Crossing Heaven’s Border Essay

Crossing Heaven’s Border Essay.

After the division of Korea in World War II, North Korea introduced communism into their country aiming to create a country where everyone was equally wealthy. However, unlike the expectation, NK’s national plans didn’t work out well, and North Koreans started to suffer from political oppression and chronic food shortages. North Koreans who could not stand the situation in their home country started fleeing from North to South Korea. first broadcast in July 2007 reveals the 10 day journey of the North Korean defectors who cross several border to settle in South Korea.

The journey of North Korean defectors begins in Tumen and Yalu river, the rivers defectors have to cross to reach Shenyang, a city in China. As soon as they arrive in China, North Korean defectors always have to be careful. This is because they can be caught by Chinese authorities that repatriate defectors back to their home country, where they face cruel punishments.

Often, defectors temporarily settle in Shenyang to raise money before they smuggle into South.

Some women defectors are even tempted into sex industries, and they often lose their opportunity to reach South Korea. Those who successfully depart Shenyang ride on an illegal bus for 10 hours that takes them to Beijing. In Beijing, group of defectors spread out themselves and melt into the crowd to avoid authority until they board a train to Kunming. On the train, the defectors hide themselves from Chinese officials’ inspection by either leaving their seat or pretending to sleep when the officials are around. After three tenth days, they arrive in Kunming. From there, they face another 8 hour drive through the mountains toward the jungle border with Laos.

Even for North Korean defectors who are chastened by adversities, crossing the jungle, which takes 18 hours on foot, is strenuous. Finally, after they cross another border to Thailand from Laos, the defectors can apply for asylum at the South Korean embassy in Bangkok, and their long arduous trip ends there (Crossing Heaven’s Border, PBS). At the embassy, we interviewed a 23-year-old North Korean refugee Lee Ok Kyung, who was waiting for her South Korean visa to be issued. Lee recalled her memory of childhood in the North as a nightmare.“Everyone around me was struggling to find food so dying from hunger wasn’t anything new to us” she said. “My parents ran their pants off on farms day and night, but they were paid much less than the amount of work they did because all their money was sent to the supreme leader Kim Jong Il.

However, no one complained about this because everyone was brainwashed that Kim was their demigod of North Korea. Unlike my neighbors, however, I knew that Kim and the high officials were deceiving us. I left North Korea because I was eager to free myself from suppression of the North Korean government. From my respect, North Korea was a heavenly country without any future or freedom. ” Until now, many of North Koreans risk their lives in the hope of resettling in South Korea, a country now home to more than 23,500 defectors. However, against the refugee’s expectation, life in a new country is not easy. Many find themselves unable to cope with the faster pace of life in the South, and they are often looked down upon by their Southern neighbors. Nevertheless, North Korean refugees take such adversities lying down because they have a desperate bid for freedom that can only be acquired by crossing the border.

Crossing Heaven’s Border Essay

Gangnam Style Introduction Essay

Gangnam Style Introduction Essay.

Nowadays, everyone in Malaysia is talking about the Oppa Gangnam Style. Oppa Gangnam style is the famous video in Malaysia originated from Korea. Malaysians even create a lot of parody versions of Gangnam Style like KL style, Orang Sabah style and Super Kampung Style. Basically, Gangnam style is one of the songs of PSY’s sixth album. He released this album on July of 2012. Within 4 months, this video had already become the most viewed video in YouTube. Peoples love his horse-riding dance which is the signature dance in Gangnam style video as this dance is the funniest part in the video.

This horse-riding dance is one of the reasons why Gangnam style have become famous in the whole world.

PSY is a South Korean K-pop singer who is already 35 years old now. His real name is Park Jae-Sang. He is well-known for his humorous videos and stage performances. Actually, Gangnam is a place in the South Korean city of Seoul. Most of the young people go there for party as Gangnam is a rich neighbourhood and suitable for organizing a party there.

The lyrics of the whole song were composed by PSY himself. This song was described as a tribute to the ladies of the wealthy district. Gangnam Style is talking about the woman who noble at the daytime but likes to go for crazy at the night time.

Gangnam Style had already won a lot of awards since the song is released by July 2012. For instance, Gangnam style has been recognised by the Guinness World Records as the most like video in YouTube. Gangnam style was firmed at many places in Gangnam like saunas, beach and yacht. This song actually reflects the lifestyle of society in Korea. In Gangnam style video, there are many Korean actors and actress who also involved performing. For examples, Yoo Jae Suk is one of them. Koreans was proud of Gangnam style. As what they said, this song had brought them a lot of happiness and they enjoy themselves so much while they are listening to this song.

Gangnam Style has become a worldwide phenomenon which even UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon agreed that Psy’s Gangnam Style is a powerful force that can establish world peace. General Ban Ki-Moon praised PSY before and he was envy that PSY is more popular than him in Korea. Not only that, General Ban Ki-Moon also learned how to dance the horse-riding dance from PSY. They even performed horse-riding dance together. This song also has been promoted by Tom Cruise.

From what I get from YouTube, there are 826,061,391 of people who view the Gangnam style video since the video was uploaded in July 2012. But, different people have different opinions for this video. Only 5,464,133 likes but 337,323 dislikes for the video. Gangnam style already surpassed Justin Bieber’s Baby now.

Gangnam Style Introduction Essay

Place I Would Like to Visit Essay

Place I Would Like to Visit Essay.

There are a lot of wonderful places I’d like to visit. However, most of all I would really like to visit Korea which I have a great deal of reasons to do: to visit beautiful places, meet famous singers and to feel, enjoy the colourful life and the crowded streets and enjoy a relaxing coffee aroma and refreshing air at a great place to enjoy and release our stress for teenagers like me in one of the coffee shops in South Korea, Angel in-us Coffee with a full and free internet access.

The cafe had cozy and homey feel. A splash of brown everywhere made up the interiors. And they also had real trees inside the cafe. It will make us feel like in a garden. I love this cafe because it’s a themed cafe, a myriad of angels and wings adorned the place and also a vintage design. Vintage design is really my style. Sofas and wooden chairs carved to look like you have wings when you sit down.

Their coffee taste good. It is dark and rich. We can truly taste the pureness of the coffee. Angel in-us Coffee uses their patented convection roasting technology which means that each coffee bean is roasted on a bed of hot air.

Convection is a superior method of heat transfer that results to a fully developed and evenly roasted coffee bean. When we had our coffee, all we taste was the richness of the coffee and no burnt taste. My favourite coffee is Cafe Latte. I’m addicted to coffee and my dream is to be a barista and own a coffee shop under my name. And I’m interested in learning Latte Art too. That’s my dream since I entered secondary school. I heard that there are so many foreigners who want to visit South Korea. And many of them want to stay in Korea permanently. Include myself too. It’s because I’m fascinated by their culture, language and also not forgetting their fashion, which what I love the most. I would like to research the latest fashion trends in Korea especially Bohemian Style and Preppy Style which I like the most. I would like to go to Dongdaemun, Seoul to seek on a brand new fashion that suits me well. The reason I choose Dongdaemun is because Dongdaemun is the center of South Korea fashion. Lucky for those who are fashion addicts, such as myself, the prices for the items sold there are quite reasonable.

Besides fashion, I also would like to study more about Korean language and writing or also known as Hangul. I’ve been studying Korean language since I’m in standard 6. I’m just learning the basic letters, vowel, consonants, pronounciation and the rules to write in Hangul. My Korean language is not so good because I have no time to study. Unlike English, it’s quite easy and I have plenty of time to study and practice because I communicate with my friends, teachers and family in English because people in this world are used to it. I still have lots to learn in Korean language and writing such as grammar. Studying Korean language and civilization more and visit Korea or live among Korean people is the best way for improving my knowledge. I’m going to visit landscapes there because I know that Korea has many beautiful and stunning places. First place I want to go is Seoul. Located inside Gyeongbokgung Palace, the National Folk Museum of Korea presents over 4,000 historical artifacts that were used in the daily lives of ordinary Korean people. Here I can fully immerse myself in previous domestic and agricultural lifestyles, and learn about Korea’s cultural beliefs.

I really love cultural and traditional of South Korea. I would also go to Namsan tower and “the Junjungno flower street” to live in a beautiful scene film that I only look at the telivision. Then, I’m going to go to the Hangang River in the evening to see the peace and romance and capture images and upload it in my social network site, Instagram as my collections and experience the nightlife inside Seoul. Of course I’m going to “Seoul street food” to try their rice cake (teobokki), noodles, grilled marinated beef (bulgogi), spiced chicken (buldak), Korean traditional vegetables with a variety of seasonings (kimchi) and lots more. The second destination is Jeju Island. Jeju is the heaven of God of the South Korea.

Jeju is the place with fresh natural scenery and beautiful. In Jeju Island, I’ll visit Hyeopjae Beach, Hallasan National Park (UNESCO World Heritage). Seongsan Ilchulbong Peak and Seongeup Folk Village to capture the beautiful field of flowers. Jeju’s dishes are delicious and special. Foods from Jeju are made with saltwater fish, vegetables and seaweed. It is the natural food and very good for health. There are many amazing things about Korea that we can only feel and explore when we visit Korea. I hope I can do that. If my dream comes true, I think I must have to prepare backpack, warm clothes, shoes, gloves, towel and other stuffs for the winter since Korea’s season is now going to be so cold. And most importantly, I will not forget to bring camera to capture my wonderful moments in Korea.

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Place I Would Like to Visit Essay

Canada Goose: The South Korean Opportunity Essay

Canada Goose: The South Korean Opportunity Essay.

Question 1: The six important factors to consider about South Korea’s culture is their values, norms, religion, education, social mobility, and American influences. South Korea was built up by many core values, however the most important being Confucianism. Confucianism was founded over 2000 years ago in the fifth century BC and was the official ethical system of China (Hill, Rihcardson, & McKaig, 2009).

The value of Confucianism was profound in the Korean culture and it still continues to pervade amongst South Korean’s consciousness today.

Confucianism shapes the Korean moral system, national laws, and business culture by placing an obligation towards relationships with others. The basic theories are based upon five different relationships: ruler and subject, husband and wife, parents and children, brothers and sisters, and friend and friend. This is important to consider when making decisions due to their high regards for respect amongst others. In addition, norms are also another component that shapes ones culture.

Norms are the social rules and guidelines that define the behaviours of individuals (Hill, Richardson, & McKaig, 2009). South Korea possesses many norms, however, the most dominant is kibun, which has no literal translation that describes the pride, mood, or state of mind of an individual (Key Values and Norms, 2011). In business context, it is vital for one to show respect for others, especially those of your elders. Also, to determine one’s kibun by eye is called nunchi. Managers must be able to identify their subordinate’s nunchi to make sure they do not cross over the line of disrespect.

Kibun is the facet of every Korean’s life, so it is vital to understand this norm when considering marketing Canada Goose in South Korea’s economy, specifically the distributers. The third factor to consider is South Korea’s ethical system and religion. Many scholars have argued that business implications of religion are surrounded on the extent of how different religions shape attitudes toward work and the degree to which religious ethics affect the costs of doing business in a country (Hill, Richardson, & McKaig, 2009).

Statistics show that Korea’s dominant beliefs are consisted of 26. % Christianity and 23. 2% Buddhism. This accounts for a majority of different behaviours and ethics of individuals in the work force. Moreover, education plays a significant role in the Korean market because the level of education shows a good index of how well the Canada Goose product can be sold. Typically, if the education level of a country is high it is in correlation with a high economy. South Korea’s academics are highly competitive and show a 99. 8% literacy rate. This concurs that South Korea’s market is definitive for Canada Goose.

In addition, the fourth factor includes the social mobility of the country, which refers to the extent to which individuals can switch their social strata from which they are born (Hill, Richardson, & McKaig, 2009). The social mobility and social strata that exist within Korea has increased since the 1960s. There has been a significant increase in the middle class after the Korean War. The middle class grew from 6. 6% to 17. 7% between 1960 and 1980 (Social Classes in Contemporary Society, 2008). The rise in middle class is an important factor of South Korea’s culture since it is in line within Canada Goose’s target market.

The last cultural factor is America’s heavy influence on South Korea. Recently, South Korea has adopted American culture through its food and fashion. With the increase in Internet activity and popular Hollywood films, Korea is responding by opening coffee shops and Western hamburgers. Abercrombie & Fitch Company are viewed highly in South Korea, the inaccessibility of American brands creates an exclusive bracket for early adopters to become determined to desire the product. The four important factors of ethics in South Korea are corruption, pollution, code of ethics, and corporate responsibility.

A poll by the South Korean Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission found that 76. 8% of middle and high school students considered South Korea to be corrupt due to nepotism (Irwin, 2010). Corruption can never fully be nonexistent, thus it must be taken into consideration when starting a business in a foreign country. Furthermore, environmental pollution raises ethical issues when host nations are more inferior to the home nation (Hill, Richardson, & McKaig, 2009). South Korea had significantly evolved in urbanization since the 1960s, and it is evident that their environmental standards have evolved as well.

The government launched the “Green New Deal” in 2009 that committed to establishing environmental projects (Irwin, 2010). This aligns with Canada Goose’s corporate standards in environmental ethics. In addition, South Korea had taken on the initiative to create a code of ethics for almost all major businesses. A great challenge would be to match with the standards of Korea’s code of ethics for Canada Goose. Lastly, corporate responsibility management is another factor to consider when entering a new market. Most South Korean businesses are adopting corporate responsibility by focusing more on philanthropy and community engagement.

This correlates with Dani Reiss’ corporate responsibility as the leader advocate for Polar Bear International (PBI). Question 2: The five advantages of entering the South Korean market are the exclusivity, demographics, climate, larger economies of scale, and reduced risk of over dependence. Exclusivity is vital when entering a new foreign market, because if the product was easily available to the country, consumers will devalue the product. As well, South Korea’s demographics are suitable to create overall profits for Canada Goose.

There are approximately 17 million people in South Korea that includes early adopters and functional users (Silvertown, 2011). This demographic corresponds to Canada Goose’s target market, thus showing prospect for success. Moreover, South Korea’s climate is concurrent with Canada Goose’s niche market of extreme outerwear. South Korea shows an average temperature of -2. 5 degrees Celsius of the coldest month (Silvertown, 2011). This coincides with the need for a high quality, warm parka. Another advantage of entering the South Korean market is to reach larger economies of scale by selling products to more customers.

This in turn creates an increase in profits for Canada Goose by expanding into different markets. Also, by entering into another market, the company reduces the risk of over dependence. It is always a benefit to spread your company across different markets to reduce the liability and dependence of failure. The five disadvantages of entering the South Korean market are the competitors, supply and demand, control of distributers, imitations, and the inherent disadvantage of foreign firms. Competitors are always present when entering into a market, North Face and Montcler are the largest competitors for Canada Goose in the South Korean market.

Many consumers are highly familiar with the popularized products from North Face and the high-end products of Montcler. Therefore it is crucial for Canada Goose to upscale the competitors and bring in a different form of innovation and creativity in their products. In addition, the disadvantage for entering the South Korean market is the increase in demand for supply. Canada Goose manufactures only within Canada to keep its authenticity. However, with the rise of globalization in different markets, there is an over demand for products.

The lack in manufacturing factories creates a slow down in production, therefore causing distributors to consistently wait for delayed shipments of products. Another disadvantage is the difficulty of controlling distributors from foreign countries. This is due to the language and cultural barriers to communicate and control how they represent the brand name. In addition, with the rise in popularity of a product, there also exist counterfeits and imitations. Canada Goose would need to know how to cope with the counterfeits and make sure they are creating the awareness of such imitations.

Lastly, there is an inherent disadvantage of foreign firms in host countries due to their non-native status. There will always be a disadvantage entering into a new foreign market due to the vast cultural and geographical differences. Question 3: SWOT Analysis Strengths: Canada Goose possesses many strengths, some of these strengths include a strong reliable brand name, large focus on quality and design, strong company culture, and commitment to sustainability. Canada Goose had created a great name for itself because of their strong reliability.

The company is known to have a resilient quality product and is starting to become worldly recognized as a luxury name brand for sports outerwear. This is due to their strategic marketing plan to create a brand name by making the brand exclusive. Moreover, Canada Goose has sustained itself to be a reliable brand name due to its authenticity of a Canadian designed and manufactured product. Consumers are more engaged to Canada Goose because of the make of the product. The term, “made in Canada” is noted as a reliable product to many countries and consumers across the world.

As well, Canada Goose puts a great amount of effort into their quality and design of their products. One of the goals for Canada Goose is to provide consumer’s with the best quality to keep them resistant to the cold Canadian winters. This also adds to the authenticity of the Canada Goose product since all Canadians need a good quality parka. In addition, Canada Goose possesses a great company culture through Reiss as the CEO (Silvertown, 2011). The company was founded in 1957; it was family-owned and was brought down Reiss, who was able to reinvent Canada Goose to become internationally known for their durable parkas.

Reiss had evolved Canada Goose, and in turn he also evolved the company culture to be ethical, loyal, and respectful amongst it’s employees. Lastly, Canada Goose has shown commitment to sustainability and the community by being the leader advocate for Polar Bear International (PBI) which is a not-for-profit group dedicated to preserve the polar bear population (Silvertown, 2011). As well, Canada Goose continues to support local Canadian economy markets by manufacturing their products within Canada. Therefore, Canada Goose’s overall strengths show that it is a leading market brand in the department of outerwear products.

Weaknesses: Canada Goose has existing weaknesses that must be considered. The weaknesses include the issue of having more demand than supply, use of coyote fur, and the problems faced with distribution rights. Canada Goose is having significant issues on moving forward in growth. The company had expanded to over 700 employees while sourcing from twelve different factories in Canada (Silvertown, 2011). This created the dramatic outpace of the supply that the company could produce. The manufacturing companies are simply not creating Canada Goose products fast enough for the distributors and retailors.

If Canada Goose does not make a change to maintain enough supply over demand, then distributors will be upset and the company will consistently lose sales in their market. As well, another existing weakness is the problem with animal activists and the use of coyote fur. The coyote fur is only used as a trim for the parka, however, it has gotten many negative outbursts from animal activists. Canada Goose claims to make their products for the extreme cold and justifies using coyote fur as one of the warmest materials to use for a sub zero climate.

Activists had retaliated and claimed that most Canadians live in urbanized cities that do not necessarily need the additional coyote fur lining. Canada Goose must continue to respond to the activists and create awareness to consumers that the coyote fur they use is safe and not harmful to the coyotes themselves. Last, Canada Goose must be conscious of which distributors to source their product. There needs to be trust with the distributor that they can make suitable decisions to outsource the product to certain retailors without spoiling the Canada Goose’s image.

This has become a challenge as seen in Reiss’ Letter from Ryusuke Tevu from Empire of the Sun Distributors (Silvertown, 2011). Opportunities: There are many different opportunities for Canada Goose, this includes global expansion, environmental friendly trends, and the extension of new products. As of now Canada Goose is selling products in over 40 different countries. It has significantly become recognized over the past years as an established high-end brand. This calls for greater expansion through either entering in new markets or expanding in current markets. There is always opportunity for Canada Goose to grow in stores and in profits.

Secondly, Canada Goose has the opportunity to become more environmentally friendly by using recycled products to create water resistant outerwear. Trends show that people are increasingly supportive of environmental friendly products. By introducing an environmental friendly material, it opens for the opportunity to create a new extension of products. Unlike its competitor North Face, Canada Goose does not offer a wide variety of products outside of their outerwear parka. There is a huge potential growth opportunity for Canada Goose to expand their products into spring and summer wear that focuses on outdoor activities.

The extension of different products will also allow for growth to exist within hotter climates such as South America or Australia. Threats: The threats that are associated with Canada Goose are existing competitors, threat of new entrants, and counterfeit products. The existing competitors of Canada Goose are internationally wide known brands such as North Face, Nike, and Montcler. North Face in particular is an American outerwear company and is one of Canada Goose’s closest competitors. Additionally, Canada Goose must be conscious of the threat of new entrants entering the same market.

There is always someone with a new innovative idea that may enter into the same market for outerwear. Thus, it is essential to focus on continuously developing innovating products to provide growth and sustainability for the company. Finally, Canada Goose must also be aware of counterfeit products. China is currently the largest counterfeit producer for Canada Goose parkas. Although, it is complimentary to be imitated by the design and brand, it in turn lowers the amount of sales and genuine authenticity. It is vital for Canada Goose to fight for it’s branding rights and to create awareness of the counterfeit products being sold.

Question 4: The components of the South Korean market include: market segmentation, distribution strategy, push strategy, and pricing strategy. First, market segmentation is defined as identifying distinct groups of consumers whose purchasing behavior differs from others in important ways (Hill, Richardson, & McKaig, 2009). The goal of market segmentation is to find target markets in each foreign country that make a good fit with the product being introduced. In this case, Canada Goose’s target market are for early adopter’s aged 17 to 27 who are highly influenced by new fashion trends across the world.

They normally will decide on a clothing purchase in advanced (Silvertown, 2011). Another target market are the functional users who generally have a greater amount of disposable income and are between the ages of 30 and 50. The functional users generally enjoy outdoor activities and are interested more in the quality of the product more so than the style. The market segmentation is developed through numerous ways, for example, through geography, demography, and social factors. It is a safe assumption to say that the South Korean market is similar to that of the Japanese and Canadian market due to its large middle class consumers.

Another marketing component is the distribution strategy that is defined as the means it chooses for delivering the product to the consumer (Hill, Richardson, & McKaig, 2009). There are many different types of channel lengths for distribution, however, it is Reiss’ belief to continue manufacturing within Canada. Therefore, the chronological channel of distribution would include a Canadian manufacturer, import agent, wholesale distributor, retail distributor, and final customer. The most important line of channel is determining a trustworthy distributer to implement Canada Goose’s corporate strategies.

In addition, a fragmented retail system must be taken place due to its differences in concentration of retail stores. South Korea is known to have retail stores scattered throughout Seoul rather than in mall clusters such as America. Furthermore, it is strategic to adopt a push strategy, which is a marketing strategy emphasizing personal selling rather than mass media advertising (Hill, Richardson, & McKaig, 2009). To maintain it’s branded reputation of high-end products, it is viable for Canada Goose to use a different method of marketing rather than the traditional methods used by its competitors.

Canada Goose heavily relies on word-of-mouth advertising to have customers feel like they are part of an exclusive group. If Canada Goose were to market their products through TV, radio, or magazine ads, it would cause buyers to view Canada Goose as generic and less authentic since commercial advertising is not seen in a good light. Thus, by using a push strategy it will create an exclusive, high-end depiction for customers of Canada Goose’s target market. Finally, pricing strategy is important to consider when marketing a new product in a foreign country.

Factors to consider are price discrimination and strategic pricing. Price discrimination occurs when consumers in different countries are charged with different prices for the same product (Hill, Richardson, & McKaig, 2009). Canada Goose faces price discrimination when the “gray area” occurs. This is happens when a distributer or wholesaler sells the product at a lower price than the overall given price. It is important to be cautious and aware of such discrimination, as some countries find it more susceptible than others.

As well, strategic pricing must also be considered when entering a new market due to the effects of competitors, specifically North Face. The multipoint pricing strategy may occur between Canada Goose and North Face due to it’s similar market. Although Canada Goose offers only high-end products and prices, North Face offers a wide range of products and prices from low-end to high-end. Thus, North Face will adopt a multipoint pricing strategy, where it will change prices according to Canada Goose’s prices. It is important to recognize this, so that Canada Goose can counter act this pricing strategy.

Canada Goose: The South Korean Opportunity Essay

Samsung and Theme Park Essay

Samsung and Theme Park Essay.

The Industry Theme Park is a large entertainment area and has variety complexes with theme in each of its complex. Theme Park is a global Industry operating in North America, Europe and Asia with attendance from local area and from all over the world. Theme park become necessity for the people to get entertainment and leisure after busy working day, especially for family. The reason that people come to theme park is the ride that delight them to visit again. Needs Analysis.

The needs of this entertainment industry is increasing year after year as the attendance of amusement park on Farmland is increasing at 5. 113 thousand in 1993, that show us that there is growth in the Market. (table 4). From table 8. The need of the theme park for the south Korean consumer place a rate of 22%, it shows the need Korean people work for 5 and a half days every week, that indicate that they are very busy, and seems that they have no time for going to the theme park, but in the other hand if we provide a good theme park we can deliver the need of leisure for them after the busy work.

In the worldwide, this business is already mature, so we have to arrive with a concept that distinct our theme park with the other theme park, therefore we can attract global market to our theme park. The influencer of the needs: * Family : Spouse, Children, Parents, media promotion * Single : Friends, Colleague , social membership, media promotion 5 FORCES ANALYSIS Competitive Rivalry within Theme Park Industry : HIGH Local Rivalry There are 6 amusement park industry in Korea and Lotte world and Seoul Land are the closest competitor.

Lotte world is stated themselves as the biggest Indoor Theme Park in the world and they are located at downtown, which is one of the key success in the business with the accessibility. Seoul Land is the closest competitor with farmland with the similarity of the place, that offer fresh air and easy access. International Rivalry The worldwide theme park such as Walt Disney in North America, Europe, and Asia, with global connection around the world. ENTRANCE : HIGH High investment in Land, Building and construction services, Hardware provider for the ride, and Software provider.

The risk of safety is high, required 100% insurance coverage The know how of the industry is not easy, The benchmark is Walt Disney, in order to provide world class themepark haave to join venture with Disney, But Disney not interested in Korea. SUBSTITUE : HIGH Free amusement places are available, such as beach, garden,mall etc Watching Movie in theatre, or just stay at home because of heavy traffic. SUPPLIER POWER : LOW Technology is one of the main issue in this business, especially machinery and software.

There are around 10 players who can supply the machinery, so we can get a good price for machinery. The high turnover because woman stop working after marriage become an advantage because the new employee give fresh new idea for the theme park. BUYERS POWERS : HIGH Theme Park is depend on the qapacity of the attendance. They can easily change to another park. Pricing competitive with another park SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTH * Farmland is the first amusement park in Korea * Already have a brand Image.

* Have large mother Company Samsung that operate in 65 countries * Samsung Industries can have synergy with theme park since they have four core business in electronics, machinery, chemical and Finance insurance WEAKNESS * Korean Climate with Winter from December to Mid march, and heavy shower in June and July, that gives potential time for the market in June to early September, which is only 4 months in a year. * Management has to learn the business because Walt Disney not interested in joint venture with Samsung Korea. * Limited existing parking space to cover future extension.

* The traditional habit not to smile to stranger may affect the need of service oriented people. OPPORTUNITY * Economic Growth in Korea is high, per-capita GNP risen from US$4210 in 1989 to US$7513 in 1993 (56%) (exhibit2) * Over 10 millions Korean Living in Seoul * Attendance are growing every year * With a good an distinctive concept can capture worldwide market. * Government plans to built subway up to yongin will provide convenience and reduce the heavy traffic problem THREAT * Strict Government Regulation of the use of the Land.

* The protest from the farmer that farmland expansion can cause potential flooding that will damage their crops * The National Holiday is only 4-5 days in a year * The working habit is five and a half day in a week RECCOMENDATION Segmentation for theme Park for all of the Family member, Targeting on all ages. Positioning of the Theme Park deliver the high end of Theme Park technology with the environmental friendly surrounding. Changing the Name is a must, EVERLAND seems suitable to the new mission. Make a synergy between other Samsung business to create worldwide connection to the theme park.

Samsung and Theme Park Essay

Modes of Transportation in South Korea Essay

Modes of Transportation in South Korea Essay.

There are a lot of ways on how to get around South Korea.            By land, water and air travel, a local or tourist can navigate the vast country of South Korea. There are many  modes of transportation available  including railways, cars, buses, ferries and airplanes. The goal of these transportation systems is to connect every part of the city and the city to rural areas and South Korea to other countries around the world.

Railways

            In 1899, South Korea had its first railway system that connected Incheon and Seoul.

Since then, the system have expanded that even reached the “Trans Siberian Railway.” However, numerous train lines were severely destroyed because of the war between North and South Korea. Presently, the railway system  is considered as the most convenient way of  traveling long distances.

Also, it is economical and practical (Gone2Korea, 2007, “Public Transportation in Korea”). The railway system in South Korea is comprised of three different types namely: “Mugunghwa- ho, Tongil-ho, Saemaeul-ho.

” Mugunghwa- ho provides the most number of lines that link one city from the other while Tongil-ho has smaller trains that  traverse rural villages. Among the three, Saemaeul-ho is the only first class fast train (Seoul Searching, 2006, “Seoul Trains”).

Subways

            Before the construction of the subway system, Koreans have usually used cars to get around the city. During 1968, Koreans were introduced to the concept of a subway as a means  of transportation. There are several cities that have integrated a subway system including “Incheon, Busan, Daegu and Seoul”(Gone2Korea, 2007, “Public Transportation in Korea”). In Seoul, cars of subways are located underground while in other cities these are situated above ground (Gone2Korea, 2007, “Seoul’s Subway System”).

Cars and Buses

            There are two kinds of bus services: Regional and Local service. Regional bus service serves most of the town in South Korea. Also, there are two types of regional service, Gosok are buses that transports commuters for long distances while Shioe is the opposite wherein its has more stops and it takes longer time to travel. The other kind of bus service is the local bus service that operates in cities. There has also two types of local bus service, Jwaseok which is more of high class quality while Ilban is more affordable (Gone2Korea, 2007, “Public Transportation in Korea”).

            Meanwhile, land travel can also be done by riding taxis. Usually, taxis are silver or white in color.  The regular taxi or Ilban are often used by locals because it is cheaper while the Deluxe taxi caters to foreigners which is most often than not overpriced (Asianinfo.org, 2000, “Transportation in Seoul”).

Waterways and Air Travel

            South Korea offers a number of public ferry services which is served in four main ports namely: “Busan, Mokpo, Incheon and Pohang.” More so, it has the largest commercial ships across the globe that provide “regular services to Japan, Middle East and China” (Gone2Korea, 2007, “Public Transportation in Korea”).

            Furthermore, South Korea is equipped with 15 airports in which 7 are for domestic travel and 8 are for international travel. Of all 15 airports, Incheon International airport has the most number of travelers (Gone2Korea, 2007, “Public Transportation in Korea”).

References

Asianinfo.org. 2000. Transportation in Seoul. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from             http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/seoul/transportation_in_seoul.htm.

Gone2Korea. 2007. Public Transportation in Korea. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from             http://www.gone2korea.com/transportation.html#railway.

Gone2Korea. 2007. Seoul’s Subway System. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from             http://www.seoulsearching.com/transportation/subway/.

Seoul Searching. 2006. Seoul Trains. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from

Modes of Transportation in South Korea Essay

The Effects of Relocation of the Capital City in Korea Essay

The Effects of Relocation of the Capital City in Korea Essay.

Abstract

Many people had suggested a negative effect of the relocation of the capital city in Korea. They argued that a decrease in population in the present capital region (Seoul) would result in income loss because total factor productivity (TFP) in Seoul is higher than in any other province. On the other hand, when we decompose TFP into TECs and technological progress (TP) in this paper, it shows that the technical efficiency changes (TECs) in the Chungnam region has remarkably improved.

In addition, the labor productivity in the Chungnam area is found to be higher than in the Seoul area. Therefore, this study shows positive effects to the literature of the debates regarding whether the government should shift the capital city or not.

Introduction

Shifting the country’s capital city was a key pledge in President Roh Moo-Hyun’s 2002 election. Although the Parliament passed the law to create of a new capital city in Chungnam Province area, there have been many debates so far.

The basic motivation for changing the Capital City from Seoul to another location (Chungnam Province) is that there are too many people living in Seoul. Presently 48 million people are squeezed in Seoul so that it creates unbalanced economic development.

However, there are also some critics of the capital movement. One reason for the opposition is the project’s enormous cost. The project cost varies from approximately $45 billion estimated by the Parliament to $125 billion by some private institutions. Furthermore, history shows that purpose-built capitals have taken more time and money.

For example, Brazil’s new Capital City, Brasilia, added to the country’s economic huge debts. Suh & Kim (2004) discussed this matter in terms of the income effects of 5% of the population moving from the Seoul area to the new capital city. They said that if 5% of the current population relocates to Chungnam Province, 1.7% ~ 1.9% of the gross domestic product would be decreased. The reason for this is that total factor productivity (TFP) in the Seoul area is greater than in the new capital city.

The purpose of the paper is to estimate TFP for both Seoul and the new capital city area, Chungnam Province, and decompose it into technical efficiency (TE), technological progress (TP), and input changes. Unlike Suh & Kim (2004), the decomposition of TFP proposed by Han, Kalirajan, & Singh (2002) not only explains the scale of the TFP, but also shows the characteristics and details of the TFP. It is when the local government has an economic policy -decision making.

The second part of the paper surveys the literature of TFP as well as TFP related studies for relocation of the capital city in Korea. The third part studies decomposition of the TFP method proposed by Han, Kalirajan, & Singh (2002). The fourth part reports the sources and uses of the data and the empirical results. The final part provides some concluding remarks.

A survey of literature in TFP (Total Factor Productivity)

      The total factor productivity is a variable, which represents the productivity of the whole economy. It analysis encompasses residual production output that cannot be justified by production factors.  Therefore, the total factor productivity is used as a method of measuring changes in production process efficiency. According to Solow (1956), an increase in output depends solely on technical progress in the long-term, however, in the short-term; capital accumulation plays an important role.

      According to this viewpoint, Solow (1956) perceived total factor productivity as a concept that includes productivity based on technical progress and other production factors, which is defined as the Solow Residual. Its increasing rate that is measured by subtracting the contributions of labor and capital stock from the growth rate of gross domestic product is a comprehensive concept including technical progress and others.

       There have been many studies on TFP growth, particularly in East Asia. According to Han, et al, (2002), most of the studies followed the growth accounting method using various production functions including trans-log and meta production functionsHowever, we used to measure our Solow residuals until Nishimizu & Page (1982) attempted to decompose TFP growth in Yugoslavia for the period of 1965-1978.

TFP related studies in relocation of the capital cities in Korea

 Suh (2004) estimated TFP in Seoul by the growth accounting method without the capital stocks recently. TFP in the near-Seoul area (including Kyungki Province) and strictly in the Seoul area shows as 0.039-0.047 and 0.042-0.048 respectively during 1990-2001.  This figure for Seoul area shows that TFP for non-near-Seoul area falls by 0.026. This gap has been widening as time goes by because the productivity in near-Seoul area is increasing faster than in non-near Seoul area.

 Suh (Suh & Kim [2004]) in another study estimated the income impacts of decentralization of population in Korea. Suh study suggested that if 5% of the current population of the Capital Region relocates to Chungnam Province, 1.7%-1.9% of GDP would be decreased. The main reason is simple that TFP in Seoul Region is higher than in non-Seoul regions. This conclusion is based and consistent with Suh earlier report in 2001. He added that the determinants affected for the Seoul to be higher than non-Seoul areas are such as the existence of high-technology industries as well as the infrastructure.

On the other hand, there are several crucial criticisms in Suh’s study. First, he used the gross output as an output without a double deflation. According to Mahadevan (2002), one may use the value-added output by single deflation. However, the gross output should be deflated twice – corrected for purchases of intermediate inputs. Second, he assumed the share of the labor and capital in the production function: This could be very sensitive to the TFP estimation. Especially, his study lacks of the details of the information in TFP. The comparisons of TFP in Seoul and non-Seoul would suggest nothing but the figures of growth unexplained by the labor and capital stock increases.

Decomposition of TECs, TP, and Input changes

 According to Han, Kalirajan, & Singh (2002), the frontier approach is able to decompose output growth into input growth; technical efficiency changes (TECs) and technological progress (TP). That is,

Output Growth = Input growth + TFP growth

                                             = Input growth + TECs + TP

        Above equation is algebraically described in graph A. The vertical axis measures outputs, and the horizontal axis measures inputs. Assume that a country faces two production functions, F1 and F2. The points on these functions represent the efficient production for period 1 and 2, respectively. In period 1, if the country is producing with full technical efficiency by following the best-practice techniques, its realized output will be y1* at the x1 input level.

However, the country may not have efficient production, due to many constraints such as a lack of efficient organizational structure and a proper incentive structure for workers. In this case, the realized output y1 is less than the maximum possible output y1*: Technical efficiency TE1 is this gap between y1* and y1. Now, let us further assume that the production function shifts from F1 to F2 due to technological progress, including the improvements in human and capital inputs.

                   * Graph A: Decomposition of TFP (Total Factor Productivity)

 The decomposition can be mathematically expressed as follows:

D  = y2 – y1

= A + B + C

= [y1* y1] + [y1** ▪ y1*] + [y2y1**]

= [y1* ▪ y1] + [y1** ▪ y1*] + [y2 y1**] +[y2*▪y2*]

= [y1* ▪ y1] + [y1** ▪ y1*] ▪ [y2* y2]

+ [y2*▪y1**]

= {(y1* ▪ y1) ▪ (y2* – y2)} + (y1**y1*)

+(y2*▪y1**)

     = Change in TE + TP + yx*  

= TFP Growth + yx*

<Data Used>

Four different data sets are utilized for this analysis. First, manufacturing industry’s total gross nominal output, number of employees, value of tangible fixed assets (capital input), and cost of production (intermediate input) are taken from the Report on Mining and Manufacturing Survey (various issues). The sample period of the data is 1980- 2002.

The second data set includes the same variables for Seoul during the same years. The third set of data is for the Daejon area, and it contains the period from 1988 to 2002. The last set includes the same variables for Chungnam Province from 1980 to 2002. The gross output and the total costs are deflated by the wholesale price index (1995= 100) from the Bank of Korea, while the capital deflator from the Ministry of Statistics deflates the tangible fixed assets.

<Results>

     <Table A> shows the results of the decomposition. First, in the period of 1980-2002, the total manufacturing industry had 144% increase of output, while the output increased by 88.7% and 197% for Seoul and Chungnam. For the period, Chungnam has a higher output increase. Furthermore, one can see that the labor productivity, defined simply by the total output divided by the number of the labors in the region, skyrocketed in Chungnam compared to that of Seoul in Figure 4.1. Figure 4.2 shows the ratio of the increase in the labor productivity. In this ratio, Chungnam has 14 more years higher than Seoul. We can notice that the labor productivity in the year 2000 in Chungnam is 2.3 times higher than Seoul’s.

Second, comparing TE1 against TE2 gives an idea how the technical efficiency improved in the regions. For the total, TE has improved so much that 20.2% of output change is due to TE, while this figure shows no improvement for Seoul, and the small amount of improvement is due to this figure. However, one can see that there is a tremendous improvement for Chungnam, so that TE causes 228.7% of the increase of output.

<Table A> Results of the Decomposition

  y2– y1

The Effects of Relocation of the Capital City in Korea Essay