into effect is that if the secessionist revolts have no other state to turn to because the majority of states are within the collective security organization (such as the United Nations), then they don’t withstand a chance against every nation within the organization. The revolts will easily be overruled and forced not to quit the organization if a successful collective security agreement was in effect. Conclusion

Through reviewing collective security and the many implication of its theory throughout history, we can see it has the potential to be an essential tool for world peace. That being said, there are conditions that must be met for that to come in effect. Unfortunately, for it to work flawlessly it becomes too good to be true and that’s where collective security gains its reputation for its many criticisms. There are prospects for collective security against modern challenges and it stands somewhat of a chance to reduce wars and reach world peace. Every state must adapt this theory and collectively unit as a single alliance. Those states that are unprepared to form an alliance with each and every state must face the brutal fact that there will always be rivalry between nations and its people, and must understand that it will continue to lead to wars and alike. We must all put the theory of collective security to the test and strive for unification and world peace.

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Collective Security Essay

Feasibility Study Essay

Feasibility Study Essay.

As a student of Human Resource Development Management we are curious on how the security agencies deploy the employees. We’ve seen lots of security guards, almost all private agencies have their security personnel and we are aware that each gathered it from different agencies. The strategies on how they recruit employees that they are deploying. A security agency is an organization which conduct intelligence activities for the international or local security of the nation, state or organization. They are the domestic cousins of the foreign intelligence agency.

NAME OF THE PROPOSED BUSINESS

The proponents decided to name the business Security Net Agency; this was actually inspired by our group in the class which is SN or Saucer Net. We came up of Security Net Agency for we are offering Security Services. We also use the word Net, because nowadays when you hear the word “net” the first thing that comes in our mind is “social media or Internet”

HISTORY OF THE PROJECT

From the moment our ancestors figured out there was a difference between ‘mine’ and ‘ours’ there became a need for private security.

Since its humble origins in Ancient Egypt on through to the recent events of our post 9/11 world mankind continues to need the industries of private security.

From the very beginning of Human history the issue of security has always been a top priority. As human kind began to grow and become more industrial and to become more militaristic more and more societies began to employ the services of Security Guard services. This is something that was different from the standard armies at that time, because soldiers came a dime a dozen at that time. The issue of personal security was more of a closer issue as Kings and members of high society required a safety net from enemies foreign and domestic.

When these Kings and members of high society bought property and formed industrial corporations, these corporations and these entities needed to be guarded on a more consistent basis and then we can see how the earliest forms of Security Guards were present in society even as far back and the early Greek and Egyptian societies. Naturally Persian Roman and Asian Societies followed suit and employed Security Guard services in their societies as well.

Based on Philippines 2013 Crime and Safety Report, the Overall Crime and Safety Situation which is crime is a significant concern in urban areas of the Philippines. Typical criminal acts include pick-pocketing, confidence schemes, acquaintance scams, and, in some cases, credit card fraud. Carjacking, kidnappings, robberies, and violent assaults sporadically occur. According to the Philippine National Police Directorate for Investigation and Detective Management, the Total Crime Volume (TCV) in 2012 was 217,812 as compared to 2011 with 241,988 – a decrease of 24,176. Of the total 217,812 crime incidents, the National Capital Regional Police Office (NCRPO) registered the highest with 56,978 followed by Regions 3 (Bulacan, Bataan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Tarlac, Aurora) and 7 (Cebu, Bohol, Negros Oriental, Siquijor) with 22,498 and 20,466 reported incidents respectively. Theft (43,606 incidents), physical assault (34,825 incidents), and robbery (26,988 incidents) are the top three commonly committed crimes according to the TCV.

CONTEXTUAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE PROJECT

The proponents decided to establish the business at Panay Ave. Quezon City, Philippines, known as one of the commercial district in Metro Manila. The place is also accessible to our clients and it is surrounded by different business establishment that serves as our clients.

NEEDS GIVING RISE TO THE PROJECT
PROJECT RATIONALE

The increasing rate of unemployment rate is one of the factors that we consider in building up this business. According to the latest survey in the internet, the unemployment rate in Philippines was last reported at 7.0% in July of 2012. Historically, from 1995 until 2012, Philippines Unemployment Rate averaged 9.0% reaching an all time high of 13.9% in April of 2002 and a record low of 6.3% in October of 2007. The unemployment rate can be defined as the number of people actively looking for a job as a percentage of the labour force. According to Philippine National Police the crime rate in Metro Manila increased 63.8% in the first half of 2012, compared to the same period last year. Last year’s January-June incidents of 18,671 rose to 29,231 this year. These things pursue as to create this type of business. Considering this issue leads us to establish this kind of business to provide good quality security service.

We believe that this business will give opportunity to those who graduated in high school that are unemployed as long as they are qualified to be part of our agency. This will surely decrease the unemployment rate and the crime rate in Metro Manila.

PROJECT MISSION AND VISION
MISSION

Security Net Agency (SNA) mission is to protect life and property of the customer in order to achieve a satisfying feedback with customer we dedicate ourselves in providing personalize, quality monitoring. Our concerns are the public people either residential commercial provides satisfying solution to everyone protection.

VISION

Security Net Agency (SNA) vision is to be the top leading security agency in the Philippines. Our performance will be guided by a clear and concise strategic management statement for each business unit. Attaining our vision requires superior and continual improving performance in every level of the agency. We will learn our customer enthusiasm through continuous improvement driven by the integrity, teamwork and innovation SN’s people. Promotes and nurtures service excellence. Our goal is to provide a service that addresses the security needs of our customers and these goal have been demonstrated by our dedicated performance.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The proposed study will determine the various challenges of the Human Resource Management practice in employing and deploying their employees. We are intended to choose the best Security Agency where we are committed to get our securities to be deployed.

Project Logo

CHAPTER II
MANAGEMENT ASPECT

This chapter discusses the different aspect of the proposed project which includes the type of business organization, organizational chart and function of each management personnel their duties and responsibilities, qualifications, compensation and fringe benefit. It also discusses the organization policy for both talent and employee of the company and recruitment process. Lastly, it answers how the project shall be manage by pointing out the firms or person involved or to be involved in studying the different aspect of the project.

OBJECTIVES

To understand the flow of the organization in this type of business. To show the process on how to compute the basic salaries, deductions and the incentives of the employees.

TYPE OF BUSINESS

Partnership

A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skills and expects to share in the profits and losses of the business.

Each partner includes his or her share of the partnership’s income or loss on his or her tax return.

Advantages of Partnership

* Partnerships are relatively easy to establish. * With more than one owner, the ability to raise funds may be increased, both because two or more partners may be able to contribute more funds and because their borrowing capacity may be greater. * Prospective employees may be attracted to the business if given the incentive to become a partner. * A partnership may benefit from the combination of complementary skills of two or more people. There is a wider pool of knowledge, skills and contacts.

Flexibility – A partnership is generally easier to form, manage and run. They are less strictly regulated than companies, in terms of the laws governing the formation and because the partners have the only say in the way the business is run (without interference by shareholders) they are far more flexible in terms of management, as long as all the partners can agree.

Shared Responsibility – Partners can share the responsibility of the running of the business. This will allow them to make the most of their abilities. Rather than splitting the management and taking an equal share of each business task, they might well split the work according to their skills.

Decision Making – Partners share the decision making and can help each other out when they need to. More partners mean more brains that can be picked for business ideas and for the solving of problems that the business encounters.

Disadvantages of Partnership

* Profits must be shared with others. You have to decide on how you value each other’s time and skills. What happens if one partner can put in less time due to personal circumstances? * Since decisions are shared, disagreements can occur. A partnership is for the long term, and expectations and situations can change, which can lead to dramatic and traumatic split ups.

Disagreements – Obviously people are likely to have different ideas on how the business should be run, who should be doing what and what the best interests of the business are. This can lead to disagreements and disputes which might not only harm the business, but also the relationship of those involved.

Agreement – Because the partnership is jointly run, it is necessary that all the partners agree with things that are being done. This means that in some circumstances there are fewer freedoms with regards to the management of the business. Especially compared to sole traders

Liability – Ordinary Partnerships are subject to unlimited liability, which means that each of the partners shares the liability and financial risks of the business. This can be countered by the formation of a limited liability partnership, which benefits from the advantages of limited liability granted
to limited companies, while still taking advantage of the flexibility of the partnership model.

Taxation – One of the major disadvantages of partnership, taxation laws mean that partners must pay tax in the same way as sole traders, each submitting a Self Assessment tax return each year. They are also required to register as self employed with HM Revenue & Customs. The current laws mean that if the partnership (and the partners) bring in more than a certain level, then they are subject to greater levels of personal taxation than they would be in a limited company. This means that in most cases setting up a limited company would be more beneficial as the taxation laws are more favourable

Profit Sharing – Partners share the profits equally. This can lead to inconsistency where one or more partners aren’t putting a fair share of effort into the running or management of the business, but still reaping the rewards.

Capital – Due to the nature of the business, the partners will fund the business with start up capital. This means that the more partners there are, the more money they can put into the business, which will allow better flexibility and more potential for growth. It also means more potential profit, which will be equally shared between the partners.

Feasibility Study Essay

Proprietary Versus Contract Security Essay

Proprietary Versus Contract Security Essay.

As an organization grows so must the security, and it has to be on the top of the list. When considering what type of security to choose, either proprietary or contact, they need to look at the value of the organization? This value within the organization will need some sort of protection to deter theft, vandalism, and destruction. The boardroom conversation could to from, “We have nice stuff” to “How are we going to protect it.” Leadership will need to decide how they will handle the issue of protecting their items that the business owns.

In the process we will need to look at the pros and cons of both proprietary and contract security. Both of them have very big advantages associated with them but most of the time only one meets the needs of the organization. We have established that the organization has nice stuff, they need to protect it, we assume they have the month to support either option and they have a choice to make.

This issues come down to management, and cost.

One option provides for maximum control whereas the other does not allow for much control. The costs are different also. One option there is a set cost, but it could be high and other option the cost could depend upon the capabilities of the office and how many people are hired for the organization. We have defined the problem and lay out the possible options. We will explore the outcomes, their advantages, and their disadvantages. It comes down to what the right fit for the organization. Additionally we will look at these differences between proprietary versus contract security as it compares to consistency, effectiveness, and obligation (COHEN (1979). Choosing Contract or Proprietary Security). The cost of proprietary security is costly. The organization is in control of reimbursing for benefits and greater salaries for their knowledgeable workers. The position of proprietary security is greater; it typically draws a higher class of sentinel.

The salaries have a tendency to be lower for a contract security company in lieu of uniforms, absent leave, exercises, drills, and benefits that are enclosed by the company. Management of proprietary security workers often touch more devoted to a specific organization because of solidarity with follow workers, and has a chance for improvement and advancements. There are times when an organization may have to improve or discharge staff, which creates a problematic issue within an organization. The use of contract security, the organization has a chance to contract with staffing problems simply and swiftly. With steadiness the organization needs regular security configuration that desires to be intervened; acquiring regular proprietary security is the easiest way to go.

A significant consideration is determining which sort of company to use is that irrespective of which kind of company we hand-pick, worker throughput is an option. Conditional on the location, this might be problematic that touches the security and well-being of folks within the organization. The efficiency of proprietary security workers are qualified to meet the exact needs of the organization, which aids them to become more accustomed with the framework of the organization and identify employees and personnel approaching the organization. With a higher throughput percentage, contract security sentinels are not particular friendly with the organizations workforce.

This affects their devotion and obligation and unfavorably, their disadvantage, affects their advancement and performance. Obligation is a risk because when an organization chooses to accept proprietary security, it is accountable for all background checks, certifying that all candidates has the appropriate training, credentials, and qualifications for the duties. When functioning with a contract security business, we do not have to be concerned with qualifications, skills, credentials, and recruitment or background checks. It is all controlled by the contract security business. They take full liability for the officer’s action and discipline if needed.

Advantages and disadvantages of Proprietary Security

The advantages for hiring in-house security personnel are numerous. The first main point is that we have total control of the policies and the enforcement. We have total control or reporting and rules for the guards. Another advantage is that you can pay them as you build up the organization, so the cost is not one big payment but smaller payments. Hiring Proprietary Security personnel is another good thing. You can be sure of the character of the person that you are bringing into your organization, and you can ask the questions that we need during an interview. Proprietary Security can be compensated well enough so the business can minimize turnover.

Turnover can have a down affect if the organizations is not paying security well enough based upon standards. The disadvantages of proprietary security are too varying. The main point is that you have to pay for additional training. There are rules and regulations by law that govern the type of training required based on the securities responsibly. Another key point is you have to schedule their hours to ensure that there is coverage during important times. You have additional benefits and insurance requirements for those that carry a weapon. Most important if the organization downsizes there is a chance that security will be cut whereas a contract security is funded through the year and will be maintain.

Advantages and Disadvantages Contract Security

The first key advantage point for an organization is that they come at a fixed price. When the bidding process is done, we pay the contract security that amount, and we are done. No additional cost to the organization. The next items you can state the statement of work with what training is required. Their major key factor is that using contract security we are responsible for ensuring there is someone on duty. Turnover is not a factor because contract security must have someone trained and ready to guard your organization. The last point and is beneficial to the overhead cost of the organization is that you do not have to worry about additional paying of benefits or insurance. The disadvantage of contract security is that you have less control of the policies and their work. You do not know if the contract security have been properly cleared and is good character for your organization. The contract security employee works for the organization and is best for that organization but will be probably higher than the best interest for your organization. The finally point is a present lack of understanding or control, and you always have in the mind, who they working for. (Contract Security Guards or Proprietary (In-House) Guards, July 6, 2009)

Conclusion

Who is best for the organization, proprietary or contact security? There is no right or wrong answer to this question. The short answer fits best or fits with your organization. The organization must analyze all the advantages and disadvantages of determining what the best option for the organization is. The choice can be difficult because if something goes wrong it points back to you, and you could be out of a job. The key factor to determine what you need is what is being protected? There is no right answer or solution to determine what is needed for the organization. The organization must look at their needs and requirements and what each advantage or disadvantage provides (Security Officers as a Business)

References
COHEN (1979). Choosing Contract or Proprietary Security. https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/Abstract.aspx?id=61691 Contract Security Guards or Proprietary (In-House) Guards, July 6, 2009 http://www.securitysourceonline.com/blog/post.cfm?e=37 Security Officers as a Business http://www.securitymagazine.com/articles/security-officers-as-a-business-strategy-1

Proprietary Versus Contract Security Essay

National security Essay

National security Essay.

After the occurrence of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush signed a law, the PATRIOT Act. The PATRIOT Act made it easier for the law enforcement officials to use certain techniques such as wiretapping and other surveillance technologies to aid in the war against terrorism. The reason why this topic needs to be addressed is located in the following quote: “The probability that people are terrorists given that NSA’s system of surveillance identifies them as terrorists is only p=0.

2308, which is far from one and well below flipping a coin. NSA’s [National Security Agency’s] domestic monitoring of everyone’s email and phone calls is useless for finding terrorists”(Rudmin, Alston P29). Many people argue that the government has gone too far with allowing violations of the Bill of Rights in the name of protecting the country from terrorists. Although some people argue that the government should use all means to fight against terrorism, the government should not be engaged in the surveillance of their citizens in the interests of national security because people expect privacy in their communications, travel and personal records and activities.

Some people argue that the government should use all means to fight against terrorism. Alexander Hamilton, one of our nation’s founding fathers, believed that the government needed to have a free hand in protecting the people. “The power to protect the nation ought to exist without limitation, it is impossible to foresee or define the extend and variety of national exigencies, or the correspondent extent and variety of the means which may be necessary to satisfy them” (Yoo P7). Hamilton believed that the presidents power to protect the nation as commander in chief should not be limited. Many people and even parts of the government have adopted a slogan meant to ease worries over surveillance. “If you’ve got nothing to hide, you’ve got nothing to fear” (Solove P4). The intent of this is that you should not be afraid of the government examining every aspect of your life if you have done nothing wrong in the first place. The arguments presented to support unlimited government powers of surveillance lend themselves to the end justifying any means.

Many believe the best way to fight terrorism is to monitor everything passing through communications channels regardless of the source or destination. “The best way to find an al Qaeda operative is to look at all email, text and phone traffic between Afghanistan and Pakistan and the U.S. This might involve the filtering of innocent traffic, just as roadblocks and airport screenings do” (Yoo P5). In 2008, The United States Senate determined to do just that. The Protect America Act (PAA) expanded upon the FISA Act of 1978 (Federal Intelligence Surveillance Act) to allow more flexibility in monitoring internal communication for intelligence purposes. The Protect America Act substantially changes the intent and protections included in the original FISA Act. “The FISA Act was originally passed to prevent abuse, not allow for more of it… conclusion that the Protect America Act is intended to reduce the ability of the original FISA legislation to preclude abuse” (Alston P35).

The PAA allows for monitoring of communications without judicial warrant within the United States. The PAA also allows government agencies to compel telecommunications companies to provide access and information while at the same time protecting them from prosecution for violating privacy laws. “Failure to obey an order of the FISA Court may be punished as a contempt of court” (Alston P11). “The Act compels an action and simultaneously removes all responsibility for that action” (Alston P13). The FISA Court is not a judicial court, and meets in secrecy. Communications within the United States can now be monitored at the direction of a secret court without oversight from judicial courts and without recourse from those being monitored. Since the government wanted to inhibit the ability of terrorists to attack using commercial aircraft, the Transportation Safety Administration (TSA) added new airport security measures.

The terrorist attacks resulted in many cases of racial and ethnic profiling. The victims of these accusations were mostly of a Middle Eastern descent. These people were subject to searches and interrogations, often without probable cause (ProQuest P1). In order to avoid claims of profiling, airport security checks include whole-body imagers, full pat-downs, and other screening measures for all travelers. Some of these measures violate the right to be secure in our person, while not necessarily improving safety. “Yet screeners routinely fail to discern the guns, knives, and other contraband their monitors show… the distractions of whole-body imaging are considerably greater than anything in the average carry-on” (Akers P3). These new security measures do not inherently make our transportation more secure, and the distractions caused by some may actually make them less secure. In addition, these systems themselves may not be secure or exactly what they are represented to be.

“The TSA has long denied that its gadgets retain the pictures they snap of us… ‘have zero storage capability’, so the images cannot be stored transmitted or printed…” (Kudwa). “We know from the website of one of the vendors that these machines can indeed store images” (Rotenberg). Indeed, images from these systems were subsequently published on the Internet, leading many to question the honesty of the TSA representatives and their vendors. While the government does indeed need to be able to protect the nation, they should do so without violating constitutional rights. Amendment 4 of the Constitution provides that, “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, an no warrants issued, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized” (US Constitution, A4).

This basic guaranteed right is violated by intelligence monitoring of personal communications of citizens within the United States borders without a warrant. The PATRIOT Act also allows for search and seizure of private records without a judicial warrant under specific rules. “An FBI agent came to my office and handed me a letter. It demanded that I turn over information about one of my clients and forbade me from telling ‘any person’ that the government had approached me… National security letters are issued by the FBI, not a judge, to obtain information” (Merrill P1-2). “This information is especially important since internal Justice Department investigations have found widespread violations of NSL rules by the FBI” (Merrill P7). This statement reveals that governmental agencies are pursuing private, protected information without obtaining a judicial warrant, hiding their actions behind gag orders with threats of imprisonment, and violating PATRIOT Act provisions for National Security Letters. The books Matched and Crossed, by Ally Condie, in many ways mirror what is happening in our country today with the use of surveillance of citizens by government.

In the books, all personal communication, spoken or written, is monitored by Officials. These Officials are responsible for monitoring the morals and directing the future of their society. These Officials are similar to the many government agencies using surveillance to monitor the daily lives of citizens for “counter-terrorist” purposes. Every facet of daily life is monitored by the Officials and perceived wrongdoing subjects a citizen to social status change and removal from society. In America today, anyone can be searched without probable cause, and to be even suspected as a terrorist or sympathizer can result in imprisonment. In an even greater invasion of privacy, the Officials in the books monitor the very dreams of their citizens. We can only hope medical technology does not grant this capability to our government.

Although some people argue that the government should fight terrorism with all methods, the government should not be violating the Bill of Rights. Government agencies, mostly working in secret and immune from warrants and judicial review, have been granted the ability to violate rights of citizens guaranteed by the Constitution in order to ensure our safety. “Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety” (Benjamin Franklin). United States citizens do not need to relinquish our freedom or rights for safety against terrorists. “Perhaps the best way to ensure that the act remains faithful to fundamental American values is to insist on greater transparency and oversight” (Sales P17). The government should work to protect us from terrorists and other threats, but can do so without violating the rights of citizens granted by the Constitution.

Works Cited

Akers, Becky. “Whole-Body Imaging: Intrusion Without Security.” Freeman Vol. 60, No. 4 May 2010: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Condie, Ally. Crossed. New York: Dutton Books, 2011. Print.

– – -. Matched. New York: Dutton Books, 2010. Print.
Merrill, Nicholas. “The Patriot Act’s War on Free Speech.” Washington Post 26 Oct. 2011: A. 19. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. ProQuest Staff. “At Issue: National Security and Privacy.” ProQuest LLC. SIRS Issues Researcher, 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Sales, Nathan A. “The Patriot Act Isn’t Broken.” Christian Science Monitor 6 Mar. 2009: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Solove, Daniel J. “Why Privasy Metter Even if You Have ‘Nothing to Hide.’” Chronicle of Higher Education 15 May 2011: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. Yoo, John. “Why We Endorsed Warrantless Wiretraps.” Wall Street Journal 16 July 2009: A. 13. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .

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National security Essay

Human Security Essay

Human Security Essay.

The article aims at bringing the important issue of Human Security to the forefront. It focuses on the urgent need to understand the concept of human security, and to develop the proposals for translating these ideas into policy practice. An attempt has been made to clarify and correlate the terms ‘human development’ and ‘human security’. The interrelation of freedom from ‘fear’ and ‘want’ is discussed and the coherence between the two has been achieved successfully. The author has emphasised on the fact that to enable a real shift in policy making, serious effort needs to be made to operationalize the term Human Security.

Human security workers need to develop a holistic and human centered ethos. They need to maintain the military spirits of sacrifice, heroism, discipline, but combined with civilian spirit of individual responsibility, empathy as well as gender awareness. The holistic development of human security worker makes them capable of carrying out both ‘protection-from-fear’ and ‘protection-from-want’ tasks. The article tries to highlight the attractions of human security as a paradigm shifting and bridging concept, as well as converse attempts to appropriate and restrict its usage.

The article tries to trace the different usages of concept of Human Security. The holistic and innovative concept of Human Security leads to vague and utopian ideas that need great efforts to operationalize. Proponents of human security urgently need to demonstrate that operationalization is possible and necessary. The key strategies for strengthening human security were identified as strengthening legal norms and building capacity to enforce them. Human Security at present sits in the middle of tug-of-war. It is neither irrelevant to power holders nor has been successfully co-opted by them.

The interrelation of poverty and violence used to express Human Security is complex and under-researched. From Roman Times security was universally understood as pertaining to individuals. Attempts were made to reorient thinking about security as Human Security. In the post cold era the term suddenly began to feature as global security and comprehensive security. Amartya Sen proposed that Human Security is concerned with downside risks that threaten human survival. The focus on ‘freedom from want’ has a transformatory effect on ‘freedom from fear’.

This article has traced different usages of concept of Human Security and argues that the concept has withstood attempts at compartmentalization and instrumentalization. Its greatest potential continues to lie in its bridging and paradigm shifting properties. It emphasises human security to be indivisible. It debates on the tension between foreign policymaking and ethical considerations. Another one being poverty breeds violence and tackling poverty will also tackle violence. The article discusses necessary connections with wider policy shifts.

It draws a sketch of the ‘Ideal Human Security Worker’ of the future. Adoption of Human Security concept as Canadian-Norwegian approach, joined by nine other nations and then adopted by Japan marked the realisation of the importance of this concept. The debate typically centres on narrowing down violence rather than poverty in order to come out with an operational concept that can guide policy. Human Security is also a bridging concept and it should be malleable enough to be used by diverse parties, while robust enough to keep sufficient shared meanings across this range of users.

It should span between ideals, life situations and actions. The adoption of Human security as both a holistic and a normative concept will definitely lead to practical consequences. Critical Analysis Internal Analysis: The article discusses the bridging and shifting properties of Human Security Concept. It has made an excellent effort to trace the different usages of concept of human security. The work done by the author is commendable . She has collected the information related to the meaning of human security and its usage from Roman times through the span of the present time.

She has taken into consideration security of all types physical and material. The different concepts of security and its shaping up into present day concept of human security. She has laid special emphasis on the urgent need for the operationalisation of human security. She has not just discussed the need for operationalisation but has also provided excellent ways to instrumentalise and operationalise human security concept. She has tried to both materialise and personify the concept of human security. By discussing both the malleable and robust nature of human security concept that makes the text effective .

The writing and explanation style of the author includes active alert and comprehensive analysis of the term Human Security. She has tried to touch every aspect that surrounds and affects Human Security directly or indirectly. The article has clearly described the role of Human security worker that combines both military spirit and civilian responsibility and empathy. The detailed explaination of the role of Human security worker tries to present a very accurate and live sketch of Human security worker. This refreshes the reader with motivation and enthusiasm to operationalise the concept of human security worker.

It presents the very possibility of the operationalisation and functionality of Human security. Weakness: The article ahs discussed the concept of human security very comprehensively , yet the inter-relation of poverty and violence use to express human security remains complex and under –researched. The weakness of analysis lies in the vague idea development of poverty and violence. It seems to be a vicious circle rather than a focused approach to resolve th problem. External analysis “Dr. Glasius’s research concerns both the theory and practice of global civil society and its relationship to international law, particularly human rights law. ( Glasius )

This article on human security also witnesses the research or comprehensive study conducted by the author. The collection of information as evident from the article that defines the term human security from the initial stage of security in Roman Times to the present concept of Human Security approves the writing style of the author. The author is a research officer ,which is also reflected by her comprehensive writing style. Her present research focuses on economic and social rights , human security and social forums .

In the given article she has elaborated upon the urgent need to operationalise the concept of Human Security. She has also described the role of a Human Security Worker for effective functonalisation of the concept. The idea conveyed through the article is operationalisation of the theory to practice that reflects the originality and urge to reform the society.

Clarity and Coherence of the Arguements:- The author has tried his best to achieve clarity and coherence of the arguments. The evidence being the discussion of various usages of the concept of Human Security . he has discussed each usage of the concept with clarity and focus on the era when the terms were prevalent . She has attempted to clarify the inter-relation of Human Development and Human Security and their impact on each other. She has clearly and explicitly described the role of human security worker. The coherence of the arguments can be viewed beginning from paradigm shifting and bridging aspect of Human Security leading to holistic development of human security worker. Through this the author has very coherently explained the realisation of the ultimate goal of operationalisation of human security .

Relevance of the Arguments : The author argues through the medium of the article that the different usage of concept of Human security has withstood attempts at compartmentalisation and operationalisation. This is quite relevant because with understanding of the term Human security grew an awareness to operationalise this concept. Also paradigm shifting and bridging has further helped in the functional realisation of human security concept and thus the need for training Human security workers. Thus the gist of the article is perfectly relevant so as to define the role of human security worker for its operationalisation.

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Human Security Essay

Choicepoint Data Breach Essay

Choicepoint Data Breach Essay.

Abstract

The ChoicePoint data breach occurred in 2005. This insider data breach brought to light how a company can still be vulnerable to having data stolen from its databases even without any type of hacking of their system. By not properly vetting request for new accounts and request for information led to the theft of over a hundred thousand records of people’s personal information.

ChoicePoint Data Breach

ChoicePoint, A data broker, suffered a data breach in 2005. This breach led to the disclosure of thousands of people’s personal information. We will discuss the type of breach this would fall under, how it occurred, the losses of confidentiality, integrity, and availability (C.I.A.), and the types of improvements ChoicePoint could or did undertake to help prevent this from happening again.

The ChoicePoint data breach was a type of insider attack that occurred between 2003 and 2005 (Otto, Anton, & Baumer, 2007). According to the textbook, the definition of an insider attack is someone with legitimate access intentionally breaches information (Pfleeger & Pfleeger, 2007).

This can typically be from an employee or a contractor. But with the ChoicePoint data breach is was actually from “customers”.

The ChoicePoint data breach led to over 145,000 records of personal information being stolen (Polstra, 2005). This was not by any type of hack into ChoicePoint’s systems but by an individual or a group of people who used previously stolen information to create fake businesses that would have a need to preform background checks on people. They used the fake businesses to apply for accounts with ChoicePoint. When ChoicePoint reviewed the application for membership they ran a check on the businesses and did not find any criminal activity on the owners of these fake companies since they were from stolen information and not the criminals themselves. Since no flags were thrown up ChoicePoint authorized the accounts, and these accounts now had access to retrieve information on people.

In terms of the losses of confidentiality, integrity, and availability there was really only a loss of confidentiality with a minor loss of integrity. The data breach led to the PII of an estimated 145,000 people to be possibly used by the individuals or groups that took the information for improper use. This use could have been for anything like creating credit accounts, loans, etc. Since ChoicePoint data broker of all types of information on people, this loss of data is basically the person’s entire life story and everything needed to take control of that life. The loss of integrity is minimal since the bogus accounts could not change information on the people; the integrity of that information was intact. But since the people that performed this breach created accounts from previously stolen information, that was used to create fake businesses, the account it self was not reliable.

This then could of put every “real” account at risk of not being able to perform its needed task due to the possibly of all accounts being re reviewed to verify proper reasoning for needing the account. There are multiple things that ChoicePoint can do to improve upon with what happened in 2005. While ChoicePoint will point out that they were a victim of fraud themselves since it was not an actual hack into their systems (Polstra, 2005). They still failed to vet the applications for accounts and not reporting the breach of data until it was made public. Even then, they still failed to notify everyone until they were made to. This type of handling of the situation does not help with consumers trusting the company. Another thing they can do is to require more information on the individual that a company is requesting information on.

This way if someone is trying to steal PII on someone they will have to have some of the more important information from the start. This will also make the request look more real and other request that are not stand out that much more. If they better vet the applications for accounts then just simple background checks, it would lead to a lesser chance of people having access when they shouldn’t. In conclusion, the ChoicePoint data breach exposed a serious threat to PII, even when not being hacked or databases being accesses without permission. If anything good could be said about this breach is that it led to the implementing of numerous state laws requiring notification of PII breaches (Payton, 2006).

References

Otto, P. N., Anton, A. I., & Baumer, D. L. (2007, September/October). The ChoicePoint Dilemma: How Data Brokers Should Handle the Privacy of Personal Information. IEEE Security and Privacy , 15-23.

Payton, A. M. (2006). Data security breach: seeking a prescription for adequate remedy. Proceedings of the 3rd annual conference on Information security curriculum development (pp. 162-167). New York: ACM.

Pfleeger, C. P., & Pfleeger, S. L. (2007). Security in Computing. Indianapolis: Prentice Hall.

Polstra, R. M. (2005). A case study on how to manage the theft of information. Proceedings of the 2nd annual conference on Information security curriculum development (pp. 135-138). New York: ACM.

Choicepoint Data Breach Essay