Filipino People and Baler Essay

Filipino People and Baler Essay.

Celso Ressurecion – half-indio and half-spanish youth from Pampanga Feliza Reyes – daughter of a Filipino insurgent general Nanding Reyes – Feliza’s father and head of the nationalist rebel group in Baler Azon Reyes – Feliza’s mother Gabriel Reyes – Feliza’s younger brother 2nd Lt. Saturnino Martin Cerezo Capt. Enrique Fossi de las Morenas – replace Lt. Mota as the head of the Spanish in Baler Col. Calixto Villacorte Commandante Teodorico Luna Novicio Fr. Candido Gomez Carreno – parish priest Lt. Jose Mota – head of the Spanish army in Baler Lope – friend of Celso.

Luming – friend of Feliza V. SUMMARY/PLOT: The story happened during the siege of Baler. A battle between the Filipino forces and Spanish battalion in 1898. A young Filipina, named Feliza who fell inlove with a half Spanish and a half Filipino young man, named Celso who prefer to be a Spanish soldier rather than to be a Filipino katipunero. Feliza and Celso’s love has to be kept as a secret because Feliza is the daughter of Nanding, a rebel leader who has the burning desire to completely annihilate Spanish soldiers in town of Baler.

Filipino troops including the father of Feliza started to attack Spanish soldiers. The Spanish battalion inhabited the church as their barracks to protect them from attacks of up armed Filipinos bounding the church. As the siege prolongs, little by little the Spaniards’ supply of foods diminish and many soldiers got sick because of no more supplies of food to eat. Commander Las Morenas and other subsequent commanders got wounded and sick because of being isolated for a number of months. There were some soldiers surrendered because they could no longer bear their sufferings.

Even Celso who knew that Feliza got pregnant planned to escape together with his colleagues. That night of their escape Celso was trapped due to his friends’ own fear. He was betrayed by his own friend. Feliza who was patiently waiting for Celso, knew nothing about the execution happened to her love inside the church. Filipino troops have many times tried to convince the Spaniards to surrender because Spanish fleet in manila was already defeated and the war was actually ended. But still they refused to leave. “ Viva Espana! “ their principle. The last commander who discovered that the news was true.

After the confirmation of the news, at last he and his follower peacefully surrendered. The sad thing was that poor Feliza, who longed for her love, who could instead be the happiest woman in the world that time because finally she and her love could be together, did not find Celso in the flock of freed soldiers rather found him inside the church with no more life. A. EXPOSITION In 1898, a band of Spanish soldiers heroically defended Baler (which would later be the capital municipality of Aurora in 1951) against Filipino forces for 337 long and grueling days.

Dubbed as the Siege of Baler, the Spanish troops holed up inside the church of San Luis Obispo. This is the setting of the movie Baler, a love story between a young Filipina barrio lass Feliza (Anne Curtis) and Filipino-Spanish soldier Celso (Jericho Rosales) are caught in a forbidden love, torn apart by the societies they came from. Feliza’s father Nanding (Philip Salvador) is an anti-Spanish government fighter, which puts pressure on the young couple to keep their relationship a secret.

Outnumbered and out-gunned by the Indios they once governed and abused, the Spanish soldiers in Baler, including Celso and buddy Lope (Mark Bautista), are now forced to hole up in a church as they wait for non-existent military reinforcements to rescue them from the band of Filipinos who have now surrounded them and are waiting for their surrender. B. RISING ACTION Baler wasn’t bad. But it wasn’t good either. It was a very simple story – a love affair between Jericho Rosales’ half-blood Spanish soldier and Anne Curtis (Feliza) native maiden (whose father – Philip Salvador – happened to be a particularly bitter freedom-fighter).

This romance was set against the last days of Spanish power in the Philippines when the garrison at Baler – including Jerico Rosales (Celso) character – was forced to hole-up in the local church for almost a year, surrounded by the well-armed local militia. Under these trying circumstances, the two leads keep the faith as best they can, against all odds. And that was pretty much it. Despite its pretensions at being a period historical romance, the entire movie came off almost as blandly as though it were journalistic, rather than dramatic.

The crux of the movie should have been the aching of the two lovers; more specifically, Anne Curtis (Feliza) defiance of her father and Jerico Rosales (Celso) ultimate decision to defy his Commander – and by extension his own dreams of eventually seeing his father – in order to finally be with his love. C. CLIMAX The story of doe-eyed Feliza (Anne Curtis), a young Filipina from the capital of Aurora province who falls in love with Celso (Jericho Rosales), a Filipino-Spanish soldier fighting for Spain as the once mighty empire is now on a losing battle defending its overseas territories from the US.

Feliza’s dad (Phillip Salvador) an anti-Spanish government fighter which means their love is anything but permissible, and thus are struggling to keep their relationship secret. Outnumbered and out-gunned by the Indios they once governed and abused, the Spanish soldiers in Baler, including Celso and buddy Lope (Mark Bautista), are now forced to hole up in a church as they wait for non-existent military reinforcements to rescue them from the band of Filipinos who have now surrounded them and are waiting for their surrender.

D. Moral Lesson: Love is worth fighting for! Love is not easy in a time of uneasiness. But above all, Filipinos were really a freedom fighter. As Spaniards did not surrender, much more the Filipinos. E. REACTION: Baler is primarily a love story between Feliza, the daughter of a rebel commander (Anne Curtis), and Celso, a half-Spanish soldier (Jericho Rosales), set at the twilight years of the Spanish regime in the Philippines. The young couple struggle to keep their forbidden love alive.

The crux of the movie should have been the aching of the two lovers; more specifically, Anne Curtis (Feliza) defiance of her father and Jerico Rosales (Celso) ultimate decision to defy his Commander – and by extension his own dreams of eventually seeing his father – in order to finally be with his love. C. CLIMAX The story of doe-eyed Feliza (Anne Curtis), a young Filipina from the capital of Aurora province who falls in love with Celso (Jericho Rosales), a Filipino-Spanish soldier fighting for Spain as the once mighty empire is now on a losing battle defending its overseas territories from the US.

Feliza’s dad (Phillip Salvador) an anti-Spanish government fighter which means their love is anything but permissible, and thus are struggling to keep their relationship secret. Outnumbered and out-gunned by the Indios they once governed and abused, the Spanish soldiers in Baler, including Celso and buddy Lope (Mark Bautista), are now forced to hole up in a church as they wait for non-existent military reinforcements to rescue them from the band of Filipinos who have now surrounded them and are waiting for their surrender.

D. Moral Lesson: Love is worth fighting for! Love is not easy in a time of uneasiness. But above all, Filipinos were really a freedom fighter. As Spaniards did not surrender, much more the Filipinos. E. REACTION: Baler is primarily a love story between Feliza, the daughter of a rebel commander (Anne Curtis), and Celso, a half-Spanish soldier (Jericho Rosales), set at the twilight years of the Spanish regime in the Philippines.

The young couple struggle to keep their forbidden love alive despite familial and political tensions culminating in an almost yearlong blockade known as the Siege of Baler. “Love is difficult in times of war,” says a Filipino soldier named Lope (Mark Bautista) who is also serving the Spanish army just like Celso. His statement perfectly encapsulates the movie’s theme. Complementing the primary conflict of Anne and Jericho’s relationship is a backdrop of clashes between father and son, mother and daughter, duty to family and country, and loyalty and self-preservation.

Throughout the movie, Baler explores the question of whether love-be it romantic, familial, or patriotic-can survive the most brutal of human endeavors: war. VI. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS Baler is a history-inspired Filipino movie mainly on a prohibited love between Filipino maiden Feliza Reyes acted by Anne Curtis and Filipino-Spanish Soldier Celso Resurreccion acted by Jericho Rosales. The couples’ love is difficult because of different culture they came from. Feliza is a daughter of an insurgent leader Nanding portrayed by Philip Salvador and Celso is a soldier serving Spanish regime.

Their relationship is kept alive even with hindrances such as the famous historical event Siege of Baler where Spanish Army including Celso assigned at Baler, Quezon is trapped in a church surrounded by Filipino Army anticipating for their concede as Philippine-Spanish war is ending. The siege lasted almost a year where it defied the love of the young couple. The film begins on a scene depicting how admirable Baler until the characters and scenes introduced consequences of their fate that becomes a strong emotional medium in actualizing the plot.

The way that Lieutenant Mota killed himself instead of surrendering to Filipino troops surrounding him while Celso is watching is genuinely revealing that sacrificing blood and life is evident throughout the story. Indeed it did not fail because the film illustrated first about the love of a young couple and ended tragically with bloodshed. Characterization of Baler was a credit of the movie. Characters complimented each persona portrayed. Anne Curtis as Feliza is quite ironic to be a full blooded Filipina because of her looks but managed to defer it by her acting which made viewers imagine a real beautiful and in loved young Filipina.

She portrayed it with grace as though viewers see it as an actual scene from the past. Also, we can acknowledge Philip Salvador as Nanding who symbolized oppressed Filipinos whom are eager to fight Spanish government. This portrayal is effective because it lets the viewers feel how gruesome the treatment of Spaniards. Other than that, Jericho Rosales as Celso acted smoothly throughout the film though some criticize him not fit for the role half Filipino and half Spanish since his beauty was truly for a Filipino Man. Despite that, he portrayed the role that viewers had suspension of disbelief.

Seeing him as a true Filipino but was just lucky enough to have a job and to have been born in Spain. He also acted fair enough that he represented both sides of what he loves and what he ought to do. Basically, the setting of the movie, Baler, is also an important symbolism of the movie. It connotes that the place is significant for the young couple who fought for their love and life through wars. It implies their persistent love which was only ended by death. Also, as the movie also denotes, another meaning would be perceive from Baler is that it represented how firm the belief of Spaniards.

They managed a year-long battle unknowingly to win or not but was urged because of their pride. Symbolisms are not evident throughout the film but Baler is the leit-motif which was the main point why the movie progressed. The style of the director is highly commendable that even young ones can capture the emotions of the movie. All throughout it depicted scenes and shots that emphasize worthy subjects that contributed to the maturity of the film. The film touched aspects differing from familial, personal life until political feuds.

Hence, this film is a must for a person who seeks a touch of history and romance. VII. LITERAL ANALYSIS A. THEME “Love is difficult in times of war! ” B. POINT OF VIEW The Baler screenplay tries to present the Filipino point of view on the issue of the siege, and the international significance of the event for the fledgling Philippine Republic. C. SIGNIFICANT The movie portrayed three (3) significant happening in which we may perceive that created conflict or harmony. First, the reality of Filipinos relationship with the Spaniards was illustrated thoroughly.

In the movie, it was established how inviolable the love of the young couple and also how inviolable matters concerning priests or Spanish government rulers. Here they have communicated implicitly that it is unlawful for them to be in these affairs. In present time, this reality is apparent. A good example maybe perhaps our Filipino culture of girls should be conservative. Some continue to obey the belief while the others who don’t are labeled flirt. We cannot escape the fact that some if not majority dwell with this kind of perspective.

However, as technology advance, so is our mental openness. Some embrace this kind of philosophy forgetting the old habit which was known worldwide that is “Mara Clara” style. Second, a reality portrayed was that a person is loyal to its own country no matter what. Established in the movie was how the Spaniards and Filipinos were firm with their own beliefs. The Spaniards remained loyal to their country despite the evidence that were shown to them telling that Spanish era is long gone. On the other hand, Filipinos remained fierce with their battle giving grace to the Spaniards.

In these days, we can also relate the loyalty of these people with their respective country in our daily lives. A great example would be a broken family who despite of intense quarrel mange to unite if other clan while oppose to one of their family. This family will join together defending their own ill-treated family member. In this case, we can say that our loyalty remains fully firm from where we came from. Lastly, a reality shown was Love conquers all even if death comes. Tragically, the movie ended revealing that Celso was executed due to accused treachery.

In this case, we can see that no matter how big or small circumstances, the love of couple is still present though they are eternally apart. D. CONFLICT While Baler is a story of conflict, betrayal, suffering, self-preservation, selfishness, obstinacy, and self-interest, it is also a story of heroism, courage, love of freedom, patriotism, endurance, chivalry, humanity and above all, it also tells about a noble story of love in time of war— the story of Feliza and Celso. Feliza is the beautiful daughter of Nanding (Phillip Salvador), who’s a member of the rebel movement.

This is the very reason why she and Celso have to keep their love a secret. Nanding, whose primary goal is to completely wipe out the Spanish soldiers stationed in the town of Baler, can never accept Celso, a half- Indio, half Spanish soldier who chooses to serve the enemies more than the Filipino insurgents who are struggling and fighting for their independence, their freedom. Feliza is in love with the man her father despises but who and what could stop the two young people who are madly in love with each other?

Filipino People and Baler Essay

Filipino People and Spaniards Essay

Filipino People and Spaniards Essay.

1. Besides the commercial and religious goals of Spain in colonizing the Philippines, give two other reasons (political and legal) why Spain claimed the country as its possession or the property of the King of Spain. * They also claim the country because of their Spirit of Discovery to our country, improvements of their technologies (for travel and trading purposes) and acquisition of our territories. 2. What is meant by “crown colony? ” Can you give an example of a present “crown colony?

” * A crown colony also called a royal colony was a state that was under political control by Britain and that was ruled and governed by a Governor who had been appointed by the monarch through the secretary of state for colonies.

Cayman Island is one example of present “crown colony. ” 3. Why was the governor-general powerful? Enumerate his powers. * Because the governor-general himself has a widely range of own powers. He was also the King’s official representative in the colony. He possessed vast executive, legislative, and judicial powers.

He issued orders with the force of law, which were called superior decrees. On the other hand, decrees or orders coming from the King of Spain were called Royal decrees or orders. 4. Define or explain the following: a. Cumplase e. Capitan b. Audiencia f. Principalia c. Superior Decree g, Cabeza de Barangay d. Indulto de Comercio h. Ayuntamiento * A. Right of the governor to suspend the operation of a Royal decree or order relative in the Philippines if in his opinion, the sads order or decree would not be beneficial to the administration of the country. * B.

Highest court insofar as civil and criminal cases were concerned; established in the Philippines in 1583 to administer justice to the aggrieved people in the colony. * C. Orders that issued by the governor-general with the force of law. * D. Right given to the alcalde-mayor to engage him in trade that made him rich and powerful; right given to him to collect a part of the tribute to increase his income. * E. Head of the town or municipality, composed of several barrios; also called gobernadorcillo and/or capitan municipal * F. Own fields cultivated by their various retainers, even though traditional land rights had been limited to usufruct.

These heirs of pre-Spanish nobility were known as the principalia and played an important role in the friar-dominated local government. * G. Head of each barrio or barangay of the town who did not receive any salary. * H. Equivalent of today’s city hall; consisted of two alcaldes, twelve regidores (councilors), a chief of police, a city secretary, and few other lesser officials. 5. How did the Spanish king try to lessen, if not completely prevent, the abuses of Spanish officials? How effective were the steps taken by the king to stop these abuses?

* The King and ministers of Spain introduced two institutions in their colonies, including Philippines. These were the Residencia and the Visita. These two institutions were introduced to stop the abuses of high Spanish officials in the colonies. It is effective because the two institutions performs investigations to high Spanish officials. 6. What is your opinion on the effects of forced labor on the Filipino laborers? Explain your answer. * Of course, I would say that forced labor on the Filipino laborers was such a great depression and drowning down of the dignity of the Filipino laborers themselves.

They worked hard, but then it wasn’t enough to survive or to avoid and to flee from this nightmare. But because of forced labor also, the Filipino laborers gain more knowledge about things related to different types of labors that suddenly gave them many ideas. 7. Name and define some of the taxes imposed on the Filipinos by the Spanish government. Discuss with your classmate whether these were necessary or not. * The Filipinos were compelled to pay tribute called Tributo to the colonial government. The Tributo was imposed as a sign of the Filipinos’ loyalty to the King of Spain.

Those who paid were individuals between 16 to 60 yrs. old. In 1884, Tribute was nullified and replaced by the Cedula. It was a certificate identifying the taxpayer. The Donativo de Zamboanga, which was introduced in 1635, was a tax specifically used for the conquest of Jolo. Next is the Diezmos Prediales that was a tax consisting of one-tenth of the produce of one’s land. Last is the Vinta, a tax collected to fund vintas to guard the coastal areas of Luzon to defend the area against Muslim pirates. 8. What was the effect of the galleon trade on the Philippines?

Why did it decline its prosperous start? * The Philippines (specifically, Manila) became a leading commercial center of trading in the region. Because later on, there are so many allegations about the process of trading goods that came from Manila. Restrictions consisted of P250,000 worth of goods to be sent to Mexico and P500,000 worth of goods to be sent from Mexico to Manila. Later, amounts were raised to P300,000 up to P500,000. 9. How did the Economic Society help to improve the economy of the Philippines?

* Because of the proper division of the Society, that is capable to do their own tasks. And even the widely distribution of Philippine products and exporting of many goods to other countries that results to improvement of the economy of the Philippines. 10. Why were monopolies established during the Spanish period? What were the bad effects of the established monopolies? What were their advantages? * Because only privileged persons, such as high-ranking officials of the state, the Church, and the crew of the galleons, were allowed to engage in trade.

So that, the success of the trade were honored only to those privileged persons as part of the monopoly, even though the Filipino laborers are the actually creators and worked hard for those products. But then, the advantages were still to those privileged persons because like what I’ve said, the success of the trade was only honored unto them, and sadly not to those Filipino workers who actually worked hard for it. Chapter 6 1. Why were the Filipinos disillusioned with Spanish rule? * Because many Filipinos did some revolts and/or conspiracy about our freedom from the Spanish rule.

2. Generally speaking, what were the causes of these early revolts? Which cause, in your opinion, is the most serious and why? * To free from Spanish rule. Maybe because of killing Filipinos brutally and forcing them to work for Spanish leaders. 3. Was Lakan Dula justified in his revolt? Explain your answer. * No. Because he laid down his arms just because Legazpi’s grandson promised to exempt him and his descendants from the payment of tribute and forced labor. So he ordered his men to return to their homes in peace, and the governor pardoned him and gave him gifts of silk and gold.

4. Would you consider Tondo’s plot a conspiracy? Why or why not? * Yes. Because it shows secret combination of men for a purpose and a combination of two or more persons to commit any act punishable by law. 5. What factors would you give to explain the relative success of Dagohoy’s revolt which lasted for eighty-five years? * Because Dagohoy set up his own “government” in the mountains, with some 20,000 followers obeying his orders and practicing their own faith. 6. Why do you think the Moros were able to resist Spanish colonization and Christianization?

* Because the Spanish force lacked the number and military capacity to break through the Moro Kuta (defense forts), Mindanao is far from Manila, the center of power and governance, the Spaniards were more preoccupied in several fronts with wars or resistances by the Portuguese, the Dutch, and the various provinces of Luzon and the Visayas, and Islam provided the Spaniards an identifiable enemy called “Moros” 7. What vital lessons or insights have you learned from this chapter or topic? * Love our own country and be patriotic and fight for the freedom of yourself and your country. Chapter 7.

1. Explain how the Spaniards influenced the Filipino way of life as identifiably that of a Spanish subject. * They influenced every part of the Filipino’s life. They changed some of Filipino names, intermarriage, social life, amusement, changes in clothing, the Mestiza dress, the Antillean houses, the position of women, religion, geographical identity, Spanish language, printing and engraving, and education. Each influence also gives impact to Filipino people. 2. Describe the social life of the Filipinos during the Spanish period. Relate this to the daily tasks of the people at that time.

* The social life in any Christian community during the Spanish times revolved around the church because the friar-curate was the all-powerful person in the whole community. So that, the daily tasks of the people are to go at the Church and cooperate at the church activities, and even to the friar-curate. 3. How did Spanish-Filipino intermarriages affect the physical appearance of their children? Can you identify them in your community? How can you identify them? * Maybe, the skin color of their children is whiter than the common skin of the Filipinos, their eyes are colored brown and even their hairs are blonde.

And we can identify them because of these physical appearances. 4. Why were Filipino names changed to Spanish? What advantage, if any, did the Filipinos get from adding surnames to their first names? * Because before the coming of the Spaniards, Filipinos had no surnames. And also, because of that, confusion arose so they decided to change their names. They became more complete, and because adding surnames unto their names, they didn’t confuse about their names anymore. 5. How did the styles in dressing bring about social divisions and emphasize racial differences in those times?

* Only those Filipino women who married to Europeans have a right to wear mestiza dresses. And the mestiza dresses came to be worn by any woman who could afford to buy the material for such dress. So that, if you can’t afford to buy it or if you’re not a wife of European, your dress will not be as beautiful as mestiza dresses. 6. Compare the position of the Filipino woman before and after the coming of the Spaniards. At which period do you think did women enjoy a higher status? Give your reasons. * Before the Spaniards came, women are treated equally to men. But when Spaniards came, the women existed as dependents of men.

And they are lived to raise their children. And I think, women enjoyed a higher status in life before the Spaniards came because they are treated equally to men and they have their own independence. 7. What are the advantages of having one religion? Are you in favor of having only one religion for the Filipinos? Why? * Having one religion keeps the relationship of the social more effective and the unity (ex. prayers) will always be there. Yes. For us to be more united and our relationship as Catholics become one. 8. What is meant by “geographical unity? ” How does it differ from political unity?

How do these concepts relate to the idea of a nation? * Geographical Unity for the country was created by the conquest and colonization of the Philippines by the Spaniards. While Political unity is a politically organized body of people under a single government. They are related because they are both composed by those people who share common identity and culture. 9. What were the Spanish influences on the Philippine languages? Do you think these influences enriched the Filipino languages? Why? * Filipinos adapt some Spanish words and then we are now using it in our daily lives.

Examples are silla (silya), meas, cama (kama), ventana (bintana), cocina (kusina), and many more. And for me these words enriched Filipino languages because it contributes many words that we actually using at the present time. And it makes Filipino words more useful and meaningful. 10. Name some of the forms of amusement today which are of Spanish origin. What is the value of amusement? Were the amusements good or bad for the people under Spanish rule? Explain your answer. * The Sakla/Sacla (card game). To earn money for the winning piece of card. Bad, of course.

Because since then and until now, money is involved so it is already one form of illegal gambling. And sometimes, it also becomes one form of gambling addiction. 11. Name Spain’s achievements in education. What do you think of this kind of education? * The teaching method of the Spaniards was very poor. Science courses were not taught as they should be. So when one compares the educational system under the Spaniards in Philippines with the educational system of other European countries in their colonies during the same period, one will readily see the stark difference. 12.

As a whole, would you consider Spanish influences to be positive or negative? Give your reasons. * For me, Spanish influences brought negative effects on us. Even though yes, there are some positive and good influences that Spanish brought to us like religion, education, etc. But the majority is negative. Simply because they implement or emphasize the differences of each status in life of every man in a society. In clothes and education, social divisions, and emphasizing racial differences were part of every Filipinos life; and that’s because of many negative effects and influences that Spanish brought to us.

Chapter 8 1. Explain how the British occupation of the country opened the eyes of the people in certain regions to the idea of freedom and expulsion of the Spaniards. * British sent an expedition from India, which at that time was a colony of England, to the Philippines to occupy and seize it from Spain. They decisively attacked the Spaniards so the Spaniards defeated because their cannons were no match to the superior cannons and weapons of the English. So after that, the British took over the reins of government and guaranteed the safety of Spanish officials, the community, and property.

In short, the British did some moves to open the eyes of the people in certain regions to the idea of freedom and expulsion of the Spaniards. 2. Why did the economic plans of Governor-General Basco fail? * It failed in its purpose to improve foreign trade between the colony and Spain because of mismanagement and lack of cooperation of the Manila merchants who preferred to engage in the galleon trade. 3. Why were the Spanish authorities in the Philippines opposed to the education of the Filipinos?

* Because they are afraid that Filipinos would later ask embarrassing questions about Spanish misdeeds, incompetence, inefficiency, greed, and corruption. 4. Explain how the Filipino middle class arose. Who composed the middle class? * As exports in agriculture increased, inquilinos or the tenants in the haciendas and their families began to accumulate wealth. Together, the constituted the middle class. 5. Explain how the opening of the Suez Canal affected the educated Filipinos.

* It influenced some educated Filipinos and soon both were asking the government to introduce changes in the administration of the colony. Influx of progressive books and periodicals to the country is another effect. These books and periodicals were read by the educated Filipinos who learned about democratic practices in Europe, such as freedom of the press, freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and the free exchange of ideas among people. 6. What was the effect of the migration of liberal Spaniards on the educated Filipinos and mestizos?

* The educated Indios, mestizos, and Spaniards born in the Philippines showed their appreciation to the liberal Spaniards that we can easily understand that it shows their happiness upon migrating of them to the Philippines. 7. How did the Spanish Revolution of 1868 affect the events in the Philippines? * It affects the people’s lifestyle and events a lot. Living simply and avoiding luxury, dismissing the halberdiers of palace and by walking the streets of Manila in civilian clothes are some of changes and effects happened. 8. What were the reforms of Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre that endeared him to the educated Filipinos?

* He abolished the censorship of the press, he abolished flogging as a punishment, and he solved the agrarian unrest in Cavite. 9. Why was liberalism in the Philippines short-lived? Why was a reactionary governor-general sent to the Philippines? * Because the Republic of Spain ended in 1870 when the monarchy was restored and a new king assumed the Spanish throne. With this change from republic back to monarchy, the monarchist officials of Spain sent to be Philippines some like-minded Spaniards to take over the political leadership of the country.

Because to immediately reverse all the reforms of de la Torre before. 10. Explain what is meant by secularization. How did this lead to Filipinization? * Secularization is the activity of changing something (art or education or society or morality etc. ) so it is no longer under the control or influence of religion; transfer of property from ecclesiastical to civil possession. The movement would later be called “Filipinization” because of its racial overtone. 11. Why do you think the Spanish authorities called the Cavite mutiny a rebellion?

* Because this mutiny was caused by the revocation of the privilege of shipyard workers to be exempted from forced labor and from paying tribute by Govenor- General de Izquierdo. And it was also because they killed some Spanish soldiers and officers in the fort. 12. Explain the importance or significance of the execution of Fathers Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora. * The importance of the execution of three priests rested on the fact that the Filipinos who witnessed the execution began to think and feel as Filipinos, not as Ilocanos, Tagalogs, Visayans, Bicolanos, and others.

They suspected that because they belonged to a different race, the Spaniards, who had always felt superior over the Filipinos, took them for beasts of burden. The execution of Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora may have halted the secularization movement but not its advocacy for “Filipinization” of the parishes. The Spanish government with its cruel measures, continued, to frighten the Filipinos into submission. Nevertheless, the seeds of Filipino nationalism had been planted on fertile ground. JOVER SALVADOR IA12103 PROF. HANNAH BODEGON.

Filipino People and Spaniards Essay

Summary of the Indolence of Filipinos Essay

Summary of the Indolence of Filipinos Essay.

In this essay of Rizal, he observed the behaviors of the Filipinos past and present in his time. He said that the indolence is the effect of the backwardness and troubles of experienced by the country. In the start of his essay he said that the hot climate is a reasonable predisposition for indolence. By this he means that the Europeans have a cold climate thus they need to move around more to compensate with their climate, they also make more food for storage in case a calamity strikes, and that produces more work.

The Spaniards labeled us as bums and lazy people because they are egocentric.

That clearly doesn’t show that we are lazy. It simply shows that we are contented with our way of living. Carrying on with the essay, Rizal said that an illness will worsen if the wrong treatment is given. Before, early Filipinos were already carrying out trades; they were into agriculture and mining. That shows that we are hardworking and independent group of people.

We have a society that is clearly showing off progress. When the Spaniards arrived they criticize our way of living. That eventually led to changing the Filipino culture. So what makes our country not achieve progress? Sadly, we have a misfortune past.

When the Spaniards arrived, the frequent wars, insurrections, and invasions have brought disorder to the communities, thus resulting to chaos and destruction. Filipino men have been brought to different countries to fight wars for Spain, force labor was implemented to ship yards and natives move to mountains because of the abuses the Spaniards has brought to them. That caused resulted to decrease in Filipino population, neglect of farms and trauma. Trade has declined, because of pirate attacks and the many restrictions imposed by the government, which gives no aid for crops and farmers.

This and the abuse suffered by farmers have caused many to abandon the fields. Businesses were monopolized by government officials, discrimination in education against natives, red tape and bribery operate, and gambling was tolerated by the government. This situation is compounded by the Church’s wrong doctrine which holds that the rich will not go to heaven, thus engendering a wrong attitude toward work. This notion of work makes the Filipino people think that the poorer you are the higher the chance of you getting to heaven.

That makes the Filipinos do less work and thus making them ignorant and lazy. In this we see that the natives have poor education, unfair opportunities and discrimination of races. They think that they are an inferior race that they submit to the foreign culture and imitate it. Rizal said that for the Filipinos to progress they must have education and liberty. Filipinos are lazy yes, but we were once a progressing race. Let us be united and be what we are again. Education is the foundation; unity is the push we need to globally competitive.

Summary of the Indolence of Filipinos Essay

El Cid Essay

El Cid Essay.

Born and educated as a nobleman in the Royal Court of the Castile, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar became a famous military leader and diplomat. He was King Alfonso VI’s greatest general in the war against the Moors and is widely considered to be a National Hero of Spain. Known as El Cid Campeador (or El Cid), this honourable nickname translates as the ‘Lord of Military Arts’, or ‘The Champion’, and reflects his innovative techniques on the battlefield.

Rodrigo Diaz was born in 1040 in Vivar, a small town north of Burgos – then the capital city of the ancient Castilian kingdom – to an aristocratic mother and a father in the cavalry.

During his youth, he fought with the Castilian troops in military campaigns against the Moors. Legend has it that he killed an Aragonese knight in single combat, beginning his exemplary career as the ‘Campeador’. When Alfonso VI took the throne of Castile and Leon in 1072, suspicion clouded the Royal Court – he was strongly believed to have ordered his brother’s assassination so he could assume power.

Although Rodrigo Diaz continued to serve under the new king, his expedition into Granada at the Battle of Cabra (1079) marked the start of Alfonso’s animosity and jealousy against El Cid. Only a year later, Rodrigo Diaz was exiled from his homeland by the king. However, this was certainly not the end of El Cid’s career. He became a mercenary for the Moors, moving around Spain defeating the armies he had once fought alongside. In 1086, Alfonso suffered a crushing defeat – terrified, he recalled his best general from exile to fight by his side once more.

Rodrigo Diaz’s military success stemmed from his approach to strategy – his initiatives included holding planning sessions before the battle and using very modern psychological approaches, such as distracting the enemy with a small group. Together, these tactics made his army intelligent and inspired, and fueled El Cid’s reputation. After several years of loyal service to Alfonso, El Cid began to look for his own territory and laid siege to Valencia in 1092.

He conquered the city and, although he was officially ruling in the name of Alfonso, successfully governed Valencia as an independent principality. He lived out the rest of his life in peace here, but was buried back in his homeland of Castile. His body now lies in Burgos Cathedral. After his death is 1099 he was the subject of many legends, poems, and stories. The people of Spain held him in high regard, although some of the stories presented questionable character. He remains a great historic figure.

El Cid Essay

Christopher Columbus Essay

Christopher Columbus Essay.

From the date of his birth to the amount of schooling he received as a child, to the final resting place of his remains historians are simply not sure. It is even claimed that he was, at the age of 21 a privateer. “Columbus’s son Ferdinand stated in History of the Life and Deeds of Christopher Columbus that in 1472 Columbus was given command of a ship on a privateering expedition to Tunis in northern Africa. In a lost letter, Columbus supposedly related to his son how Rene I, duke of the French province of Anjou, had commissioned Columbus to make a surprise attack on a large Spanish ship sailing off the coast of North Africa.

4 However Ferdinand’s claim is the only proof available and the claim is largely believed to be false. There is a lot of information that is well known, and well documented. Christopher Columbus completed four sea voyages. Starting with his most famous in 1492 and ending in 1506.

Although he took to the sea at the age of 14 he was not commissioned to his own ship until much later. At the age of 41 he made his historic voyage to the new world. Although Columbus is given credit for discovering America it was not named for him, it was named after Amerigo Vespucci. The name America was given to the Western Hemisphere by European writers and mapmakers after Columbus’s death. Nothing in their experiences had led the first explorers to realize that they had come into contact with a vast and unrecorded continent, many times the size of Europe. Previously there had been no accounts, or even rumors, of the “unknown” peoples of this “new” continent in European scholarly literature and discussion or in popular chronicles. ” 5 If Christopher Columbus had one true purpose, it was not to find the new land or even riches for King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I.

His true calling which led him to the sea was to travel to the East by going west. He wanted to find a direct trade route to Asia, and to explore the region discovered by Marco Polo. His obsession to find this region was so intense it actually led him to believe that Cuba was part of Asia. In an ironic twist of fate, the closest Columbus would ever come to reaching Asia was on one of his earliest voyages. In 1474 Columbus, hired on as a sailor, set off for Khios, an island in the Aegean, this was to be the first long voyage Columbus would ever take and the closest he ever came to Asia. Columbus spent a year on this island and was able to become economically independent from his family. 7 To truly understand why someone would be obsessed with finding a direct trade route to Asia, you must understand why this was necessary. “The event that had the most far reaching effects on Europe in the 15th Century was the fall of the city of Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey) to the Muslim Ottoman Empire. Constantinople had been the capital of the Orthodox Christian Byzantine Empire for centuries, and it was an important center for trade between Europe and Asia.

In 1453 the Ottoman Empire, which had already conquered much of southeastern Europe, captured the city, closing an important trade route from Europe to the east. European merchants could still buy Asian goods from Muslims in places such as Alexandria, Egypt. However, Europeans longed for a sea route to Asia that would allow them to bypass the Muslims and purchase Asian products directly. In addition, European princes and kings quickly realized that the first nation to find such a route could become very wealthy by monopolizing the highly profitable Asian trade. 8 Although Columbus never found that direct route to Asia, he did find recognition and wealth from his travels. “The widely published report of his voyage of 1492 made Columbus famous throughout Europe and secured for him the title of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and further royal patronage. ” 9 Christopher Columbus was also a family man. He had two sons; his first was with wife “Felipe Perestrello e Moniz, the daughter of a well respected, though relatively poor, noble family. ” 10 They had a son Diego in 1480 or 1481, historic records are unsure of the exact date. Felipe died shortly after.

Diego was boarded in a Spanish Monastery were Columbus found great support for his voyages in the monks who lived there. They introduced him to nobility, share ancient maps and vital information about sea currents and the size of the oceans themselves, and for a short time he was “maintained at the expense of the queen. ” 11 His second son Fernando was born out of wedlock to a young peasant woman named Beatriz Enriquez de Arana, in 1488. Beatriz is believed to be the great love of Columbus’ life and his love for her helped him through the toughest portions of his life as he awaited the end of the war to take Granada.

Christopher Columbus was an entrepreneur, as well as an opportunist; on his second voyage he carried with him African slaves to the new world. 12 Columbus also claimed a dowry offered to the first person to see land on his maiden voyage. During his first voyage, on October 12, 1492 a lookout spotted land a couple hours after midnight from the crow’s nest of the Pinta. The lookout’s name was Rodrigo de Triana for his sighting; he should have received a pension of 10,000 Maravedis per year.

That was roughly what an able sailor could make in a year at the time, however Columbus pocketed the money himself, claiming he saw lights the night before. 13 This however would not be a onetime occurrence, in 1491 Columbus made a final appeal to Spanish Monarchs but his plan was rejected. In the past his plan was rejected for technical reasons, such as his assessment of the size of the ocean, it was believed to be too large to cross or the distances and measurements that Columbus came up with were not accurate.

This time, the request was denied due to simple greed. “Columbus had asked for one tenth of all the riches in the indies, and his demands for the titles of admiral, which would give him the right to judge commercial disputes; of viceroy, which would make him the personal representative of the monarchs; and of governor, which would enable him to act as supreme civil and military authority in any new lands he discovered. ” 14 However, “Columbus had successfully won over many of the learned scholars and scientific advisers, nd Ferdinand’s treasurer, Luis de Santangel, interceded on Columbus’s behalf. Arguing that the investment was small considering the potential reward, Santangel convinced the king and queen to reverse their decision. A court official was dispatched on horseback to bring Columbus back. After several more weeks of negotiating a contract, in April 1492 Columbus left for Palos de la Frontera and his rendezvous with history. ” 15 On August 3, 1492 Columbus sets off for the Canary Islands with his three ships, the Nina, Pinta and the Santa Maria.

The Canary Islands were a necessary stop over for two reasons, first the rudder of the Nina needed repair and secondly Columbus had studied the swift moving currents that were found off the Canary Islands. 16 September 6, 1492 the armada left the Canary Islands via those swift currents in search of a direct route to Asia, what he found instead would change mankind forever. Columbus’ second voyage was his largest in size. In his first voyage Columbus had three ships, but in his second he had 17 ships.

This time he was taking provisions to set up colonies as well as soldiers and livestock designed to stay on the island and establish colonies. His first voyage consisted only of enough provision and personnel for a year long voyage based on exploration and discovery. In September 1493 the fleet sets off from Cadiz, Spain for the Canary Islands. Once again utilizing the swift currents of the Canary Islands, the fleet reaches Hispaniola in November 1493, an island Columbus discovered in his previous voyage. Columbus’ third voyage leaves Sanlucar, Spain with six ships on May 30, 1493.

For the first and only time Columbus purposely splits his ships and sends half his fleet to Hispaniola and takes the other half on a more southerly route to the Cape Verde Island. In August 1498 Columbus returns to Hispaniola and assumes the role of governor. HE resides as governor for two years before he is arrested for misadministration, and was arrested, bound in chains and returned to Spain. Columbus, in an act of defiance refused to have his chains removed until the monarch gave the orders to do so. 17 “On December 17, 1500, Columbus went before the royal court.

The king and queen instructed that whatever items were taken from Columbus at his arrest be restored to him. The monarchs would not reinstate Columbus’s titles, however. This was, however, neither victory nor vindication for Columbus. With his titles annulled, the former governor spent the next two years in despair and humiliation. ” 18 Columbus had another chance to win back his good name, and on his fourth voyage in May of 1502, he would leave Cadiz, Spain with four ships. 19 In June of 1503 Columbus’ ship is marooned and beach on the island of Jamaica.

It suffers a severe case of sea worms and is no longer sea worthy. The crew is spends a year on island and in November 1504 Columbus heads back to Spain. On May 20, 1506 Columbus dies in Valladolid, Spain. 20 “both of his sons, his brother Bartholomew, and his faithful friend Diego Mendez were at his side when the admiral murmured “Into thy hands, O Lord, I commit my spirit” and passed away. His body was buried initially in Valladolid, but in 1509 his son Diego transferred the remains to the monastery of Las Cuevas in Sevilla. The current location of Columbus’s remains is still debated.

They were moved to the Americas in the middle of the 16th century, first to Santo Domingo and then, in 1795, to Havana, Cuba. Then his remains supposedly traveled back to Spain in 1899 where, it is claimed, they are interred in the Cathedral of Sevilla. ” 21 So in death, as in life, Christopher Columbus is a noble man, and spirit, and a true explorer, entrepreneur and mystery. Although his accomplishments have recently been criticized by modern historians as untrue, making claims that the Vikings discovered America long before Columbus, the credit still goes to Christopher Columbus.

Christopher Columbus Essay