American History

Question One

Sir Robert Peel passed the principles of policing that has guided the advocacy of community policing for decades. The principles have crossed into more than one era because all the nine principles still stood out in our administration law strategies today to govern the public. The evolution of community policing in the US began when police decided to be associated more in local societies so that they can determine and prevent criminal activities. This started during the years 1980’s and 1990’s when law enforcement bodies were struggling with the issues of crime (“Community Policing, Evolution of,” n.d., p. 46). This was a result of negative contributors such as lack of jobs and an increase in drug epidemic, which led to the evolution of society policing (Brown, 2003). Community policing endeavored to reduce these challenges, thus ensuring safety and quality life for the members of the public.

Question Two

Traditional policing emphases more on detention and investigation, while community policing emphases on culture and superior living (Kringen, Sedelmaier, & Lupolianski, 2018, p. 66). Traditional policing’s strategies are arbitrary patrolling, while community policing is to create a safe community and reducing crimes. In traditional policing, the work of ensuring that the public is safe is seen as the responsibility of the police while in community policing structure relation is supreme. The main goal of traditional policing is to ensure that the citizens who abide by the law are protected from criminals while the primary goal of community policing is to help the citizens in developing and maintaining a safe social environment. Traditional policing defines the styles that dominated before community policing was introduced, while community policing is described as a rebuilding of the earlier ideologies.

The commonality that exists in both policies is that they are to keep the public from criminal activities and enhance law and order. Both of the systems had an approach to solve the challenges facing society in general. Both have policies that ensure there is a good relationship between the police and the societies that they serve. In both of the policies, there is a high probability that the members of the public will cooperate so that the job can be done.

Question Three

The similarities that exist in the responses from African Americans and Hispanics about public confidence in the police by race are as follows; The African American and Hispanic communities had a more negative attitude to the police. Both of the races agreed that the police were being rough on people (Cheurprakobkit, 2000, p. 98). They both agreed that the whites receive better treatment compared to them. Another similarity in response that was found out is that the police were more likely to speak to black drivers using informal language and harsher legal terms.

The differences existing in the responses from African American and Hispanics about public confidence are as follows;

African American is the race that is committing more crimes than the Hispanics. The other difference is that more African American people are being arrested and imprisoned than the Hispanic community, and the rate at which they are being detained is seven times higher than the Hispanics. The African Americans observed the police more negatively than the Hispanics.


Brown, D. B. (2003). Peel, Sir Robert. Oxford Art Online. doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.t066015

Cheurprakobkit, S. (2000). Police-citizen contact and police performance attitudinal differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanics. Journal of Criminal Justice28(4), 325-336. doi:10.1016/s0047-2352(00)00042-8

Community Policing, Evolution of. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Community Policing and Problem Solving. doi:10.4135/9781452276113.n25

Kringen, J. A., Sedelmaier, C. M., & Dlugolenski, E. (2018). Foot Patrol: The Impact of Continuity, Outreach, and Traditional Policing Activities. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice. doi:10.1093/police/pay006

American History

  1. DQ1

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 remains one of the greatest actions toward ending racial prejudices in the US (Barnes& Bowles, 2014). The law outlawed discrimination of opportunities or any other values based on individual’s sex, race, color religion, or nationality (Barnes& Bowles, 2014). The Acts also set out measures that ensured that hiring, promotions and dismissal in the public sector were done on merit rather than favoritism. Moreover, the law also safeguarded the plight of women who for a long time were delegated minor shore and could not participate in public leadership. Through the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that was established under the Justice, Docket American has witnessed a positive progress toward equality (Barnes& Bowles, 2014). Therefore, the Civil Right Acts of 1964 is a cornerstone and a product of the civil right movement of the 1960s and 1970s.

Since the passage of the Civil Right Acts of 1964 American and more so black American has seen increased opportunities to the federal government as well as in the private sector (Barnes& Bowles, 2014). There before, few of the immigrants from the African and Asian decent got opportunities to work for the federal government as well as in the industrial sector. For few that were lucky, they had to do with the manual job that attracted low wages.

Nonetheless, even with a legislative act women have continued to earn fewer wage compared to their male counterpart doing the similar job. There has been consistency outrage to this discrimination across the American economy, but little is being done achieve to elevate women to their contribution in the job market.

Another federal law that came as a result of the effort of the civil right movement is the passage of the Voting Right Act of 1965 (Barnes& Bowles, 2014). For a long time African American were not allowed to vote and those that did not find a reason why they could cast their vote. They were disfranchised because of enormous discrimination and harassment by the Jims claw laws. These circumstances lead the like of Martin Luther King to act. The movement that called for equal voting right drew the attention of the president who called on the Congress to enact electoral laws that ensured that all American had a right to vote.

African American has since the passage of the Voting Right Acts of 1965 participated in all election. This has been a big milestone in the success of the civil right movement as some of the African American was elected to the House of Representative and in some time to the Congress. Therefore, through their participation in civil rights, the African American has enabled to expand their opportunities in law making process.

There has been tremendous gain as a result of voting right to all American. However, not all American have the voting right as those that are incarcerated in jail are denied their right to vote. Moreover, given that the American society has a discriminatory tendency of stereotyping African American lawbreakers thus having most of African men and women in prison.

  • DQ 2

The Eisenhower administration is credited with it role to stop the spread of the communism around the world. Eisenhower Secretary of State, John Foster changed the American foreign policy from passive engagement with the world to Massive Retaliation (Barnes& Bowles, 2014). The American vowed to do what it can even engage in war to certain the Soviet dominance of the world. Through this, the America military was tasked to build huge stocks of nuclear weapon that would threaten the Soviets with their communism foreign policy.

The American was indifference with Eisenhower foreign policy. Though they disliked Truman passivity, they never relented to the effort to stop the spread of communism ideas instead of capitalism. 

Another major foreign policy that contributed to the growth and the spread of democracy was containment policy (Barnes& Bowles, 2014). The Truman administration pursued the containment policy by providing economic aid to countries such as Turkey, Greece, and many other African nations not to fall under the flawed system. Truman administration believed that empowered nations would be strong enough to resist communism ideals.  

The American supported the Truman foreign containment foreign policy but denied him another stint at the helm of power, as he was too passive to respond to the Soviet aggression. This is the reason Eisenhower was elected and pursued Truman policy but with a vigor of economic empowerment and war at the same time. 

As the Cold War was ongoing, the American Society went many cultural changes brought about by competition in technology, art, and the respect of individual rights. The American forgot their earlier domestic policies that discriminated against minority groups and embraced changes in equal employment opportunities and a repeal of the Jim Claws legislations. With the Cold War came television and development in the film industry. Hollywood produced many of the anticommunist’s films and rekindled the importance of American history. The Cold War prompted the elite class to respond in a way that united the country toward a course. President Truman argued that for America to lead the world in championing for the freedom, it was important to recognize African American as free and engage them in building a proper democracy. (Hanchett, 2000).   


Barnes, L. & Bowles, M. (2014). The American story: Perspectives and encounters from 1877. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc Hanchett, T. (2000). The other “subsidized housing” federal aid to suburbanization, 1940s-1960s. Retrieved from

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Henok is a 55-year-old male. He was born in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia but has lived in the American South

For this Check-Up, you are acting as a counselor. In your career, you will often need to provide more than medical advice: sometimes, you must also provide emotional support. In this case, you need to counsel your patient, about what he suspects he is experiencing.

Henok is a 55-year-old male. He was born in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia but has lived in the American South for the last 30 years. He has had a successful life as an industrial engineer, and has made a very lucrative living. Henok got married when he was 45 years old and had twin boys when he was 47. He loves his wife and twin boys but is starting to feel restless and anxious and unsure why. He signed up for a skydiving trip with his friends two weeks ago and loved it. Now he wants to buy a motorcycle. He has come to you because he is experiencing chest pains. His EKG is normal, and all his bloodwork is normal. Everything points to him being physically healthy.

You ask a few questions and find out the following information:

  • He hasn’t been sleeping well.
  • He thinks he is a failure.
  • He recently had his black hair bleached blonde,
  • He bought a beach house and hasn’t told his wife yet.
  • He got the phone number of a female coworker to meet for drinks, but he felt guilty and threw it in the trashcan right away.
  • He has found himself missing his late father.

Your job:

  1. Tell Henok what you think is going on (1-2 paragraphs)
  2. Tell Henok how you think he can best overcome these feelings (2-4 paragraphs)
  3. Make a referral for Henok (1 paragraph)
  4. Provide some encouragement for Henok (this is your conclusion)
  5. How did you reach these conclusions? What research helped you arrive at the decisions that you did?

Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • Length: 2.5-3 pages (not including title page or reference page)
  • 1-inch margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page
  • References page (minimum of 2 outside scholarly sources in addition to course text)

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Philippine-American War | Under the Free Flag by American History Tellers

Philippine-American War | Under the Free Flag by American History Tellers | Podchaser

Purpose: This assignment aims to better understand American imperialism around the turn of the twentieth century, especially fighting the insurrection in the Philippines.

Philippine-American War | Under the Free Flag by American History Tellers


· First, read US History, Chapter 22. (Perhaps make some notes about American imperialism.)

· Second, go to AMERICAN HISTORY TELLERS or wherever you get podcasts (Apple podcasts, Spotify, etc.) to listen to the first episode on the Philippine insurrection ( “Philippine-American War: Into the Jaws of the Dragon”), and you get even more extra credit for reporting on episode 2 (and even 3) Here are some helpful links: Another link option is here: Listen to the entire podcast, and take some notes to make writing your post easy.

· Third, create an original discussion post in which you share key history you learned or found most interesting in a minimum of 300 – 400 substantive words that do NOT include any personal commentary about whether you liked the podcast or no. I’m looking for history facts from the podcast. You may absolutely include that, share any opinions you like as much as you like, but you must have a minimum of 300 words of relevant, substantive historical content from the podcast, and not just from the very beginning.😉 (If you wish to get even more extra credit, do the same for the second episode and even more on top of that for the third, if you get fished into the story.)

· Replies are not required, but most welcome.

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Lessons learned from the American Civil war

Lessons learned

The American civil war resulted from years of ideological and economic differences between the North and the South. In my opinion, it, however, broke out when least expected. The two factions had co-existed for years despite their differences. The election of Abraham Lincoln at a time when slavery was the focus of the South’s economy caused many southerners jitters. They feared that the abolition of slavery would compromise their livelihood. Thus they opted to secede for their economic survival (Keene 2010).

Lessons learned from the American Civil war.

McClure, however, makes it clear that slavery was just the white crest of a strong wave that had rocked the Union since its inception (McClure 1886). He faults George Washington and Thomas Jefferson for failing to explicitly outline the powers of the states and those of the central government. Jefferson’s believe in ‘power for the people’ was used by the southerners, who perceived the Northerners as infringing into their freedom to keep slaves.

Despite the casualties, the War managed to unite the Union once again. The Civilian War can thus be viewed as a necessary evil that enhanced America’s unity. McClure highlights the reluctance the soldiers had when fighting their brothers. It is this brotherhood that aided the union’s post-war prosperity and patriotism. It also enhanced the status of African Americans who were finally granted citizenship.

This whole course has brought to light the patriotism and selflessness the founding fathers of America portrayed in fighting for the rights of their people. It has instilled in me a sense of patriotism and identity that will help me in interacting with fellow citizens and taking part in national processes like voting.



McClure, Alexander Kelly. “The lesson of our civil war.” Pamphlets on the Civil War, 1861-1865, 1886.

Keene, J. D., Cornell, S., & O’Donnell, E. T. (2010). Visions of America: A history of the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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The great American Bubble Machine

The great American Bubble Machine


Goldman Sachs may have been among the latecomers in the investment trust rigmarole. However, the company had the best game plan for the industry, making it emerge the best in the investment trust sector. The company has seen many economic bubbles, which it is taking advantage of by posing as an angel and acting like a vampire while going for the kill. All the five bubbles have seen the company come out as a winner. The main bubbles under discussion are the great Depression, Tech Stocks and the housing craze

Bubble #1: investment trust and how led to the great depression

 When Goldman Sachs Trading Corporation was formed, it issued shares valued at $100 and later redeemed, using its own money, but traded the shares to the public at $104. The investment company was exceedingly active, and the public had a positive perception and confidence. The company seemed exceedingly profitable, and investors who had an eye for fantastic deals made a surge take advantage of the new deals. However, when the company realized how profitable it was, they developed another investment trust and used the Goldman Sachs Trading Corporation money to establish the Shenandoah Corporation and Later another investment trust company called the ‘Blue Ridge Corporation.’ The endless investment pyramid was an orchestrated game of Goldman Sachs as the majority shareholder.

The plan was not supposed to be negative, however, when the company started making loses, it spiraled down to the first investment with the parent company Goldman Sachs bearing the brunt. The investment, however, was weary as the company failed to pay back its shareholder as the decline in the performance of the banks and investment trusts was the main cause of alarm. The chain of broke investors who could get back their money became extremely long as the company took money from both the poor and the rich. Then company benefited from the inherent nature of lending, borrowing and investing and assumed that, as long as the investors are still w8illing invest, they will always make money unaware of the effect of the last fund on their investment.

Bubble #2:  Tech Stocks the Initial public offering, laddering and spinning

The Company had a decidedly ingenious plan. It had changed the banking rules whereby they had two tiered investment system, and the insiders knew what was actually profitable while the investors were made to chase the rosy prices that were fictitious. The company capitalized in changes in the regulatory frameworks. The Goldman Sachs took small and emerging companies organized IPOs and exaggerated their profitability. This made the investors scampering for the shares of the company. As soon as the IPO is completed, they took their shares of the deal and left leaving the company and the shareholder on down south trend.

Then company was involved in Laddering, as they manipulated the prices of new stocks during IPOs. They convinced the firm to place IPOs then convinced their clients of better prices and a large share volume and improved profitability. The strategy helped in buying large volumes of shares hoping that the shares prices will appreciate as promised by the industry giants, then double cross the investors in another company for the same shares take their share of the spoil and leave move the investors.

Spinning is a corporate scandal that involves giving outstanding stock offering to executives in companies with the aim of getting a favors mainly underwriting deals in this case. Goldman and Sachs did this to the executives of companies they planned to take public. It was a vital part of a deceitful scheme to win latest investment-banking deals. They offered corporate executives low prices for shares in the market as a way of influencing the future deals such as their company future underwriter. The discount offered as bribes is covered with the investor’s money. The practice was wrong as the company diverted the ash belonging to other investment, which could have been distributed to investors as dividend.

Bubble #3: “Goldman Sachs’s mortgage strategy and Collateralized Debt Obligation”

Previously it was not easy to get mortgage for the customers who failed to meet requirements of the mortgage industry standards, for example, being able to make a down payment of 10 percent or more, show a stable income and appropriate credit rating, and possess a valid first and last name. The company went against the grain and offered the potential home owners mortgage facilities.  First, the company bundled the mortgages into collateralized debt obligations. This involved turning the junk-rated mortgages into AAA-rated investments. Secondly they their own bets on the CDOs (credit default swaps) by selling them to insurance companies like AIG, hoping that AIG will default. Being that the AIG are ex-cons with history of defaulting.


While Goldman Sachs is accused of all the woes facing the financial sectors, the company is like a deep-seated cancer that cannot be routed out. Many people have learnt for the losses and the gains associated with The Goldman Sachs saga and are still in the market. These people may want to make good their loss. For this, the economy should prepare itself for financial scandals in the future as the Goldman Sachs alumni are out there. What is not known is when and how they will strike this time. The economic bubbles are still coming, and the company is likely to reincarnate into another beast.

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The Role of Three Anarchists in Latin American Anarchist Movement in the U.S

The Role of Three Anarchists in Latin American Anarchist Movement in the U.S

The Mexico – US border area, and especially the urban centers of San Antonio, Laredo, Los Angeles and El Paso served as center stage for essential parts of the precursory work for the 1910 Mexican revolution. On the either sides of the boundary separating the two nations, issues of anticlericalism, liberalism, anarchism, class, nationalism, identity and race were solved with revolutionary fervor and executed through periodical publications, memoirs and autobiographical narratives by female authors who had become extremely involved in calling attention to issues of gender, in addition to the nationalist strife in Mexico for democracy. Within the issues articulated by the differing factions of the revolutionary movement in Mexico, a small but essential number of periodicals published in the Spanish language in the United States. These periodicals talked about and stressed on the growing concern for the emancipation of women and the patriarchal authority that the government had subverted by including women in the fight and struggle for justice. The women could accomplish this at times through the manipulation of genders for their own certain nationalist advantages (Lomas 50- 74). 

Through unsigned editorials and articles, certain periodicals like the El Obrero meaning the worker, and the La Voz de la Mujer meaning the women’s voice proclaimed themselves as tools of politics of the predecessor revolutionary movement. Just the same, another periodical named the Pluma Roja, meaning the red pen, proclaimed and acted the same for the internationality anarchist movement. The writing of certain women like Jovita Idar who continually wrote and published articles in the periodical La Cronica, which her family owned, further increased the problems brought about by the articulation of gender by their removal of the borders in geopolitics, by focusing on cultural and political practices across the border and knowingly establishing a discourse that was transborder (Lomas 50- 74). 

Despite the political imposition of the twentieth century of a physical national boundary, separating the United States from Mexico, each seeking to establish its national culture differently, the position of the Mexican women in the society in the borderlands was still determined by the ancient 19th century social norms of the Mexican culture. As the revolutionary movement continued to develop, it provided a field that was extremely fertile for the re- emergence of nationalist attitudes among the Mexican US population, and established the space to redevelop the responsibility and roles of women in the society (Lomas 50- 74). 

The liberalism of this revolutionary movement strengthened the secular perspective that openly disagreed the narrative that had become master in that era; the Catholic Church narrative. Although only a few of the women in the borderline areas had the required cultural capital to express themselves and come up with these expressions in writing, the women who id had the capacity to come up with other ways of doing so. Up to today, no one has virtually recognized or acknowledged the work of these women as political and social activists and their written and intellectual contributions. This either is largely due to gender discrimination or due to political affiliation, as no one in Mexico has recognized his or her work and efforts. In the United States, these factors, in addition to linguistic and racial biases, have sentenced their work to oblivion. However, the stories of these women and their efforts to get the stories published represent the realities of individuals, the importance of whose daily lives transcends the challenges resulting from political, national, class and gender boundaries (Lomas 50- 74). This paper shows the importance, and the influence the lives of these women, and their work had on US, and the influences of the Anarchist movements of the Latin America on the United States. 

Latino and Hispanic women in the United States have been involved and engaged in journalism for numerous years, utilizing their skills in multilingualism to reach and communicate across cultures and spread news and ideas throughout the nineteenth century up to the Common Era. The press in Hispanic countries provided information and knowledge essential to the Latin American and Hispanic communities and helped to preserve and foster the values of culture that we can still witness today. Just the same, these Hispanic presses provided columns of special interest commonly associated with magazines, bookstores, and publishing houses and promoted education to spread the ideologies of the external and internal writers. In the late 19th century, the women Hispanic writers became extremely influential in the press. One of the commonly known women writers from a Mexican background during those times was Casanova de Villaverde who was a Cuban activist and abolitionist and a political activist (Lazo 78- 123). 

This woman wrote for the America Latina and could come up with articles about revolutionary and movements for freeing Cuba, though she was from a conservative family. A writer later married her and they moved to New York from where she and her husband continued to take part in the fight for Cuban freedom. In the early 20th century, several other women and especially those from the borderline between Mexico and Texas became instrumental in spreading the news about how concerned they were for the civil rights and freedoms of the Mexican citizens and the dislike they had for the then president in the Hispanic periodicals and newspapers. Idar was among these women when she begun to write for her father. It was her family that later organized and led the first Mexican Congress in Texas to safeguard the rights of Mexican- Americans (Lazo 78- 123).

 It was also during this time that Idar and her family helped found the women organization called La Liga Femenil Mexican that focused mainly on reforms in the education sector. At almost the same time Leonar Villegas de Magnon, another educator and activist begun to write the local dailies and joined another women movement called Junta Revolutionaria. These two women participated in a small organization called La Cruz Blanca that specialized in helping soldiers who became wounded. It was from these experiences that Villegas gained news and ideas to write about the experiences people and nurses in Juarez had in the magazine The Rebel. Other women later joined different organizations and begun writing for different newspapers relaying their fears, concerns and ideas (Arrizón 90- 112). 

The revolution discourse did not know any boundaries. Words, language, concepts and corridors crossed forth and back along the US- Mexican border as easily as the famous revolutionary Francisco Villa. The Partido Liberal Mexicano was an organization of anarchists that carried slogans with them from Mexico to the US across the US- Mexico border. As it follows, numerous female writers wrote for the newspaper of Pertido, which people called Regeneration, on both of the sides of the border, but mostly in the US in Los Angeles where the group finally settled in 1910. Women such as the Villarreal sisters, Sara Estela Ramirez, Blanca Moncaleano, Maria Talavera and Teresa Arteaga all contributed and participated in the agenda of the revolutionary as activists, revolutionists and journalists. The revolution then developed some kind of resurgence during which the women writers wrote essays, edited their own newspapers, magazines and journals. Most of these women who were after political exile in the southwestern part of the US wrote prolifically, championing the revolutionary as a women’s revolutionary and criticizing the then president Porfirio Diaz, who was also a dictator (Arrizón 90- 112).

In this essay, we are going to look at three particular women and the effects that their work and efforts in politics and society had on the US and the rest of the society. The here women to be looked at in this case are Blanca de Moncaleano, the Villarreal sisters, Andrea and Teresa and Luisa Capetillo. These women were extremely essential in influencing the other women through writing. The three women wrote for and contributed a number of essays to the famous feminist newspaper called Regeneration that reaffirmed the intent of the organization and its writers to politicize women. The essays that these women and their colleagues had are crucial because they show how a few women the Party and its ideologies influenced- and transformed- the ideologies of the women while writing their own stories. In their essays, the women undertook different approaches from the one the men writers used, and disputed implicitly, the ideology of the Party on women. Through their activist agendas of feminism, the female writers represented a doubling- an explicit agreement that was struck between the male leaders- when as feminists they begun an internationalist revolutionary movement, but by fighting for their own agenda, the women spoke and spoke feminism that was third space (Perez 54- 63a). 

Blanca Moncaleano is the first writer we are going to look at in this paper. Whereas Teresa and Andrea Villarreal and Sara Estela Ramirez in the 1900s defied the catholic ideology that the Catholic Church had well established, and one of the newspapers they worked for called the La voz de Mujer called for democracy that was liberal through movements and revolution. In the years that followed another newspaper, the Pluma Roja proposed that the only solution to unequal rights, discrimination and oppression was anarchism. These women movement founded the Pluma Roja in Los Angeles during the second stage of the revolution. Blanca de Moncaleano was the editor and the director of the newspaper from the periods between 1915 and 1913. Although there are no signs that this newspaper was based on political ideologies or as a result of a female political movement, it was developed to create networks with the international anarchist movements across the borders (Perez 54- 63a).

 There is not much known about this writer, but John hart says of her, ‘in early June 1912, Juan Francisco Moncaleano, a Colombian military (and his dynamic wife), arrived in Mexico after a brief stay in Havana (inspired by the news of the Madero led revolution)’ (Gutierrez 305).  Scholars have argued that Blanca’s father was a professor in a Colombian university who also became the founder of the newspaper called Luz. The Moncaleano family based the paper in the Mexico City. According to Hart, this ‘… was a remarkable paper. Moncaleano used it to publicize the hopeless cause of Flores Magon and the Partido Liberal Mexicano, the anarchist program of which he enthusiastically endorsed and whose leader he deeply admired, (Gutierrez 305).

Unlike the nationalist ideologies represented by other news papers such as the La voz de la Mujer, the Pluma Roja had not interest and did not acknowledge or believe in national borders. For the newspaper, the need to reinstate the position of the female population in the society was at the middle of its fight for political, social and economic freedom, and was part of the ideal notions of anarchism. For the newspaper and his writers, the patriarchal authority that remained unquestioned, upheld by the state and religion, was the target of its criticism (Perez 54- 63a). The feminist stance this woman took was of great influence to other women and the US Latin movement. She supported both the revolution and the fight for women rights. Her righting often was about encouraging women to take a forefront in matters affecting their country and other women. Her stance with these two main events made her extremely essential in the war against dictatorship.

This remarkable woman meant for most of the essays that appeared in the newspaper for the women who the writers encouraged to break from the norm by acquiring more knowledge. The program of the anarchists, as defined by the newspaper, searched for a society that was egalitarian in which the female writers had fully powered the women. It proposed the freedom of women from three main oppressors who the women activists identified as religion, the state and capital. Blanca de Moncaleano was the director of the paper and she not only talked to the women but also to the men, as she encouraged them to convert their wives who were enslaved and obedient to partners who could think for themselves. For instance, the title Men, Educate Women looks like a call for the male population to educate their women, in truth Blanca wrote the article to address the issue of the significance of letting women educate themselves. The phrase, ‘men, allow women to educate themselves and to think on her own…’  (Lomas 62) can further confirm this claim.

The articles that were signed, and probably written by Blanca de Moncaleano, are probably the most passionately critical of the men who participated in the fight for liberation and who were at least conscious of their own enslavement and suppression of women. Of these men Blanca wrote, ‘consumed by their supposed superiority, conceited in their ignorance, men believe they can achieve the goal of human emancipation without the help of women’ (Iomas 62).she denounced the source of the power of men by confronting apathy from the male writers. She further expounded her militant, firm stance through the motto of the newspaper which went like,’ before me, the star of my ideal. Behind me, men. I do not look back…’ (Lomas 62). 

All the papers that Blanca was involved with including the Pluma Roja, La Voz de la Mujer and El Obrero had an effect on their readers and audiences as they talked in detail about issues pertaining gender. It is highly possible that the audiences of this phenomenal female writer included PLM partisans and activists. According to certain scholars, the audience of the writer and her work included the general sympathizers from the Chicano- Mexican community and the intermittently active laborers, artisans and lower middle class individuals. Other audiences included the local leadership cores in most of the Chicano, chapter offices, district organizers, and local journalists who acted as the interpreters and transmitters of the policies of the movement. The well- educated, bi- national leadership, and the self- taught were also essential audiences of the writer (Norma 32- 46).

Generally, Blanca de Moncaleano was a Mexican journalist who firmly supported the rights of women and their revolution. Her articles showed a formidable stance that none of the other writes, especially the male writers, had ever shown. In most of her articles, she talked about freedoms and rights of women. In one of her many articles, Blanca criticized the subjugation women experienced at home by arguing that, women have rights equal to those given to men. She argued that God did not place women on earth for procreation, or to wash dishes and wash clothes. By naming and acknowledging the confinement of women in the family, the writer participated with a feminism that bespoke of the social conditions that dictators and male oppressors accepted as the norm for women. She, therefore, largely called for the liberation of women by urging them to break away from their prescribed duties and roles entirely (Perez 54- 63a).

The next critical writer in this paper is Luisa Capetillo. This Puerto Rican activist took a long stance in protesting and fighting against human right violations and abuses that the government and other entities executed against women and the proletarian class. Her fight for freedom and rights obtained emancipation for both the women and men workers and resulted to a system that would deliver emancipation to women from their oppression by men (Meruelo 4- 113). Her fight was no different than that of Blanca, and their efforts were extremely useful in influencing the direction of the revolution by writing articles that were insightful. Both of these women, and the Villarreal sisters, as we will see later, used their articles to mobilize individuals and to incite them against their tyrant leaders. They encouraged women and men to fight for their freedom and that of the women. Their fight saw the revolution through. Without their efforts, as we have seen, the battle would not have been won.

Her concerns were also directed towards the future of children in relation to the emancipation of women from men.  The patriarchal cultural and tradition mores of the society in the Puerto Rican culture in the early 1900s stated that women should stay home and take care of their families. In addition to this, it was the norm that women remain submissive to the men, and especially their husbands, while their male counterparts acted as the financial supporters, household heads and remained sexually free. The society expected more of these cultural expectations of the women who were elite than normal women, since they were more involved with the powers than the traditions regulated. Women who were elite also had more time at their hands with the domestic helps, and did not have to cook wash, or take care of their children. On the other hand, the proletarian women usually stayed and worked in the elite homes, and, as a result, had little time in their hands, and this made them vulnerable to the wishes of men and sexual expectations (Meruelo 4- 113). 

Capetillo viewed all this in a different way. She had a view that was progressive of the women and the abilities they possessed, intellectually, also as workers. Capetillo, through her writing, questioned traditional norms developed by the Catholic Church concerning women in the institution of marriage, even to the point of denying the significance of marriage. She encouraged for the sexual rights of women and for open relationships, and defied cultural norms and requirements, specifically if they denied women any of their rights and freedoms. For example, this writer often wore male pants, choosing what she called comfort over what she thought was a social norm that was oppressive and uncomfortable that the society forced women to follow (Meruelo 4- 113). It is clear from her articles that her father or her family never led her to feel inferior because she was a woman. She writes of her father and mother, ‘ Mi opinion acerca de las libertades, derechos y deberes de la mujer…’ (Capetillo 2). This shows were her motivation and support came from.

For one to understand fully how this writer came to establish such beliefs and ideas, it is essential to understand her background. Capetillo received an education that only the elite in the society received, but she also grew up as a proletarian. This situation placed her in a conflicting situation as to what society or class she belongs. Furthermore, she declined to identify with the elite society because her parents had strong ideas from the European revolutionary, though they received a progressive education. In her lifetime, she wrote for a number of anarchist newspapers in New York and Puerto Rico. The writer also wrote and published five books. Her work, plays and short essays reveal and show the obsession she had with improving the men in Puerto Rico and the dire economic situation of the Puerto Rican women. Her anarchist ideals that drove her actions and her fierce fight to educate the people of Puerto Rico about their rights and friends also get revealed in her work. Her first two books are about how the working class population should come together and demand for the government to provide for them better living conditions and to recognize and acknowledge their enslavement by the upper class and their blind following of the doctrines and ideologies of the Roman Catholic Church (Meruelo 4- 113).  

The last of her two books focus and emphasize more on the sexual rights of the women and the roles they can play as leaders in their organizations. In all of her books, the writer used her writing to teach and guide women to become independent and positive, something that the writer seemed to be intensely engaged in her later time in her labor career. The significance of the writer to scholars and historians is that through her specific style she was able to attain certain goals in the fight for the emancipation of women and rights and freedoms for both women and men. She was so crucial because she served as a role model for the rights of women as she broke the chains of tradition, though not usually successfully (Meruelo 4- 113). 

She was not the same as the other women activists especially in the way she cultivated her ideas. More importantly, what made this female writer so fascinating was the fact that she challenged traditions and social norms by mixing with men in politics, at a period when women did not dare appear in public without the company of a man. For example, when she described her experiences in one of her books, the ideal crusade where she usually met with other members of the labor union to discuss issues pertaining the labor movement. In addition to this, the female writer when she decided to go against the customs and the traditions of the society in a patriarchal society, her wearing of male pants when it was frowned upon in the society for women to dress as so and her progressive works of literature and activism (Meruelo 4- 113). 

Capetillo embodies and represents both drives and forces in figurative and literal sense: her rejection of marriage, her wearing of inappropriate clothes, and support of free love certainly show the fierce drive the woman had. Her arguments for a society that was classless, exaltation or praise of the masses in the working class, the penalty position that did not support death and her pleas on both men and women on how to run their homes and educate their children would also rest in the ethical drive or force earlier mentioned (West- Duran 142- 154). 

The last anarchistic women who had great influences in the US were the Villarreal sisters Teresa and Andrea. Andrea and Teresa Villarreal responded the same the messages of Guerrero and Flores Magon to women when they called for men to the revolt. In the headlines of the newspaper they wrote for, the Regeneration, the two sisters asked, ‘men what are you doing here…. Go, go to Mexico to conquer for us and for our children: LAND AND LIBERTY’ (Perez 7a). In addition, of themselves, the Villarreal sisters said that as women they had the right to demand for strength from the individuals who did not want to fight. To besiege men, the two sisters emphasized the strengths of women over their weaknesses, maybe as a way to intimidate and coerce the revolutionaries who were reluctant. The two women were based in Texas, San Antonio and the two women journalists published the El Obrero and the La Mujer Moderna, respectively edited and published by Teresa and Andrea (Perez 54- 63a). 

The two women embraced the fundamental tent (international solidarity among women) of the party in the combat newspapers. The two sisters were originally from Coahuila but they had to move to Texas so as to avoid persecution by the oppressor Porfirio Diaz. Their disobedience and hatred for the dictator led to the mistaken kidnapping of Teresa and later arrest in Mexico. The Mexican officials released her immediately and announced that her arrest was mistaken because they had intended to capture Andrea, who was the more outspoken of the two. The rebellious speeches that Andrea gave fueled her reputation. She, however, sought to correct her reputation and notoriety by arguing that it was not fair for the authorities to call her the Mexican Joan of Arc. This was because it was not possible for her to go to Mexico on a horse at her soldier’s head and because she was not able to fire a gun, as her hands were too small to do so (Perez 54- 63a).

Teresa Villarreal just like her sister was a labor organizer, feminist, and revolutionary who gave her support and that of her sister to the PLM, or he Partido Liberal Mexicano and the Mexican revolution. The two sisters published and edited two newspapers the La Mujer Moderna and the El Obrero. In these newspapers, the two women published articles that talked about and addressed the proletariat and encouraged for the participation of all women and all men in the Mexican revolution fight for a government that was democratic and that which respected the rights and freedoms of its citizens. In addition to the educational, economic and cultural improvements for the populations, the emancipation and the freeing of women from the power and oppression of men, traditions and state was also included in her fight for justice and democracy. Most of their family supported their activities, as their brother and father were also strong supporters of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, which was against the ideologies and the dictatorship and power of the then dictator president Porfirio Diaz (Palomo Acosta and Winegarten 54-90).

 As a result, of the repression of their activity by the regime of the oppressive president, they had to move to Texas. After this time, they moved to Missouri, St Louis exploiting the advantage the expo had imposed on the state and attracted numerous radicals from all over from many causes. In this area, they developed associations that were friendly with the organizations in the US with whom they shared similar interests. Some examples of such organizations included the Socialist Party, the Industrial Workers of the World, and the American Federation of Labor. By 1909, the two sisters had established an environment that was fertile enough for their ideas in San Antonio, to spread their ideologies and campaign against those of the dictator president Diaz through the Mexican press in exile (Palomo Acosta and Winegarten 54-90).

 The Mexican press in exile served the people and the communities from the Mexican community in the south side of the United States. Since the leadership, which was mainly made of males, was constantly under watch, the two sisters and other female writers like them played major roles in the revolutionary movement. They performed tasks that helped further the revolutionary cause like carrying messages, intelligence reports and supplies. One scholar recalled how these women took on responsibilities that scared men because of the increased threats in the movement. He observed that Texas women were particularly active in the revolutionary and had to continue to carry out their duties and work in cases where men felt that they could not continue working (Perez 78- 98b).

These three women are just some examples of some remarkable women who performed great tasks in the revolutionary movement, and in turn influenced other women and the rest of the society greatly through their writings, essays, narratives and poems. 

















Works cited

Arrizón, A. ‘Soldaderas’ and the Staging of the Mexican Revolution’. TDR (The MIT       Press) 48.1(1998): 90–112. Print.

Capetillo, Luisa. A Nation of Women: An Early Feminist Speaks Out. Houston: Arte Público        Press, 2004. Print.

Gutierrez, Ramon A. Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage, volume 1. Mexico: Arte      Publico Press, 1993. 

Lazo, R. Writing to Cuba: filibustering and Cuban exiles in the United States. North Carolina:     The University of North Carolina Press, 2005. Print. 

Lomas, Clara. Transborder Discourse. Print.

Meruelo, Maria Sabat. Radical Proletarian Social Reformer, 2007. Print. 

Norma, Valle Ferrer. The Story of Luisa Capetillo: A Pioneer Puerto Rican Feminist. Volume 4  New York: Lang, 2004. Print.

Palomo Acosta, Teresa and Winegarten, Ruthe. Las Tejanas: 300 years of history. Volume 10 of                         Jack and Doris Smothers series in Texas history, life, and culture. University of Texas      Press, 2003. Print.

Perez, Emma. The Decolonial Imaginary: Writing Chicanas into History. Indiana University       Press, 1999b. Print. 

Perez, Emma. Chapter 3. The Poetics of an (Inter) Nationalist Revolution. Print 

West- Duran, Alan. Luisa Capetillo in Translation: Notas Pare un Testimonio. Print

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Article Review: The American College University

Article Review

The first article, The American College University, examines the history of college and universities as educative institutions in America. The article provides a list of the first colleges in the state, as well as, explains how difficult it was for these institutions to build a name for themselves, while convincing students and professors to become part of the college. Additionally, the article explains the religious and political influences that was, and still is a characteristic of most colleges. The article draws to the conclusion that colleges are democratic institutions that need to be utilized by the democratic society (Rudolph and Thelin 13).

The second article, Magnet Schools and the Pursuit of Racial Balance, examines the concept of magnet schools and how they are used to maintain a racial diversity in the school setting. The article also provides a case study carried out in support of the article’s hypothesis, so as to prove the ideas presented in the article right. Accordingly, the article explains how magnet schools have been used as a tool for maintaining racial balance, as well as, desegregation of students in the school setting (Goldring and Smrekar 4). 

The last article, The Uses of the University, examines the use of universities in societies today. The article looks at the significance of the university to a student, professor, and the community at large. Accordingly, the main use of the university is identified as the production of an integrated community of scholars in the society (Kerr 1). The article argues that the university is responsible for the economic, social, and political growth of the community in which it exists, thus is responsible for the growth and development of societies. Accordingly, the paper also provides seven signs regarding the future of universities in the state (Kerr 3).




















Work Cited

Goldring, Ellen and Smrekar, Claire. Magnet Schools and the Pursuit of Racial Balance.

Education and Urban Society, 2000. Print

Kerr, Clark. The Uses of Universities. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press,

2001. Print.

Rudolph, Frederick and Thelin, John R. The American College and University: A History.

Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1962. Print. 


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What would you change in American Education?

What would you change in American Education?

American education is mainly provided by the public sector and funding emanates from the local, federal and state levels. However, there are also private institutions. Education is compulsory; more so, there are numerous institutions of higher education that are strewn all over the country (Diane, 2000). The topics offered are as wide and variant as the number of institutions themselves. However, the problem with American education is the curriculum, as it is not uniform or standardized. Some curricula include topics lacking in other institutions. For example, the curriculum in private institutions built by churches, have incorporated religious studies, institutions built by renowned sports personalities have sports lessons fused in the main curriculum. Similarly, curricula vary from state to state and district to district. I believe that this lack of harmonization is detrimental to students, as they are not provided with an equal learning field. If I were to change anything in the American education system, it would be the curriculum pattern. I would make it uniform. 

The American curricula needs to be changed because the minds of students absorb topics and lessons at an unusually high rate. Therefore, selecting to offer more courses to students, and neglecting others is not only discriminative, but also unjust (Juergen, 2006). This act might deny some students to advance or develop something they are exceptionally proficient at, or aspire to be. For example, some students desire to understand what makes certain athletes perform better than others do; however, because their curricula do not offer sports studies, they are deprived of such opportunity. The same case applies to music students, music as a course, is offered in private institutions, while music in public school is treated as a hobby or a favourite past time. 

I would change the curricula because nowadays careers are not only developed on academia, but also musicians and athletes are making more money than most doctors, lawyers and other professionals. Training a mind, while young, increases its chance to develop as trained (Juergen, 2006). My solution is an improvement because the timing is right to change the old ways. Education is meant to better individuals, and it does not mean that following the academia route will guarantee this. 

However, opponents to my school of thought would argue from a historical point of view. They would suggest that the American education has been like this for many years, and still talented has grown regardless of whether the curriculum inculcated certain courses and topics (Juergen, 2006). Moreover, there are institutions of talent that have been set up all over the country, if a student has a talent in any area, from music, painting to running, there are institutions that nurture such raw talent from its genesis. 

Another possible solution would be the intra-transfer of curricula from one state to the next. It would act as an awareness program for many institutions. It would stem from the idea that infusing courses would be costly, and it would be wise to conduct a feasibility study of how other institutions that have incorporated the same are performing. However, my suggestion is better because America did not become the dominant nation that it is today, because it conducted feasibility studies in other countries to see how they are performing; instead it took leaps of faith. It is because of men and women, in the American history, with the courage to travel the road less travelled that begot the greatest nation in the world (Diane, 2000). The same should apply to American education with regard to its varying curricula. 


Herbst, Juergen. School Choice and School Governance: A Historical Study of the United States and Germany. 2006. Print. 

Ravitch, Diane. Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms. Simon & Schuster, 2000. Print.

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American experiences in World War 2


The world war two created an opportunity for working together. Though some communities had been segregated and given odd tasks to perform, the war presented an opportunity for them to show their skill min representing America (Stein 2003). Members of the less advantaged communities also took the opportunity brought by the war to bring out their skills in protecting this country. This paper will highlight the experiences that Americans had during the World War 2, a war which was fought at the battlefield and tactically. The paper will also discuss the role of various social groups during the war. 

Explain how ww2 created an opportunity for minorities and women in the United States, both at home and in the military.

The war presented a situation in America where unity was greatly needed in order for Americans to triumph through the war. Though members of minority groups had been given odd duties in the past, at this time they were needed to offer their services to the military (Stein 2003). Men from minority groups joined the army and went to war in the battle field. Those who couldn’t fight were made service men in the battle field. They were not part of the war but they helped those who were in the war. Men joined the military as mechanics and plumbers, to offer these services to the people who were in the war.

Women also helped the men who participated in the World War 2. They served as nurses in the battle field and also cooked for the men who went to war (Stein 2003). Women were a pillar of social and moral support. They boosted the morale of the men who were in the battlefield. The war presented an opportunity for women to rise and show that they could also help out in the process of protecting the sovereignty of the land. 

After the war, women would then rise to form civil rights groups to fight for equal opportunities. They had the right to equal and fair opportunities since they had proved themselves during the war (Stein 2003). Men from minority groups also stood up as strong and formed civil rights groups to fight for their rights as members of minority groups and citizens. They also wanted to have equal opportunities to public amenities like schools and hospitals. They wanted to have a strong and common voice that could be heard by everybody. This is why civil rights groups were formed.

How did African Americans, Mexican Americans and women prove themselves worthy in the workplace and in the war?

America was able to win the war; this was the best way to prove them during the war (Stein 2003). The interaction at such a close level between, African Americans, Mexican Americans and Women had never taken place before. However, during the war, the members from minority groups had interacted with native whites at a very personal level and this was a good sign for better relations after the war.

African Americans and Mexican Americans proved themselves as important assets in the war. Without these assets, Americans alone would not have won the war. Members from minority groups fought the war as if it was their own war (Stein 2003). The fought the war with passion and a desire to win. It could be said that they fought the war with a desire to prove that they were capable to take up more demanding tasks.

How did these opportunities and accomplishments plant the seeds for the civil rights and women movements of the 1960’s?

The war made members of minority groups aware that they were capable of doing what Native Americans would do. They had fought a good fight and were now aware that they could reach out for greater roles in the country (Stein 2003). Women were now aware that they played and important role in the society. As soon as they came from the war, they were eager to get fair treatment. The interactions with white men during the war inspired them to fight for their rights. Joining the military had been a reserve priority for White Americans. However, after the war, and the involvement of African Americans in the war it was now clear that they would perform similar roles. The war made African Americans and Mexican Americans feel important and needed in America.

The opportunity for Navajo men and Japanese American men and explain their achievements in the military. Japanese Americans took part in the war; their greatest achievement was bombing the Pearl Harbor (Stein 2003). Before the war, they had not been provided with fair opportunities to join the army. They had been classified as class 4-C which was a reserve of men in the army who were not allowed to stay with their weapons for long periods of time. However after they were able to showcase their heroism, the constitution was breached to have Japanese American men participate fully in the war. They were allowed to carry their weapons as other army men.






 Stein, R. Conrad. 

The home front during World War II in American history

. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2003. Print

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A Sociological Perspective Of The American Dream

A Sociological Perspective Of The American Dream

            The American dream is the ideology of having a world where equal opportunities are available to available to all Americans regardless of neither their social class nor their place of birth. It is a concept that is deeply rooted in the declaration of independence, which is based on the premise that all men were created to be equal and they should all be treated the same (Lemay, 1986). The dream is based on acquiring prosperity at both the societal and personal level through hard work as nothing comes easy. This means that children get better education, there are equal opportunity as America will be rid of discrimination based on gender, race and even ethnicity.

            Socially this means that all cultures of the people will be equally accepted without viewing any culture as superior to another. As America is achieving this dream, currently there is much, but also much has been done. In order to improve education, the curriculum is currently research based, this means it will include the immediate environment in which the school is in. This allows for the curriculum to adopt the culture, beliefs and customs of the people at school (Miller, 1974). This will increase the level of understanding and is a step in the right direction of achieving the American dream.

 This comes in the light of a statistical revelation that realized the indigenous tribes in America like the red Indians are performing poorly in schools and most of them do not get to graduate. This was found out is because their culture is not incorporated in the curriculum and this makes education to be a foreign concept instead of being a part of their everyday life.

            The American dream is also based on the establishment and accurate follow up of the civil rights of the people. This applies in the occupation and work environment where upward mobility both in position and in income is expected. This means with time people’s lives should get better as they advance in their carrier. The only condition that has to be in place for this to happen is to ensure that there is hard work and dedication on the part of the employees.

            America being a big land physically, it has a large population that offers a ready market for goods and services. This means that the large population has to be well catered for. This falls well in line with the American dream; this is because there are four dreams when it comes to consumerism ( Miller, 1974). There is the dream of abundance of goods and services, this is to make sure that there is no one consumer who will be in need and will lack something. When all the consumers are able to have all the goods and services they require means that their basic and tertiary needs will all be satisfied. 

The other dream of consumerism focuses on democracy of commodities. This means that goods and services will be available to all the citizens of the country regardless of their race, religion, gender and even ethnic affiliation (Lemay, 1986). This breaks the aristocracy that is always surrounding many societies where the rich and well connected in the society are the ones who always get the chance to have all at their disposal while the rest is left for the poor people in the society.

The other dream is the dream of freedom of choice; this means with the expanding variety of goods and services that come into the market the consumer can freely choose the basket of goods that give them the highest utility without fear of what effects they may have to endure. This also falls on the other side of supply; people are allowed to choose what they can supply as long as it falls within the legal framework of the law. This forms what is widely known as the free market (Lemay, 1986). This is whereby commercial operations are allowed without so many restrictions. This ultimately leads to new sources of markets within and outside the country. This explains the current issue of emerging markets whereby Americans investors are moving on to the international market to capture all the opportunities available and maximize on gaining more and more influence and profits.

Finally there is the dream of novelty; this is where brand new ideas and inventions are easily accepted into the market so as to increase the quantity and quality of goods available and at the same time to create new demand and supply of a product. This explains the introduction of new models of goods and services, increase in the level of technology that has created even more chances for the people. Technology has turned the world into a global village; this is whereby consumers and producers contact each other with the touch of a button even when they are physically and geographically miles apart from each other.

Home ownership is also very critical to the dream; this is because all Americans are expected to have a good home of their own where they can raise their families in peace. This is why having a mortgage is very important to all the Americans because it is part of a dream that has come a long way.

The dream is made to make sure that America provides good and peaceful environment that is war free. This is why America is on the frontline in fighting against production of nuclear weapons and terrorism.

 Explore the interconnectedness of American Dream and the Nuclear Nightmare. How are they related? What are their implications?

            The nuclear nightmare is the actual threat that there is a country that is producing nuclear weapons that may be used against the Americans to bring harm to the people and to stop their lives from progressing as planned. The American dream is clearly outlined and in order to achieve it, there has to be a nurturing environment that is not under threat from any other country. 

The Americans were the first to use nuclear weapons during the Second World War in Nagasaki and Hiroshima; by doing this they opened a Pandora’s Box. This is because the effects of the nuclear bomb are felt up to now and other countries always feel that they need to revenge that to the American. This is why USA is always on the front line of fighting the manufacture of nuclear weapon because they know they would be the first target.

            After the Second World War, there emerged two sides; the eastern and the western block. The western block advocated for capitalism and was led by the United States, while the eastern side advocated for communism and was led by what is the current Russia but was the former Soviet Union (USSR). This created a type of rivalry between the two leading countries and when the Soviet Union failed and broke, they threatened America and wanted it fail as well. This means, at some point they are willing to do anything to make the country fall. This has led to endless speculation at times with evidence and at times without, that Russia and some Middle East countries are manufacturing nuclear weapons that are to be used against the Americans. This couple together with several attempts that have been made on Americans like the 9/11 has led to America being on the front line of fighting against the production of nuclear weapons and against terrorism.

            The increase in the differences between America and Russia has created a nuclear nightmare. This is because the Americans cannot be sure of their future which is constantly viewed to be in danger because the Russians are not willing to back down. The situation is also seen to be aggravated by the fact that the American government has their military forces deployed in the Middle East countries. This makes the Russian to feel like they are being controlled and monitored by the enemy.

            The one thing that reduces potential of a country is uncertainty; the chance that the future is not known brings about instability. Instability reduces progresses in the essence that investors are not willing to invest in an unstable environment where the prospects of profits are not known. The American dream of home ownership and of bringing up children in a peaceful environment is threatened because the USA government is slowly aggravating an already sensitive and serious matter in an attempt to protect its people. 

            The American dream is based on having a well educated population that brings forth more and more innovations and inventions, this means that the government has to seriously invest in the education sector. This is termed as investment in human capital by ensuring that professionalism is rooted in learning. This dream is far from becoming a reality as funds that would have been invested in education is used to fund the ever changing wars fought by the American Military. This has been a war that has been going on ever since the Bush era and ten years down the line it is still there and there are no signs of it coming to an end. The amount of tax payers money that is used to simply maintain the army is a lot that if invested in other areas would yields substantial and significant results.

            The American dream is also based on having peaceful co- existence between the country and other country so that trade and other activities can prosper, however this increase in tension between the American government and most of the Middle East countries cannot allow for such a relationship to flourish (Anupama, 2011). This in turn affects the international activities which affect the GDP of America by reducing it.

            America advocates for NATO, so it cannot manufacture the nuclear weapons, this is because it has to lead by example and also because if it did it would receive international sanctions like the ones being placed on North Korea. This is because after years of having a secret nuclear weapon manufacture program. The country has finally come out and said it out loud. It has also refused to cooperate with UN and USA; currently it is viewed as a dangerous country. The political and education sectors of the country will be drastically affected by these heavy sanctions. 

            The American dream is also based on bringing discrimination of any kind to an end. This is not true because people who have their origin in the Middle East and are citizens of America are greatly discriminated and are always suspected of belonging to the Al-Qaida group that is always looking for a loop hole to come and finish the American government (Anupama, 2011). When there is a terrorism act in America, the first suspect are always people from the Middle East regardless of whether they were involved in the act or not. This means that racism is still a factor in the American society. This is because even juries easily convict people from the Middle East because they are all associated with the Al-Qaida group of people. 

            The nuclear nightmare is a real factor has greatly affected the America in so many ways as more and more attention is dedicated to winning the war. This hinders the development of sectors that are ultimately meant to make the American dream to come true.


  1. Lemay, J. A. Leo,( 1986) “Franklin’s Autobiography and the American Dream,” in J. A. Leo Lemay and P. M. Zall, eds. Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography, Norton Critical Editions
  2.  Miller, James E.  Jr.( 1974), “My Antonia and the American Dream” Prairie Schooner 48, no. 2
  3. Anupama Jain,( 2011), How to Be South Asian in America: Narratives of Ambivalence and Belonging,looks at the American dream in fiction, film, and personal narrative such as Meena Alexander’s Manhattan Music. Temple University Press




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