Sneaker slaves on Dazed Digital by Pinar&Viola Essay

Sneaker slaves on Dazed Digital by Pinar&Viola Essay.

As artist and designers we’re always attracted by cultural excesses. That’s where the beauty and the horror of present time shines out in it’s optimum. This time we found beauty behind the hidden doors of the booming world of sneakers, one of the lasting veteran icons of American consumer culture. When I meet an attractive boy, his shoes are the first thing I look at. We all know that you can tell so much about a person by what they wear on their feet.

Apparently I’m not the only one. Shoes carry sexual connotations in mainstream culture. There is nothing scandalous about stilettos being marketed as sexy.High heels are a widely accepted vanilla expression of shoe fetishism. Yet the persuasive power of sports footwear has caused the rise of darkrooms within sneaker culture. In the dark zones of the sneaker cult, fanatics enjoy intimacy with stylish kicks on their feet and in their mouth. The iconoclastic twist of a sneakerhead making love to his sneaker could be the ultimate case of a shopper and a product becoming one, surrendered in manic mutual adoration.

We were introduced to the term sneakerslaves[->3] via a friend. After a little bit of XX-browsing we found the Tumblrs Sneaker Fetish[->4], Sk8terboy[->5] and a Dutch sneaker fetish wikipedia page[->6]. The page informs us that most trainer fetishists, gay men and straight men, are based in France, Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands. Common forms of sneaker fetishism are worshipping[->7], licking[->8] and sniffing[->9] sneakers. Shoeslaves also swap[->10] each other’s sneakers, or eat food [->11]out of their kicks. These fetishists provide images that make our hearts beat faster. For once the bad boys – always dressed to kill – aren’t depicted in the expected realm of a street fight, a shady strip club, or in a sweaty six-pack workout scenario. In these counter-glamour images of tough boys showing their soft side, while sensually sniffing their pricey sneakers with attention and adoration.

These boys show that shoe fetishism goes beyond thigh-length leather boots, killer heels and kinky combat boots. A special place in this list is taken by our daily hot kicks, the training shoe. Thanks to the mixture of pop culture, nostalgia, strong brand-creation, high tech designs and constant launch of new models, the sneaker reached a popularity that crossed all the lines of race and economic classes. A niche of consumers turned into sneakerheads, and a niche of sneakerheads turned into sneakerslaves. The affection of urban youth for their sneakers is one of true love. One of the reasons they love their kicks so much is that the footwear embodies cultural and personal transcendence.

The right pair of sneakers associates the wearer with extraordinary athletic accomplishments while exclusive special editions seem to have the power to establish an identity in a world where all the same things seem to be available everywhere. Rare models encourage the sneaker freaks to compete with each other. The shoes seem worth the investment. They have the ability to retain or increase in value despite being used. Actually, many sneakerheads don’t mind rocking some classics that look a little worn-in. This kind of tolerance and compassion for a pair of shoes can flame up to an extreme. The look, the feel and the smell of brand new and/or worn sneakers, can cause an adoration that blurs out the line between sneaker freaks and sneaker fetishists.

[->0] – http://www.pinar-viola.com/blog/2012/11/harald-gloockler/ [->1] – http://www.pinar-viola.com/blog/2012/03/chinese-gangsta-glam/ [->2] – http://www.pinar-viola.com/blog/2012/03/breathable-delights/ [->3] – http://cashgod13.wordpress.com/2012/04/16/slave-profile-2-sneaker-slaves/ [->4] – http://sneakerfetish.org/

[->5] – http://sk8erboy-eu.tumblr.com/
[->6] – http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sneakerfetisjisme
[->7] – http://sneakersniffer.blogspot.nl/2012/06/sniff-at-all-circumstances.html [->8] – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCiCrJACGeg
[->9] – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XThQsiOZKCo
[->10] – http://youtu.be/XLbumWImcDo
[->11] – http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=sHNA_DZr024

Sneaker slaves on Dazed Digital by Pinar&Viola Essay

Right Against Exploitation Essay

Right Against Exploitation Essay.

The right against exploitation allows Indian citizens to stand up against any kind of exploitation that he/ she might be going through. This fundamental right is described in the constitution as:

Article 23. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.- (1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

(2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purposes, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them.

Article 24. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.- No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment The right against exploitation, given in Articles 23 and 24, provides for two provisions, namely the abolition of trafficking in human beings and Begar (forced labor),[30] and abolition of employment of children below the age of 14 years in dangerous jobs like factories and mines.

Child labour is considered a gross violation of the spirit and provisions of the constitution.[31]

Begar, practised in the past by landlords, has been declared a crime and is punishable by law. Trafficking in humans for the purpose of slave trade or prostitution is also prohibited by law. An exception is made in employment without payment for compulsory services for public purposes. Compulsory military conscription is covered by this provision.[30] Article 23: Right against Exploitation

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS as per Indian Constitution
Article 23: Right against Exploitation

(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Articles 23 and 24 deal with the right against exploitation. Article 23 which prohibits traffic in human beings and beggar and similar forms of forced labour is comparable to the Thirteenth Amendment of the American Constitution abolishing slavery or involuntary servitude. At the time of the adoption of the Constitution there was hardly anything like slavery or the widespread practice of forced labour in any part of India. The National Freedom movement, since the twenties of this century, had been a rallying force against such practices. However, there were many areas of the country where the “untouchables” were being exploited in several ways by the higher castes and richer classes. For example, in parts of Rajasthan in Western India, which was in pre-Independence days a cluster of Princely States, there existed a practice under which labourers who worked for a particular landlord could not leave him to seek employment elsewhere without his permission.

Very often this restriction was so severe and the labourer’s dependence on the “master” was so absolute that he was just a slave in reality. The local laws had supported such practices. Evils like the Devadasi system under which women were dedicated in the name of religion, to Hindu deities, idols, objects of worship, temples and other religious institutions, and under which, instead of living a life of dedication, self-renunciation and piety, they were the life-long victims of lust and immorality, had been prevalent in certain parts of southern and western India. Vestiges of such evil customs and practices were still there in many parts of the country. The Constitution-makers were eager to proclaim a war against them through the Constitution as these practices would have no place in the new political and social concept that was emerging with the advent of independence.

The ideal of “one man, one vote, one value”, equality before law and equal protection of laws, freedom of profession and the right to move freely throughout the country all these would have no meaning if “one man” was subjugated by “another man” and one’s life was at the mercy of another. Although any form of forced labour is an offence punishable under law just as untouchability is an offence, this constitutional guarantee is only against private individuals and organisations.

An important exception is made in favour of the State which may impose compulsory service for public purposes. Compulsory military service or compulsory work for nation-building programmes may provide examples of such service. The State may for instance, pass a law by which it may compel every university graduate to spend six months in villages immediately after leaving the university, on literacy work or other social service among the village people. Such a law, however, should not make any discrimination on grounds of religion, caste or class, or any of them.

Right Against Exploitation Essay

The Berbice Slave Rebellion Essay

The Berbice Slave Rebellion Essay.

The rebellion began on February, 23rd, 1763 on Plantation Magdalenenberg on the Canje River. The slaves rebelled, protesting harsh and inhumane treatment, and took control of the region. By March, the revolt spread to the Berbice River. As plantation after plantation fell to the slaves, the European population fled. Eventually only half of the whites who had lived in the colony remained.

Led by Cuffy (also Coffy or Kofi) a domestic or house slave from Plantation Lilienburg (now the national hero of Guyana), the rebels came to number about 3,000 and threatened European control over the Guianas.

Cuffy set up his headquarters at Plantation Hollandia and Zeelandia in March 1763. The whites in the colony of Berbice, who were under the governorship of Van Hoogenheim, retreated to Fort Nassau and Peerboom for refuge.

On March 3rd, 1763, six hundred blacks under Casala attacked Plantation Peerboom. Moreover, on March 8th, 1763, Governor Van Hoogenheim abandoned Fort Nassau. During this time Governor Van Hoogenheim received soldiers from Surinam and journeyed up the Berbice River to Dageraad.

Dageraad was unsuccessfully attacked by Akara (a general in Cuffy’s slave rebel army).

In April, 1963, Cuffy sent a letter to Governor Van Hoogenheim concerning the division of Berbice. Van Hoogenheimn obtained reinforcements from Gravesande, Governor of Essequibo, a neighbouring Dutch colony.

On May 13th, 1763, Cuffy attacked Dageraad unsuccessfully. Eight whites and fighty-eight blacks were killed.

Cuffy, was an African-born slave from the Akan tribe and lived in the former Dutch colony of Berbice in present-day Guyana. In 1763 led a revolt of more than 2,500 slaves. They held most of Berbice for ten months, but tribal, status and leadership divisions among the black rebels (particularly seen when Akara deserted Cuffy for the extremist leadership of Atta) and attacks by Dutch forces, led to the collapse of the rebellion. Therefore, feeling hopeless and defeated, Cuffy killed his close followers and committed suicide soon after.

In December, 1763, black rebels were attacked by white forces along the Berbice River and from Upper Demerara. Most of the slaves ran away into the forests and the remainder were hunted down and killed.

Towards the end of the Berbice Slave Uprising Cuffy disagreed violently with Akara, one of the leaders of the rebellion. Akara was demoted and made to work in the gang. Akara later joined Atta against Cuffy. Later still, he cooperated with the Dutch, taking part in the successful assault on Accabre which ended the rebellion.

The anniversary of the Cuffy slave rebellion, February 23, has been Republic Day in Guyana since 1970.

Outcomes

During the months of March and April 1764, punishments were meted out to the black rebels: (i) forty (40) were hanged; (ii) twenty-four (24) were broken and twenty-four (24) were burned.

The Berbice Slave Rebellion Essay

Blue Collar vs. White Collar Work Essay

Blue Collar vs. White Collar Work Essay.

Throughout history the lives of the people in the working class have not always been easy. People always work hard to earn money and support their families; however, people don’t always work in a suitable working area. The term “Blue Collar” is jobs that require manual labor from people. The problem with these kinds of jobs is that the places the people work in can be extremely unsanitary and may cause a bad working environment for the people in it.

Blue collar work is also the work most people do not want to do but it is needed for the people who do white collar jobs to prosper. Also blue collar workers are known as people who did not do well in school or people that aren’t smart. Well that is not the case with these workers because without them we wouldn’t be able to do some of the things we do now or be able to survive.

Also some blue collar workers are called undocumented workers in which they don’t have any documents to prove that they can work or are from this country but help the country in doing jobs that are needed for a low wage.

Therefore blue collar workers are a very important part to society and we need them to thrive. For example in “Made in L.A” there are 3 young Latina immigrants who work in Los Angeles sweatshops they do manual labor for an extremely low wage. Even though they did the same work as others they got paid less because they are immigrants, it is hard work with low wages but they continue to do it to support themselves and their family just like the blue collar workers do nowadays. With the little voice they had, they protested and tried to make a difference for all future immigrant workers not to be treated inferior to them. People in blue collar jobs get paid less than white collar workers which are office work but they enjoy their job other than others even though it is dirty. Even though the U.S has strict policies on immigrants, they are actually needed because they do many of the blue collar jobs that are needed in the country. For example in the article “Putting a Stop to Slave Labor” it says that”

If we required good documents starting tomorrow, the nation would plunge into an instantaneous economic crisis” (p156). This would happen due the fact that they do most of the jobs that people don’t want to do and get low wages also which are blue collar jobs. There are many instances of unsanitary work places. In the article “Migrant Farm Worker,” by Studs Terkel shows the conditions of the working place and also shows child labor. He says the animals were being treated better than the workers themselves. “Veterinarians tend to the needs of domestic animals but they can’t have medical care for the workers.”(p133) this shows that the bosses who supply these people with blue collar jobs are being taken advantage of and that the animals are living better than the workers. Also this goes to show what little care the bosses had for their people and that they only cared about the money instead of the needs of these people.

People need to see the working class as people rather than machines that do something over and over again. Just because someone has to work hours in front of a machine and have a dirty job does not mean that the person is not a human being. There are many people needed in the world to do some jobs that which most people would not do. If we didn’t have those kind of people and if everyone wanted to do the same thing as everyone else than we would have a hard time surviving since it is needed to be done. “The case for working with your Hands,” states “More fundamentally, now as ever, somebody has to actually do things: fix our cars, unclog our toilets, and build our houses.”(18) This goes to show that if no one does those jobs there would be a lot of problems and that we always are going to need blue collar workers perhaps more than white collar in most cases.

“The Case for Working with Your Hands,” also states “The trades suffer from low prestige and I believe this is based on a simple mistake. Because work is dirty, many people assume it is also stupid.”(19) The thing that people don’t realize is that not every job is going to appeal to them because we are all different and different people do different things, just as some people like to sit behind a computer everyday some people will not do that. The treatment of workers is a growing issue and it’s going to keep on growing and growing if people don’t realize what these big companies are doing and put a stop to it. For example the shoe company Nike employs many people but the thing people don’t know is that there are 12,000 young women in Indonesia making the lowest amount of money and working long tiring shifts.

Every $80 sneaker Nike makes it only costs them 12 cents for the labor. This shows the unfair treatment of these workers and how the company is taking advantage of them and it is not only Nike doing this but any major company uses the same force of labor. In “Who Makes the Clothes We Wear?” it says “Government officials raided a sweatshop filled with immigrant Thai women laboring as little as 59 cents per hour.”Also not only were they being taken advantage of the discipline was enforced by threats of rape and beatings.(26)

This goes to show the little care they have for these workers and the actions that are being taken against them. It also shows a dark side to these companies in which the workers are being treated worst than dogs. In the article “Reapers” by Jean Toomer it says that “Black horses drive a mower through the weeds and there, a field rat, startled, squealing bleeds, His belly close to ground. I see the blade, Blood-stained, continue cutting weeds and shade.” (37) This article shows tough field work for black people back around the 60s. They were bleeding but their determination was too great and they continued to go and do their work.

Slavery could be identified as blue collar work also. In the article “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” Frederick Douglass says “There is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven who does not know that slavery is wrong for him.” (140)This shows that everyone knows that slavery is wrong but they continue to do it disregard the health of the workers but the financial health of a company or a person. Slaves have to endure much pain and long haggard days with little to no pay working out on the fields and any other job that another man won’t do. Just like the slaves do these kinds of work the women in Indonesia could be compared to them because of the long working hours and the little pay with strict discipline. There is a growing problem with Third World women and how they are being used.

The companies get young girls and give them work usually being blue collar work with bad working conditions and poor pay. In the article “Life on the Global Assembly Line,” it says “Older” women, aged 23 or 24, are likely to be laid off and not rehired. The lucky ones find husbands. The unlucky ones find themselves at the margins of society-as bar girls, “hostesses,” or prostitutes.”(29) This displays the women as disposable workers; once they get too old they are thrown out and out of a job.

After that these women don’t have anywhere to go, some get a husband and are being taken care of and others have to resort to whatever that is needed to be done to get by. Although the problems to these blue collar workers are plain to see, the fact is that the country needs them for the economy to thrive. Even if blue collar workers are needed to have a successful economy it doesn’t change the fact that they need to be treated like people and not like dogs on the street.

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Blue Collar vs. White Collar Work Essay

Slavery by Another Name Essay

Slavery by Another Name Essay.

Slavery has been known to be one of the cruelest treatments on African Americans; but there is something worse than slavery which isn’t really recognized as much. The Convict lease system was reported to be harsher than slavery. The convict lease system was a system of penal labor practiced in the Southern U.S, beginning with the freedom of slaves at the end of the American Civil War in 1865 but climaxing around 1880. Convict leasing peeked by regulating Black codes and Pig Laws.

These laws were started to try and bring in more convicts into the jails because at this time convict leasing had started to make great revenue. Pig laws stated that the stealing of anything with a value of 10$ or more was colossal larceny. Black codes were laws limiting the basic human rights and civil liberties of blacks.

These codes were easily broken because anything was considered a crime. For example, spitting on the sidewalk, talking too loud, public intoxication, or not stepping off the sidewalk when a white person was coming across your path, were all consider crimes and would result in a conviction.

Once convicted and charged, court fees would be given to add more time to the given sentence. Even innocent blacks were pulled off the streets and placed into the convict lease system. Convict leasing was basically just another name for slavery. However, the conditions were horrifying. Approximately, 800,000 blacks had fallen into incarceration due to the black codes and pig laws. About half were enforced in the convict leasing system. 9,000 of those in the convicted leasing system died before release due to disease, lynching, and harsh working conditions. They were literally worked to death.

Slavery by Another Name Essay

William Wilberforce Essay

William Wilberforce Essay.

The British initially became involved in the slave trade during the 16th century. By 1783, the triangular route that took British-made goods to Africa to buy slaves, transported the enslaved to the West Indies, and then brought slave-grown products such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton to Britain, represented about 80 percent of Great Britain’s foreign income. [49][50] British ships dominated the trade, supplying French, Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese and British colonies, and in peak years carried forty thousand enslaved men, women and children across the Atlantic in the horrific conditions of the middle passage.

Of the estimated 11 million Africans transported into slavery, about 1. 4 million died during the voyage. [52] The British campaign to abolish the slave trade is generally considered to have begun in the 1780s with the establishment of the Quakers’ antislavery committees, and their presentation to Parliament of the first slave trade petition in 1783. [53][54] The same year, Wilberforce, while dining with his old Cambridge friend Gerard Edwards,[55] met Rev.

James Ramsay, a ship’s surgeon who had become a clergyman on the island of St Christopher (later St Kitts) in theLeeward Islands, and a medical supervisor of the plantations there.

What Ramsay had witnessed of the conditions endured by the slaves, both at sea and on the plantations, horrified him. Returning to England after fifteen years, he accepted the living of Teston, Kent in 1781, and there met Sir Charles Middleton, Lady Middleton, Thomas Clarkson, Hannah More and others, a group that later became known as the Testonites.

Interested in promoting Christianity and moral improvement in Britain and overseas, they were appalled by Ramsay’s reports of the depraved lifestyles of slave owners, the cruel treatment meted out to the enslaved, and the lack of Christian instruction provided to the slaves. [57] With their encouragement and help, Ramsay spent three years writing An essay on the treatment and conversion of African slaves in the British sugar colonies, which was highly critical of slavery in the West Indies.

The book, published in 1784, was to have an important impact in raising public awareness and interest, and it excited the ire of West Indian planters who in the coming years attacked both Ramsay and his ideas in a series of pro-slavery tracts. [58] Diagram of a slave ship, the Brookes, illustrating the inhumane conditions aboard such vessels Wilberforce apparently did not follow up on his meeting with Ramsay. [55] However, three years later, and inspired by his new faith, Wilberforce was growing interested inhumanitarian reform.

In November 1786 he received a letter from Sir Charles Middleton that re-opened his interest in the slave trade. [59][60] At the urging of Lady Middleton, Sir Charles suggested that Wilberforce bring forward the abolition of the slave trade in Parliament. Wilberforce responded that “he felt the great importance of the subject, and thought himself unequal to the task allotted to him, but yet would not positively decline it”. [61]

He began to read widely on the subject, and met with the Testonites at Middleton’s home atBarham Court in Teston in the early winter of 1786–87. 62] In early 1787, Thomas Clarkson, a fellow graduate of St John’s, Cambridge, who had become convinced of the need to end the slave trade after writing a prize-winning essay on the subject while at Cambridge,[56] called upon Wilberforce at Old Palace Yard with a published copy of the work. [63][64] This was the first time the two men had met; their collaboration would last nearly fifty years. [65][66] Clarkson began to visit Wilberforce on a weekly basis, bringing first-hand evidence[67] he had obtained about the slave trade.

The Quakers, already working for abolition, also recognised the need for influence within Parliament, and urged Clarkson to secure a commitment from Wilberforce to bring forward the case for abolition in the House of Commons. [68][69] It was arranged that Bennet Langton, a Lincolnshire landowner and mutual acquaintance of Wilberforce and Clarkson, would organize a dinner party in order to ask Wilberforce formally to lead the parliamentary campaign. [70] The dinner took place on 13 March 1787; other guests included Charles Middleton, Sir Joshua Reynolds, William Windham, MP, James Boswell and Isaac Hawkins Browne, MP.

By the end of the evening, Wilberforce had agreed in general terms that he would bring forward the abolition of the slave trade in Parliament, “provided that no person more proper could be found”. [71] The same spring, on 12 May 1787, the still hesitant Wilberforce held a conversation with William Pitt and the future Prime Minister William Grenville as they sat under a large oak tree on Pitt’s estate in Kent. [7] Under what came to be known as the “Wilberforce Oak” at Holwood, Pitt challenged his friend: “Wilberforce, why don’t you give notice of a motion on the subject of the Slave Trade?

You have already taken great pains to collect evidence, and are therefore fully entitled to the credit which doing so will ensure you. Do not lose time, or the ground will be occupied by another. “[72] Wilberforce’s response is not recorded, but he later declared in old age that he could “distinctly remember the very knoll on which I was sitting near Pitt and Grenville” where he made his decision. [73] Wilberforce’s involvement in the abolition movement was motivated by a desire to put his Christian principles into action and to serve God in public life.

He and other Evangelicals were horrified by what they perceived was a depraved and unchristian trade, and the greed and avarice of the owners and traders. [75][76] Wilberforce sensed a call from God, writing in a journal entry in 1787 that “God Almighty has set before me two great objects, the suppression of the Slave Trade and the Reformation of Manners [moral values]”. [77][78] The conspicuous involvement of Evangelicals in the highly popular anti-slavery movement served to improve the status of a group otherwise associated with the less popular campaigns against vice and immorality. [79]

William Wilberforce Essay

The Witness Paper Essay

The Witness Paper Essay.

There is no better way to understand an event than to experience it first-hand. History is an imperfect thing, and as stories are passed down, people forget their true meaning. In “The Witness”, Katherine Anne Porter’s “Uncle Jimbilly” has experienced the horrors of slavery personally, and is frustrated when children of the next generation do not fully understand and respect the topic. The way Porter describes these characters subtly shows the reader their feelings toward each other. Direct characterization may not be the most subtle form, but it quickly and efficiently gets a point across.

The children are given descriptions like, “flighty”, “thoughtful”, and “sad looking”. This brief characterization causes one to see the children simply as innocent young minds. Uncle Jimbilly is described as an old man who “hobbles on a stick” with greenish gray, wooly hair. He is “bent almost double” from years spent bowing over things. This reflects his former life as a slave.

He has clearly lived a long, hard life, and his battered body shows us this.

Indirect characterization helps to provide a deeper understanding of a character. Through the questions the children have for Uncle Jimbilly, especially the younger two, Porter demonstrates their innocence further. “The children thought Uncle Jimbilly had got over his slavery very well.” This mentality creates some questions the children believe to be harmless; they do not fully understand the emotional strain Uncle Jimbilly faces. However, with his responses, the reader comprehends his true feelings on the matter. Maria asks him to carve “Safe in Heaven” on the tombstone for her rabbit.

At her question Uncle Jimbilly grows impatient and continues to reminisce about the boys in the swamp and the unfair ways they were treated. This highlights the bitter feelings he has toward his past and the fact that the children do not understand his suffering. Katherine Anne Porter’s use of characterization leaves the reader with a character many layers deep. She displays their colors in a way which highlights the underlying theme in “The Witness”. The generational gap between Uncle Jimbilly and the children is portrayed throughout the story and Uncle Jimbilly’s past of slavery is used as vehicle to emphasize this gap. Younger generations will never fully understand their ancestors’ lives, just as generations to come will not understand theirs.

The Witness Paper Essay

Slavery in the Chocolate Industry Essay

Slavery in the Chocolate Industry Essay.

1.What are the systemic, corporate and individual ethical issues raised by this case? Slavery in the chocolate industry case has systemic, corporate and individual ethical issues.Firstly, from the point of systemic ethical issue , economic systems should be taken intoconsideration. Between 1996 and 2000, cocoa bean prices had declined. The decline wasdictated by the global forces over which farmers had no control. With low prices, farmersturned to slavery to try to cut labor cost for their survival in this situation. There is another systemic issue relates to the legal aspect of slavery in the chocolate industry.

Actually, slaveryon farms is illegal in the Ivory Coast but the law is rarely enforced. Open borders, a shortageof enforcement officers, and the willingness of local officials to accept bribes from membersof the slave trade all contribute to the problem.

Secondly, corporate ethical issue raised by the case. Middlemen who grind and processcocoa beans they acquire from the Ivory Coast and sell the product to manufacturers. Somiddlemen aware of the slavery labor problem.

After the media attention and antislaverygroup activities, U.S. Senator Tom Harkin and U.S. Representative Eliot Engel, the membersof the Chocolate Manufacturers Association and the World Cocoa Foundation, together with several human rights groups and the Ivory Coast. signed Memorandum of Cooperation. They also agreed to establish a system of certification. But the problem is, they can not control over anything.

Because there are 1 million cocoa farms, most of them family farms and they located in remote rural regions. Lastly, there are some individual ethical issues in the case. Cocoa farmers are at the center of the issue. Because, it is illegal to use child slavery labor. Also it is immorally wrong to take someone unwillingly. The second issue is the consumers who knows the problem, company names and continues to consumer their products. Consumers should not ignore it, because with every chocolate they buy, they contribute the continuation of the slavery in chocolate industry.

2. In your view, is the kind of child slavery discussed in this case absolutely wrong nomatter what, or is it only relatively wrong, i.e., if one happens to live in a society (likeours) that disapproves of slavery? I think the answer varies in culture to culture. But in my opinion, there is no way to acceptchild slavery. Children are kidnapped, sold and forced into harvesting. Farmers are beatingthem. From may point of view, children should not be used for labor. They should have aright to choose their lifestyle. They should have education and then contribute the country’seconomy and welfare. Regardless of the society one may live in, I think child labor isabsolutely wrong.

3. Who shares in the moral responsibility for the slavery occurring in the chocolateindustry: African farmers? African governments? American chocolate companies likeHershey, Mars, Nestle and Kraft foods? Distributors like Archer Daniels Midland Co.,Barry Callebaut, and Cargill Inc? Consumers like you and I who know about thesituation but continue to purchase tainted chocolate? I believe, African Farmers, African governments, American chocolate companies,distributors, consumers and people who know the situation, shares in the moral responsibilityfor the slavery occurring in the chocolate industry.

African farmers use child slavery labor.African government do not control over the rules. Middlemen buys cocoa beans from farmerswho use slavery labor. American chocolate companies know farmers use slavery labor andthey continue to work them. If we know the company names and continue to buy chocolatefrom them, we are also morally responsible for the child slavery labor. As a result, all actorsin the industry are responsible.

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Slavery in the Chocolate Industry Essay

Why Did the Slave Trade Come to an End? Essay

Why Did the Slave Trade Come to an End? Essay.

In this essay I am going to write about “why the slave trade came to an end?” The Atlantic slave trade developed in the 16th century. By the 18th and 19th centuries, the public had come to hate the trade and called for its abolition. Because in the northern state of America thought that it was wrong for the black people to be their slave so the northern state and the southern state had a war and the northern state had won the war which was known as the Civil War in order for the slavery to end.

This was the American civil war. This resulted in the setting free of all slaves in the southern states. Also the government of England in that time where slave owners therefore reluctant to give up there slaves.

The slave trade itself ended in 1807 in British lands and in 1808 in the US ( it’s in the Constitution); the US and Royal Navies spent much of the next 60 years chasing the slaves and headed to Spanish colonies.

A man called William Wilberforce who was a British politician abolished the slave trade. William Wilberforce strongly campaigned against slave trading. Due to his effort, the British parliament passed a law called the Anti-Slave Trade Act on 25th, March 1807.

By this act slave trading was made illegal in both Britain and the entire British Empire. However, slave trade continued in other areas. Determined to end slave trade, Britain negotiated for an agreement with Portugal, Spain and France. After this act people were feeling guilty for what they have done and realised that it was not fair. When the slave trade came to an end in the South of America many people were still racist to black people and still didn’t give them as many rights as the white people had. In the South of US nearly everything was separated between coloured and white people.

Why Did the Slave Trade Come to an End? Essay

Plantation System Essay

Plantation System Essay.

This essay seeks to account for the emergence of the plantation system in the Caribbean. Discuss with special reference to the sugar industry. According to the Oxford Concise Dictionary a plantation is a long, artificially-established forest, farm or estate, where crops are grown for sale, often in distant markets rather than for local on-site consumption. The term plantation is informal and not precisely defined. Plantations are grown on a large scale as the crops grown are for commercial purpose

Crops grown on plantations include fast-growing tress (often conifers), cotton, coffee, tobacco, sugar cane, sisal, some oil seeds (notably oil palms) and rubber trees.

Farms that produce alfalfa, Lespedeza, clover and other forage crops are usually not called plantations. He term “plantation” has usually not included large orchards (except for banana plantations), but does include the planting of trees for lumber. A plantation is always a monoculture over a large area and does not include extensive naturally occurring stands of plants that have economic value.

Because of its large size, a plantation takes advantage of economies of scale. Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have contributed to determining where plantations have been located.

Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, which produced large quantities of wine and olive oil for export. Plantation agriculture grew rapidly with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonial empires. Like every economic activity, it has changed over time. Earlier forms of plantation agriculture were associated with large disparities of wealth and income, foreign ownership and political influence, and exploitative social systems such as indentured labor and slavery. The history of the environmental, social and economic issues relating to plantation agriculture is covered in articles that focus on those subjects.

In the 17th century Europeans began to establish settlements in the Americas. The division of the land into smaller units under private ownership became known as the plantation system. Starting in Virginia the system spread to the New England colonies. Crops grown on these plantations such as tobacco, rice, sugar cane and cotton were labor intensive. Slaves were in the fields from sunrise to sunset and at harvest time they did an eighteen hour day. Women worked the same hours as the men and pregnant women were expected to continue until their child was born.

European immigrants had gone to America to own their own land and were reluctant to work for others. Convicts were sent over from Britain but there had not been enough to satisfy the tremendous demand for labor. Planters therefore began to purchase slaves. At first these came from the West Indies but by the late 18th century they came directly from Africa and busy slave-markets were established in Philadelphia, Richmond, Charleston and New Orleans.

The death-rate amongst slaves was high. To replace their losses, plantation owners encouraged the slaves to have children. Child-bearing started around the age of thirteen, and by twenty the women slaves would be expected to have four or five children. To encourage child-bearing some population owners promised women slaves their freedom after they had produced fifteen children.

In the early days of the Southern colonies land was inexpensive but workers were hard to find. Men could buy up huge estates on which to grow profitable crops such as tobacco, but they couldn’t find anyone willing to work the land. At first they solved this problem by using indentured servants. An indentured servant was a type of temporary slave, contracted to work for a period of several years in order to pay back the cost of a passage by ship from Britain to the colonies. The conditions of plantation life were harsh and dangerous, and 40 percent of indentured servants died before paying off their debts.

The classic plantation was a politico-economic invention, a colonial frontier institution, combining non-European slaves and European capital, technology, and managerial skill with territorial control of free or cheap subtropical lands in the mass, monocrop production of agricultural commodities for European markets. The plantation system shaped Caribbean societies in certain uniform ways: the growth of two social segments, both migrant, one enslaved and numerous, the other free and few in number; settlement on large holdings, the choicest lands (mainly coastal alluvial plains and intermontane valleys) being preempted for plantation production; local political orders excluding the numerically preponderant group from civil participation by force, law, and custom; and a capitalist rationale of production, with the planter a businessman rather than a farmer-colonist, even though the investment of capital in human stock and the code of social relations lent a somewhat non-capitalist coloration to enterprise.

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Plantation System Essay