The facts behind the Goldman Sachs fraud case

Introduction

Every country desires to be economically sable and powerful. For this to happen, the financial sector must be keenly focused on to ensure the economy is changing for the better. This is clear in the case of the United States of America, where they face an economic recession which led to loss of employments by the citizens, thus prioritizing the financial reforms. Besides loss of jobs, the failure of the financial sector led to ye collapse of many institutions, which necessitated the introduction of strict reforms to regulate the finances of the country. This would also ensure the situation did not get any worse, thus the introduction of the ‘Wall Street Reforms Bill’ (Herszenhorn, 2010). This bill advocated for the more governmental overseeing of the financial market and the system of banking which were becoming complex with time, yet were responsible for the stability of a country’s economy. This paper is intended at exploring the facts behind the Goldman Sachs fraud case, accusations made by the Securities and Exchange Commission, reaction of Goldman Sachs, final agreement and effects the case had on the financial reforms made.  

Background

Many organizations and persons are still recovering from the recent financial crisis that hit the United States of America. The reestablishment of institutions that closed is among the processes meant to stabilize the country again. Wrong decisions and irresponsibility on the part of some organizations, which included non adherence to the Wall Street Reforms Bill contributed largely to the depression. Since banks were the financers of the country’s economy, it was important to have them rescued first followed by financial other institutions. Research showed that the over extension of finances which have been overvalued by investment banks such as the Goldman Sachs also contributed to the economic lapse. Some of the important concepts related to the facts of the Goldman Sachs case and important for the discussion in the paper include:

Goldman Sachs

The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (Goldman Sachs) is an organization popularly known for its management of securities and banking and management of securities. Their dedication to service, variety background, popular principles applied in business and value attached to clients along with their status were the most valued assets of the company (goldman.com). Its service provision ranges from investment banking to and other financially related services such as acquisition and merger advice to clients. It has had a record of consistent increase in net worth and net profits realized per every quarter year, which has challenged similar institutions. The number of employees has also been on the records as constantly on the increase, a move which financial analysts interpret as increasing productivity. However, as discussed above, the paper reviews the facts of its fraud case against its clients. The good image maintained was tainted upon the law suit that was brought against them regarding the misleading of clients and inappropriate activities (goldman.com).

US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

This is a federal body recognized in the American constitution as one that regulates the functioning and ethics of the security industry. It ensures that all the laws relating to the industry are observed by those in it, thus sufficient protection of the general public from any chances of exploitation and fraud. Popularly abbreviated as SEC, it stabilizes the market activities of their stock exchange to avoid cases of gambling with the economy. According to Ketchum, (1986), “what we see now is the challenge of adjusting the regulatory and legal structures to deal with changes in the market structure on an international basis” (Pg 33). Clearly, their mandate has been challenging following the ever changing market structure, however, it is their duty to adjust the laws and ensure their enforcement to an extent where the abuse of the citizens/general public will be eliminated. This explains its charges against Goldman Sachs as a way of protecting the public from exploitation.

Mortgage-Backed Security (MBS)

Mortgage Backed Securities (MBS) are a form of bonds that the government in any of its capacity makes available to the public. This service can also be extended by the financial institutions, especially those dealing in investments. According to Black Enterprise, (1990), “Ginnie Mac and its two sibling organizations act as conduits and collect or pull individual mortgages that have been sold to them by commercial banks, savings and loans or other mortgage companies” (Pg 33). This shows that the extended mortgages should be controlled by a transparent body where the rates will be fair and government regulation is available incase of private sectors. The regulation as mentioned earlier is carried out by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Collateralized Debt Obligation (CDO)

As opposed to MBS which pools from an original source, CDO pools from bonds already in existence. This combines efforts from different banks which come together to increase the finances and enlarge their sources. It could also e referred to as bond or loan obligation depending on the specific subject matter being dealt with. Banks normally refer to the debts/loans/bonds, whichever is relevant in a specific scenario as securities or collaterals, which are further grouped depending on their similarity in risks. This could be either credit or maturity risk. With the knowledge of which type of risk one is exposed to, investors can be more cautious over the decision to invest in the bonds or not to (Hulse, 2010). Full information is also necessary to ensure there are no errors.

Credit Default Swap (CDS)

This is the financial concept whereby risk is transferable with advanced payment to the bearer. Losses through the risk occurrence will therefore not be the burden of the investor. The debt/loan/bond holder can get insurance so that incase of failure of the security in the market, they will receive full compensation, thus record no financial loss. However, just like any other form of insurance, premiums must be paid to the risk taker on a regular basis as per the agreement.

Subprime Mortgage Crisis

This is a crisis that was anticipated and later on occurred due to indulgence in criminal behavior which encouraged default in paying of mortgages. The circumstances surrounding its establishment are quite different. Criminal behaviors and tendencies to evade payment to the banks and other financial institutions led to his strict measures that would ensure guaranteed pay, thus less risk of failure of financial institutions as a result of default. This threatened to reduce the value of mortgages following the shaky background of the lenders who were the banks. Need for security and strictness helped correct the subprime mortgage crisis.

The Case

Parties Involved

In the case of the lawsuit brought against Goldman Sachs regarding their alleged fraud to the clients and going contrary to the regulations that govern the stock market, securities the parties involved were the Security and Exchange Commission and the Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. this case brought to light the events which led to the deception of general public and the larger picture where the financial sector took advantage of ignorance. This has been significantly encouraged by the existence of modern technology which few people understand. Information can also be easily concealed from the public where they have the right to know the actual facts. This was the case between the two parties where one, the Goldman committed fraud to the public and the other, SEC attempted to protect the public from exploitation which is its described duty by the government. The plaintiff in this case was the Securities and Exchange Commission which made the complaint. The defendant on the other hand was Fabrice Tourre who worked at the bank and was named in regards to the accusations against the investment management organization Goldman Sachs

Allegations

According to Gandel, (2010), “The civil fraud case the Securities and Exchange Commission filed in mid-April against Goldman is based on a single deal, called Abacus 2007-act.” the organization was accused of formulating the Act to favor its management in order to benefit when the recession became significant. Basically, the accusations were based on acts of fraud against investors by the Goldman Sachs. The firm was also strongly accused of gambling with the investor’s money in terms of trial and error where they would benefit regardless of the outcome. The investors were on the other hand at the risk of losing on their money which the firm did not let them know of (Newman, 2010). This amounts to fraud because despite the awareness of the available risks, the firm went ahead to assure the investors of the safety of their investments, thus holding important information, which they are, required to release upon doing business with the public or private partners.

Abacus Mortgage-Backed CDOs (Abacus 2007-AC1)

The Abacus 2007 is the copied CDO in this specific case, and was established in 2007. It is considered the poorest mortgage in performance which was also brought up from the accusations against Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (Lucchetti, and Serena, 2010). In this specific case, it is considered a deliberate move by the organization to extort money from its clients. It is presumed to have been formulated by the Goldman Sachs to favor its intentions as the accusations were brought forth against them. According to Lucchetti, and Serena, (2010), “… the mortgage deal at the centre of Friday’s civil fraud lawsuit against Goldman Sachs Group Inc., also boasts another dubious distinction: It was one of the worst performing mortgage deals of the housing crisis” the Security and Exchange Commission accused it for fraud based on this issue as well. As clearly illustrated, the Goldman Sachs was meant to market its importance and advantages it had when used by the clients. The illustration below shows the trend of the abacus before and after the purchase by potential investors. It shows the worth people had entrusted on the bonds which led to the large numbers who purchased the bonds.

Source: (<http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703757504575194521257607284.html>)

Paulson’s Investment Strategy

In the lawsuit filed by Securities and Exchange Commission against Goldman Sachs firm, the specific people targeted and mentioned Paulson and Fabrice Gandel, (2010), argues/states that, “Paulson’s investment strategy was founded on the belief that, for diverse reasons, a number of mid-and­ subprime RMBS, particularly those rated “Triple B,” would go through credit events.” As an investor with the company, he based is assumption on the fact that a company could be distinguished by one slight difference in name since it was also a separate and legal entity, since it was an investment through the company. It is worth noting that the considerations given before the risk were critical and a detailed analysis was present on Paulson’s part in determination of which loss would be greater, either the CDS or the CDO. The decided that the CDOs would experience more losses in uncertain circumstances, following the mid and subprime RMBS which contains the reference assets.

Securities and Exchange Commission’s Point of View

As would be expected, in a court session, both the plaintiff and defendant are given a fair hearing before the decision by the judge to decide the defendant’s judgment. It is the duty of the accused to defend the accusations and the plaintiff to prove to the court beyond reasonable doubt that the allegations are true, with sufficient evidence. In this case, the Securities and Exchange Commission had the obligation to prove against the defense of the Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. involvement in fraud against the public and their investors. To efficiently do this, the SEC came up with the following arguments:

Goldman Mislead and Lied to Clients

Gandel, (2010) argued/stated that, “In the Goldman case, the investment banks and hedge funds that concocted the CDOs allegedly loaded them with the equivalent of toxic bonds and then bought CDSs for themselves, figuring the CDOs would lose value.” As previously discussed, the CDOs represent bonds which may be held for the purposes of control of money flow to these particular investments in mortgage. Therefore, purchase of the bonds as an investment when the prices are lower with the hope of getting them back at a higher price should be the target of any investor. This should be far from requirement for a firm with investments and people investing in it. However, according to the allegations by the SEC, the firm was obliged to tell the clients and the general public of the possibility of reduction in prices before allowing them to invest with them. Interested groups were encouraged to proceed with their massive investments without any further knowledge since the organization was trusted and enjoyed a good reputation (Gandel, 2010). The SEC reported this with the argument that they did not guide the clients to make appropriate decisions by advising them on all possibilities, thus misleading them. Similarly, they lied by assuring them of secure prices where they planned to buy them back at cheaper prices right after they went down. As its mandate, the SEC gave its opinion to the court of law with the necessary facts against the accuser. This was in line with the body’s duty description which entails the protection of public from unscrupulous moves and exploitation.

Goldman mislead ACA about Paulson’s strategy

Besides the clients, SEC was of the opinion that the move by Goldman Sachs was also deceptive to the ACA. Firstly, its parent company was ACA was misleading on the role of Paulson in the marketing of the Abacus 2007. Paulson had hidden motives which would lead to economic gains by the company (Gandel, 2010). The fact that this information was concealed from the public and the holding company was enough for the firm to be sued in a court of law. Besides the losses likely to occur and which occurred later on, to harm the public, the situation involved breach of contracts which specified that utmost good faith be exercised. According to Gandel, (2010), the accusations brought forward by SEC demanded that,” … the marketing resources used for ABACUS 2007-AC1 by GS & Co were misleading because they stated that ACA selected the reference portfolio and failed to mention that Paulson, who had economic interests unpleasant to CDO investors, had a significant role to play in selecting the reference portfolio.” Undoubtedly, the use of the parent company’s name in the carrying out of transactions amounts to misleading of the organization.

Conflict of interest

This was no a very relevant complaint that the SEC was interested in bringing u against the defendant and the company. It however came about in relation to Paulson who was the secret investor and the largest beneficiary at the end. The Abacus was an investment project that was extended to the public to increase the firm’s funding. However, the very person who came up with the idea was fully aware of the anticipated failure of the same. This shows conflict in interest by the organization for going ahead to market Abacus with the full knowledge of its poor performance and unsuccessfulness in meeting the clients’ requirements.

Goldman Sachs’s Response

As previously discussed, the defendant must be given a fair trial where they will argue against the case brought in front of the court. It is worth noting that the plaintiff here, the SEC, has no vested interest in either of the parties directly involved in the case. It is only a way of fulfilling its mandate by ensuring the public is not exploited and that any attempts to disregard the regulatory rules is punished in the court of law. This explains the responses that the defendant had to the claims:

Unfound allegations

Gandel, (2010) stated that, “In response to the SEC suit, Goldman says it didn’t set up investments to fail and it didn’t mislead its clients. It plans to fight the charges aggressively

It did not mislead clients” this is a clear indication of the defendant’s statement of acceptance or denial of the allegations. In this particular situation, the Goldman Sachs Group, Inc denied the accusations. They maintained that the all they needed to do was done according to the laws that governed them and that the marketing of the Abacus was a genuine motive to expand its operations. They also maintained that the allegations were baseless and did not deserve a court hearing, thus request for its withdrawal. There was also defense on the basis of not enough evidence where the defendant wanted the case out of court. This showed a response that insisted to having clear motives and following the correct procedure. They argued that the suit was unfounded as well on the accusations that Fabrice failed to alert the investors of the involvement of Paulson in the firm (Luchetti & Serena, 2010).

Goldman lost money on the transaction

With the marketing and sale of Abacus as bonds taking place followed by the drop in prices, the SEC claimed that no amount was lost by the organization, Goldman Sachs, which could probably mean awareness of the expectations. Similarly, since they were aware, there were assumptions of intentions to buy them back after the prices went low in order to benefit from the difference. However, in response to this, and in their defense, they claimed they were incapable of engaging in investment activities where they would lose that much money (Gandel, 2010). The firm also responded to the court by claiming that though unwilling, a lot of money had been lost on their part as well especially the amount which was used to finance the marketing and sale project (Luchetti & Serena, 2010).

Provision of Extensive Disclosure

It was earlier discussed that the Securities and Exchange Commission forwarded the Goldman Sachs’ case to court to sue for many things among them incomplete disclosure of the financial position. This is relevant in the case of the marketer, Paulson. The firm responded in defense of the accusations and claimed full knowledge of the Abacus was available to the investors. They also pledged full alert of the risks that faced this much anticipated investment so as to give both perspectives to the potentials. This also was in contradiction of the accusations by the plaintiff, the SEC.

ACA selected the portfolio

Being the holding company with the majority of shares, ACA was bound to be the greatest loser of the investment along with other investments. This was however not the case. Besides this, the accusations of disclosure of limited information faced a more interesting response from the defendant. Claims of exercising confidentiality on buyers and seller and disclosure only with their approval were presented in court. In this case therefore, the response was corresponding to the accusation with the application of legal ethics in defense of the motives. Paulson being a long-term investor was concealed for privacy measures (Korkery, 2010).

The settlement

Basically, cases like this require the accused to pay a large amount as compensation to the accuser where the court deems it fit. The opposite is also true where the circumstances are different. Reviewing the evidence and the strength of the case brought should enable the judge make legal and fair decisions that the two parties will appreciate. The Securities and Exchange Commissions and Goldman Sachs would be expected to accept the court’s decision which would be final. Any repercussions were also to be strictly observed. After the evaluation of all the tabled facts, the court found that the evidence was sufficient enough to demand compensation from the Goldman for what was termed as junk securities. According to Damon, (2010), “Goldman Sachs agreed Friday to pay $550 million to settle a civil indictment by the securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) charging that the investment bank misled investors…” we realize that despite the many accusations, not all were found worthy for in court trial and settlement. In this case, the judgment specifically related to the misguidance to the public who were the potential investors, thus destabilizing them economically.

Besides the wrong lead and inefficient information disclosure, the judge also decided that the securities advanced to the investors were not real and a strategy to make more funds for the organization and the secret investors such as Paulson and Fabrice. More analysis and critical evaluation would have been helpful with the bonds sale. The court there fore decided that SEC would be awarded an amount totaling $550 million for the disregard of its rules and regulations and exploitation of the public (Damon, 2010).

The most significant settlement was the reforms that would ensure no reoccurrence of these trends especially where the public is involved. Damon, (2010) stated/agued that, “the Goldman case is particularly sensitive because the bank and its hedge fund partner engaged, in SEC words, in ‘fraudulent misconduct’ in the run up to the 2007 collapse of the subprime mortgage market.” These reforms would ensure maximum supervision of all the activities that would also ensure transparency of the firms. Here, the cases of fraud would be minimal. This case was a little bit different because the defendant at some point admitted to the charges of limited disclosure of information. For instance, in an event that the defendant was found innocent of all the charges, the SEC would be required to pay to them an amount as would be decided by the court. This would be due to defamation and wastage of resources and time. It was earlier discussed that the reputation of Goldman is the most valuable asset they possess. Therefore, a good name is worth very much.

Impact on Financial Reforms

Timing had to do with Madoff?

These had to do with the release that was advanced to the clients or the conditions that surrounded their release.  For instance timing had to do with the madoff and reforms. For instance, it is very time consuming for the acquisition of the same land issues where they need to settle the land and questioning of the people involved. The settlement was questionable in relation to the stocks of the bank.

Payment of the relevant amount to the SEC by the Goldman Sachs did not mean the end of the situation which was to be a lesson to others regarding the misuse of abilities to mislead the public. It is assumed that the coincidence of two events is not merely as it looks like and caution needed to be taken to cover up any inside job that was taking place. The financial reforms however assisted in the acquisition of justice and a warning to other firms who would be planning to exploit their clients and potential investors due to absence of rules to govern their operations. The SEC is responsible for this assurance and guarantee that the law, for the sake of its citizens, is followed.

Was it only Goldman who did this

Besides the confirmation that the accusations would be punished and sufficient compensation made by the accused, it was evident that the events were not an individual move and involved a couple of other people working with various companies. This was only a way to bring to light the existence of such exploitation and the precautions to be taken to curb such acts. According to the Securities and Exchange Commissions, the duty to protect the public interests from unscrupulous businesses laid in its hands even though there were no direct benefits. They did this to stabilize the economy and ensure citizens’ satisfaction in all sectors. It was a branch of the government that assisted to oversee the financial reforms implemented and their effectiveness. As stated above, the Goldman was only an indication of one of the firms engaging in secret and non-transparent operations which would lead to selfish gains at the expense of the public. The reforms however had made it easier and more strategically to discover the culprits. For instance, having Paulson involve in proposing of such a serious act and willingness to advertise it with full knowledge of its drop shows how much people make from the losses of the genuine investors.

Democrats and the reform bill

Calmes, (2010) stated that, “… the fraud suit against the Wall Street titan Goldman Sachs has emboldened Democrats to ratchet up pressure on Republicans who oppose the Obama administration’s proposal.” In their campaigns, the republicans and democrats clashed over the validity of the financial reforms acquired and the effectiveness of their implementation. The Wall Street reforms proposed to monitor the functioning of the institutions closely. This was to the advantage of the Democrats who had faced criticism from the republicans over the efficiency of these policies and objected to the signing in of such agreements and reforms (Calmes, 2010). It was also evident that focus on the Wall Street scandal would result in increased acceptance of the comprehensive renovation of financial instruction and regulation which had earlier on received much mixed reaction over its viability.

Conclusion

The basis of this discussion has been the case of Goldman Sachs and the Securities and Exchange Commissions. Basically, the relationship between the financial regulations and the ethical governing of institutions was wanting. Institutions banked on the absence of comprehensive laws to protect the public against cases of fraud to exploit the clients. Lack of transparency in the financial sector also contributed to the poor performance and recession. Therefore, reforms that will be beneficial to all, especially the public and potential investors are very favorable to the government. This is because it will encourage competence in the workers and healthy competition where inside trading does not occur. Clients will also be guaranteed to receive sufficient and complete information regarding the risk they are about to venture in to avoid surprises.

Works Cited:

Black Enterprise. Earl G. Graves, Ltd, 1990. Print.

Calmes, Jackie. “Democrats Seize on Financial Oversight After Goldman Suit” The New York Times. 18 April, 2010. Web. 31 July, 2010.

Damon, Andre. “Settlement in fraud case against Goldman Sachs: A cover-up of Wall Street crimes” The New York Times. 17 July, 2010. Web. 31 July, 2010.

Gandel, Stephen. “The Case Against Goldman.” Time Magazine: 22 April, 2010. Web. 31 July, 2010. <http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1983747,00.html>

Guerrera, Francesco & Henny Sender. “Goldman Charged With Fraud.” The Financial Times: 17April, 2010. Web. 31 July, 2010. <http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/54131e8c-49b9 11df-9060 00144feab49a.html>

Herszenhorn, David, M. “Bill Passed in Senate Broadly Expands Oversight of Wall St.” The New York Times. 20 May, 2010. Web. 31 July, 2010. <http://www.sec.gov/answers/mortgagesecurities.htm>

Hulse, Carl. “Democrats Used Goldman to Push Bank Overhaul.” The New York Times: 27 April, 2010. Web. 31 July, 2010. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/28/business/28bankers.html>

Luchetti, Aaron, Serena NG. “Abacus Deal: As Bad as They Come.” The Wall Street Journal: 20 April, 2010. Web. 31 July, 2010. <http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703757504575194521257607284.html >

Newman, Rick. “How Goldman Might Help Democrats in November.” US News: 16 April, 2010.  Web. 31 July, 2010. <http://money.usnews.com/money/blogs/flowchart/2010/4/16/how-goldman-sachs-might-help-democrats-in-november.html>

“US Securities and Exchange Commission.” The New York Times. 16 April, 2010. Web. 31 July, 2010. <http://www.sec.gov/news/press/2010/2010-59.htm>

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What was the theorist’s motivation behind writing the theory?

Compare the nursing philosophy of Benner and Henderson on the basis of the following criteria.
provide a substantive response that illustrates a well-reasoned and thoughtful response; is factually correct with relevant scholarly citations,references, and examples that demonstrates a clear connection to the readings
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QUESTION 1
Many sources exist that are triggers for theory development through the study of concepts and their related propositions. One such trigger is the research process, which, while it answers many questions, generates others based on research outcomes. Identify some possible questions for research study, the answers to which would serve to generate theory.
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Choose a theory that finds practical application in critical care/pediatric/psychiatric nursing and discuss the origins of the theory based on the following criteria:
How did the happenings of the nursing profession impact the origin of this theory?
What values, evidence, or existing knowledge did the theorist cite to support the theory?
What was the theorist’s motivation behind writing the theory?
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Compare the nursing philosophy of Benner and Henderson on the basis of the following criteria.
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Cite an example or case study from your field where both these philosophies find practical utility.

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What was the motivation behind this book?

I. General Instructions: For this assignment you will write a book report answering specific questions in detail, while incorporating theory and information from our text as well throughout your written presentation. Please note that you will be uploading your final document for grading (by your professor) and also to a discussion board for review by your peers, so that we can discuss this book as a class. Keep this in mind when writing your paper so as not to include any details you would not want the class to read. II. Suggestions on How to Best Proceed with Your Book Report: Read and Review book carefully (read thoroughly) taking pertinent notes paying special attention to details related to elements related to the assigned questions and the assignment rubric. Compose each portion of the paper: Introduction: write an introduction that clarifies the purpose and content of the paper. Overview: provide a brief overview of the book. Main Body of Paper: compose answers to the 10 questions you choose to address, being sure to thoroughly and substantively integrate course concepts, theories and ideas from our textbook that connect with answers to the questions you are addressing, utilizing proper in-text citations (APA style). Conclusion: write conclusion answering the mandatory questions to be included. Reference Page: create APA style reference page clarifying what sources you used in creating this paper. Review and Edit your paper and be sure you have substantive answers, have integrated course research and that your own voice is made clear as well. Also, be sure your paper is free of grammar/punctuation errors, flows well, is well organized and meets each criterion identified in the Assignment Rubric. I recommend leaving at least 7-10 days for review and changes. Double check all guidelines and Assignment Rubric and then submit for grading on or before the deadline. Again, note that you will need to keep a copy to upload to a discussion when the time comes as well. III. ADDITIONAL FORMATTING GUIDELINES: Paper must be from 7-10 pages (no more, no less). 12 font, double spaced and complete in Microsoft Word. Cite properly throughout your report. Be sure to write your responses in essay form and use proper APA format for citations and references. The proper APA citation for this book is: Medhus, E. (2001). Raising children who think for themselves. New York, New York: Atria Books. In text it would look like this: (Medhus, 2001) The appropriate citation for our textbook is: Berger, K. (2011). The developing person through the lifespan. (8th ed.). New York, New York: Worth Publishing. In text it would look like this: (Berger, 2011) Reminder: Cite frequently and properly throughout the paper! Assignment Rubric (400 points) (Additional 100pts. graded separately in a discussion) Provides intro including purpose and content of paper and brief overview of book. 40 Offers thorough discussion of each question and includes information from our text to back up thoughts, positions, and assertions. 100 Provides evidence of critical thinking is evident through examples from own life or the lives of others and integration of outside material and depth of discussion of material. 50 Answers questions in clear, substantive, concise manner (not overly wordy but also substantive). 50 Composes thoughtful and well-written conclusion that answers all necessary questions. 40 Offers well written, cohesive, organized and easy to follow. 40 Follows APA format is followed (format, citations, references) 40 Length from 7-10 pages (no more, no less). 12 font, double-spaced and completed in Microsoft Word. 40 QUESTIONS TO ANSWER NOTE: SELECT 10 QUESTIONS FROM THIS LIST of 20 TO RESPOND TO 1. What was the motivation behind this book? Can you relate to the reasons why the author wrote this book? Be specific. 2. Discuss the Five Essential qualities of Self Directed Children. Which do you see as most important and why? 3. What is the difference between Internal and External directed? Discuss the “Critical Crossroads, its significance and when it occurs?” 4. With regard to creating the proper family environment to foster Self-Directed thinking, name 3 behaviors parents can eliminate that promote Externally Direction. Discuss the one you find most damaging and why. Be specific with your reasoning and include support from our text where possible. 5. Discuss Repression and Domination as discussed in the book. What type of parenting might each correlate with in our text? 6. Of the six habits parents use to tell their children how to think, behave and feel, were any familiar to you (were they used on you growing up?)? If so, how did that impact you? Why do you think your parents chose to use those tactics on you? It is important to consider motivation. 7. How can parents encourage Introspection? Why is this important? 8. According to the author, when should you Praise/Reward your child and when should you not? What is her reasoning? Do you agree or disagree? Why? Be specific. 9. How can a parent de-rail unhealthy Internal Dialogue? Why is this an important task to do with children? 10. What is “Natural Intuition” and why do we need it? Are you able to employ your Natural Intuition? How do you think that impacts your daily life? 11. How can we teach children Empathy? Discuss the Empathy Triad. 12. What is “Benevolent Selfishness” and how is it different from “Selfishness?” 13. What is the difference between Punishment and Discipline? To be effective and not damaging with Discipline, “how” must Discipline be delivered and “what” should it encourage? 14. Discuss techniques that encourage Self-Direction. 15. How does the author recommend helping children handle real-world influence? 16. How does being “hurried” impact the development of reasoning skills? How can we provide time for internal direction? 17, How can we teach our children to value Inner influences over External Influences? Be specific. 18. How were you taught about sex when you were growing up? Did you find the method used helpful? What dos the author suggest as far as how to deal with the issue of sex? Do you think her suggestions are useful? Why or why not? Be specific. 19. The author offers over 100 pages of answer for parents regarding child-rearing challenges. Pick and discuss your top five favorites. Explain why you find the information for each challenge you discuss particularly useful. 20. NOW GO BACK AND LOOK TO SEE WHERE YOU CAN INTEGRATE CONCEPTS, THEORIES AND INFORMATION FROM OUR TEXTBOOK INTO YOUR ANSWERS. BE SURE TO DO IT AS OFTEN AS POSSIBLE, CITING PROPERLY EACH TIME! THIS IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE PAPER! SUMMARY CONCLUSION QUESTIONS – MUST ANSWER ALL NOTE: Every opinion is okay! I appreciate that you have your own mind and want you to voice your thoughts freely here! Did you find the book challenging to read? Were the concepts clear or unclear and did they make sense to you overall or not so much? Why or why not? Be specific. Were you familiar with the ideas presented in this book (have you read or experienced elsewhere?)? What was your experience like reading this book and writing this report?

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You are a project manager for the US government. After five years, you complete your major weapons system project. It is behind schedule, and over budget, but it has been a cost-plus incentive-fee contract,

You are a project manager for the US government. After five years, you
complete your major weapons system project. It is behind schedule, and over budget, but it has
been a cost-plus incentive-fee contract,

 

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for the landscaping work, and you set yourself a 2-month deadline. You set yourself a
front-loaded baseline, with $90,000 to be spent in the first six weeks on the berm,
$55,000 to be reserved for the planting of the trees in the last two weeks, $10,000 for the
shrubs, and $5,000 for a contingency fund. You have finished three weeks of work and
have spent $40,000 on actual landscaping work but have accomplished 50% of the
landscaping (not county trees and shrubs). Your project is:
a Behind schedule and under budget
b Over budget and on schedule
c. Under budget and on schedule
d. On schedule and at budget
2. Your earned value is:
a.
b.
c.
d. $50,000
$40,000
$45,000
$60,000 a.
b.
c.
d. 3. Your planned value is
$45,000
$50,000
$55,000
$60,000 a.
b.
c.
d. 4. Your actual costs are:
$40,000
$45,000
$50,000
$55,000 5. Your budget at completion is:
a. $150,000
b. $ 90,000
c. $155,000 d. $160,000
6. Your cost performance index (CPI) is
a.
b.
c.
d. 1.1
1.12
.925
.90 a.
b.
c.
d. 7. Your estimate at completion is:
$164,500
$156,500
$140,250
$142,222 a.
b.
c.
d. 8. Your variance at completion is:
-$ 5400
+$ 3500
+$19,750
+$17,778
9. You work as a project manager for a company in which your commitment to any one
project is part-time, your resource availability is limited and your authority is limited.
According to the PMBOK, your organization is probably a
a.
b.
c.
d. Functional organization
Weak matrix
Balanced matrix
Strong matrix
10. Frustrated, you leave and take a position as a project manager at a different organization
which promises you a full-time project manager’s role with low to moderate authority
and low to moderate resource availability. If these promises are accurate, you will be
moving to
a.
b.
c.
d. Projectized organization
Strong matrix
Hierarchical organization
Balanced matrix 11. The idea that “quality is a cost without benefit” is
a.
b.
c.
d. Without merit and generally ignored by American management
A widely held view, especially by managers with accounting and financial backgrounds
An idea that is somewhat accurate but overused
A hallmark of Japanese auto manufacturers. The following table will be used in problems 12 through 16:
Network diagram problem:
Activity
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K Duration
6
5
4
7
3
5
6
4
4
5
7 Construct the Network Diagram: 12.
a.
b.
c.
d. The duration of the project is: X
26
24
29
27 13.
a.
b. The critical path of the project is: X
ABDGJ
ABEHJ Dependencies
None
A
A
B
B.C
C
D
F.E
F
G.H
H.I c.
d. ACEHJ
ACFIK 14.
a.
b.
c.
d. The float on activity E is
3
4
6
2 15.
a.
b.
c.
d. The float on activity I is
4
3
2
5 16. (Questions 16-19) You are a project manager for the US government. After five years, you
complete your major weapons system project. It is behind schedule, and over budget, but it has
been a cost-plus incentive-fee contract, and the delays have resulted from required customer
upgrades in technology. As a result, you expect that the government customer will be
a.
b.
c.
d. Angry at you non-performance and will thus “ding” your award fee.
Demand that you carry the additional costs.
Impose a penalty for the busted schedule
Congratulate you and pay the costs on the sliding scale required by the contract. 17. Your functional manager calls you in prior to the final project closeout meeting and upbraids
you because he says you are over your point of total assumption. Your best strategy is to
a. Take the abuse and ignore the charges because there is no PTA in a cost-plus incentive fee
contract, then go to the closeout meeting with confidence.
b. Retort that if he knew anything about contracting, he would know that there is no PTA in
a cost-plus incentive fee contract.
c. Go to the meeting and ask the customer for consideration on the PTA issue.
d. Report your Functional Manager to HR for creating a “hostile work environment”.
18. After the closeout meeting, your project will most likely be handed off to a
a. configuration manager
b. functional manager
c. program manager
d. team manager
19. The EV (BCWP) is $75,000; the AC is $85,000; the PV (BCWS) is $65,000. The project is:
a. ahead of schedule and under budget
b. behind schedule and under budget. c. behind schedule and over budget.
d. ahead of schedule and over budget.
20. Monte Carlo method is used in
a.
b.
c.
d. Project cost control
Project quality forecasting
HR project management
Project risk management 21. Delphi method originated in post-World War II defense analysis and involves
a.
b.
c.
d. Simply qualitative guessing by team members
Applying the principles of probability embodied in gambling.
Establishing a consensus on risk probability by consulting independent experts
Hiring psychics to discern the future 22. For risk probability, the best analyses are based on
a.
b.
c.
d. Historical or actuarial data
Delphi method
Monte Carlo method
Gaming odds. 24. The most regressive type of contract from the standpoint of the seller is the
a.
b.
c.
d. Firm fixed price
Fixed price incentive fee
Time and materials
Firm fixed price plus penalty fee. 25. As a project manager, your admin staff is part-time, but your role is full-time. According to
the PMBOK, you are most likely to be in a
a.
b.
c.
d. Strong matrix
Functional organization
Balanced matrix
Weak matrix 26. Conflict resolution is the preferred methodology of
a. Project management
b. Integration management
c. HR Management
d. Classical management
27. The first step in building a PERT/CPM network is to: a.
b.
c.
d. Create a flow chart
Show task relationships
Build a schedule.
Create a work-breakdown structure 28. The project life-cycle can be best described as:
a.
Project concept, project execution, and project reporting.
b.
Project planning, work authorization, and project reporting.
c.
Project planning, project control, project definition, and project termination.
d.
A series of sequential project phases that vary by organization. 29. Functional managers have the greatest influence in the direction of the project in a
a.
b.
c.
d. Weak matrix
Balanced matrix
Strong Matrix
Projectized organization. 30. The major definition of a “program” used in this class is
a.
b.
c.
d. a grouping of related projects that are to be integrated into larger whole.
a unique undertaking having a definite time period.
a grouping of projects having no definite relationship to one another.
any project with a cost over $1 million. 31. Conflict management is the preferred methodology of
b.
c.
d.
e. Project management
Integration management
Configuration management
Classical management 32. The purpose of a dummy activity in an activity-on-arrow (AOA) diagram is to
a.
b.
c.
d. depict a dependency
indicate a milestone.
show a task that is not necessarily needed.
take the slack time into account. 33. A project can be defined as:
a.
b.
c.
d. A large complex undertaking with many objectives and no discernable endpoint.
A group of activities headed by a PM with entire responsibility for the end product.
A coordinated undertaking activities with a specific goal &amp; finite life-span.
Related activities directed toward a specific goal accomplished in a year’s time. 34. The PMI teaches that the typical PM spends what percentage of time communicating?
a.
60%
b.
80%
c.
70%
d.
90%
35. The Project Charter MUST
a.
designate the PM and authorize him or her to draw funds and resources to plan
and execute the project
b.
establish the organizational structure within which the project will operate.
c.
specify the overall objectives and timeframes of the project.
d.
be developed by the project sponsor and signed by the project manager.
36. The purpose of building a PERT/CPM network is to:
a.
Determine the critical path
b.
Show task relationships
c.
Create a work-breakdown structure
d.
Create a flow chart
37. On internal projects, the project charter is authorized by….
a.
senior management.
b.
the customer.
c.
the project manager.
d.
the project stakeholders.
38. A work breakdown structure is most useful for …
a.
b.
c.
d. identifying individual activities, tasks and work packages.
scheduling the start of tasks.
developing a cost estimate.
developing risk estimates. 39. The Risk of NOT meeting project quality objectives:
a.
b.
c.
d. can be minimized through continuous monitoring.
is immaterial, since ‘quality is a cost without benefit’.
should be ignored, since it is ephemeral anyway.
is a concern of the QA officer, and not the PM. 40. The Schedule Performance Index (SPI) measures:
a.
b.
c.
d. cost of work performed vs. planned costs.
work scheduled vs. planned work.
work performed vs. work scheduled.
work performed vs. actual costs 41. The estimate at completion (EAC) refers to
a. The initial project cost baseline
b. The planned value at any point in the project
c. The estimated final costs once the project has begun and the PM has real costs for
comparison
d. The estimate of the costs remaining to complete the project
42. The estimate at completion (EAC) is found by
a.
b.
c.
d. Dividing the CPI into the BAC
Dividing the SPI into the BAC
Multiplying the BAC by the CPI
Multiplying the BAC by the SPI 43. Risks classified as unknown unknowns (i.e., those which cannot be identified or evaluated):
a.
b.
c.
d. Should be covered by the management reserve
Should be handled via the contingency reserve.
Should be ignored, since they cannot be identified.
Should be ignored, since they are not covered in the Project Risk Assessment. 45. Contracting out to a third party represents which strategy for risk management:
a.
b.
c.
d. Transference/deflection
Avoidance
Acceptance
Sharing 46. A project appears to be both more profitable and far more costly after the initial feasibility
study. Your best strategy as the company’s PM would be to
a.
b.
c.
d. abandon the project
find a well-heeled partner to finance the project and share both the costs and the profits X
sub-contract out the project
take on the project, even though the additional costs will place your company in serious
financial risk. 47. Final risk quantification normally combines risk probabilities &amp; impacts with contingency
costs and consolidates these into
a.
economic terms for analysis.
b.
schedule impacts.
c.
environmental impacts
d.
a contingency reserve 48. The basic document that identifies, prioritizes and quantifies risks is
a.
b.
c.
d. 49. Work breakdown structure
Milestone review and schedule technique
Cost/schedule control system
Risk Register Budgeted contingencies can be determined by:
a
Qualitative Risk Analysis
b.
Quantitative Risk Analysis
c.
combining the risk results and consolidating these with the contingency costs.
d.
Cost and Schedule Analysis. 50. Risks classified as unknown unknowns (i.e., those which cannot be identified or evaluated):
a.
b.
c.
d. Should be covered by the contingency reserve and managed by the PM
Should be handled via the management reserve and distributed by the sponsor.
Should be handled as a team effort and included in the project baseline
Should be ignored, since they are not covered in the Project Risk Assessment. ______________________
Extra Credit: 2 pts each
51. In a time and materials contract
a.
if the amount of the contract is exceeded, the seller is not obligated to continue.
b.
the contract is essentially a cost contract at a specified rate.
c.
the seller agrees to a best effort to fulfill the contract within the specified amount.
d.
the seller agrees to fulfill the terms at the established price.
52. Regarding project estimating, which of the following assertions is NOT true?
a. one always estimates as low as possible.
b. one starts with a high estimate &amp; works towards a lower estimate with greater
accuracy.
c. one begins with a rough order of magnitude estimate and ends with a definitive
estimate.
d. even a definitive estimate is high, measuring from 15% above actual to 5% below
actual.
53. As the PM chairing a meeting, you must do all but which of the following:
a.
control irrelevant discussion
b.
negotiate contracts
c.
produce the meeting agenda
d.
determine who does and who does not get invited

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Identify and give the pathophysiology behind why this complication could be the cause of this deterioration? Identify six (6) nursing interventions you would perform in this situation?

Identify and give the pathophysiology behind why this complication could be the cause of this deterioration? Identify six (6) nursing interventions you would perform in this situation?.

1 .In the fourth hour post op, you notice that Mrs Akimoto’s respiratory rate has decreased to 8/min and her oxygen saturation has dropped to 89%. (100 words)

 

Identify and give the pathophysiology behind why this complication could be the cause of this deterioration?  Identify six (6) nursing interventions you would perform in this situation?

 

After you come back from your dinner break, you enter Mrs Akimoto’s room to find her unresponsive.  (100 to 150 words)

As an Enrolled Nurse, what are four (4) ways you could contribute to the emergency management of Mrs Akimoto?What equipment may be brought to the bedside to assist in Mrs Akimoto’s care?Name the two (2) first line drugs found on the resuscitation trolley.Identify the actions of these 2 drugs and their route of administrations.

 

What four (4) changes to the presentation of the wound and patient would make you suspect an expanding infection process is occurring? Identify the name of a generalised infection in the blood stream and its treatment.What is the potential side effect of this generalised infection if left untreated? (75 words)

Identify and give the pathophysiology behind why this complication could be the cause of this deterioration? Identify six (6) nursing interventions you would perform in this situation?

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Choose a topic that is an everyday situation and then explore the microbiology behind it. Example children’s day care. This would be a huge topic with many microorganisms therefore I would perhaps list the diseases in the introduction and then have each person focus on one of them (which ever one they find most interesting).

Choose a topic that is an everyday situation and then explore the microbiology behind it. Example children’s day care. This would be a huge topic with many microorganisms therefore I would perhaps list the diseases in the introduction and then have each person focus on one of them (which ever one they find most interesting)..

Diseases Usually found in a meat packaging warehouse (Microbiology related)

Paper details:

The class will be divided into 3-4 person groups. Each group will research a topic related to microbiologic science and offer a short (10 – 15 minute) presentation on the topic. The topics should not be available within the text book and should be information that is not offered within the course content. Each disease should be investigated as to epidemiology, causative agents, preventative measures, symptoms, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and disease sequelae. Do not dwell on treatment options unless they seem particularly interesting. References are to be included. Groups should have their research project and outlines done a few weeks in advance of the presentation date. The presentations will be done on campus during the last scheduled lab. PowerPoint is required for your presentation. Know the subject well so as not to read your paper during presentation.

Choose a topic that is an everyday situation and then explore the microbiology behind it. Example: children’s day care. This would be a huge topic with many microorganisms; therefore, I would perhaps list the diseases in the introduction and then have each person focus on one of them (which ever one they find most interesting).

This concept is to work as a group (which you will be doing for the rest of your professional career). If a group member is not contributing, please let me know. Also, if each group member wants to present his or her work, that is fine. If the group chooses a single person to present, that is also fine.

There are many potential topics to explore. In order not to be redundant, post your topic in the discussion area.

Topic examples: Child care, Nursing homes, wound infections, airplanes, swimming pools and hot tubs, prions, diseases from your pet (dog, cat, horses, fish, turtles, etc.), diseases from kissing, locker room floors and showers, grocery carts, gardening, mosquito bites, ticks, deer and deer processing, needle sticks, hand shakes, nosocomial infections, gym equipment, bioterrorism update, MRSA, food recalls, out in the woods, cruise ship, IV drug use, AIDS update, kitchen cutting boards, hand sanitizer versus hand washing, tooth brush, computer key boards, CDC – what is it, WHO – what is it, bird Flu, swine Flu, or whatever you come up with or are interested in.

Choose a topic that is an everyday situation and then explore the microbiology behind it. Example children’s day care. This would be a huge topic with many microorganisms therefore I would perhaps list the diseases in the introduction and then have each person focus on one of them (which ever one they find most interesting).

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What is the reason for calling Chicago cubs “cubs”? What is the history behind it?

What is the reason for calling Chicago cubs “cubs”? What is the history behind it?.

What is the reason for calling Chicago cubs “cubs”? What is the history behind it?

During the turn of the time (18 to 1900), teams did not have official nicknames this lead to the newspapers changing what they called teams every few years. Since the Chicago baseball club had an unusual number of very young athletes, this leads to them being called the “orphans” for a few years. Chicago had a huge orphan dilemma at the moment so people didn’t bother for the nickname, so the newspapers began calling them the “cubs”(baby bears).

The Cubs organization started out life as the Chicago White Stockings (a name that was later appropriated by the cross-town rival Chicago White Sox) and changed its name to the Chicago Colts in 1890 because of the relative youthfulness of the team. When the owner refused to renew the contract of the team manager, Cap Anson, in 1898, the club became known as the ‘Orphans’ and remained so for three years.

Orphans is a pretty odd name for a team, a new nickname was sure to emerge before too long – and after the dismal season of 1901, the club began a rebuilding project, using rookies and other young players. Check out the most amazing collection of Chicago cubs hats and Chicago cubs shirts.

A few years later the National league picked teams that required to have official nicknames as some towns were preparing 2 or 3 teams( earlier each team was called [city name] baseball club) so the “Chicago baseball club” officially stuck with “Chicago Cubs “.

What is the reason for calling Chicago cubs “cubs”? What is the history behind it?

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History Behind Moulin Rouge the Movie Essay

History Behind Moulin Rouge the Movie Essay.

It was 1899 in Paris, France, it was the time of the Bohemian Revolution, and it was the summer of love. Christian, played by Ewan McGregor, was a writer and came to Paris to experience this revolution and be surrounded by the artists, singers, and dancers of this new Bohemian world. Little did he know that he would experience something he had never felt before but always believed in: love. Moulin Rouge, directed by Baz Luhrmann, is an exquisite movie musical based off of a real life cabaret called Moulin Rouge in Montmartre.

The movie tells the story of the love triangle between Christian, Satine aka the “Sparkling Diamond” of the Moulin Rouge, played by Nicole Kidman, and The Duke. Although Christian and Satine are fictional characters, the story includes real life characters such as Harold Zidler, the co-mastermind of the Moulin Rouge and Toulouse-Lautrec, a famous French artist. Moulin Rouge is a great look into what life was like back in Paris in 1900, but also adds in the love story between Christian and Satine to make for a great movie musical.

In the beginning of the movie, Christian’s optimistic love shines some light into Satine’s dark materialistic reality. To make a living, Satine became a courtesan at the Moulin Rouge. She gets paid for making men believe what they want to believe, so she sells her body to make money. She mistakenly became attracted to Christian for his pure and optimistic belief in love. Seeing that Christian did not have a lot of money, she becomes hesitant of loving him because he would not be able to support her and her dreams of being an actress. With Christian’s pure and optimistic belief of love, he captures Satine’s heart by loving her for who she really is, not for what she is. Although Satine dies in the end of the movie, Christian learns that true love lasts forever even through death. Harold Zidler, who is not a fictional character, is the man who helped to run the real Moulin Rouge cabaret. In the film, and in real life Paris, Zidler was the man who was, “a ‘brother’ to the artists and the man in the shadows who watched over the dancers and the rest of the personnel with a benevolent eye and ruled with an iron fist” (History).

In the film he is the one who is in charge of making sure everything goes perfectly at the cabaret and makes sure all his dancers, especially Satine, know what they are supposed to do and who they should impress that night. Not only did he run the Moulin Rouge he was also a showman and performed with his dancers in the shows. Toulouse-Lautrec was also an important person when it comes to the cabaret in Paris. In the film he does not have a huge role other than help Christian get inside the Moulin Rouge and find a way for him to meet Satine. In Paris in the 1900’s, though, he is said to have been “the eyes of the Moulin Rouge.” Toulouse-Lautrec attended every evening show when the cabaret opened; and as mentioned before he was an artist, so every night he would sit in a corner and draw the dancers accompanied by a glass of absinthe (History).

The fact about the absinthe is also in the movie; Toulouse-Lautrec, Christian, and a few others take a shot of absinthe before they head to the Moulin Rouge one night and the next few minutes of the film are just filled with pure craziness and hallucinations. His artwork, though, was extremely important in the success of the Moulin Rouge. “In 1891, he drew the first advertising poster for the Moulin Rouge, which today remains the best known image of the Moulin Rouge around the world” (History). His work is still famous today and without him the Moulin Rouge in Paris would not be as well known as it is today. The dancers of the Moulin Rouge were masters of the “cancan.” One of the stars and also known as “Queen of the Cancan” was Louise Weber, but her nickname was “La Goulue.”

She is not specifically in the film, but in a biography about her, it states that, “one evening when she was dancing a frenetic cancan, between two cartwheels she spotted the Prince of Wales, who had come to spend an evening on his own at the Moulin Rouge, and called out, with the Parisian cheek for which she was well know, ‘Hey, Wales! The champagne’s on you?’” (History). La Goulue is relatable to Satine in the film, because Satine was also the star and best dancer and she spotted Christian the first night he was there and while she was dancing called him out in front of everyone who was in attendance at the Moulin Rouge that evening. Moulin Rouge is one of Baz Luhrmann’s best films. The movie came out in June 2001 and has won many awards and is one of the best movies in the musical genre. The set design, costumes, casting of roles, and music all is so perfectly put together to create this brilliant film.

Luhrmann, who also co-wrote the movie with Craig Pearce, traveled to Paris with Pearce and the production designer to conduct historical research and write the synopsis for the movie. “To find ways to depict 19th century Paris and the Moulin Rouge as it may have felt to its audience then – at the cutting edge of sex, music, dance, theater and modern thinking – the filmmakers immersed themselves in the neighborhood, venues and culture of their story” (Luhrmann). Through their research and learning about the culture, they came to understand that the Moulin Rouge was a club that brought all different classes together and Pearce quotes that is the equivalent of “Studio 54 in New York in the late 70’s; a place where the rich and the powerful can mix with the young, the beautiful and the penniless” (Luhrmann). This is shown in the movie because we see the powerful, such as The Duke, and then Christian who is just a writer, come to the same club to experience the same thing, women and entertainment.

The first half an hour of the movie is nonstop music, dancing, lights, and just absolutely craziness. Audiences are not given a chance to “relax” and just slowly take the movie in; it is fast paced and keeps the movie viewer on their toes just waiting for what will come next. In a movie critique, shortly after it came out in 2001, the movie reviewer describes Moulin Rouge as “grandiose, glorious, absinthe-soaked excess.” When filming, Luhrmann wanted everything to be over the top and wanted more out of the production; more songs, more sound, more color, more everything (Kaplan C.D.). This is what it was like in the real cabaret, the dancing and songs were all so intense and crazy so the men would be fully entertained and never get bored. There was a lot going on in Paris in the late 1880’s and 1890’s. The Eiffel Tower was built, the first cinematographic screening was shown by the Lumiere brothers, and the most famous cabaret opened its doors.

“The public came in mass to discover this extravagant place with its huge dance floor, mirrors everywhere, and galleries that were the last word in elegance, to mix with the riffraff and girls of easy virtue” (History). The Moulin Rouge was a place for the rich and poor men to come for dancing, music, and entertainment from the ladies; it is said to have been an atmosphere of “total euphoria.” This was a time where workers, aristocrats, artists, and the middle-class could all gather together to experience cabarets, music-halls, and other night time activities. As mentioned before, this movie takes place during the Bohemian Revolution. This revolution was not a revolution of fighting, but a revolution of art and culture. It was a time for artisits, poets, writer, singers, dancers, and anyone else who wanted to express themselves to show off their talents and be recognized. These were the “children of the revolution” (Moulin Rouge).

In the beginning scenes of Moulin Rouge, Christian is told that to really be a child of the revolution, he has to believe in beauty, freedom, truth, and most importantly love. Which of course he believes in love, it is what he lives for and as stated earlier, he is given the chance to experience love for the first time. Not only is the movie based off of the real cabaret in Paris, but it is also partly based on the Greek myth of Orpheus and partly on the opera La Traviata by Giuseppe Verdi (IMDb). The Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice is somewhat like the story between Christian and Satine. Orpheus is said to have been the best musician that ever lived and until he met Eurydice, he lived his simply and carelessly.

Orpheus and Eurydice fell in love and it meant everything to both of them but someone else wanted Eurydice’s beauty and wanted her but she did not care for this other man. To make a long story short, she ends up dying and Orpheus tries to get her back from the underworld but could not save her; all he had left was the love they once had (“Orpheus”). For Christian, he lost Satine and would never get her back again but what he got from her death was a story of true love that he has to share with the world. Satine was already dying before she fell in love with Christian, but at least she was able to die knowing what it was like to be in love.

The opera La Traviata is another love story that ends tragically. Violetta, who is a courtesan, claims that love means nothing to her until she meets a young man named Alfredo which makes her then wonder if he could be the man that she could love. In the end of the story, though, Violetta is diagnosed with tuberculosis and does not have long to live and dies at Alfredo’s feet (“La Traviata”). This opera, the myth of Orpheus, and Moulin Rouge, are all similar in the way that the woman never really believed in love until they met that one man that changed their views on love, there are challenges to face one the man and woman fall in love, and then it is the woman who dies in end leaving their lovers all alone. Each story is a little different but the same basic idea, from the opera and Greek myth, are apparent in the film.

From twentieth century Paris, the Bohemian Revolution, the myth of Orpheus, Harold Zidler, and other historical moments, Moulin Rouge is a one of a kind musical film that is an amazing piece of work put together by Luhrmann. Knowing the history behind the film makes it exciting to watch and understand what it was like back in Paris in 1899.

Works Cited

“The History of the Moulin Rouge and its Shows.” Moulin Rouge.fr. Le Bal du Moulin Rouge, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2011.
Kaplan, C.D. Rev. of Moulin Rouge, by Baz Luhrmann. Louisville Eccentric Observer, Louisville, Ky.: 30 May 2001. Vol. 11, Iss. 30; pg. 21
“La Traviata.” The Metropolitan Opera. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. Luhrmann, Baz,, and Craig Pearce, commentary. Moulin Rouge. Dir. Baz Luhrmann. Perf. Nicole Kidman and Ewan McGregor. Twentieth Century Fox, 2001. Film. Moulin Rouge. Dir. Baz Luhrmann. Perf. Nicole Kidman and Ewan McGregor. Twentieth Century Fox, 2001. Film.

“Moulin Rouge.” IMDb. IMDb.com, Inc., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. “Orpheus and Eurydice.” Paleothea Myths. N.p., 10 Jan. 2008. Web. 18 Nov. 2011.

History Behind Moulin Rouge the Movie Essay

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Write a formal memo write up of this PSA and the decisions behind why you selected the images, language, music, etc

Write a formal memo write up of this PSA and the decisions behind why you selected the images, language, music, etc.

Marketing Campaign/ PSA assignment Instruction:

There are two main assignments below:

  1. Create a PSA video.
  2. Write a formal memo write up of this PSA and the decisions behind why you selected the images, language, music, etc.

1.PSA Video Requirements

  1. When creating the PSA, be sure to discuss the Target Market and the narrower Target Audience.
  2.  You can create something work related like a PSA on coworker dress code or on improving employee health; you can do something school related like entreating the president to decrease tuition or something global-related like clean water for all children or an international light initiative.  You can also do something funny, etc… (PSA Topic: No nudity or lewd PSAs; No animal cruelty; No abortion.)
  3. The PSA video should not exceed 2 minutes.
  4. The PSA can be serious, heartwarming, sad, funny or anything in between.
  5. Please do not expect commercial quality recording

2.Formal Memo Requirements

  1. The memorandum is used to explain and justify the decisions for the PSA.
  2. Please consider the following when writing the memo:
  3. Who is your receiver/audience and why did you target them?
  4. Why did you select the images, audio, background, graphics, music, etc? What purpose do they serve to you/your receiver? (Be very specific and detailed in your analysis of these decisions.)
  5. In terms of language in your PSA, what do your words evoke?  If audio, why?  If in literal writing, why? If you felt silence was a better strategy, why?
  6. If there was something more you could have added, what would that have been?  Why?
  7. Ultimately, do you believe your PSA was successful and would hit your intended target–why/not?
  8. The memo should not exceed 2 pages in length with single spaced, 1” margin for each, 12 fonts and Times New Roman. (Please consider the language and descriptions carefully)

Another two attachments are the examples(Video and a document) about this assignment. DO NOT use language from or duplicate the style of this student’s memo analysis!!!

Write a formal memo write up of this PSA and the decisions behind why you selected the images, language, music, etc

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What is the history behind the wildfires in California?

What is the history behind the wildfires in California?.

The 2018 wildfire season in California was one of the deadliest in the state’s history, burning 1.8 million acres of forest, killing more than 100 people, and destroying more than 10,000 homes and other structures.

Starting from the NAU Online Library Science & Math subject guide, research this annually occurring natural disaster and write a paper that answers the following questions:

Questions
What is the history behind the wildfires in California?
What causes the fires? (There are at least two opposing arguments related to the cause of the fires. Which one do you most agree with, and why?)
Some people believe there is a connection between the wildfires and the devastating mudslides in the Pacific West. Do you agree with this assessment? Why and why not? Explain.
What is the impact of the wildfires on the environment and on the economy of the state?
What kinds of restrictions and regulations could be put in place to prevent the fires from occurring in the future? What mitigation strategies and practices would you suggest?
What is the connection between these natural disasters and the environmental policies and regulations at the state and federal level?

Rating Scale
10-9 Work meets or exceeds criterion at a high level of competence.
8 Work reflects an understanding of criterion with minor misunderstandings/misconceptions.
7 Criterion partially met, but one or more important concepts/skills are missing or flawed.
6 Work reflects an attempt to meet criterion, but significant misunderstandings/misconceptions are apparent.
5-0 Criterion not met or work is absent.
Criteria
1. The paper discusses the history of the wildfires in California.
2. The paper describes at least two main causes of the fires.
3. The paper explains the connection between wildfires and mudslides.
4. The paper describes the impact of the wildfires on the environment and the economy of the state.
5. The paper describes types of restrictions and regulations that could be put in place to prevent wildfires.
6. The paper discusses the connection between the California forest fires and state and federal environmental policies and regulations.

What is the history behind the wildfires in California?

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