What if a professor at a college claim that an average student at the college studies 6 hours per day during weekends, and he wants to test the truth of this claim

Within the area of statistics, there is a certain type of hypothesis test, referred to as t-tests, that are used to “evaluate the means of one or two populations”, and may be utilized to examine one-sample, independent two-samples, or dependent samples tests of values (JMP Statistical Discovery, 2022). While the options of sample tests may seem flexible at adding in variables, it is critical to understand that t-tests cannot be used in samples of over two groups. The tools of t-tests must be adequately executed for accurate results of a study, and demand the researcher’s hypothesis to be defined as well as highlighting the adequate possibility that there is a risk of a “faulty conclusion” (JMP Statistical Discovery, 2022). From this point, researchers must assess test statistics within their data collection and analyze it with a “theoretical value from a t-distribution”, which may either refuse or may be inadequate at refuting one’s null hypothesis (JMP Statistical Discovery, 2022). Some of the advantages of using t-tests include the ease of obtaining evaluations from samples, analyzing the output of a sample, organizing generalized results, comprehending source data, and demonstrating critical information regarding the sample populations involved (Admin., 2021). Some of the disadvantages of using t-tests include the challenge of comparisons between more than two variables, carry-over effects, setting and dissecting differences between values, as well as a loss of freedom for degrees (Admin., 2021). An example of t-tests in real life would be measuring growth samples of two populations of bean plants, using the variables of different soils to determine if growth is better in one or another type of soil, and locating the mean measurements for the conclusion of data.

REPLY 5-1 XiAv (100 words and 1 reference)

The t-test allows for a comparison of two means, Witte & Witte (2017) emphasize that the t-test is not designed for multiple comparisons across all pairs of observed means which can potentially be a weakness. The specifics of the test can be a strength as there is a focus on two means, the data, population, or factors gathered are catered around the two. A real-world example may be the effectiveness of natural remedies versus pharmaceutical medicine. For example, if someone is experiencing a migraine, what would be the effect to decrease the symptoms rapidly? If using a natural remedy, the effectiveness of peppermint and a cold towel may decrease some symptoms faster than when compared to taking pain relieving medication. It is difficult to measure the exact effectiveness as the migraine and level of pain may not be consistent across the board, different factors, including pain tolerance, sensitivity to light, level of pain, water and rest levels, and other factors may interfere with measuring the effectiveness and consistency.

REPLY 5-2 AsSh (100 words and 1 reference)

T-test for correlated groups and the T-test for single samples are alike and different because T-tests are used for correlated groups, when two groups are given for one sample, when only one group on one sample is given.  

One sample t-test compares one sample mean to the hypothesis value and t-test for correlated groups compare the 2 sample means to the null hypothesis value.  

Test statistics for both tests are different. One sample t-test we calculated different data with sample mean and population mean divided by standard error but in t-test for correlated test we calculated mean difference between 2 groups divided by standard error of different.  

Here both tests are different. 

t test for single sample is used to test single mean. but t test for correlated or paired t test is used to find the homogeneity of two groups. here the two examples

a) sample sizes should be same 

b) both sample groups should be dependent. 

Example for single mean: 

What if a professor at a college claim that an average student at the college studies 6 hours per day during weekends and he wants to test the truth of this claim. 

The statistical methodology for this purpose requires that he begin by first specifying the hypothesis to be tested. 

In this case, the null hypothesis would be H0: μ = 6, which essentially states that mean hours of study per day is no different from 6 hours. And the alternative hypothesis is, H1: μ ≠ which is negation of the professor’s claim. 

Example for paired t test: 

Twins (genetic match) are assigned to take either a drug or a placebo (for each pair of twins, one takes the drug the other takes the placebo) to see if would help increase their intelligence.

NIH National Library of Medicine. (2022). The Differences and Similarities Between Two-Sample T-Test and Paired T-Test.  The Differences and Similarities Between Two-Sample T-Test and Paired T-Test – PMC (nih.gov)

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Using the Descriptive Statistics feature of JASP, generate ONE numerical summary table for all interval level or above variables in the dataset.

  1. Using the Descriptive Statistics feature of JASP, generate ONE numerical summary table for all interval level or above variables in the dataset. Copy and paste the ONE table into this document. Ensure that the table is APA formatted correctly.
  • Using complete sentences, write a STATISTICAL rationale justifying whether the mean or the median is likely the most representative measure of center.  PICK ONLY ONE OF THEM. Base your reasoning on the numerical summaries generated in JASP in #1 above.  You should report what the representative measure of center (mean or median) for EACH INTERVAL LEVEL OR ABOVE VARIABLE that is in the dataset.

Only after you have determined the measure of center (either mean or median), select the appropriate measure of spread FOR EACH INTERVAL LEVEL OR ABOVE VARIABLE (standard deviation or IQR) to associate with your measure of center choice. Type your responses in the table below (APA format … expand the rows as needed)

Table 1

Measures of center and variability

VariableMeasure of the CenterMeasure of SpreadJustification for measure of center choice
  • Use the Correlation feature, of the Data Analysis ToolPak in Excel, to generate ONE correlation table for all interval level or above variables in the dataset. Using complete sentences, write a STATISTICAL interpretation (report strength and direction) AND an APPLIED interpretation of each UNIQUE correlation value listed in the table.
  • Choose 2 continuous variables (your choice). Use Excel to generate a scatter plot for two of the continuous variables.    Copy and Paste the scatterplot here.  Ensure that the chart is APA formatted.
  • Describe what the dot pattern, in the scatter plot from #3 above, reveals about the type of relation between the two variables (linear or non-linear)
  • Does the scatterplot dot pattern you described in #4 match what you obtained for your correlation value, between the 2 variables,  in #2 above?  Explain.
  • Using the Regression feature, of JASP, generate the 3 Simple Regression output tables using one of your selected continuous variables from #3 as the explanatory variable and the other as the response variable.  Copy and paste all 3 tables here. 
  • Using complete sentences, interpret the Multiple R and R Squared values in the Model Summary table.  What do these values suggest about the relationship between the variables?
  • Using complete sentences, interpret the P value (not the F test statistic) value in the ANOVA table.  What does this value suggest about the quality of the simple regression model you generated?
  • Using complete sentences, interpret the p-value in the Coefficient table for the explanatory variable. What does this value suggest about the contribution of the explanatory variable to the predictability of the response variable?
  1. Using complete sentences, interpret the unstandardized beta in the Coefficient table for the explanatory variable.
  1. Using complete sentences, interpret the standardized beta in the Coefficient table for the explanatory variable.
  1. Use Excel to generate the residuals for your regression model. Review this source of performance metrics for regression. Construct  Excel formulas and use them in your Excel spreadsheet to calculate the MAE and the RMSE. Please DO NOT submit your list of residuals. Do report your MAE and RMSE and the interpretations. Report your results using the following table.  APA format accordingly
Regression Performance MetricsValueInterpretation
  1. Use the Regression Plots feature of JASP to generate residuals vs predicted plots, a residuals histogram, and a Q-Q plot standardized residuals. Copy and paste the plots and ensure that they are correctly APA formatted. Use the plots to perform a regression usage assumption check.  State whether your plots support the assumptions of independence, normality, and equal variance. Explain
  1. If it appears feasible to do so, use your JASP output to report and write out the potential Simple Regression equation.  Be sure to use the variable names when writing the equation.  If it does not appear feasible to report the simple regression equation, using complete sentences and explain why.

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Making Meaning Of Data In Business Research

Review the mean, standard deviation, and 5-number summary of the trainees’ numbers below. 

Mean: 75.5
Standard Deviation: 19.57
Minimum: 18
Quartile 1: 67.75
Median: 80.5
Quartile 3: 87
Maximum: 99

Would you prefer to use the mean or the median in this dataset’s measure of central tendency? Why? 

Based on this training class’s scores, what scores do you think should be considered for completion, remediation, and termination? How did you come to that conclusion?

Do you think that these scores should be the threshold for all training classes? Why or why not? 

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Binomial Probability Distribution

Project Part 1: Examining Probabilities

Directions: Respond to the prompts below. Follow the ‘Do Not’ and ‘Do’ instructions.

DO NOT : Upload your Excel workbook to MoodleCopy and paste your dataset into this documentUpload your work as a Word document in Moodle  DO Paste or type your responses directly into this documentSave your completed work as a PDF fileUpload your only your PDF file to Moodle  

A random variable is a variable whose value is determined by the outcomes of a probability experiment. For every random variable, a probability distribution can be defined. A probability distribution represents the probability of occurrence for each value of the random variable. Associated with a probability distribution, is a function that can be used to calculate the probability values. The sum of all the probabilities, for all possible values of a single random variable, should sum to 1.

Probability Distribution

  1. Reference the ‘Generating Survey Data in Excel’ Excel workbook resource associated with this assignment. Examine the ‘Generating Values’ spreadsheet.  Feel free to edit/update this spreadsheet while addressing the requirements for this prompt.

Use what you learned from the ‘Generating Survey Data in Excel’ spreadsheet to edit and create your own probability distribution table where there are 6 outcome values for the random variable. Feel free to label the random variable outcomes whatever you choose. Feel free to assign the probability distribution probability values, associated with the random variable outcome labels, appropriately in a manner that you choose. Copy, paste, and APA format your completed probability distribution table here.

  • In Excel and using the process outlined on the ‘Generating Values’ spreadsheet,  generate 60 random values, based on your probability distribution table created in #1 above. To do this, you will likely need to update the Excel formula in that begins in cell F4. The formula is presented below


Update ‘A$7:A$11’ to ensure it captures all of your random variable outcomes

Update ‘C$7:C$11’ to ensure it captures all of your cumulative probability values

Once you update the formula, use the Fill Handle to drag the formula to generate the 60 random values that you need.

  • Then create a frequency distribution table based on these 60 values.  Use the format in the ‘Generating Values’ spreadsheet.  You may need to edit the Excel formula beginning in cell J8.  That formula is presented below:


Update ‘F$7:F$24’ to ensure it captures all of your 60 values

Use the Fill Handle to copy your updated formula across all rows of the frequency variable column

  • Copy, paste, and APA format your completed frequency distribution table here.
  • Generate ONE appropriate chart (your choice) using your frequency distribution table. Copy and paste your chart here.  Ensure that it is APA formatted.

Binomial Probability Distribution

A binomial distribution has the following function associated with it:

Figure 1

Binomial Distribution Function

The mathematics underlying this function are built into Excel.  However to ensure that the results Excel generates are reliable, you must first check to ensure that your probability experiment satisfies the Binomial Probability usage criteria.

  • You are being asked to design a small survey (questionnaire ) of questions for your business purpose of choice. However, you must generate a survey of 5 questions where the probability of the occurrence of the response options can be calculated using the binomial probability formula. List your 5 questions and response options (what respondents will be asked to select from when answering the question) , that fit this criteria, here in Table 1.

Table 1

Survey Questions and Response Options

Question NumberQuestionResponse Options
  • Explain, using complete sentences, how it is that the binomial probability formula usage criteria will be met , in your proposed survey administration and design, when calculating the probability of responses to your 5 survey items. Type your explanations below in Table 2.

Table 2

Explanations in Support off Binomial Probability Usage Criteria

Binomial Probability Usage CriteriaExplain
Will there be a fixed number of administrations of the survey? If so, how many?   
Are there only 2 possible response choices? 
Is there a single probability of success , that is the same of all questions, that is applied to the likelihood of a favorable response? If so,  what is it? 
Will the respondent responses be independent of each other? How will you ensure this? 
  • Reference the ‘Generating Survey Data in Excel’ spreadsheet resource associated with this assignment.  Use the Data Analysis Toolpak to generate the numerical values associated with the binomial probability related response options to your 5 survey questions. Assume that you will administer the survey to 50 randomly selected respondents.
  • Use the =COUNTIF formula in Excel to count the number of 1 and 0 responses for each of the 5 survey questions. Calculate the percent of 1 and 0 responses for each of the 5 survey questions.  Type your results into Table 3 below.

Table 3

Frequency and Percent of 1 and 0 Responses to Survey Questions

 Question1Question2 Question3Question4Question5
Total Number of 1 responses      
Total Number of 0 responses      
Percent of 1 responses      
Percent of 0 responses      
  1. Is there any relationship between the binomial probability of a 1 response and the percentages of 1 responses in your table above?  Explain.

  2. In Excel, generate a bar chart for the percent of 1 and 0 responses for your 5 survey items.  Correct APA formatting is expected.  Copy and paste your chart here.

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Generate a histogram in JASP and histogram in Excel


  • Type, copy & paste, your responses directly below each prompt
  • Use the HW 1 dataset provided  with this assignment (do not use the practice dataset)
  • DO NOT submit the dataset


1) Select one continuous variable (your choice). Generate a histogram in JASP and histogram in Excel. APA format both

2) Select one categorical variable (your choice). Generate a bar chart in JASP and another in Excel. APA format both

3) Select two continuous variables (your choice). Generate a scatter plot in JASP and another in Excel. APA format both


4) Using the same continuous variable you choose in #1 above, generate a numerical summaries table in JASP. Then use the Data Analysis ToolPak in Excel and generate a Descriptive Statistics table for the variable.  APA format and report both tables

5) Using the same categorical variable you choose in #2 above, generate a frequency distribution table in JASP. The use Pivot Tables feature in Excel to generate a frequency distribution table. APA format and report both tables

Interpretations (Be sure to use APA In-text citing for all tables and charts when writing your interpretations. Complete sentence use is required). Use the template, attached with this assignment, to aid this writing interpretations

6) Write an interpretation for your histogram. 

7) Write an interpretation for your bar chart.

8) Write interpretations 4 the numerical summaries (mean, median, skewness, standard deviation) contained in the Excel generated Descriptive Statistics table for your continuous variable. 

9) Are there any outliers for your continuous variable chosen in #1 above? What evidence (table information, chart, formulas) can you present that will support your claim? Present that evidence here

10) Use the shape of your histogram, and your skewness value, to determine which measure is likely the most representative measure of the center for the variable, mean or median? Explain

11) Based on the measure of center you selected in #9 above, which is the better representative of spread for the variable , standard deviation or IQR? Explain.

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Fantasy Football Should be Regulated

The fantasy football league has become an important source of income for most young people in the recent past. However, most of the people in the society have been losing genuinely hard-earned money in a single game. There has been rising concern over the need to regulate the fantasy football in a bid to install moderation and legitimacy of the lucrative game. Transparency, integrity and legal formalities are some of the issues raising concern over the fantasy game. Despite players of fantasy football league being ready to drain their bank’s accounts, some of the fantasy football companies do not have the capacity to pay off when players win. Therefore, it is vital to regulate the industry to protect the players from losing their live savings on a single occasion (Kadner)

One of the importance of regulating the industry is to protect the addicts of gambling from themselves. Since the platform of payment is online, it is vital to adopt a system that manages the amount of cash that the gambler put at stake. Most of the adverts promoting the fantasy football league are not regulated, and they reach the vulnerable children in society who end up being lured into participating (Heitner). However, the participation of young adults in the fantasy league exposes them to exploitation at a very young age before they establish themselves (Kadner). Therefore, it is vital for protective measures to be adopted to safeguard the innocence of the vulnerable in the society. Fantasy foot can cause addiction and related illness in the community. The frequency of the gambling games is very high where players engage in daily games, weekly games, and tournaments. The high frequency of games increases the participation rate of players, which in turn leads to addiction. Addition, in turn, can lead to gambling of life savings hence affecting the standards of a person’s life (Kedner). Moreover, fantasy gambling can corrupt real-life sports. Virtual games reduce interest in real games since participants are more concerned about their fantasy team rather than the home-based team (Kadner).

The hype in the industry has led to increased number of new companies whose legitimacy and transparency in the industry is questionable. Some of the company make some players too expensive that a participant remains with a team with few expensive players and many average players. In such a case, is a participant is more likely to score very few points thus leading to losing of the amount staked (Kadner). However, others argue that the secret behind fantasy gambling is conducting regular statistics to draft the best performing team. Therefore, it is the skills in identifying the best players and formulating a strategy to help them perform that increases the weekly outcomes of the fantasy football games (Kadner). However, Kedner claims that even poker players have been using the same claim of “game of skill” to push for legalization of poker. Wagering on the performance of an individual player is premised on the knowledge of the game (“Some States Seek Payday”). However, some ratings of players are not outright since some of them are rated above their performance capability. Therefore, lack of transparency in the rating of players undermines the legitimacy of the game, which in turn stirs concern and uproar among the concerned stakeholders.

Moreover, some of the players in the fantasy gaming are disadvantaged as compared to others. There are those players who use sophisticated computer technology to analyze the games and performance of players (Taylor). Those participants using sophisticated computer technologies have a high stake in winning against those who uses casual analyses. Lack of a level playing ground increases exploitation of some of the participants hence reducing the legitimacy of the sport. It is vital for the participants to be informed of the services they are subscribing to and the risks involved in the gambling process. With such available, participants will be in a position to make wise decisions that will mitigate cases of losing money for lack of knowledge. However, supporters of the fantasy gambling claim that adopting regulatory measures will be a retrogressive approach that hampers innovativeness and growth of the industry. The pro fantasy supporters claim that restricting the use of computer technology will reduce entries in the industry thus decrease the profitability of the industry. However, use of computer technology software gives some of the participants a competitive edge against participants with compulsive gambling problems.

Most of the online gambling is regulated, and the fantasy gambling should be exempted. Just as others form of gambling, it is vital to adopt regulatory measures in the fantasy league to ensure a level playing ground for all participants. Owners of Daily Fantasy sites should be accredited and controlled much as gaming club are, to warrant their jobs are apparent (“Some States Seek Payday”). Exemption of fantasy gambling as a game of skill rather than an outright gambling industry increase exploitation of the participants due to lack of profound degree of consumer protection. However, there is no a clear definition to differentiate between a game of skill and gambling (“Some States Seek Payday”). Most of the gambling games are pinned on luck rather than skills. Most of the participants are lured into the game believing that luck may fall on their side and they end up winning.

State legislation is one of the means that should be used to regulate fantasy gambling. Laws should be put in place to ensure that underage people do not participate in the game. Moreover, the legislation should ensure that new entrants in the industry have the capacity to pay off players who win (Kadner). Ensuring that companies have the capacity to pay the winners will guarantee that players do not lose their life savings over a single game. Moreover, state governments should introduce taxes on fantasy gambling to tap profits and increase the legitimacy of the companies participating in the industry (Kadner). Illinois is one of the states that have instilled discipline in fantasy gambling by introducing taxation and licensing fees to the gambling companies (“Some States Seek Payday”). Moreover, Virginia has already enacted a Fantasy Contest Act that regulates the gambling. However, high licensing fee and taxes proposed by the provisions of the act have raised a lot of concern (Heitner). Wagering is one of the problems that has raised concern among the participants. Clear and definite rules should be adopted in the wagering process to ensure fantasy-gambling remains transparent

The fantasy football gaming should be regulated to instill high standards and discipline in the industry. The current state of the industry is marred with cases of lack of transparency, accountability, and oversight. It is vital to regulate the industry to monitor the operations and create a uniform control mechanism for all participants. Self-regulation in the industry has given some participants a competitive advantage over others. Lack of regulation has led to some of the players to lose money through unscrupulous means.

Works Cited

Heitner, Darren. “2 Major Flaws with Virginia’s Fantasy Sports Law.” The Small Businesses of Fantasy Sports: A Trade Organization, 2017. http://www.sbfsta.org/2_major_flaws_with_virginia_s_fantasy_sports_law. Accessed 24 April 2017.

Kadner, Phil. “Lawmaker Wants Rules for Fantasy Sports Sites.” Daily South Town, 2017, http://www.chicagotribune.com/suburbs/daily-southtown/news/ct-sta-kadner-fantasy-sports-law-st-1028-20151027-column.html. Accessed 24 April 2017.

“Some States Seek Payday in Daily Fantasy Sports Sites.” The Pew Charitable Trust, 2017. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2016/04/28/some-states-seek-payday-in-daily-fantasy-sports-sites. Accessed 24 April 2017.

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Discussion: Multiplexers

A multiplexer is a device that selects between several analogues or digital input signals and sends this selected input to a single output line. In this discussion, let’s discuss four major applications of multiplexers and the advantages of using multiplexers in these applications.  

Answer the following:

  1. Data selection
  2. Multiplexed displays
  3. Logic function generation
  4. Simple communications systems

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Definition of the Family in the Australian Context

Definition of the Family in the Australian Context

The family is vital to maintaining people’s welfare and progress. Australia experiences phenomenal cultural and ethnic diversity owing to the numerous birthplace groups’ identities with history and regional differences. Moreover, a range of economic, political, and social complexities have affected the definition of a family in the Australian context (Australia Bureau of Statistics, 2011). According to the Australia Bureau of Statistics, the family is defined as a unit or group of people connected by blood, matrimonial, adoption, fostering, and who usually live in the same home (Australia Bureau of Statistics, 2011). In the Australian context, the family has several definitions depending on how people view family values, diversity, types, and forms of family in the society.

However, family Analyst defines family as any immediate social group with a strong sense of friendship, belonging, and bonding. Therefore, in this context, the family is viewed as more than the mother, father, and children but also those close to the family regarding friendship and strong connection bond (Corbet, 2004). Consequently, living in one physical household is not all that entails a family since a family lies in complex social ties in the current contemporary society (Robinson, 2009). According to Robison, the Australian family should be defined based on the Australian Aboriginal culture.

In the Aboriginal context, oneness is vital regardless of the blood relations and closeness. Therefore, the family is regarded as regarding collectivism and affiliation with other people in the community. However, the Aboriginal culture is fast fading due to the family’s economic, social, and political changes (Lohoar, 2014). The role of culture has been phenomenal in defining family in the society. There have been several immigrants in Australia who have embedded their culture in the definition of family. The resurgence of the Australia Aboriginal culture has changed how people view families in the recent past.

Factors Influencing the Concept of Family in Australia

The structure of the family has significantly changed in the recent past. The changes in the family structure are an ongoing process not only in Australia but also in other parts of the world. Patterns of parenting, kin relationships, nature of family life and child rearing are some of the family aspects that have changed significantly in the recent past (Hayes, et al. 2010). Previously, a union between a breadwinner who was the husband, the homemaker who was the wife and children, formed the traditional family structure. However, that structure has changed significantly owing to the various factors in the society.

Feminists have played a vital role in empowering women in the society. Consequently, women are enjoying more freedom in the society in social, economic, and political aspects. Females have an increased freedom to choose the occupation they want to pursue unlike in the past when the traditional settings restrained them from particular occupations. The independence of women in the society has had several impacts in the way families are structured. The cases of single parenting have been on the rise in the recent decades as compared to the past. Single parenting have amplified from 7.8% in 1986 to 10.6% in 2011 indicating that the total of single families is rising considerably (Cassells et al., 2013).

In 2011 census, Australia had 5.7 million families, but 36% of the families did not have dependent children with them. One of the factors that are attributed to the rise of a single family in Australia is the increased economic and social freedom in the society. With economic empowerment, more women now feel that they can support their families without the help of a male counterpart. More than 1/3 of marriages in Australia do not survive to lifetime thus end up in separation and divorce (Cassells et al., 2013). Consequently, many single families have been on the rise in Australia leading to children without one parent. Subsequently, marriages have been declining while the cohabitation rate has been increasing in the recent past. In the 1980’s the rate of crude marriage was 6.6 marriages per 1000 people, but in 2011 census, the rate had declined to 5.4 per 1,000 people.

The rate of cohabitation before marriage has also risen significantly, and it stood at 78.2% in 2011while the crude divorce rates rose to 2.2% in the same year (Cassells et al., 2013). In 2006/7, the rate of families with no children had risen to 40% while families with dependent children were 37% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010). These rates were a reverse of the trends in the 1990s when the rate of families with dependent children was 40% as compared to 35% of families without dependent children (Cassells et al., 2013). Evidently, the rate cohabitation is growing rapidly in the Australian context hence affecting the traditional structure of the family in the society. The number of people committing themselves to formal marriages has declined significantly, and most couples are opting for cohabitation type of relationships.

Education has also affected the age at which couples are getting married in the recent past. Most of the couples in Australia are getting married past 30 due to their commitment to education. In the early 1990s, the medium age for marriage among men was 26 years while in 2011 the medium age had risen to 29.7 years (Cassells et al., 2013). On the other hand, the medium age of marriage for women was 24.5 in 1991, but according to the census statistics, the age had risen to 28 years. However, before marriage, most of the unmarried couples engage in sexual relationships leading to increased rates of cohabitation in the Australian society. Education and economic issues have caused a big challenge to the stability of families in Australia. The rate of divorce has been high among the working class- communities (Bradbury, Norris, 2005). The feminist empowerment has led to increased number of women in the workforce. However, some analysts view feminist empowerment as the cause of permissiveness, individualism, and selfishness among women leading to family instability in the society. Additionally, the selfish nature of women has led to the small size of families in Australia. Most of the women have absconded the traditional procreation role. The rate of fertility in 2011 was 2.7% indicating a great decline in the bearing of children among the Australian couples. According to a report by Cassells et al., “delays in getting married, increased participation in the labor force by women and women focusing on education and career before having children have all influenced family life” (2013). Other than the feminists’ empowerment, the factory legislation that advocated for increased participation of women in the workforce caused a shift in cultural expectations of marriage and family (Popene, 1988). Women become less dependent on their male counterparts, and the issue of equality becomes more prevalent in the society giving women a better opportunity to the public.

Most of the burdens that were previously borne by the family have now shifted to the government. The wellbeing sustenance for the ageing, disabled, and introduction of insurance schemes for various groups in the society by the government has led to shifting in the family structure. The introduction of the living wage has increased permissiveness of women in the society and the consequent rise of single parents in the society. Increased single families have affected parenting pattern in the society and the quality of life for most of the single children (Bradbury, Norris, 2005). According to Kinnear (2002), the cost of single parenting is hallmarked by poor parenting, which is establishing in high delinquency rates, drug and substance misuse, and early voluptuous promiscuity and pregnancy in the society. According to Kinnear (2002), increasing divorce proportions, reduced nuptial rates, high levels of cohabitation, pre-matrimonial sexual bustle and the snowballing legitimacy of single parenting and same sex families indicate that ‘the family unit’ is at crisis and enduring moral deterioration.

Long life expectancy among women has led to most of the aged women living as compared to the number of males living alone. Moreover, women get married to older men thus men die earlier leaving the women behind. In 2006, more than 35% of women above the age of 65 years were living alone as compared to 17% of men in the same age bracket (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010). The case is even worse among the elderly persons above 85 years where 50% of women live alone compared to 22% of the men in the society (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010). It is projected that by 2030 more than 3 million people will be living alone in Australia. That will significantly affect the traditional values of a family leading to father changes in the way the family is viewed in the society.

High divorce rates and single parenting has led to another form of family in the Australian context. Blended and stepfamilies have been on the rise in Australia as result of increased separation, divorce, widowhood and second marriages in the society (Forster-Jones, 2007). Separation and divorce in the society prompt people to form new families. People move into new relationships with children from former relationships leading to blended and stepfamilies. More than 26% of the Australian families is made up of single parent families while 3% of is made up of blended families and 5.1% stepfamilies (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011). The rate of blended families and stepfamilies has raised significantly leading since the 1980s. In 1986 the rate of blended and step family stood at 4.3% while in 2011 the rate increased to 6.9% (Cassells et al., 2013).

The state regulation of private life has significantly reduced in the last couple of decades. The rights of the marginalized groups have been enacted through legislation. Consequently, same-sex families have risen rapidly owing to increased freedom and limited involvement of the government in the private life of individuals (Hayes, et al. 2010). The sexual orientation of people has been included in anti-discrimination laws of the country leading to more same-sex couples in the society. Despite the protection of same sex relationships, same sex marriages are not recognized in Australia. There are about 34,000 same-sex couples in Australia. The presence of same sex is affecting the nature of family structure since most of the individuals in this type of relationship do not have children. However, equal number of children to their counterpart in opposite sex relationships.

Role of the Family in the Society

The family has a fundamental role in the development and the wellbeing of the society. The world has been formed through the union between men and women who later produces children to form a family. Repeated formation of families creates a village, a region, country, continent, and later the world. Family plays a vital role in creating an environment where couples access to love, romance, and protection (Hayes, et al. 2010). Moreover, the family has a vital role to play in the child wellbeing in Australia. Family fosters an environment where children learn values, skills, and morals vital in shaping their future life. Family helps children to shape behaviors, attitudes, and self-evaluation which the child to develop positively in the society (Robinson, 2009). Children learn cultures and social routines through family settings. Parents have a role in instilling traditions, cultures and moral values in their children (Corbet, 2004). Children learn important values such as integrity, courtesy, honesty, hard work, and commitment in a family setting. Consequently, children become more accountable and responsible for profound family structures in the society.

Children brought up in functional families have improved access to better educational opportunities, emotional and physical health, less substance abuse and limited sexual immorality. Marital stability is essential in ensuring that family members have a better life in the society. Women and children in unstable family set ups such as cohabiting and single parenting are more likely to suffer sexual and physical abuse in their relationships. Therefore, a stable family does not only provide children with a strong foundation for developing but also protects women and children against sexual and physical abuse.

The family provides an important environment for socialization. Children learn the best ways to socialize with others in the society through family settings. When parents spend more time with their children, the children can learn important social aspects that help them to develop a positive social life. Children who do not have a strong social bond with their parents are likely to develop narcissism and out of control behaviors to compensate for early deprivation (Wilkins, 2004). It is in the family that children acquire both physical and emotional support, which is vital in their development. The family is also essential in forming a foundation for a civilized society that respects cultural diversity in the society.

Challenges to the Notion of “Family.”

As aforementioned earlier, several challenges affect the notion of family in Australia. The traditional definition of family has been affected heavily by the changes taking part in the society not all only in Australia but also across the globe. Hard economic times have prompted both parents to get involved in full-time working. More than 35% of families in Australia have both parents working in full-time (Cassells et al., 2013). Consequently, children are left with little parental care, which affects the role parents in upbringing children. Traditionally, a conventional family consisted of women as a homemaker and man as breadwinner. However, in Australia, the number of female breadwinners has risen significantly in the recent past (Hayes, et al. 2010). The number of households with women as the breadwinners stands at 24.2% in Australia (Cassells et al., 2013). In this context, women breadwinner means that women earn more than their male counterparts in the family do. Women breadwinners have affected the face of a traditional family where men were supposed to be the overall family providers. Most families in Australia consist of dual-breadwinners due to increased access to education among women and liberation of women from traditional constraints that limited their participation in economic affairs.

Additionally, the definition of family has now expanded from the traditional union between men and women to a people of the same sex. The same-sex couples have become prevalent in the society, and the rights of LGBT are enshrined in legislative acts ((Cassells et al., 2013)). The issue of same-sex couples has significantly challenged the traditional values and roles of the family (Birrell, & Rapson, 2002). Over 65% of Australians support the extension of a heterosexual couple of rights to same-sex couples (Cassells et al., 2013). Evidently, acceptance of same-sex couples has increased significantly in the society. 

Divorce and separation have also become very rampant in the Australian society. Single parenting has become commonplace in the Australian society. Families headed by one parent (Forster-Jones, 2007) have now replaced the traditional structure of the family, which was made up of two parents. Moreover, due to single parenting, most of the fertility rate of the country has significantly decreased, and most of the families are now getting fewer children due to the economic burden of raising many children. Legal legislation has also affected family set-ups in some ways.

The legal system of marriage and divorce has set a framework through which formal marriages and family breakups take place. Despite the state keeping off from private affairs, the government somehow controls the rights and responsibilities of parents and children (Hayes, et al., 2010). For instance, the state has direct control over issues of violence against women and children in the society. The issues of violence are prevalent in family set ups, and that is why it is important for the government to have some control over family affairs.

The role of religion in the family has been significant in the history of Australia. Traditionally most families ascribed to the Christian faith, which played a phenomenal role in defining roles and moral values of the family. The number of people ascribing to the Christian faith has fallen from 96% in over a century ago to 60% presently. Moreover, one in every five Australians does not ascribe to any religion. Consequently, the society has become more permissive to new cultural norms that are affecting the traditional definition of the family.

Balancing Individuals and Family Roles

Most of the parents in Australian families work either full time or part time. Despite working being important for the welfare of the family and national economy, it also affects a person’s family life. Therefore, it is essential for parents to balance between their individual things and family affairs to ensure sustainable family development. In families where both families are working, one of there is a trend of one parent working in variable hours to cater for family needs (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010). Moreover, among 60% of couple families, one member of the couple works at night in a bid to have time to mingle with the family during the day when his/her counterpart has gone to work. Additionally, one or both parents in 70% of the families work for unpaid extra hours to reduce the workload for the following day in a bid to create time for family affairs (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010). In other cases, a significant number of parents work from home to balance between caregiving and work. Similarly, some parents have a devised a working arrangement where they work in shifts or during weekends to ensure an evenly distributed time with their families.

Families continue to play a vital in the determination of important social policies and social work practices in Australia. Paid leaves have been incorporated in social work practice to ensure that parents get ample time to interact with their families without losing revenue (Chenoweth, 2008). The value of family and care to children has prompted adoption of policies that support working arrangements that strike a balance between working and family life. In a bid to ensure that working parents can find time to interact with their families flexible working hours are adopted in most companies help parents juggle between the two responsibilities.

The family is an essential element in the social wellbeing of a country. A new system of family life is developing with the ever-changing and new trends in the complex world. The definition of a family of the family is increasingly changing from the traditional perspective of a family. Separation and divorce have increased the number of single and stepfamilies in Australia. The issue of same-sex couples has also shifted the morals and values of family in current society. Empowerment of women in the society has increased the of women breadwinners in the society further changing the traditional family roles in the society. Most families have both parents working either full time or part time, which has also affected the quality of family life. Formal marriages have been usurped by high rates of cohabitation in the society leading low rate of married couples and single parents in the society. Therefore, it is vital for the Australian society to live up with the new changes in the society to ensure sustainable family units and peaceful co-existence.


Australian Bureau of Statistics. (ABS 2011a). Cat No. 3310.0_1 Marriages and Divorces, Australia.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2010). 1370.0 – Measures of Australia’s Progress, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/1370.0~2010~Chapter~Family%20structure%20 (

Birrell, B., & Rapson, V. (2002). How Gay is Australia? People and Place, 10(4), 59–67.

Bradbury, B., & Norris, K. (2005). Income and separation. Journal of Sociology, 41(4), 426–446

Cassells, R., Cassells, R., Toohey, M., Keegan, M., & Mohanty, I. (2013). Modern family: The changing shape of Australian families. AMP Limited.

Corbet, A. (2004). What is a family? And why it matters. Launceston: Tasmanian Family Institute.

Chenoweth, L. (2008). Redefining Welfare: Australian social policy and practice. Asian Social Work and Policy Review, 2(1), 53-60.

Forster-Jones, J. (2007). ‘Family diversification in Australia – the increasing share of blended and step families. People and Place, 15(4), 9–19.

Hayes, A., Weston, R., Qu, L. & Gray, M. (2010), ‘Families then and now: 1980-2010’, Australian Institute of Family Studies Publications, Australian Government.

Kinnear, P. (2002). New families for changing times. Australia Institute. Paper number 7. 1-77

Lohoar, S., Butera, N., & Kennedy, E. (2014). Strengths of Australian Aboriginal cultural practices in family life and child rearing. Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Popenoe, D. (1988). Disturbing the nest: Family change and a decline in modern societies. New York, A. de Gruyter.

Robinson, E. (2009). Refining our understanding of family relationships. Family Matters, 82, 5–7.

Wilkins, R.G. (2004). The role of the Family. The World Family Policy Center. 1-15.

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Choose a health risk associated with adolescence

You will develop and deliver a 10–15 minute seminar/workshop aimed at the teen or young adult audience on a specific health risk associated with the population. You will submit your presentation using the Panopto recording tool.

Choose a health risk associated with adolescence

* If you predominantly work with a specific population and would like to present a relevant health risk seminar to that population, you must seek instructor approval in advance. Email your instructor through the Virtual Office.

  1. Choose a health risk associated with adolescence. Some categories to consider may include:
  2. Suicide
  3. Pregnancy
  4. Substance use and abuse
  5. Motor vehicle crashes
  6. Tobacco use
  7. Sexually transmitted disease
  8. Domestic violence
  9. Mental health issues
  10. Eating disorders
  11. Nutrition and fitness
  12. As the health care advocate, you will present the following to the target audience (adolescents or young adults)in 10-15 slides or screens:
  13. An overview of the risk factor
  14. Contributing factors
  15. Prevalence of the health risk (meaningful data)
  16. Explain your role with the issue as a health care practitioner/advocate
  17. Ways to identify a problem and address the issue
  18. Present an activity or project or exercise for the audience to engage in related to the topic
  19. Help and support resources
  20. In your research materials, incorporate 3–4 current sources with one containing the most current statistics.
  21. Use age-appropriate creativity to ensure the message gets across to the selected audience. As you plan your seminar, consider:
  22. How will you initiate a conversation (rather than give a lecture)?
  23. How will you keep the attention and respect of this audience?
  24. Use APA for citing and referencing your sources.
  25. Keep your design and audio appropriate to the audience, yet professional. Your presentation must include both audio and visual components and be professional in nature.

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The Role of the Media in Promoting Healthy Lifestyle

The Role of the Media in Promoting Healthy Lifestyle

Advancement of media technologies and an increase in the media channels and coverage has played a vital role in promoting the health all over the world. Media has promoted the narrowed the boundary that has existed between the health worker and the general public who are in need of the health services and information (The Role of Media in Health). The public can get important information concerning the current trends of the health that is going on worldwide and take effective measure. The outbreak of communicable diseases like avian influenza or the Ebola are always announced in the media (USAID, 2006). When the public gets that information, it can carry out control measures such as quarantine and report any case of a disease noted with symptom similar to the communicable disease at hand. According to Howard, (2010) The mass media and social media has helped the health workers to expand their audience coverage compared to face to face channel where the health information could only reach the small group of individual

Media has the general public perception of health according to Korda & Itani, (2013) media has promoted the health behavior of the general population. In the media, there is a lot of information concerning healthy lifestyle, which is adopted by the audience and use it to live a healthy lifestyle. Information concerning vaccination and care and prevention of HIV and Aids in mass media have significantly control infection and spread of diseases pathogens (Witthöft & Rubin, 2013). Information technology advancement is very important to the achievement of the goals of healthy people 2020 as a measure of meeting universal healthy lifestyle in America (Healthy People 2020, 2010).

List of references

Howard, A. (2010, July 13). 5 Ways social media helps promote good health. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2010/07/13/social-media-health-trends/#M4J070mR7SqN

USAID. (2006). Avian influenza: Media orientation training notes. Retrieved from http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=34C3998DA4A444E6BDA111A62539E522&CID=3CD726771F6D6EA71EA52C0F1EFD6F5E&rd=1&h=UH-n7JYzKNYt79fyjC-idA566CBsEAshe3_pEVm76kY&v=1&r=http%3a%2f%2fpdf.usaid.gov%2fpdf_docs%2fPNADT999.pdf&p=DevEx, 5060.1

Korda, H., & Itani, Z. (2013). Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change. Health promotion practice, 14(1), 15-23.

Healthy People 2020. (2017). Health Communication and health information technology. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/health-communication-and-health-information-technology.

Witthöft, M., & Rubin, G. J. (2013). Are media warnings about the adverse health effects of modern life self-fulfilling? An experimental study on idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF). Journal of psychosomatic research, 74(3), 206-212.

The Role of Media in Health Promotion. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uniteforsight.org/health-communication-course/module5

Source Evaluation (25% of the total reading mark for the module) IFY and IY1: Complete the table below for FOUR of the sources you have found. PM: Complete the table for SIX sources.

Bibliographic details of sourceBrief evaluation of sourceRelevant ideas from source for this essay section (in own words)How do these ideas strengthen your argument?
The Role of Media in Health Promotion. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uniteforsight.org/health-communication-course/module5  The source talks about the importance of various media channels in promoting the health status of the public. It elaborates how media has enabled the health workers to be able to reach public easily and relay important health information to them. It also explains the role of media in control and prevention of various diseases.     Health authority and practitioner educate through media and relay important health information to the general public. The public is in access to various mass media channel where they can receive important health information.The source strengthens the idea of argument by indicating how media has made communication of the health easy and able to reach a large group of individuals easy.
Howard, A. (2010, July 13). 5 Ways social media helps promote good health. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2010/07/13/social-media-health-trends/#M4J070mR7SqN  The source elaborates five vital ways in which the social media has promoted the health status of the general population. The five-way which is elaborated in the sources the sources are connecting healthcare community, health care wikis which have important health care forums promotes socialization and accessibility of health care data, telemedicine and Hallo health have enabled the doctors to offer consultations and answer patients question online. Lastly, it has promoted online community and connection.    The source is relevant since social media is one of the channels of media and it shows how social media has promoted the general health of the population through modernized technology of communication.Social media it has more than 207million users worldwide, it is the cheapest mode4 of communication to the millennial generation, and it will be vital to reach this group with important information concerning health.
USAID. (2006). Avian influenza: Media orientation training notes. Retrieved from http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=34C3998DA4A444E6BDA111A62539E522&CID=3CD726771F6D6EA71EA52C0F1EFD6F5E&rd=1&h=UH-n7JYzKNYt79fyjC-idA566CBsEAshe3_pEVm76kY&v=1&r=http%3a%2f%2fpdf.usaid.gov%2fpdf_docs%2fPNADT999.pdf&p=DevEx, 5060.1            The source talks about how mass media used to reach a large group of pupation and warn them about the avian flu outbreak in the year 2006. The source also shows the etiology of the avian flu and consists of important statistics that show how detrimental was the disease to those people who were infected.Avian flu is a communicable disease that is caused by a virus, which spread very fast and can lead to massive infection and death of many people. Appropriate measures such as travel advisory, quarantine, isolation should be done immediately to prevent the disease from spreading.Media played a vital role in notifying the public on the outbreak of avian flu thus taking appropriate measure in the prevention of the disease.
Bibliographic details of sources used in this sectionBrief evaluation of sourceRelevant ideas from source for this essay section (in own words)How do these ideas strengthen your argument?
Healthy People 2020. (2017). Health Communication and health information technology. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/health-communication-and-health-information-technology.   The objective of the healthy behavior in the objectives of the healthy people 2020 are steered forward by communication information and technology. The population is access to information technology media, which enable them to access the appropriate health measures, and objectives that are contained in healthy people 2020. The effective information that contained in healthy people 2020 that the general population gets is like the health care, public health, and social views toward health.    Central to health care, public health, and the way our society views health.  Health professionals and the public search uses and understand the health information in the healthy people 2020. Which lead to significant    Impact on their decisions and actions concerning health.    Media has enabled the public and health professionals to access objectives of healthy people 2020 and work toward attainment of the objectives stipulated      
Korda, H., & Itani, Z. (2013). Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change. Health promotion practice, 14(1), 15-23.  The article comprises of the current evidence on how social media has promoted the understanding of health care issues among the general population. It also elaborates the importance of evaluating various social media sites on the effectiveness of relaying general information concerning health to the public. The effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.  Innovation and technology have promoted the health of population differently. It is, therefore, effective to assess whether the media has been effective in relaying the information to the public.             It provides information necessary concerning the assessment of social media shows how it benefits health of the general population.
Witthöft, M., & Rubin, G. J. (2013). Are media warnings about the adverse health effects of modern life self-fulfilling? An experimental study on idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF). Journal of psychosomatic research, 74(3), 206-212.            The article is a research that aims to find out whether the media warning concerning adverse health effects have attributed to changes concerning disease control and prevention among the population. It also studies whether the media has contributed to changes in prevalence of HIV and Aids.            I media there is more warning concerning outbreak and prevalence of various diseases. Majority of the health warning they aim in helping the community to be vigilant to prevent various health hazards.Warning in media, they are important in control and prevention of various diseases. They help the population to take appropriate measure so that they are not affected by adverse health conditions.

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