Explain why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper Antimicrobial Agents.

Topic: Nursing
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Antimicrobial Agents
Antimicrobial agents are essential components in the treatment of various bacterial infections as they help to kill or prevent the growth of microbes such as bacteria fungi and protozoans. Prior to the discovery of antimicrobial agents treatment options for patients with bacterial infections were limited. For many patients treatment often resulted in the amputation of limbs or even death. Today treatment options for bacterial infections typically have a more positive prognosis. Due to the various types of infections presented in patients it is essential to be able to identify the underlying cause of the infection?whether bacterial or viral?before recommending drug treatments. This will help you identify whether or not an antimicrobial agent would be appropriate and which specific agent would target the infection. In this Assignment you consider the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for infections.
To prepare:
? Review this week?s media presentation on principles of antimicrobial therapy as well as Chapter 8 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text.
? Consider the categories of antimicrobial agents.
? Think about differences between viral and bacterial infections.
? Reflect on why proper identification of the infection is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.
To complete:
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
? Describe the categories of antimicrobial agents.
? Describe differences between viral and bacterial infections.
? Explain why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.

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Antimicrobial agents are essential components in the treatment of various bacterial infections as they help to kill or prevent the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoans.

Antimicrobial agents are essential components in the treatment of various bacterial infections as they help to kill or prevent the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoans. Prior to the discovery of antimicrobial agents, treatment options for patients with bacterial infections were limited. For many patients, treatment often resulted in the amputation of limbs or even death. Today, treatment options for bacterial infections typically have a more positive prognosis. Due to the various types of infections presented in patients, it is essential to be able to identify the underlying cause of the infection—whether bacterial or viral—before recommending drug treatments. This will help you identify whether or not an antimicrobial agent would be appropriate and which specific agent would target the infection. In this Assignment, you consider the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for infections.

To prepare:

  • – Review this week’s media presentation      on principles of antimicrobial therapy, as well as Chapter 8 of the      Arcangelo and Peterson text.
  • – Consider the categories of      antimicrobial agents.
  • – Think about differences between viral      and bacterial infections.
  • – Reflect on why proper identification      of the infection is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.

POST a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:

  • – Describe the categories of      antimicrobial agents.
  • – Describe differences between viral      and bacterial infections.
  • – Explain why proper identification of      viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper      antimicrobial agent.

This work should have Introduction and conclusion

– This work should have at 4 to 6 current references (Year 2012 and up)

– Use at least 3 references from class Learning Resources

The following Resources are not acceptable:

1. Wikipedia

2. Cdc.gov- nonhealthcare professionals section

3. Webmd.com

4. Mayoclinic.com

Required Readings

Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • Chapter 8, “Principles of      Antimicrobial Therapy” (pp. 111-134)
    This chapter covers factors that impact the selection of an antimicrobial      treatment regimen. It also examines the clinical uses, adverse events, and      drug interactions of various antimicrobial agents such as penicillin.
  • Chapter 12, “Fungal Infections      of the Skin” (pp. 163-196)
    This chapter explores the pathophysiology of several fungal infections of      the skin as well as related drug treatments and examines the importance of      patient education when managing these infections.
  • Chapter 14, “Bacterial      Infections of the Skin” (pp. 181-196)
    This chapter begins by examining causes of bacterial infections. It then      explores the importance of selecting an appropriate agent for treating      bacterial infections.
  • Chapter 32, “Urinary Tract      Infection” (pp. 519-526)
    This chapter covers drugs used to treat urinary tract infections and      identifies special considerations when treating geriatric patients,      pediatric patients, and women.
  • Chapter 35, “Sexually      Transmitted Infections” (pp. 512-535)
    This chapter outlines the causes, pathophysiology, and drug treatment of      six sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhea, syphilis, and      human papilloma virus infection (HPV). It also examines the importance of      selecting the proper agent and monitoring patient response to treatment.
  • Chapter 49, “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” (pp.      843-860)
    This chapter presents the causes, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria,      and prevention methods for HIV. It also covers various methods of drug      treatment and patient factors to consider when selecting, administering,      and managing drug treatments.

Krummenacher, I., Cavassini, M., Bugnon, O., & Schneider, M. (2011). An interdisciplinary HIV-adherence program combining motivational interviewing and electronic antiretroviral drug monitoring. AIDS Care, 23(5), 550–561.

This article analyzes medication adherence in HIV patients and examines factors that increase adherence as well as factors that contribute to termination or discontinuation of treatment.

Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/

This website presents a comprehensive review of prescription and over-the-counter drugs including information on common uses and potential side effects. It also provides updates relating to new drugs on the market, support from health professionals, and a drug-drug interactions checker.

Scourfield, A., Waters, L., & Nelson, M. (2011). Drug combinations for HIV: What’s new? Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 9(11), 1001–1011.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article examines current therapies and strategies for treating HIV patients. It also examines factors that impact selection of therapy, including drug interactions, personalization of therapy, costs, management of comorbidities, and patient response.

Required Media

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Antimicrobials. Baltimore, MD: Author.

This media presentation outlines principles of antimicrobial therapy 

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 7 minutes.

Mayer, K. H., & Krakower, D. (2012). Antiretroviral medication and HIV prevention: New steps forward and New Questions. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(4), 312–314.

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Bacterial Meningitis Nursing Care Question.

Bacterial Meningitis Nursing Care Question..

 

A 6-month-old is admitted with bacterial meningitis. Which action is the priority of care? (choose one of the following bacterial meningitis nursing care options, the answer and the explanation is given below)
1. Administering antibiotics
2. Avoiding environmental stimuli
3. Initiating seizure precautions
4. Measuring head circumference

Bacterial Meningitis Nursing Care Question Answer and Explanation:

Bacterial meningitis occurs when infection causes inflammation in the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. This inflammation may lead to hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Due to the risk for severe complications from meningitis and increased ICP (eg, hearing loss, permanent brain damage, death), the priority of care is immediate antibiotic therapy. Lumbar puncture (LP) with cerebrospinal fluid culture is performed to determine the causative organism. Antibiotic choice may be adjusted later based on LP results. The client should remain on isolation precautions for a minimum of 24 hours following initiation of antibiotic therapy.

(Option 2) Clients with meningitis are often very sensitive to stimuli (eg, bright lights, noise). Although environmental stimuli should be reduced as much as possible, the priority of care is initiating antibiotic therapy.

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(Option 3) Seizures may occur in infants with bacterial meningitis and are often accompanied by a shrill, high-pitched cry. There is no indication that this client has experienced a seizure. The nurse should carefully monitor for seizure activity and place the client on seizure precautions if necessary. However, antibiotic therapy is the most critical intervention in treating bacterial meningitis.

(Option 4) Although obtaining an initial head circumference is necessary to monitor for changes related to increasing ICP, the priority is obtaining blood cultures and administering antibiotics as soon as they are prescribed.

Educational objective:
Due to the risk for severe complications (eg, hearing loss, permanent brain damage) associated with bacterial meningitis, the most critical intervention is initiation of antibiotic therapy. The causative organism is confirmed through LP and blood cultures.

Bacterial Meningitis Nursing Care Question.

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Compare and contrast the symptoms of at least one viral and one bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STIs).

Compare and contrast the symptoms of at least one viral and one bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STIs)..

Compare and contrast the symptoms of at least one viral and one bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STIs).

Chapter 10: Sexuality & Gender (Active Learning Activity = 15 points)

Part 4—Synthesizing and Evaluating Concepts (3 points):
Using your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes, answer each question by typing your response in the space provided below. For each question, your answer should be one or more healthy paragraphs (Your total answer should be at least 100 words or more).

1. What is the difference between a person’s gender, gender identity, gender roles, and gender typing? How do biology, environment, and culture play a factor in this development?
2. What is androgyny? Is our society becoming more or less androgynous? What are the potential advantages and disadvantages of androgyny?
3. Compare and contrast the symptoms of at least one viral and one bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STIs). In addition to the symptoms, what is the major difference between viral and bacterial STIs?
Chapter 11: Stress & Health (Active Learning Activity = 15 points)

Part 4—Synthesizing and Evaluating Concepts (5 points):
Using your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes, answer each question by typing your response in the space provided below. For each question, your answer should be one or more healthy paragraphs (Your total answer should be at least 100 words or more).

1. Describe the stages of the general adaptation syndrome. What problems occur with continued exposure to stress?

 

2. List and explain the three qualities that make up a hardy personality.

 

3. Janel is stuck in a major traffic jam, and has gone nowhere in over 45 minutes. Based on what you know about the psychological factors that contribute to stress (e.g., pressure, frustration, etc.), discuss the factors that are contributing to her rising stress levels and note how she might respond to the stress if the traffic doesn’t clear up soon.

 

4. Compare and contrast problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. Is one necessarily better than the other? Can you give an example where either might be useful, stating the specific way in which each coping skill might be employed?

 

5. Differentiate between the primary and secondary appraisals given in a stressful situation. Give an example of a stressful situation that you have encountered and describe your processes of using primary and secondary appraisals.

 

Chapter 12: Social Psychology (Active Learning Activity = 15 points)

Part 4—Synthesizing and Evaluating Concepts (5 points):

Using your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes, answer each question by typing your response in the space provided below. For each question, your answer should be one or more healthy paragraphs (Your total answer should be at least 100 words or more).

1. The obedience study conducted by Stanley Milgram has become world famous. More than 1,000 people at several American universities went through replications of the study. In addition, researchers in other countries, such as Spain and the Netherlands, have used Milgram’s procedures. Explain the procedures that Milgram used in his study and then discuss his results. What conclusions did Milgram reach? How have critics reacted to his research?

 

2. How do advertisers use the principles of persuasion discussed in your chapter?

 

3. Discuss what happened in the Stanford Prison Study, including what they did, the purpose of the study, and what they found. What were some of the ethical issues involved with this study?

 

4. Explain the difference between stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination.

 

5. Compare and contrast four ways to gain compliance and provide examples of each technique.

 

Compare and contrast the symptoms of at least one viral and one bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STIs).

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create a detailed case study discussing a bacterial organism we cover during the course.

create a detailed case study discussing a bacterial organism we cover during the course..

LASA – Case Study Writing Assignment TOPIC Bacillus anthracis

Instructions The major project for this course will be to create a detailed case study discussing a bacterial organism we cover during the course. A list of acceptable organisms will be provided for you to choose from. Once you have selected an organism, you will research and write a formal report. The report should be 4-6 pages, written in the APA (6th edition) format. Use at least 3 credible resources (one may be the textbook). As with any writing assignment, be sure that you edit the assignment for any spelling or grammatical errors. Make sure that the information obtained from your references has been restated in your own words and has proper in-text citations. The assignment will be run through turnitin.com to assess originality. Please refer to the course syllabus and Catalog for policies and procedures related to plagiarism and academic dishonesty. A simple example of a case study has been posted to doc sharing to give you an idea of how to format this assignment. Please note that the sample posted does not include all required components for this specific assignment! It is only meant to give you a general idea of how to organize your paper. Refer to the required content and notes described below to make sure that all components are present in your final submission! You may also wish to review the posted grading rubric before submitting your final draft.

Summary of Required Content  Cover Page  Part A – The Case Study (1-2 pages)  Part B – The Discussion (2-4 pages)  Part C – The Quiz (1 page)  Part D – The References (0.5 page)

Cover Page Please refer to APA resources (Writing Center, Academic Resource Center, Purdue OWL website) for instructions on how to format a cover page. Part A – The Case Study – Specific Components  Relevant patient history  Clinical presentation  Laboratory findings  Final diagnosis  Treatment and patient outcome

Part A – The Case Study – Additional Notes/Hints In Part A, you are writing a case study about a fictitious (made up) patient infected with a disease caused by the organism you have selected. You should describe symptoms and a clinical history that makes sense for the organism and disease selected. You should list general lab results that are relevant for the disease (i.e. CBC results, chemistry values, urinalysis results, etc.) as well as traditional microbiology work up results (Gram stain, culture plate morphology, biochemical tests, and so on). Once you have described the history, symptoms, and lab findings, you should state the official diagnosis. You should also discuss the specific treatment used for this patient, as well as this patient’s final outcome (i.e. did they recover, did they experience any complications, etc.). When completed, Part A should be about 1-2 pages long.

Part B – The Discussion – Specific Components  Organism habitat & transmission  Clinical significance of organism  Specimen collection & processing procedures  Laboratory identification procedures  Treatment protocols & antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

Part C – The Quiz – Additional Notes/Hints In Part C you will develop a quiz to check reader comprehension. The quiz should have a minimum of 5 multiple choice questions that the reader could answer after reading your case study and discussion (Parts A and B). You must also submit an answer key for the quiz. When completed, the quiz should be about 1 page

Part D – The References – Specific Components  Minimum of 3 fully cited references in APA format

Part D – The References – Additional Notes/Hints In Part D you are simply providing a correctly formatted reference list. You should have been restating and citing your references along the way as you wrote Parts A and B. These in-text citations direct the reader to the reference list, where they can find complete information about the resources you have used to write this paper. Your reference page will be about 0.5 pages long when formatted correctly. Make sure you use a minimum of 3 credible resources. One of these resources can be your textbook. A credible resource can be a textbook, a reference manual, a journal article, or even a website. The best place to search for references is the Online Library (linked through your student portal), which provides access to dozens of peer-reviewed reference sources. If you’re not sure how to research using the online library, please reach out to the Writing Center, the Academic Resource Center, or the Library here on campus. Contact your instructor or the BSMT program chair if you aren’t sure how to contact these resources.

 

create a detailed case study discussing a bacterial organism we cover during the course.

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Discuss how you would purify a contaminated bacterial culture using the streak-plate procedure.

Discuss how you would purify a contaminated bacterial culture using the streak-plate procedure..

MICROBIOLOGY (4106BMBMOL)    

Alternative practical assessment – To be completed by 1stof April 2020.

Please submit your coursework through the Turnitin box provided under ‘Assignments’ in Canvas. Submit your assignment as a word document. You can submit a draft of your assignment ONCE to Turnitin, and view the report. You can then make any changes in light of the Turnitin report of the draft.  When you have finalised the assignment, you should then submit it to the folder for the final submission. Note that you cannot view the Turnitin report for this.

Answer questions 1-3 in no more than a total of 1200 words (i.e. 400 words per question).  Use a separate page for each question. Where appropriate, please support your answers with references in a correct and consistent format (use the Harvard referencing system).

  1. Discuss how you would purify a contaminated bacterial culture using the streak-plate procedure.  Your answer should include labelled diagram.                                 (25 marks)
  • Describe the differences between the structure of a Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall.                                                                                               (25 marks)
  • Describe how environmental factors can affect bacterial growth.  Provide five examples to support your answer.                                                                                         (25 marks)
  • You are provided with data (Table 1) obtained during a study of the bacterial population of a broth culture.

An aliquot (1.0 ml) of broth culture was dispersed in 1000 ml of sterile distilled water and ten-fold dilutions of the resulting suspension were prepared (i.e. 10-4, 10-5, 10-6, 10-7 dilutions). Samples (100 µl) of each dilution were mixed with molten nutrient agar medium, poured into sterile petri dishes and allowed to set. The plates were incubated at 25oC for one week. After incubation, the number of bacterial colonies developing on the plates were counted. The following results were obtained:

 10-5 dilution10-6 dilution10-7 dilution
Mean number of bacterial colonies developing on plates at:56711011

Table 1.  Dilution plate count of the bacterial broth culture.

Express the above results in terms of the number of colony-forming-units per ml of broth culture.                                                                                            (25 marks)

Discuss how you would purify a contaminated bacterial culture using the streak-plate procedure.

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