In Jules Henry’s view, how are values and drives related to each other

In Jules Henry’s view, how are values and drives related to each other.

How are values and drives related to each other

In Jules Henry’s view, how are values and drives related to each other? (Points : 1)       Values determine how people behave, while drives are ways of acting that are required by circumstances.
      Values are what people care enough to follow through on, while drives are followed out of necessity.
      Values are ideals that people do not necessarily pursue, while drives are the motives people actually pursue.
      They are synonyms.
Question 2. 2. Which of the following best characterizes culture? (Points : 1)       A culture is a homogeneous system.
      A culture can best be described as a simple listing of various characteristics.
      A culture is a dynamic system.
      Some cultures are dynamic, while others are stable.
Question 3. 3. Which of the following theoretical perspectives distinguishes cultural anthropology from other disciplines? (Points : 1)       Humanism
      Holism
      Materialism
      Ethnocentrism
Question 4. 4. Which of the following is true of a belief system’s influence on how people think? (Points : 1)       Beliefs have no relationship to feelings.
      In every culture, some beliefs are set forth as proper ways of thinking.
      Beliefs are controlled by reality, not by culture.
      Individuals may freely deviate from others in their beliefs with no likelihood of punishment.
Question 5. 5. Sir Edward Burnett Tylor’s concept of survivals is best defined by which of the following? (Points : 1)       Cultural traits change the least because they are the means by which a society copes with its environment.
      Primitive cultures have avoided extinction as more complex ways of life developed.
      Evidence of major catastrophic events in the past.
      Remnants of earlier social customs and ideas aid in reconstructing the evolutionary past of societies.
Question 6. 6. Which of the following best defines culture? (Points : 1)       Learned system of beliefs, feelings, and rules that organize people’s lives
      The pattern of a people’s customs
      A people’s rules for living, based on a pattern of legal concepts
      Biologically predetermined behavior patterns
Question 7. 7. Ruth Benedict’s major contribution to the history of anthropology was which of the following ideas? (Points : 1)       Cultural traits have functions.
      Ways of life are integrated wholes.
      Cultures are dynamic.
      Not all customs are functional.
Question 8. 8. Values are (Points : 1)       descriptions of what is true or false.
      feelings about what is true or false about the world.
      feelings about what should or should not be considered good or bad.
      feelings about personal likes and dislikes.
Question 9. 9. Which of the following is NOT true of how children learn their culture? (Points : 1)       Acceptable behavior is often contrasted with unacceptable behavior.
      Children observe and imitate others.
      A sense of cooperation with outsiders is usually fostered.
      Cultural knowledge is acquired through personal exploration.
Question 10. 10. According to Ruth Benedict, which of the following was true of Dobuan culture? (Points : 1)       They believed that all deaths were results of murder.
      They exhibited great trust of one another, but were highly suspicious of strangers.
      Among adults only husbands and wives felt trust for one another.
      They believed that black magic was a rare cause of death.

In Jules Henry’s view, how are values and drives related to each other

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What  are the strategic direction elements of the strategic plan

What  are the strategic direction elements of the strategic plan.

  1. What  are the strategic direction elements of the strategic plan, and what  are the different challenges a health leader faces in institutional,  resource dependent and contingent environments? What strategies might  you suggest the leader could implement for successful outcomes?
  2. Explain  four ethical principles that guide decision making associated with  patient care. How can leaders use these principles in decision making  with a health organization?
  3. What  are the steps, characteristics and behaviors a health leader should  take to build relationships with internal and external stakeholders?

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What  are the strategic direction elements of the strategic plan

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Patient outcomes are essential to a successful healthcare system

Patient outcomes are essential to a successful healthcare system. This is a discussion post. PLEASE USE the textbook below for reference and at least one SCHOLARLY PEER-Review

Patient outcomes are essential to a successful healthcare system.  Improvement processes are one way we improve patient outcomes.  What would you suggest to decrease re-admissions based on the situation?  Has this happened to your facility?  How did the facility handle it?  Do you have any examples of improved patient outcomes from your nursing practice?

eview the story at the link below before posting to the discussion:

Rau, J. (2015). Half of nation’s hospitals fail again to escape Medicare’s readmission penalties. Kaiser Health News. Retrieved from http://khn.org/news/half-of-nations-hospitals-fail-again-to-escape-medicares-readmission-penalties/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

After you have finished, consider how you would respond to the following situation:

Your local hospital has received notice from CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid) regarding their readmission rates.

 

Finkelman, A. (2016). Leadership and management for nurses: Core competencies for quality care (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

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Patient outcomes are essential to a successful healthcare system

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There are many different probation and officers typologies discussed below. 1)Based on the text and course notes below, what qualifications and/or education should be required for the job?

There are many different probation and officers typologies discussed below. 1)Based on the text and course notes below, what qualifications and/or education should be required for the job?.

probation

There are many different probation and officers typologies discussed below.  1)Based on the text and course notes below, what qualifications and/or education should be required for the job?

2)If you were a probation or parole officer, do you think you would fit any of these typologies?  Explain your response.

Course notes:

Both adult and juvenile corrections have escalated during the last few decades. POs have assumed increased responsibilities and supervisory tasks in dealing with an increasingly diverse and dangerous clientele. In 2001 there were over 630,000 correctional personnel working in corrections, with about 60 percent of these working in probation and parole services. The functions of probation and parole services are to supervise offenders, insure offender compliance with program goals and provisions, conduct routine alcohol/drug checks, provide networking services for employment assistance, direct offender-clients to proper treatment, counseling, and other forms of assistance, protect the community by detecting a client’s program infractions and reporting them to judges or parole boards, assisting offenders in becoming integrated into their communities, and engaging in any useful rehabilitative enterprise that will improve offender-client skills.
The organization and administration of probation and parole services is most often within the scope of departments of corrections in most states. Services vary among the states, although there are common elements to all probation and parole services and programs. The complexity of organizational structure is highly dependent upon the nature of clientele supervised and their special needs. The rehabilitative aim of corrections has not been particularly successful. For this and other reasons, probation and parole departments have drawn extensive criticism from an increasingly discontent public. Criticisms have focused upon the lack of PO skills and training and the ineffectiveness of job performanceProfessionalization through organizations such as the American Correctional Association, the American Jail Association, and the American Probation and Parole Association have attempted to raise standards relating to theselection,recruitment, and training of POs throughout the nation.
In 2005, POs averaged $23,000 in entry-level positions, while top PO positions reached $93,400. Few jurisdictions required bachelor’sdegreesfor PO work, however, a majority of POs had some college education or had completed college. Increased education is the primary means for improving one’s professionalization. Observers suggest that there is a high correlation between higher education achieved and work effectiveness among POs. Because of an increasingly ethnically and racially diverse clientele, POs have received additional training in cultural diversity. Some POs are recruited for dealing with special-offender populations where English is a second language. Assessment centersare used for PO training. One assessment center is the Florida Assessment Center, which focuses upon selecting and evaluating the best POsfor supervising offenders in a Florida community control program (FCCP).
One important issue which is being raised in greater numbers of jurisdictions is whether POs should have firearms authorization. About half the states authorized the use of firearms for POs in 1999. Other states without such provisions were considering legislation in 2001. There is a controversy over whether POs should go armed. Some persons feel that armed POs tend to provoke their clients, while others see going armed as a reasonable means of self-protection, particularly if POs must enter dangerous, gang-controlled neighborhoods to visit their clients. One of the hazards of PO work is the lawsuit syndrome, where clients sue POs for various reasons. Thus, a part of PO training is designed to acquaint them with the conditions and situations that are most likely to result in lawsuits. Thus, the potential for lawsuits can be avoided or minimized. POsare continually subjected to periodic evaluations to determine their competence in job performance. Labor turnover among POs averages about 15 percent per year. Most POs who leave the profession tend to seek better jobs in the private sector or graduate to federal employment where the pay and benefits are substantially greater than state compensation.
Another important issue is the matter of caseloads .Caseloads refer to the number of clients managed by POs in any state or federal agency. POs supervise offenders either intensively or generally, depending upon the programs imposed by judges and parole boards. No precise figures have been agreed upon as to what constitutes an optimum caseload size for POs. There are different caseload assignment models. These include the conventional model, the numbers-game model, the conventional model with geographic considerations, and thespecialized caseloads modelOfficer-client interactions are affected by different factors, including the orientations of POs toward offenders. Some of these orientations are detectors, enablers, educators,mediators, and enforcers. Depending upon a PO’s orientation, interactions with clients are positively or negatively influenced. Some amount of role conflict therefore exists, as POs attempt to perform their jobs under different sets of circumstances established by each jurisdiction. Most POs belong to one or more organizations where codes of ethics have been established. These codes of ethics obligate POs to adhere to stringent behavioral guidelines in the performance of their jobs. It is expected that PO adherence to these codes of ethics will eventually improve their effectiveness and job performance, and that ultimately, client recidivismwill decline.
Probation and parole officers have formed unions and engage in collective bargaining in some states. Many of these unions are at local, county, and state levels, and all unionization is designed to achieve better conditions for POs. Issues involve pay, retirement benefits, caseloads and assignments, promotional opportunities, and various types of grievances about the job and its benefits. Each union has articulated objectives. Union representatives are authorized to negotiate contracts with city,county, state, and federal governments to determine pay scales, working hours and conditions, and other matters of relevance to their memberships. Unions also attempt to improve the quality of professionalism among their memberships by sponsoring annual conferences where workshops are conducted to learn various skills.

  • P/P officers are often called line officers, or the troops.
    The four primary tasks of Probation and Parole Officers are:

    1. Investigate: requires line officers to present an account of the offender s situation; to conduct a PSI
    2. Surveillance: an important activity in an effort to detect any behavior that may be dangerous.
    3. Assistance: Helping offenders with community adjustment; being a helper, using problem-solving skills to rehabilitate.
    4. Paperwork: Keeping case files, filling out forms, documenting activities, compiling the PSI.

Types of Line Officers to be familiar with are: (PAGE 483 & additional types)

  1. Punitive: a p/p officer characterized by a high commitment to control and a low commitment to assistance.(hardliner/maverick)
  2. Protective: a p/p officer characterized by a high commitment to both control and assistance.(team player)
  3. Welfare: a p/p officer characterized by a low commitment to control and a high commitment to assistance. (bleeding heart)
  4. Team Player: working together to meet a common goal; cooperative efforts;  mutual assistance of all group members.
  5. Passive Officer:care little about the needs of society or their clients.
  6. Hardliner: unyielding; advocating a firm course of action.
  7. Maverick: an independent individual who does not go along with a group or party.

Requirements to be a p/p officer.

It is important to note that in order to be a probation and parole officer of excellent efficiency, you must be a good liaison to the courts, judges, police, sheriff, and clients. Also maintain good, influential relationships with contacts within social services.

A good p/p officer is well-respected.

There are many different probation and officers typologies discussed below. 1)Based on the text and course notes below, what qualifications and/or education should be required for the job?

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Examples of recent controversial social issues include: gun control, legalizing marijuana, gay marriage, immigration issues, raising the minimum wage, abortion etc. You should not choose topics that are problems affecting only you personally.

Examples of recent controversial social issues include: gun control, legalizing marijuana, gay marriage, immigration issues, raising the minimum wage, abortion etc. You should not choose topics that are problems affecting only you personally..

controversial social issues

Discuss two completely different controversial topics, not just one. This assignment is asking you to explore and brainstorm two possible persuasive essay topics so be sure to choose two different topics. 

The topics you choose to discuss must address controversial social issues. What is most important is that you explore two topics that are appropriate topics for a persuasive essay, not an informative research.

Examples of recent controversial social issues include: gun control, legalizing marijuana, gay marriage, immigration issues, raising the minimum wage, abortion etc. You should not choose topics that are problems affecting only you personally.

Select two potential problems that:

1) have two logical sides to the issue (your viewpoint and an opposing viewpoint),

2) are researchable

In your assignment, write a fully developed paragraph for each problem (5-8 sentences each) explaining two sides to the issue:

1) (How is it argumentative?),

2) How you plan to approach it in your project (what side are you going to take?), and

3) Why you’re personally interested in it (of all the potential problems in your field or degree, why did you choose this?).

4) When writing the paragraphs, feel free to express any other thoughts or concerns you may have about the topic choices.

After exploring the argumentativeness of your problems, take a moment to consider the bigger picture. Then, in one to two paragraphs, briefly reflect on the importance of persuasion with the potential topic you’re most likely to write about.

1) Why is it important that people consider your side with your selected topic?

2) Who is your audience, and why is it important to convince them that your view on your topic is the better (or more correct) view?

3) Remember to try to be specific in your entry: this information will help guide you as you work on your project in the coming weeks.

Use the following CHECKLIST to make sure that you are covering all of the key points mentioned above:

1) In the first paragraph (5-8 sentences), explain:

a) Two sides of the first issue

b)Your approach/side

c)Why you’re interested in the topic

2) In the second paragraph (5-8 sentences), explain:

a)Two sides of the second issue

b)Your approach/side

c)Why you’re interested in the topic

3) In the third and fourth paragraphs (5-8 sentences each), reflect on:

a)The importance of persuasion for the topic you’re most likely to write about

i. Why is it important for people to consider your side?

ii. Who is your audience?

iii. Why is it important to convince them that your view is best?

 

NOTES TO REMEMBER:

1) Be sure to discuss two completely different controversial topics, not just one. This writing assignment is asking you to explore and brainstorm two possible persuasive essay topics so be sure to choose two different topics.

2) The topics you choose to discuss for this writing assignment must address controversial social issues and do not need to be related to your chosen major or career choice. What is most important is that you explore two topics that are appropriate topics for a persuasive essay, not an informative research report.

3) Appropriate persuasive essay topics for the English 123 Persuasion essay should have clearly opposing viewpoints on hotly debated societal issues. Examples of recent controversial social issues include: gun control, legalizing marijuana, gay marriage, immigration issues, raising the minimum wage, abortion etc.  You should not choose topics that are problems affecting only you personally.

Examples of recent controversial social issues include: gun control, legalizing marijuana, gay marriage, immigration issues, raising the minimum wage, abortion etc. You should not choose topics that are problems affecting only you personally.

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Sustainability and Innovation:Examine the sustainability best practices that the organizations are engaged in or are planning to adopt and their perceived meaning to the organizations.

Sustainability and Innovation:Examine the sustainability best practices that the organizations are engaged in or are planning to adopt and their perceived meaning to the organizations..

Sustainability and Innovation

Complete the following readings early in the module:

 

Assignment: Discussion—Sustainability and Innovation

Implementing sustainability measures is a complex task involving management of supply chain risk factors such as scarce resources, social and labor problems, and subcontractor oversight. Despite the known potential to improve productivity and cost structures many companies are finding it difficult to successfully implement sustainable measures.

As stated on each of their Web sites, Southwest Airlines and American Airlines purport to be engaged in sustainable best practices and innovation. Review each company’s official standpoint on sustainability and environmental reports at the following:

Using the Argosy University online library resources and the Internet research the two airlines.

Compare and contrast the business practices of the two organizations and the value they place on sustainability. Cover the following in your comparative analysis:

  • Examine the sustainability best practices that the organizations are engaged in or are planning to adopt and their perceived meaning to the organizations.
  • Describe the innovation types and processes the organizations have formulated or are formulating.
  • Provide a hypothesis on the reasons why the innovation types might have been the focus. Explain whether or not you believe they have been successful in their sustainability endeavors.

By Friday September 14, 2018, post your response to the Discussion Area.

Write your initial response in 300–500 words.  turned-in on time, Grading criteria followed All assignment qualifications addressed correctly, Grading Criteria followed, Include Question followed by the answer  Reference Page Included Cover page Included, Paragraphs  Indented,  Running-head included, main heading should be centered; all  new  paragraphs should be indented;  paper should be right ragged,   not right justified; references,  should always go on a standalone  page. abstracts are not usually indented; acronyms should be spelled out when using them  for  the first time, for example HR. references as listed are APA  standard.   When you  submit your papers through turnitin.com, your overall  similarity  index  score should not be exceedingly high, with   ten to  fifteen percent  being  the maximum,  Please make sure your APA  formatting of citations. I have provided the  APA resource cite for you. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01, Please work on using literature within the span of the last 5 years,  keep in mind there should not be any one, two, or three sentence  paragraphs

Your response should be thorough and address all components of the discussion question in detail, include citations of all sources, where needed, according to the APA Style, and demonstrate accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Do the following when responding:

  • Read your answers.
  • Provide substantive comments by
    • contributing new, relevant information from course readings, Web sites, or other sources;
    • building on the remarks or questions; or
    • sharing practical examples of key concepts from your professional or personal experiences
  • Respond to feedback on your posting and provide feedback to ideas.
  • Make sure your writing
    • is clear, concise, and organized;
    • demonstrates ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and
    • displays accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Sustainability and Innovation:Examine the sustainability best practices that the organizations are engaged in or are planning to adopt and their perceived meaning to the organizations.

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Worker Rights And Privacy In The Workplace:What are the relevant laws that govern privacy in the workplace?

Worker Rights And Privacy In The Workplace:What are the relevant laws that govern privacy in the workplace?.

Worker Rights And Privacy

As it relates to ethical behavior, the relationship between an employer and employee has probably raised more issues than any other relationship. It wouldn’t take a long time to search on the Internet and find an article about what a company has done to an employee, therefore, raising questions about the company.

Even though employees are more inclined to change jobs today than they were 30 years ago, it is still disturbing for an employee to face termination or disciplinary action. Moreover, given the economic situation of many people, it can be financially devastating to be without work for even a short period of time. So, let’s look at some specific areas of the employer-employee relationship.

This module discusses the balance between an employee’s loyalty to the company and loyalty to the public at large. When can employees who owe their loyalty to the company breach that loyalty? Additionally, the module explains that companies must provide a safe workplace and explores the conditions in which employees can seek damages from the company when their health is affected by the job site. What worker’s compensation is and how it protects both employer and employee will be explored.

This module also discusses employee rights in the workplace, especially privacy rights. Does the Constitution guarantee an employee in a private company the right to free speech? The answer is a resounding no. The Constitution prohibits Congress (and through the 14th Amendment, the States) from passing laws restricting a person’s right to free speech. However, the Constitution does not prohibit a company from firing an employee who complains about the company or makes statements about it.

In addition, this module explores the impact of technological advances on business law and ethics. You will examine the concept of employee privacy juxtaposed with the need of a business “to know,” especially with regard to employees’ communication and work productivity. This module also explores intellectual property rights (IPR) and protection, with an emphasis on regulatory protocols and identification of ways to prevent the infringement of IPR.

Module Readings and Assignment:

Complete the following readings early in the module:

  • Module overview
  • From your course textbook, Law & Ethics in the Business Environment, 8th read the following chapter:
    • Whistleblowing: Conflict of Loyalties
    • Privacy & Technology
    • Workers’ Rights as Human Rights: Health & Safety in the Workplace

In addition to the readings assigned for Module, using the Argosy University online library resources or the Internet, locate and read two to three other articles on worker rights and privacy in the workplace. Share your observations, early conclusions, reflections, and questions in this discussion.

Respond to the following questions:

  • What are the relevant laws that govern privacy in the workplace?
  • How can workers take advantage of the protections that these laws provide?

 

Submission Details:

  • By Friday 24,2018, in a minimum of 500 words, post a summary of your findings to this Discussion Area. Support your work by citing sources according to APA standards.

Write your initial response in 300–500 words.

turned-in on time, Grading criteria followed All assignment qualifications addressed correctly, Grading Criteria followed, Include Question followed by the answer  Reference Page Included Cover page Included, Paragraphs  Indented,  Running-head included, main heading should be centered; all  new  paragraphs should be indented;  paper should be right ragged,   not right justified; references,  should always go on a standalone  page. abstracts are not usually indented; acronyms should be spelled out when using them  for  the first time, for example HR. references as listed are APA  standard.   When you  submit your papers through turnitin.com, your overall  similarity  index  score should not be exceedingly high, with   ten to  fifteen percent  being  the maximum,  Please make sure your APA  formatting of citations. I have provided the  APA resource cite for you. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01, Please work on using literature within the span of the last 5 years,  keep in mind there should not be any one, two, or three sentence  paragraphs

Your response should be thorough and address all components of the discussion question in detail, include citations of all sources, where needed, according to the APA Style, and demonstrate accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Do the following when responding:

  • Read your answers.
  • Provide substantive comments by
    • contributing new, relevant information from course readings, Web sites, or other sources;
    • building on the remarks or questions; or
    • sharing practical examples of key concepts from your professional or personal experiences
  • Respond to feedback on your posting and provide feedback to ideas.
  • Make sure your writing
    • is clear, concise, and organized;
    • demonstrates ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and
    • displays accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Grading Criteria:

Quality of initial posting, including fulfillment of assignment instructions

Reference to supporting readings and other materials

Language and grammar

Worker Rights And Privacy In The Workplace:What are the relevant laws that govern privacy in the workplace?

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Not all medical devices are constructed safely.  Patients and providers rely on their safety

Not all medical devices are constructed safely.  Patients and providers rely on their safety. Identify a health problem in the US Health Care sector from the list below.  Prepare a summary document using the required format. The table should be single spaced and total no more than 2.5 pages in 11 to 12 point font. Except in the case of titles, use complete sentences, i.e. write using narrative format. Include a cover page and a list of references in APA Format.  No more than 15% of direct quotes or paraphrasing are permitted in the document. Select from the following health problems. Note only three (3) to four (4) students may select each topic area. The Instructor will establish a conference to sign up these topics. First-come. First-served:

  1. Tobacco dependency threatens the health of many Americans and it poses a preventable burden to the healthcare system.

  2. It is not unusual for patients in US hospitals to acquire preventable diseases infections and conditions during their stay in the hospital.

  3. A growing pool of patients is unable to read and write in the English language. Language is a barrier to effective care delivery as well as patient compliance.

  4. Elderly and disabled patients with multiple medications are at risk of medication interactions and potential drug safety concerns.

  5. Veterans may suffer from service-related injuries, both physical and mental health are concerns for the VA.

  6. Not all medical devices are constructed safely.  Patients and providers rely on their safety.

  7. Health care providers are scarce in certain low-income and rural underserved areas in the US, including Native American territories.

  8. Disadvantaged patients may seek care in emergency rooms because they have nowhere else to receive services.

  9. Disadvantaged children often do not have health insurance and do not receive the preventive care (such as vaccines and well-baby check-ups) that can avoid long-term health problems.

Describe and provide details about the health problem.

Indicate in detail:

-Who is most impacted by this health problem? Include relevant statistics (incidence, mortality, morbidity, etc);

-This section must include how the problem impacts:

1. patients,

2. health provider professionals,

3. health organizations,

4. healthcare insurers and payers,

5. government.

-Note the human and financial costs for the healthcare system.

 

Healthy People 2020:

Summarize the health problem as recognized by Healthy People 2020’s goals for the nation.

-Include a discussion on the which social determinants of health impacts the health issue you selected.

-Does another governmental agency or public health organization describe the problem? If so, provide details on how this agency/organization describes the problem.

-If HP2020 does not discuss the health problem you selected, describe why you believe this issue was excluded from HP2020.

 

Official Title and Citation of the Legislation:

Research policy websites. What policy is associated with the public health problem you selected?

Indicate the government’s response to the health problem you selected by including the exact title of the legislation in this section.

 

Describe the public policy response:

Describe the scope of the legislation and the anticipated impact on the chosen health issue in the population.

 

Current Status:

To date, provide a few sentences that describe the status of your topic in the policymaking cycle.

 

Policy and SDH

Does the policy address, facilitate or hinder access to the social determinants of health? 

 

Conclusion:

In your findings, would you say the health policy adequately addresses the health problem you identified? Why or Why not? Be specific.

 

Resources for

Not all medical devices are constructed safely.  Patients and providers rely on their safety

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Theories used in the study are Expectancy-Value Theory

Please provide at least 150-word response to each student response below. Be sure to research/cite/reference sources in each discussion.

1st Post:

The dissertation I used has the same topic I would like to use “A Case Study on Full-Time Faculty Perceptions of Classroom Assessment” (Pottinger, 2021).  

The literature review consisted of the following topics: “Introduction and Background, Gaps in the Literature, Theoretical Frameworks, Assessment, Method, Instrumentation, and Summary” (Pottinger, 2021, p. ix). The introduction included the purpose of the study which was to determine faculty perceptions of assessment, building on current assessment models, and the development of best practice assessment in online courses (Pottinger, 2021). The background information included the difference between formative and summative assessment (Pottinger, 2021). The researcher also indicated the desire to learn faculty perceptions of knowledge and use of formative assessment (Pottinger, 2021). Finally, the background included the correlation between formative assessment and teaching/learning (Pottinger, 2021). I consider the detailed introduction and background strong strengths of this literature review (Roberts & Hyatt, 2019). I agree with Pottinger (2021) that it is important to set up the literature review by restating the purpose and providing a strong background on assessment. I also hope to add information linking assessment to program/institutional accreditation and, therefore, the importance in conjunction with institutional effectiveness and the university’s strategic plan. Gaps in the literature revealed a lack of perceptions from faculty particularly those teaching the course (Pottinger, 2021). I’m not sure if I will include the specific assessment models since they may not be relevant to the population I select, whereas Pottinger’s sample used the Classroom Assessment Techniques model of assessment—CATs (Pottinger, 2021). 

Theories used in the study are Expectancy-Value Theory, Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Transformational Reflection Theory, and Transactional Distance theory (Pottinger, 2021). Another strength of the dissertation was the pyramid of hierarchy used to visually depict the amount of use of the theories and the importance of the theories in terms of assessment, teaching, and learning (Pottinger, 2021). 

The only weakness I can identify is the lack of information on the evolution of faculty roles and the possible reason why faculty may not be driving assessment in their respective institutions (Middaugh, 2010). 

2nd Post:

The dissertation selected is from Warner (2019) on the corporate learner and asynchronous online learning. The literature review section for this dissertation is presented via the textbook checklist:

1. Yes, the review is comprehensive.

2. Yes, there is one primary and six secondary variables that are addressed.

3. Yes, the doctoral student has a balanced review of the citations combining key points with critical analysis.

4. Yes, Chapter 1 had key definitions, historical foundations, and research questions which segued logically into Chapter 2 literature review.

5. Yes, the review expanded on the variables, audience, and concepts.

6. Yes, between the first two chapters there is a good coverage of historical and current methodologies and theories.

7. Yes, the review used credible sources that were properly cited.

8. No, each section of the review built on the previous without presenting opposing views.

9. Yes, summaries and subsections are well structured.

10.  Yes, primary sources are well represented.

11.  No, minimal to no quotations are used. Paraphrasing and critical analysis used.

12.  No, primary sources that complement each other are presented separately.

13.  Yes, it is well written and is not just a catalog of sources.

The University that the doctoral student was in uses a similar format as Aspen University or the textbook (Roberts & Hyatt, 2018).

 3rd Post:

When writing the literature review, the dissertation student develops the review in a manner writing what journalists/authors have disclosed concerning a chosen topic. The dissertation student writes what is known about the topic in a manner to intrigue the reader. One of the goals requires writing carefully revealing points such as a bridge of the introduction chapter to the literature review. When reviewing a literature review, the dissertation student takes the opportunity to assess for common writing problems. 

For an example, the author of a massive topic and literature review will lose the reader/audience if the reading becomes easily disorganized. Zacharzuk-Marciano, 2017 provided mass information in the literature. The use of an employ table could have organized the mass literature. The use of subheadings could have supported the organization of information in the literature review for the reader. Zacharzuk-Marciano, 2017 provided headings with seldom use of subheadings. Overall, the literature provided a thorough synopsis of the problem with key focus points. With the literature review being massive, the author should be careful not to string together the works cited and control the amount of literature reviewed by avoiding including enormous pieces of literature read. 

4th Post:

For many writers, the literature review procedure might be a difficult undertaking. It necessitates extensive investigation, planning, and critical thought. Unfortunately, many writers struggle with common writing problems that can make the process even more difficult.  One of the most common writing problems in the literature review process is the lack of a clear focus. Writers often struggle to narrow down their topic and develop a clear thesis statement. Without a clear focus, the literature review can become unfocused and disorganized. Writers should take the time to brainstorm and develop a clear focus for their literature review before beginning the research process. 

Another common writing problem is the lack of organization. Writers often struggle to organize their research and ideas into a cohesive structure. Without a clear organizational structure, the literature review can become confusing and difficult to follow. Writers should take the time to create an outline and organize their research into a logical structure.  A third common writing problem is the lack of critical thinking. Writers often struggle to analyze and evaluate the research they have gathered. Without critical thinking, the literature review can become a summary of the research rather than an analysis of the research. Writers should take the time to think critically about the research and draw meaningful conclusions. 

Finally, writers often struggle with the lack of adequate citations. Without proper citations, the literature review can become plagiarized, and the writer can be accused of academic dishonesty. All sources utilized in the literature review should be correctly cited, therefore writers should take their time. In general, many writers find the process of conducting a literature review to be challenging. However, by taking the time to address these common writing problems, writers can ensure that their literature review is well-written and effective.

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Co-operatives are very crucial to both small growers and large growers.

Agriculture

Case Study

Co-operatives are very crucial to both small growers and large growers. In the supply chain, co-operatives are essential in the following ways:

  • They have bargaining power in the market. This is because they have a harvest collection; hence they control prices in the market. This helps in the value addition of the income earned by both small and large-scale growers.
  • For small growers whose harvest is less, the co-operatives offer transport facilities. They transport the products from the farms to the industry for processing.
  • Small farmers are typically grouped, and the co-operative gives each group a machine that might be too expensive. This could either be a tractor for plowing or a harvesting machine. This factor is generally referred to as machine pooling.
  • The co-operative is responsible for doing the marketing. They, therefore, look for large markets hence increasing the product demand. This guarantees large growers a large market for their products and encourages them even to grow their farms.

The individuals responsible for the crisis the farmers face are the agricultural officers in the USDA. If they had carried out their inspection as expected, they would have detected the problem the moment it arose. They would have then alerted the beef farms to treat their cattle and also inform the meat traders to have the meat inspected before any purchase.

The desired outcome is for the USDA to find ways of taming the disease. They should also lay out strategies on dealing with such cases in case any arose. This makes them set aside enough resources and carry out more research.

The actual outcome is that they have to look at the problem from the source. This will take time, and therefore farmers and the traders will have incurred huge losses. This is because the consumers are aware of the disease and the media is advising them to take caution.

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