Load Problem Questions: Free Movement of Goods Article 34 And 36

Load Problem Questions: Free Movement of Goods Article 34 And 36

Question 1: Advice Free Pork Ltd If It Has Any Grounds under EU Law for Challenging the Two Spanish Laws

Both articles (Article 34 and 36) prohibit measures, which have particular restrictive effects. In majority of the cases, the term ‘measures’ equates to the laws passed directly by the Member State government. However, the ECJ (European Court of Justice), has stated that a measure can be an item wider and less well described. It is worth noting that the course of Conduct for a State intended to induce discriminatory practice among consumers and private individuals can constitute a measure (regardless it having or lacking a binding influence) and be in violation of the Article 34. The aspect of measures can also include the inaction of a State to stop private individuals’ acts, which prevent the free movement of goods (The College of Law 2012, p200).

The ECJ described the expression of quantitative restriction as measures that amount to partial or total restraint of, based on the circumstances, exports, imports or goods in transit. There are two laws that apply in this category but in this case, the most applicable law is the outright ban enforced by a Member State (Spain) on imports from another Member State (The College of Law 2012, p201). Free Pork Ltd plans to begin selling its products in Spain have been hampered by the law that requires the sale of sausages produced from humanely reared pigs to be checked by Spanish Sausage Checkers (SSC). If the sausages are not checked by SSC, the law prohibits its sales in Spain. However, the process of verifying whether the sausages have those conditions is usually lengthy. Therefore, Free Pork can challenge this Spanish law. There is also a law that requires the name of the company not to use words that imply health or fitness. Free Pork can also challenge this law because it restricts the importation of goods and can affect the brand image of the company.  

The SSC is a form of a licencing system, which according to the articles, subjects the import of merchandises to the condition of getting an import licence. Even in situations where the application for an import licence is regarded a mere formality; it is a Quantitative Restriction. This is because is simply a mechanism in which imports can be restricted. In practice, it is very rare for the Member States laws to result to quantitative restrictions. The ban on exports or imports between Member States is found only in unusual circumstances (The College of Law 2012, p201). Therefore, failure by Free Pork Ltd to meet the conditions set by the Spanish laws is an outright ban on exporting sausages to this Member State. As stated earlier, the ban only happens in unusual circumstances, and thus, Free Pork can challenge the law because an unusual circumstance lacks, which prohibits it from exporting the goods to Spain.

The directive was important in developing a brief wording of the Article 34 TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) and it continues to offer guidance on the measures that can constitute a breach of Article 34 TFEU prohibitions. Article 2(1) of the directive describes a class of measures (for instance, national laws) that treat imported goods and domestic goods differently. They are commonly referred to as distinctly applicable measures. Article 3 of the directive describes a class of national laws that apply equally to imported and domestic products. These laws have a restrictive impact and they are commonly referred to as indistinctly applicable (The College of Law 2012, p202).

Therefore, the directive classifies both indistinctly and distinctly applicable measures as measures that have an impact equivalent to restrictions on imports. From the statement, it can be stated that a national law can become MEQR (Measures having Equivalent effect to a Quantitative Restriction) regardless of whether it “discriminates against imported products or appears to treat them in the same way as domestic products but is in practice restrictive in effect” (The College of Law 2012, p202). It is important to note that a Member State is capable of justifying more easily an indistinctly applicable law. Although Free Pork can challenge the law on imports restriction, Spain can justify its law because it is indistinctly applicable.

There are three categories of national laws capable of being MEQRs. The first category is laws aimed at enforcing standards (generally minimum standards) concerning matters like weight, description, labelling, size, content or price of goods. The second category is laws concerning tests designed to make sure that goods conform or obey standards indicated in the first category of laws. The third category is laws able to influence the behaviour of consumers and traders. Therefore, the emphasis is on the rules that are capable of having an impact, rather than on the rules essentially having an impact (The College of Law 2012, p204). The requirement to change the name of the company to a name that does not imply fitness or health can be challenged because that law has satisfied the requirement of being MEQRs. Therefore, Free Pork Ltd can challenge the law by proving that it is MEQRs.

The Cassis de Djion principles are applicable in the case of Free Pork Ltd and the Spanish laws. The first principle of Cassis de Djion states that where a national law is applicable to imported and domestic products alike, and where Community-wide standards  concerning the products in question lacks, it may be mandatory to accept obstacles to trade caused by the reality that the national law differs from other Member States laws. However, the obstacles can only be acknowledged if the national law leading to the obstacle is essential to satisfy a mandatory necessity, and the law does not go further than it is necessary to accomplish its aim (The College of Law 2012, p204). Therefore, Free Pork Ltd can challenge the law if it is capable of justifying that the law is indistinctly applicable.

The second principle seems to conflict with the first principle but the two can be reconciled if there is a presumption that the goods lawfully produced in one Member State are marketable in another. However, if there is a law that obstructs this, the Member State can invalidate the presumption through Cassis or through Article 36 TFEU (The College of Law 2012, p207). Therefore, Free Pork Ltd can challenge this law. Based on Article 36, Free Pork Ltd can prove to Spain that the sausages it supplies do not pose health risk to people. The article states that a Member State willing to use this derogation has to prove the existence of an actual health risk (The College of Law 2012, p217). Therefore, under this article, Free Pork can challenges the laws by proving that its products do not pose health risk to the people of Spain.

Question 2. Advise Free Pork Ltd if it has any grounds under EU law for challenging the Spanish advertising requirement.

The Spanish laws regarding the broadcast of adverts targeted at consumers below the age of 12 years adopt a protective approach pushing the timing of the broadcast to not earlier than 9 pm. Under such circumstances, Free Pork’s entry into the Spanish market faces the limitation of adverts set by the Spanish national laws. Two important issues emerge in the deliberations of the legal position in which the Free Pork venture finds itself. On one hand, the right of the Spanish consumer protection policies as well as the right of the company under its commercial rights as discussed below. 

In view of the Spanish national agencies position to enforce consumer protection against a backdrop of foreign policies having a negative position on a particular contestable matter, the position of the reprieve is offered to Member States in terms of the protection offered by the European Union. In Konsumentombudsmannen (KO) v De Agostini (Svenska) Förlag AB (C-34/95) and TV-Shop i Sverige AB (C-35/95 and C-36/95), it was held that the right of a Member State to apply advertisement prohibition to a foreign advertiser from a jurisdiction permitting such advertisements should not be contested. The case had particular consumer protection obligations from the Member State and the original intention of the law cannot be overruled.

It therefore implies that the bottom line of the contested interaction between the Free Pork venture into the market through the advertisement is expected to some extent, however debatable it is. However, the application of the law to a foreign market entrant where such a prohibition is not applicable provides a different concept for consideration by Free Pork where the reasons target a particular age group. The Spanish authorities for instance will find it important to invoke the provisions of Article 34 as demonstrated in the Keck formulae adopted in Keck and Mithouard (cases C-267 and C-268/91) [1993] ECR I-6097. Such invocation will involve the enumeration of the specific environment offered to domestic sausage marketers, which would be argued to be fairly reasonable if foreign entrants are subjected to similar treatment.          

In Cassis de Dijon, the ECJ made the observation that a Member State has an opportunity to forward conflicting justifications on policies and laws impacting on prohibition of free movement of goods in the EU. According to the deliberations of the court, a nation implementing a trade policy likely to conflict the free movement of goods regime can forward certain arguments to sustain an argument for prohibition of movement of goods (The College of Law 2012, p217). Generally referred to as derogating opportunity from the provisions of the Treaty, it is possible for a Member State to launch a campaign from a legal position of national laws to attempt to control or restrict free movement as negated for all the Member States.  As an illustration, it may be expected that the Spanish authorities will invoke the various derogation provisions under Article 36 to deny Free Pork to freely advertise and penetrate the sausage market. Derogation under Article 36 a) cites public interest, which is not clearly outlined and the Spanish authorities may twist the uncertainty to fit into the protection of public interest through barring adverts of sausages to children below 12 years of age.

Derogation c) also sounds like a possible excuse for reliance to invoke prohibitory opportunity for advertising to children below 12 years of age. The complexity of the burden of proof for the protection of health of the Spanish children may however proof to be an opportunity for Free Pork. In Commission v. UK: Re UHT Milk (case 124/81) [1983] ECR 203, it was held that the Member State must avail substantial detail on the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by the said products (The College of Law 2012, p217). By scrutinizing possible discrimination element in the particular Spanish law prohibiting free advertisement, it is possible to compel the authorities to avoid the prohibition. Section 5.2 of Article 36 dispels any arbitrary implementation of discriminatory laws. As observed in Commission v. UK (Re Imports of Poultry Meat) (case 40/82) [1982] ECR 2793, failure to demonstrate the extent to which a law is not restrictive to free movement of goods leads to infringement on EU laws (The College of Law 2012, p218).         

In Konsumentombudsmannen (KO) v De Agostini (Svenska) Förlag AB (C-34/95) and TV-Shop i Sverige AB (C-35/95 and C-36/95), it also emerged that the Member State cannot prohibit advertisements from a different Member State on grounds of consumer protection to persons under 12 years of age (The College of Law 2012, p213). On this legal concept adopted by the court in the case, the EU offers relief to Member States to enjoy the regime on free movement of goods and their penetration into the market. It would certainly be restrictive to involved business if consumer protection laws selectively designed to a particular age group closes the channel available to free movement of goods to the ultimate market. The available options to Free Pork must therefore include seeking legal intervention against the restrictive Spanish laws targeting unfair advertisement prohibition on the grounds of protection of persons under the age of 12 years. As noted above, however, the Spanish authorities are expected to offer objection to contesting opinion regarding implemented policies targeted towards consumer protection such as freedoms of advertisement.

The spirit of Article 34 TFEU is particularly to offer definition to various selling arrangements that must prevent hindrances to free movement of goods. Under the finer implementation details, the spirit of the Article captures the need to provide non-discriminatory business regimes free goods movement among Member States. In view of the provisions of the article, it is apparent that the jurisdiction of the EC in determination of the restriction concepts experienced at the hands of national policies of a Member State are reasonable o other Member States. Substantial restrictions experienced by Member States in accessing the channels of distribution and free movement of goods must be countered by the EC framework as enumerated under Article 34 TFEU. The level of intervention by the EC as spelt out in Article 34 TFEU extends to the negative impact experienced by the Member States in the implementation of a regime withholding free movement of goods (The College of Law 2012, p213). The protection of inter-state trade perhaps has a far-reaching impact if implemented without discrimination and the EC demonstrates the importance of such consideration across several rulings through the ECJ. Whereas Member States have the general space of access of inter-state markets within the EU, the existence of principles of subsidiarity in the market and the natural limitations guarded by spirit of international community contradicts the principle of free movement of goods.

The College of Law (2012) Unit 21: Free movement of goods, The College of Law.

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Loss and Displacement

Aimee Bender is a short story writer and American novelist who graduated from the distinguished creative arts program at the University of California, Irvine.  Bender has a unique use of metaphors and word play that sets her apart from other writers. The overall purpose of a writer’s work can be interpreted through the techniques that he/she apply. Their purpose may vary from being informative, fictitious or even as a form of advertising, but it is this underlying purpose that enables the readers to understand and take meaning or interpret the main context of the author’s work. In a large way, it also assists the readers to get familiar with the influences trigger the authors to make such decisions regarding the information they will bring out in their works. Additionally, the authors select wisely the details and words they use in order to achieve their purpose (Maunder 93). It thus follows that authors may never always be aware of what it is that they are doing as they start on a work of literature, and Bender herself acknowledges in an interview with the Buffalo Almanack. This paper will discuss Aimee Benders short story ‘Loser’ to identify the choices and decisions she makes in her writing in order to bring out the theme of loss and displacement. The story is about an orphan who loses his parents at a very tender age without having any control over their loss, but later turns out to be a helper for other people in finding things that they lose and misplace. It is a story of how a young man feels lonely and isolated as he is abandoned and has to deal with the horrors of the hard past of losing his parents early and even feels displaced without a family unit.

The first writing choice that Aimee Bender employs to make the readers understand that her story is about loss and displacement is the human conflicts that occur in the story between the orphan and his neighbors, which clearly depicts the society’s loss of the sense of appreciation. This is when, after the orphan’s gift of sniffing up lost items was discovered and most people in his community instead of appreciating him began accusing him of being responsible for the loss as a means of gaining unnecessary attention.  A clear example is that of Jenny Sugar whom he went to pick for a date and incidentally helped her mother find her misplaced hairbrush. Instead of Jenny appreciating his efforts, she lashed out at him and even ruined the date for them, a good indication of how the society in this story is suffering from the loss of the sense of appreciation. While at dinner, she said, “You planned all that, didn’t you? …You were trying to impress my mother. Well, you did not impress me.” This event reminded him of how lonely he was and even captures the reader’s attention to see how he has no one to go back home to for consolation or even someone to celebrate his gift. At the thought of such, the reader can appreciate the magnitude of the grief that one goes through after losing his/her loved ones. Such a skeptical reaction from someone who was to be his confidant shows how the young man was lost in his world, without a confidant who would have given him the sense of life, or even celebrate his gift. The manner in which Bender shapes Jenny Sugar in this instance shows the extent to which the people int his society have lost the sense of gratitude.

Aimee Bender also uses a lot of twists in her story using magical elements to push forward its emotional aspect of loss and displacement. But although magic does not qualify to be regarded as a natural element in our daily lives, it has helped to show the link between reality and imagination. This is through fears or phobias, fantasies and even how our expectations collide with reality (Brooks, 2011). It means, therefore that whatever Aimee Bender imagines in her story about the magical gifts of the orphan boy automatically makes up the story’s world. It has helped her to introduce us to a world that is difficult to achieve in the normal life and which would not be possible if she relied on giving out her story as a reality. This is because her story now shifts from being not only about the orphan boy with the unique ability to sense or sniff out and recover misplaced and lost objects but also about things that we cannot easily recover. These things are lost selves and people. An example is where the orphan boy, through his magical abilities, was able to sense the shirt of a kidnapped kid, Leonard Allen, and helped recover him. Bender says, “He turned off his distractions, and the blue shirt came calling from the northwest, like a distant radio station. The young man went walking and walking. And about 14 houses down, he felt the blue shirt shrieking at him.” In reality, we know that this cannot be possible, but in the story’s world, everything is made to be quite advanced to the extent that everything can easily be made clear and believable. Due to his ability, the young orphan boy was also able to understand himself and even the extent of his capabilities despite the criticism from some of his neighbors. From this quote, you can understand that he cannot find lost people, and he can only find objects.

The quote from the story shows the readers that this story is about displacement because the young man could feel the displaced objects and help recover them. Bender says of him thus: “He lay in bed that night with the trees from other places rustling, and he could feel their confusion.” The significance of this statement cannot be emphasized. Although the young man could sense and help recover the lost/displaced items, he could not help bring back the senses of these lost people. Indeed, Bender brought out the loss of a moral sense and appreciation very well, as he has applied mockery to depict how a significant portion of the population viewed the young man.  


Bender, A. Loser.

Brooks, L. (2011). Story engineering: Mastering the 6 core competencies of successful writing. Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer’s Digest Books.

Maunder, A. (2007). FOF Companion to the British Short Story. New York:

Infobase Pub.

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Love and Break-ups

Love and Break-ups

The topic Love and Break up relate to two movies, one which is a romantic comedy film titled’ When Harry Met Sally’ and the other titled ‘Divorce His, Divorce Hers’ about a couple who went through divorce after 18 years of marriage. The topic is relevant as it relate to life involving love and relationship and break-ups, for instance Harry and Sally have several break-ups before they later get married. Similarly, in the second movie, the couple have their divorce after being married for 18 years, which is a permanent break up.  There is a lot of love in the two movies at first, but problems involving fidelity cause disagreements. In the first movie, the character reunites a number of times, and later they get married and live a happy life.

In the first movie, ‘When Harry Met Sally‘ the key actors Harry and Sally meet and become friends and have several chance encounters in the New York City for more than 11 years. Each time they meet, they express love for each other and renew their friendship. Their marriages with other partners end in break-up which contributes to their uniting and moving on with their friendship. The movie gives a story of the lives of two young people in love, Harry, and Sally, who first meets at college. The two grow together and are involved in friendship liking each other and sometimes disliking one another. Harry tells Sally “I love that you get a little crinkle above your nose when you’re looking at me like I’m nuts.” Harry and Sally have a romantic relationship, which takes more than 11 years before they realize that they needed to live together. The movie has a lot of dialogues and the music is captivating and brings out the scenes with great magnificent. The intention of the two is having a relationship without having sex till they marry as they feel that it will ruin their relationship. Unfortunately they engage in sex, which ruins their friendship leading to a break up although they later reunite. In the Divorce his, Divorce hers, the couple Martin and Jane, dissolve their marriage after living together for 18 years. The film gives the story of separation from a two points of view, one from the husband and the other from the wife. According to the wife, Jane, the crumbled marriage has a terrible and scary effect on their children. The separation of the couple after 18 years is a terrible blow to the couple who find it difficult to move on and has a negative impact on the children.

In the movie Harry meets Sally; there are scenes that are fascinating to the viewers especially the orgasm scene played in the restaurant, which is quite funny. The movie gives a real life situation and reminds people of their everyday lives in a funny way. The dinner scene is quite interesting as Harry dominates most of the conversation as she explains how men do not realize when a woman is faking orgasm. The story gives the differences between women and men and their effect on relationships. The differences also affect commitment and sex as portrayed by the break up when the two had sex by chance. The movie shows the challenges young people undergo in relationships especially if they do not want to have sex before marriage and the relationship takes several years. The discussion between the two friends, as they travel together from Chicago to New York is on the effect of sex on relationships, “Will sex ruin a perfect relationship between a man and a woman”?.  The two had no answer to their disturbing question even after 11 years of love and friendship, and could not realize that they were meant for each other. There are no dull scenes in the movie as the writer Rob Reiner makes the story lively by having lively actors full of humor and intelligence. The story gives the live stages that men and women go through to develop their relationship to maturity and later a happy marriage. The comedy is full of Romance as shown by the different relationships in the story although there are many break-ups. The love between Bruno and Carrie that led to marriage makes the story lively, as it does not take too long as compared to that of Harry and Sally. Another interesting scene is the instance when Harry and Sally try to help each other to mend their past relationships. Harry goes ahead and introduces Sally to Jess while Sally introduces him to Marie though the relationships do not work. Instead, Marie and Jess starts a relationship and marries leaving Harry and Sally lonely. The two decide to try to renew their relationship and see whether it will work.

In another scene, Sally gets sad when she learns that her ex-boyfriend is marrying and gets overwhelmed. Harry comforts her although he does not really care about the marriage but ho to have Sally as his friend. The embrace, kiss, and sleep together, a factor that leads to disagreements between the two, as Harry wants independence while Sally is interested in intimacy. Sally tells Harry “You look like a normal person but actually you are the angel of death” to show her disgust for Harry’s character.

In the movie, Divorce his, Divorce Hers Jane and Martin divorce after living in marriage for 18 years bringing a lot of pain to the family. The movie set-up is in Rome as Martin comes back from Africa, where he represents a managerial firm. He keeps on remembering his troubled marriage to Jane and the effect of his absence due to the nature of his job. In the second part, his wife Jane dominates the scenes with family life experiences and the effect of their troubled marriage to their three children. In the movie, Martin is a businessperson married to Jane who does anything to get his attention.  Her statements such as “if I slit my throat, would you pay attention to me?” portrays her appetite for attention from her husband. Jane is a beautiful woman but has a negative and nasty character especially when acting scenes involving anger. Jane asks Martin for a divorce and tells him to keep off her children a character that portrays her as a bad person. She is manipulative especially when she drags him from the airport. She also likes talking and likes expensive jewelry as portrayed by the pearl and diamond necklace that she wore. The scene that Martin tells his son that he did not want to spend time with him stood out in the movie. He argued that he had all the time to do whatever he wished without anybody’s disruption. Martin cheats on his wife and tells her that he could not stand her presence in bed a he would feel like a fool, “like a fool, a complete fool”. The way he puts emphasis on the statement shows how disgusted he was with his wife and was ready for divorce. The scene was humorous from the way he sipped his drink holding the glass with both hands and drunk like a thirsty hound. The scene involving Martin and the African head of state, Kaduna is quite interesting as he tries to impress him to make him improve their impending deal.  Jane acts well in the scenes involving her and the children and in the case when she learns that, Carrie Nye is in a relationship with her husband. Her reaction when she learns of her husband’s infidelity and her demand for a divorce brings out her unique tough character.

Martin’s marriage faced many tests especially after his transfer to Africa resulting in infidelity, ill feelings, and many clashes. Jane has three children, who are quite annoying and in several occasions struggles with her son who has the habit of playing loud music. The couple spends a lot of time trying to think of what went wrong with their marriage and scenes show Martin always on transit carrying his briefcase. He is always traveling, a factor that possibly contributes to their break-up.

In conclusion the two movies represents life involving love, marriage, and separation. In the first movie, Harry meets Sally; the characters meet, love each other, but encounter several challenges leading to break-ups. Harry and ally feel that sex can ruin a relationship and want to avoid it until they get married. However, this does not happen as they sleep together, an act that makes them separate for a while. They later discover that they love each other and get married to begin a happy life together. In the movie, Divorce His, Divorce Hers, the key characters, Martin, and Jane have a strained marriage because of Martin’s nature of work and Jane’s nagging character. She is a woman who likes attention and disturbs her husband with her continuous questions. Their marriage lasts 18 years when Jane asks her husband for a divorce but tells him never to see her children. Martin was having an affair with Nye, which made her wife furious leading to a hot argument and later divorce. Love, marriage, and separation are the main themes in the two stories as characters try to find happiness.

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Madame Bovary: Theme of Love and Romance

Madame Bovary: Theme of Love and Romance


Madame Bovary depicts love and romance from a different perspective from the moralists’ angle that would instead present the pair as pleasant social tools creating cohesion and unity in the family and the community. Perhaps the most logical criticism gains ground for the presentation of love within the family set up as an insignificant force that easily loses the battle to division, withdrawal and loss of direction. Painting romance as an attractive force disguised in an appealing package to destroy the family cannot only go unmentioned but form the fundamental theme of mistrust and infidelity within the family. The tone used by the author has come under intense criticism due to the openness and plain expression of extremes of love and passion in a way that moralists easily find offensive and obscene.

Love between parents and sons is however illustrated as a cause of concern for the contemporary parent who pays little attention to the development of the child due to the intense pressure experienced from outside the family. Keen interest for the parents enables the enumeration of the importance that love plays in molding children and sustaining the family as a moral building unit of the society that cannot be replaced by the best of training offered to the children. In the end, the tragic conclusion of the romantic story only achieves the best ever irony that opposing forces as good and evil can present as represented by a painful death as opposed to a life full of loving happiness (Byatt, para.3).

Love and Romance in the Novel   

The novel rotates around the main characters of a family composed of the Bovary(ies), Dr. Bovary (father), Emma Bovary (mother) and Charles Bovary (son) joined early in the plot by Monsieur and Madame Homaise as well as later by Leon Dupuis, Rodolphe Boulanger and Monsieur Lheureux. The presentation of the young Bovary family in the beginning of the novel presents a naïve son arriving newly at school at a tender age within a backdrop of a father figure struggling with managing the meager family resources. Despite being a former army surgeon, the father is represented as an insensitive family man for having been unable to improve the living status of his family, partly due to the fact that they reside on a small farm and partly due to the fact that the son enrolls in a village school. Love for the family from a man with a relatively better financial background is remotely presented as everyone would imagine such a family to be living in a better environment and the children attending better schooling facilities (Flaubert, para.1). Such suspicion is confirmed in the mother-son conspiracy to black out the father from irresponsible behavior and episodes that the son experiences. As an illustration, Charles’ failure at the medical school goes unreported to the father but the mother’s input to save him from his laziness is projected even in arranging for a practice chance at village facility in Tostes.

In dealing with love and romance theme in a novel, Madame Bovary is a perfect representation of the way the (three main) women in the family handle love and romance issues to their advantage and most certainly to the downfall of the family and that of their own. The first Madame Bovary is Charles’ mother whose love for son gets blown out of proportion resulting to a spoilt son who, although looks presentable and sensible in many aspects, terribly fails where men of his age are supposed to clearly stand out. As a mother and a family woman, it is expected that a balance of love between the husband and sons would eventually lead to a happy family but she fails to bring up a good family due to her biased attention to self love and that of the son. Her family is depicted as a cold union which only presents a chain of disasters to the larger community than it would have been if she applied love to bond the family together in love related virtues. She takes over the role of parenting and her poor performance leads to frustrations of their only son in his encounters with romantic mismatches.

The second Madame Bovary is Heloise Dubuc whose tough stance on her husband only contributes to a difficult life for Charles as he comes to terms with a controlled life at the hands of his first young wife and the mother. Women are illustrated as controlling figures in various aspects as far as motherly love and romantic love is concerned before young men’s freedoms. Though short live, the romantic relationship presents a fair share of frustration of the young man’s life as he progresses to discovery of his love life and career. The third and most dominant Madame Bovary in the novel is Emma, an idealist, dreamer and perfectionist woman trapped in her confused perceptions of a romantic life from her marriage with Charles in his second marriage after the death of Heloise (Middletown, para.3). Her complete disorientation with the appropriate approach to love and romance results to further tribulations in her husband’s life through terrible encounters with extremes of experimentation with romance in the unforgiving external world. Minor characters are mainly men who crisscross Madame Bovary’s development of the plot translating to abuse of romance and love that ought to spell success of the family. The disjunction of love and family life is presented in a way that many novelists would love to capture, despite the inevitable moral issues found in the way of the best presentation as critics of the novel rush to point out.      

The author depicts the relationship between the father and son obscured by the mother’s undivided attention to assist him come out of his improper bringing up. As a consequence of the imbalanced love relationship in the family, improper upbringing can be isolated in the behavior and attitudes that Charles develops in his school and after-school life. It is clear that the failure in the exam was as a result of a lazy approach to studies, skipping classes as well as improper prioritization of leisure time over study time while at school. A poor social life formation is illustrated after he leaves schools and is incapable of making his own choice of a wife, a role played for him by the mother who recommends Heloise Dubuc. The author depicts the role of the woman in the 19th century as reserved for lowly functions of the society such as finding a husband for sons as illustrated in the novel. Women social status had withdrawn them from other important roles of the society which makes romance as a strong area of their command in men’s lives (madamebovary.com, para.4).

Charles’ real encounters with romance and love intrigues begin when he encounters an old man (Rouault) as a fracture patient in the village in his practice as a doctor where he meets his lovely daughter, Emma. Frequenting the patient’s home is partly contributed by his job and partly by the admiration of Emma and he shifts his attention to her until his wife notices and a confrontation ensues (Flaubert and MacKenzie, 20). The author represents the scene as an irresponsible love attribute that Charles adopts early in his life, perhaps due to the upbringing and observation of love life embraced by his parents. It is clear that the romantic passions facing him could be as a result of the factors of his past experiences as well as a poor social life that prevented his complete development and discovery. Charles loses his young wife and finds a reason to pursue Emma where his love and romantic journey kicks off again (Byatt, para.5). The high expectations that Emma had for a married life are met with romance frustrations ranging from loss of her identity to sexual disappointment.

Charles’ second marriage is marked with terrible failure of romance within the union of marriage to such an extent that the perfectionist approach the Emma had to romance could not be explained by the mismatch in their marriage. Romance is depicted as a result of provocation from the media and perfect novel settings which are far from the real life experience, which could be the reason why most young women get frustrated when they begin to come to terms with the reality of normal romantic settings (Culler, 684). Perhaps misfortune in romantic experiences in the contemporary romantic life is fueled by the idealism in attitude and approach with which young women attach their romantic encounters from the surrounding picture of perfection painted by media and fictional romance literature. Seduction by Rodolphe Boulanger is blinding enough to lead Emma to her death during a ride as her desire of a perfect romantic experience takes her life at ransom. Painting romance and passion as strong enough forces to lead the human race to its perish is far from the reality of the theme as illustrated by the author as he coins lethal vagueness of romantic relationship with family breakups and social weakness. Adultery becomes a quick option for a solution for Emma’s unsatisfied romantic urges but ends to be the beginning of the self-destructive urges which never fail to be achieved.  

Monsieur Homais and his family are represented as a perfect family union full of love despite the hardship in which the family’s home setting is given in the novel. Madame Homais intense love for her four children and husband is exceptional which enables her to extend the love of neighbors to a relative (Justin) and a boarder (Dupuis). Her lowly life approach assists her to deal with issues in her family and live within her means as opposed to Emma’s lavish life that blows her love life out of proportion.

Dupuis and Rodolphe are painted as romance experts who hold no value to genuine love but lust for women and illegal passion outside marriage. It is clear that the improper romantic conduct as displayed by such characters always ends them in trouble as much as it does to Emma, the main character in the novel. Abuse of love is represented in by severe consequences in form of financial difficulties as well as disorientation in work related engagements. As an illustration of misuse of romance is in the case of Emma’s encounter with Lheureux causing not only his financial downfall but also costing his own life through suicide. Lheureux deals in money lending business which is dangerously illustrated as a target of abuse by irregular romance encounters, almost always causing an end to such business (Flaubert and MacKenzie, 255).  

Works Cited

“Madame Bovary: Celebrating Gustave Flaubert’s Famous Work” 26 February 2003, Web. http://www.madamebovary.com/ (accessed 5 October 2011)

Byatt, A. S. “Scenes from a Provincial Life” 27 July 2002, Web. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/jul/27/classics.asbyatt (accessed 5 October 2011)

Culler, Jonathan D. “The Realism of Madame Bovary” MLM,(French Issue) 122.4(2007):683-696 DOI 10.1353/mln.2008.0007

Flaubert, Gaustave & MacKenzie, Raymond N. Madame Bovary: provincial lives. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing, 2009. Print

Flaubert, Gustave “Madame Bovary” 2011. Web. http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/bovary/section2.rhtml (accessed 5 October 2011)

Middletown, Carol “Fiction Review: Reading Madame Bovary” 21 January 2011, Web. http://web.overland.org.au/2011/01/fiction-review-reading-madame-bovary/ (accessed 5 October 2011)

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Major Assumptions and Goal of Positive Psychology

Social problem solving is considered to be the major assumption and goal of positive psychology. To begin with, social problem solving can be defined as the attempt to come out with recommendations that are considered as the remedy to a particular task or conflict within a social set up. (D’Zurilla & Goldfried, 1971) defines a problem as a particular scenario that requires   a response for adaptive functioning with an aim of creating solutions amongst the aggrieved parties. In general view the idea of problem solving is considered as creating solutions to existing social situations at hand.

  Illustrations from (D’Zurilla & Nezu, 1982) consider problem solving as the process of creating solutions on an existing problematic situation as it occurs in a natural environment. The two scholars further explain the essence of problem solving by identifying it in the context of impersonal problems which include aspects like shortage of resources as well as possessing illegally acquired items or an individual losing his or her legally acquired item illegally. They also identify problem solving at personal capacity which covers individual behavior in terms of emotions, social feelings and also psychosocial wellbeing. Problem solving is also viewed in the context of interpersonal relationship and in this case emphasis is put on institutional conflicts for example religion conflicts, family wrangles amongst others. Social problem solving is also looked at in form of larger societal problems. In this situation, problem solving process is covers the broader scope of heterogonous communities in terms of diversity in race, religion, social class as well as the hierarchical considerations within the society.

 For example religious conflicts that has led deterioration of security due to terrorism, racial discrimination as well as discrimination due to social status in the society. This has created a scenario where there is element of inequality thus unforeseeable tension exists leading to conflict

Problem solving therefore is aimed at creating harmony where there exists discord and the major objective is pegged at reaching a rationalized conclusion that will help in lowering emotional strains that the problem situation might have created.

 It is evident to argue that problem solving is the quickest strategy to prevent an impending discomfort within the society.

Basing my illustrations as argued by D’Zurilla, Nezu, and Maydeu-Olivares (2002; D’Zurilla, 1986; D’Zurilla & Nezu, 1982, 1990, 1999; Maydeu- Olivares & D’Zurilla, 1995, 1996; Nezu & D’Zurilla, 1989). It is clear that for one to achieve remedy to a particular problem, considerations of appropriate solution is considered whereby a solution is viewed as an end in itself if it depicts a response pattern that comes out as the end result problem solving process when it is correlated to that particular problem situation. D’Zurilla et al., 2002) a proper solution is only considered to be so if it attempts to achieve the problem solving objective. This involves transformation of a problem situation into a better situation thus leading to decline in the stains that produced it. On the same note, candid solution to a problem situation leads to improvement of positive outcomes while limiting the negative impacts. Positive solution to a problem situation results into easing of tension between the aggrieved parties thus results into mutual agreement and consensus that are taken positively by both parties and this is only achieved if the interests of the parties are catered for.

Therefore, productive solution is one that creates consensus through incorporation of interests of the two parties. For this situation to be realized there must exist an element of compromise such that the hard stands taken by the two parties can be in a position to be harmonized to accommodate the two. In addition to that, consensus becomes relevant only if the gravity of the problem situation is addressed in a manner that is considered fair and impartial by the parties.

The attainability of positive problem solving process is determined by several factors as described Maydeu-Olivares and D’Zurilla (1996). The scholars explain the problem solving skills through models. In their illustrations, a five factored model was found to be prudent in attaining positive problem solution. The model is composed of two different but closely related problem oriented dimension as well as other three problem solving styles. The first two orientations are divided into positive and negative problem solving dimensions while the styles are classified as rational problem solving, impulsive carelessness and avoidance styles. Referring to the above stated, the outcome of positive problem orientation and rational problem solving has resulted into positive existence thus achieved the meaning of creating consensus and mutual harmony. It is in this regard that the scholars advocated for it since it led to affirmative results. Rational problem solving is a style that attempts to employ proper reasoning, keen consideration of the cause of the problem as well as proper checking of circumstances that led to the occurrence of the problem.

 On the other hand negative problem orientation, avoidance and impulsive carelessness styles created negative impact in comparison to the former two. Objective comparison between the two categories can be pegged to the fact that there exists direct relationship between constructive dimensions being positively related while negatively related with the dysfunctional dimension. In brief the two sets are opposite of each other.

Further illustrations point out that Positive problem orientation starts from considering the problem as a challenge. When a problem is viewed as a challenge, it gives chance for a wider scope of view in that it gives room for proper positive results. In this criterion, the problem is perceived as a balance propability of a success or benefit. There is an element of optimism in the manner that no matter the intensity of the problem there exists a solution that is positive and that the problem is going to be solved with success. It further explains that successful problem solving technique is time consuming and requires commitment. On the other hand negative problems Orientation is a dysfunctional and tends to offer pessimistic view on successful solving problem dimension. It looks at a problem in the context of conflict thus threatens social coexistence and harmony. Negative problem orientation does not offer optimistic perception on an individual’s ability to solve the problem. It tends to limit the individual’s worldview hence being myopic to reality. This situation therefore results into inability of an individual to solve problems competently due to lack of rationalized reasoning. The ability of an individual to competently solve a problem is also detailed in the Maydeu-Olivares and D’Zurilla (1997).One’s ability to solve a problem is primarily dependent on the knowledge on positive problem orientation.

Problem solving involves procedures that are employed to realize the success of a problem solution. A means-ends procedure (MEPS; Platt & Spivack, 1975; Spivack et al., 1985) is one of the evident procedures used in attempt to solve a problem or components. First is the ability to identify the order through which a particular goal is achieved. The order need to be sequential in nature. Once that is achieved, the next step is predictability of impediments that might prevent you from achieving the goal which is subsequently followed by reality that an individual must appreciate the concept of time.

However there exist complexities and a number of challenges in current problem solving processes. One of the most common factors is shortage of support for one’s construct validity.  Marsiske and Willis (1995) after conducting a confirmatory factor analysis, the outcome indicated that the tests were not related to each other.

Their deductions indicated that the three tests measured differently and their findings were justified based on the fact theory. It is therefore evident that in an attempt to reach a problem solving consensus, there is need for clarity in definition of three major components of problem solving process, that is, solution, problem solving and the problem itself. Putting considerations in all these, it is evident to understand that to achieve effective problem solving practice elaborate definitions of the three terms need to be considered. On the other hand, incase proper definition is not put in place while constructing test it will be considered to be vague.

In summary, the social problem solving theory creates the difference between problem solving and solution implementation.

The processes are different and therefore needs varied skills. Problem solving in itself is considered to be the process of seeking solutions to particular problems, while on the other hand solution implementation involves the practical carrying out remedies of the actual problem. Another dichotomy is that problem-solving skills are considered to be general in nature while solution implementation tends to be diverse depending on the problem.

In conclusion positive social problem solving process is the basic way through which social problems can be solved. Whether at individual capacity, intrapersonal or at the broader community level, positive problem solving has proved appropriate as the major way through which conflict can be prevented thus preventing further conflict escalation. At the societal level, problem solving process has aided the existence of mutual peace thus limited chances of wrangles.


D’Zurilla, T. J., & Goldfried, M. R. (1971). Problem solving and behavior modifica-

tion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 78, 107-126.

DZurilla, T. J., & Maydeu-Olivares, A. (1995). Conceptual and methodological

Issues in social problem-solving assessment. Behavior Therapy, 26, 409-432. 

 DZurilla, T. J., & Nezu, A. M. (1990). Development and preliminary evaluation

of the Social ProblemSolving Inventory (SPSI). Psychological Assessment: A

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2, 156-163.

 DZurilla, T. J., & Nezu, A. M. (1982). Social problem-solving in adults. In P. C.

Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive-behavioural research and therapy (Vol. 1, pp.

201-274). New York: Academic Press

Spivack, G., Shure, M. B., & Platt, J. J. (1985). Means-Ends Problem Solving

(MEPS). Stimuli and scoring procedures supplement. Unpublished document,

Hahnemann University, Preventive Intervention Research Center, Phila-

delphia, PA.

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Examine Trust and Fairness

Examine Trust and Fairness

In the previous lectures on great examples, Professor Nishii shared three examples of companies that have taken steps to earn the trust of their employees:

  • Campbell Soup Company: A former CEO wrote 10 to 20 handwritten notes to employees each day to recognize them as individuals and to highlight their value for specific contributions.
  • GE Healthcare: Employees were invited to meet with patients that benefited from the lifesaving medical products they produced in their assembly-line work. The goal was to show the employees how they make an impact and to see firsthand how they have something meaningful to contribute.
  • Deloitte Audit: The company touts values of inclusion, collaboration, high performance, and opportunity. The company says that inclusion fosters innovation and is central to its lasting success.

Now you will have a chance to further your understanding by doing your own rich exploration online about any one of these three examples selected by Professor Nishii.

Assignment Instructions:

  • See word doc – See titled “Instruction Examine and Fairness” for detailed instructions
  • See word doc – See “Worksheet – Examine Trust and Fairness”  complete document per instructions
  • See word doc – Lecture for Example of Engagements for additional information. 

Now you will conduct your own original research on one of these companies using articles, the company website, and reviews on employment sites to find out how it is viewed by their employees and by job candidates.

  • See what you can uncover about the company’s employment brand and their bottom line.
  • Look for evidence to support the assertion that this company’s engagement efforts are influencing overall performance.
  • Complete all sections of See “Worksheet – Examine Trust and Fairness” 
  • Give Comprehensive answers.
  • No Plagiarism

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Did the creation of the Dept. of Homeland Security, and the reorganization of emergency response agencies, impact federal emergency management capabilities?  Explain

Task 1: Develop a substantive main thread addressing each part of the prompt in full. Your initial thread should be 2-3 paragraphs in length (200+ words total). Support your points with examples or illustrations from the text. Quotations/citations are not strictly required, but MLA style should be used if quoting or paraphrasing from the literature or outside sources. Review the How-To Guide: MLA Formatting and Citations page (linked in class) as needed.

Discussion Post 1: Americanization – how would you define this? Can you point to specific examples in your life or schooling? How has the internet progressed or stifled Americanization? How about social media specifically? Can you provide examples? Incorporate a credible source (practice with paraphrase). Remember your audience for discussion forums: peers & professor.

Task 1: Your initial post should be at least 200 words.

Discussion Post 2: In your opinion, did the creation of the Dept. of Homeland Security, and the reorganization of emergency response agencies, impact federal emergency management capabilities?  Explain.

Task 1: Create a new discussion topic on or before the due date in the Course Syllabus -> Course Schedule by clicking the ‘**REPLY HERE**’ post below. In your reply, you will post your response to the main topic. Your response should be a minimum of 150 words. 

Discussion Post 3: In your brief overview of computer architecture and digital security, what are your own thoughts and processes in protecting your own digital security? Do you utilize software and services to protect your digital information? If not, what policies do you set for yourself? In what ways do you see needed improvement?

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Managing People And Organisations

Group Assessment: Groups will be set up randomly from within your tutorial group. You cannot change groups. This is a real-life simulation of what it’s like to join a project team in a new company. You don’t get to choose your work colleagues! You will have to use your best consulting skills to make the most of your experience in the group. Your group task is to find a multi-site (large or international) organisation which does not use the HR Business Partner approach. Imagine you are a group of HRM consultants being asked to advise them on developing the HRM function to assist the firm in achieving its mission. Then, assess the current state of that organisation and the HRM function. Finally, draw up your poster as a ‘pitch’ to

the Top Team of the firm indicating why they should implement the HR BusinessPartner approach across the firm. Your arguments should be based on theory taught in the lectures, explored inclass discussion and in tutor groups and applying practical experience(researched if not personal) and should be fully referenced. The assignment consists of three equally assessed elements as follows:1. Poster – infographic. The digital poster should be A4 in size and should contain creative imagery to depict your analysis. It might also include some text and headings to explain diagrams and images. Digital photographs, infographics, models and illustrations should be used to enhance the impact of the poster. All group members should contribute to the poster though some students will have more advanced digital skills than others and will naturally take more responsibility for this element. If you are working physically together, you can use a flipchart and physically draw the poster, then photograph it and then insert in a PDF or worddocument.2. Group poster Narrative. The group are required to draft a narrative to explain their poster. Highlighting the key points of the infographic and explaining what is being depicted. The narrative should be between 750 and 1000 words long, no more and no less. This should be referencedHarvard style and your references will not be included in your wordcount.3. Group Meeting Minutes and Group Contract. The group is required to create a ‘group contract’ on HOW the group will work together to achieve the set task. The group should also record a note of their meetings including who was present, what was discussed and action points agreed upon at the end of the meeting. You can also briefly share any group dynamics issues that emerged and how you tackled them. This should be in note form to provide some evidence of meeting together, relative contributions of individuals in the group, and the effectiveness of the group in tackling the ask of progressing group ideas to the final output. The groups will be randomly assigned from within your Tutorial groups. This may create some challenges with students being in different language groups (and for any remote students, different time zones). However, in todays global context, learning to work in international teams with unfamiliar colleagues is itself a great learning opportunity. These groups are fixed and you will not be allowed to change groups. If there is conflict in the group, members need to work togetherusing good management and HRM skills to navigate this conflict to a productive outcome. Please make every effort to engage and support your fellow students to make their best contribution to the work. Your lecturer and tutors will support you on how to get the best out of this experience. The final work should be uploaded BY ONE GROUP MEMBER on behalf of the whole group as one document by 11:45am on Monday, 03rd April 2023. There will be no presentation of the final poster, it will be assessed from your submission as itemised in the instructions above.I hope that you enjoy this assignment. It should be interesting and fun to work with others on this creative task.

I’m doing the conclusion part, follow my group members idea and do the conclusion, I uploaded their parts.

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Teaching about Legal and Ethical Issues

Create a 12-20 slide teaching PowerPoint presentation on a legal or ethical issue pertinent to nurse educators.


As nurses, we are all, no doubt, very aware of the myriad of legal and ethical issues in any health care setting. We are familiar with licensing for health care professionals, perhaps carry our own malpractice insurance, and have been cautioned by our employing institutions always to follow policy and procedures.

Nursing education is no different; there are specific legal and ethical issues that are of concern to nurse educators. Some of the specific areas of which nurses working in education need to be well aware include the following:

  • Faculty rights and responsibilities.
  • Student rights.
  • Clinical evaluation of students.
  • Academic dishonesty.
  • Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).

In addition, it is also important to understand the responsibility of faculty regarding information about students. This is important for both academic faculty and for clinical faculty supervising students in clinical areas.

As in clinical practice, documentation of concerns and issues that arise in educational settings can be very important.


As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a professional community member.

Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

  • How does the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) impact the work of a professor in a university-based nursing program?
  • How would you handle plagiarism in the nursing classroom?

In this assessment, you will create a PowerPoint presentation that you could use to teach a group about a legal or ethical issue related to nursing or nursing education. To do so, you will select a case from the Nursing Education Legal and Ethical Scenarios | Transcript media piece to be your focus.

  • Review the case and reflect on the change that needs to occur and the group you will be addressing.
  • Research what the group needs to know to improve the legal or ethical situation that has occurred.
  • Use a minimum of seven references, a minimum of five of which should come from peer-reviewed sources.

As you conduct research, synthesize information needed to evoke a change in the situation.


Create a 12–20 slide PowerPoint presentation that you would use to teach about the legal or ethical situation and to create change related to that situation.

Note: You must include 2–4 context slides. These are additional slides that provide contextual information for this assessment. Follow the guidelines for the two types of slides below.

Presentation Slides

For your 12–20 slide presentation:

  • Choose an appropriate theme and style.
  • Include an introductory slide that identifies the problem and your role.
  • Use slides to convey the important information and understandings to the group.
  • Provide a summary slide that reiterates the important points of the presentation.
  • Also provide a slide that offers resources for the group after the teaching/learning experience.
  • Include a slide with any references used in preparing the PowerPoint.
  • Use the speaker’s notes feature to provide any additional information that you would include in the presentation. This should include any cultural sensitivity aspects and how the content is expected to make a change regarding the issue being addressed.

Context Slides

For the 2–4 contextual slides (which are not considered part of the actual presentation but rather should contain information that you as a presenter would need to consider in your preparation and presentation):

  • Discuss any specific cultural and/or diversity aspects of the presentation that could be significant in the learning process. Include references and sources used to inform this.
  • Analyze how the presentation may result in a significant change in the identified environment. Cite any relevant sources.
  • Develop specific plans for how you might stay informed about the legal or ethical issue that was your focus. What resources could you use to learn about changes or developments that would impact your work?

Additional Requirements

  • Create a professional-looking PowerPoint presentation, using speaker notes throughout.
  • Length: 12–20 slides for teaching presentation plus 2–4 additional contextual slides.
  • Use correct APA format for all citations and references; include a reference page.
  • Writing should be free of grammatical errors.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

  • Competency 4: Apply knowledge of legal and ethical issues relevant to higher education and nursing education.
    • Describe a legal or ethical issue that requires changes in staff, faculty, or student behaviors.
    • Synthesize resource information needed to evoke a change in the described situation.
  • Competency 5: Articulate how nurse educators serve as change agents and leaders to help advance nursing education and nursing practice.
    • Create a teaching presentation on a legal or ethical issue designed to evoke change in staff, faculty, or a student group.
    • Identify culturally sensitive issues and how they should be addressed in the change process.
  • Competency 7: Establish a plan for pursuing continuous improvement in the nurse educator role.
    • Develop specific plans for continuous learning about a legal or ethical issue impacting nurse educators.
  • Competency 8: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with the expectations of a nursing education professional.
    • Design a PowerPoint presentation consistent with current professional standards that demonstrates correct grammar, usage, and mechanics in addition to following APA standards.

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Terror Attacks and Criminal Justice

Terror Attacks and Criminal Justice

International terrorism poses a problematic and dangerous threat to America. The rising cases of terrorism have exposed several countries to significant setbacks. Besides, today’s terrorist attempts seek to cause mass causalities. This they try to do to different people and entities in various parts of America. They are less dependent on the government’s support or sponsorship; instead, they form loose and transitional affiliations based on ideological and religious affiliation. As a result, the recent terrorist attacks have become more challenging to prevent and detect.  Countering the rising dangers posed by terrorists requires exceptional efforts to address and bring the situation to a rational whole. This paper focuses on a review of two recent terrorism incidents that occurred within the past three years and their impact that it has had on the criminal justice system as well as society. 

Maidan Shar Attack (2019)

The 2019 terror attacks claimed one hundred and twenty-six security personnel and approximately 70 others injured. The defence ministry official stated that the Taliban attacked one of the military checkpoints in Maidan Shar. The assault started when the attacker rammed a vehicle with numerous explosives in the compound before the other tow stormed the area and opened gunfire. They were later killed. The terror attack significantly affected the criminal justice system and society. The local criminal justice system argued that no official confirmation was associated with the causality toll evident among the troops and the NDS personnel. ANDS report also showed that the number of decided deaths indicates that criminal justice investigations require thorough explorations to stop similar incidents. According to Edney‐Browne (2019), President Ashraf’s office, which regarded the attackers as enemies of the country, revealed that the killing and injury recorded during the event marred progress in most societies. In his argument, the Ministry of foreign affairs stated that the killing of the security officials saw the criminal justice department of the country threatened and less effective. Additionally, reports also noticed that the increasing attacks and fear that culminated after the terror attack forced several society members to flee the town leading to economic reduction. Overall, the killing left society in a severe and prolonged mourning session.

Sayfullo Habibullaevic Saipov Attack (October 31, 2017)

The attack led to killing eight people, with more than twenty-four people injured in an incident where a middle-aged man in a rented pickup truck drives down one of the busy bicycle paths near New York’s World Trade Centre. Sayfullo Habibullaevic Saipov was the suspect in the incident. Saipov is an Uzbekistan. Though the experience was regarded as a terror attack, the report reveals that it was a cowardly act of terror aimed at innocent people and civilians going about their daily lives. According to Magnis (2019), the attacks adversely affected criminal justice. It involved scrutiny in determining the possible cause of the incident as other various bodies try to address its impacts. Categorically, the killing affects the society psychologically as the killed individuals try to adopt and accept the situation. The FBI’s involvement in the cases reveals that criminal justice was tested and that thorough and adaptive measures need to be initiated to prevent such incidents.


Edney‐Browne, A. (2019). The Psychosocial Effects of Drone Violence: Social Isolation, Self‐Objectification, and Depoliticization. Political Psychology40(6), 1341-1356.

Magnis, M. (2019). How the Foreign States and Terrorist Organizations Use Social Media to Undermine US Democracy. Albany Government Law Review12, 1-22.

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