Theory and Methodology of Training
Summary of Periodization
The book, Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training, is a major resource on periodization for coaches, sports scientists, and athletes all over the world (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Chapter two of the book discusses the principles of training, and it begins by expounding the difference between multilateral development and specialization and looks at these concepts separately trying to give readers a better view of both. Multilateral development and overall physical development is a necessity in athletics (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 9). It is important for athletes to use multilateral development plan during the early stages of development as it lays the groundwork for the later times of training where the athlete will focus more on specialization (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 84). Multilateral training is effective as it helps the athlete develop the psychological and physiological basis necessary in maximizing performance in a later period of his or her career (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 84). People will often feel the urge to shift from multilateral training and begin on specialized training, and thus it is important to curb this urge. The coach or trainer is expected to be the one responsible for preventing this deviation.
This chapter also expounds on the concepts of individualization and the need for developing a training model. This chapter shows the need for athletes to have sequencing training load. The instructor should develop a training model to help the athletes develop themselves. This chapter emphasizes the need for training principles, including incorporating principles in training and letting these principles guide a person through the training. That is why it is important to understand when to engage in multilateral training and when to shift to specialized training. It is also important to understand when to work as a team and when to train as an individual.
This chapter discusses the essence of loading elaborating deeper on standard loading. Where similar training densities and training loads are used all through the preparation stage, linear loading is used in the development and incorporates periods of recovery to maximize on adaptive responses. Also, step loading includes progressive overload put together with periods of unloading and concentrated loading which is referred as short-term overreaching because it includes high intensities and volumes over a short time.
This chapter focuses on the variables of training such as volume, density, intensity, complexity, and index of overall demand among other concepts (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Volume refers to the quantity of work that is involved in the training phase/session. Volume can be increased by increasing the density or increasing the quantity of work during training. In some sports such as cycling and running, the volume can refer to the duration or the distance covered.
However, intensity refers to the power output or the velocity of progression (Bompa & Haff, 2009). The intensity can be measured as speed, power, or force. This chapter shows that volume and intensity are inversely related in a lot of case. High intensities and volumes lead to increased physiological stress and can lead to neuromuscular fatigue. There are instances where high volumes of work which incorporates low intensities can serve as a ground for the increased intensity workloads which supposedly come later on.
On the other hand, density relates to the distribution or frequency involved in training sessions. This shows that it is important to have sessions for working and phases whereby the athlete takes a break. It is necessary to establish an appropriate work: rest ratios so that one can attain the necessary energy systems. This chapter tries to explain the need to properly incorporate these variables into training and understand how to balance them. Volume, intensity, complexity, and density are effective variables of training which can have beneficial or damaging consequences, but it depends on how they are used.
To maximize preparedness, it is important to have a period of rest and recovery. This period is important so as to maintain fitness and dissipate fatigue and it can be achieved by properly designing a program which has logical variations in intensity, volume, and exercise solution (Bompa & Haff, 2009). In training, fatigue can be broken in either chronic or acute. Chronic includes the time when a person does not manage to recover from stimulus especially due to high intensities and volumes over a long period while acute fatigue is mostly specific to the task.
One can incorporate the aspect of overreaching, which is when one encompasses high intensities and volumes over a short period. Overreaching is often followed by unloading which aims to compensate and usually takes up two to five weeks after the overreach period. Rest and recovery can be affected by the aspect of overtraining. This focuses on long periods of decrease in performance as a result of non-training and training stressors. This can be caused by monotonous training patterns which are sustained over a long time or are frequently used (Bompa & Haff, 2009). In order to prevent overtraining, it is important to individualize training, periodize the program, incorporate recovery and restoration measures, keep a training log, and educate the athletes on issues of nutrition, sleep, and other non-training stressors.
Recovery can be either passive or active. Passive recovery may include sleep which aims for about nine to ten hours. This may also incorporate 30 minutes naps during the day so as to keep the athlete fresh. These naps can also act as simple active recovery methods. Other recovery methods can include light exercises which may improve lactate clearance, massage which will reduce anxiety, stress, tension, and depression while improving the mood and increasing relaxation (Bompa & Haff, 2009). It is important to have ample time for rest and recovery if one is to keep up with other athletes or aiming at bettering them.
This chapter focuses on the annual training plan. This involves aspects of periodization whether it is periodization of strength training, periodization of endurance, or periodization of speed (Bompa & Haff, 2009). It is important to pick certain exercises at specific times in the periodized plan (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 187). The annual training plan can be used to divide the year into some distinct phases which have specific goals. It is important to use a sequential approach to stimulate the adaptations because it is highly unlikely for one to maintain high capacity throughout the year.
The duration presented within the annual training plan depends on the sport and competition. A person can design a template according to how it seems fit. The training plan can incorporate a hypertrophy phase which is also referred to as the anatomical adaptation. This phase is meant to increase strength, lean body mass, and lay the neuromuscular foundation by encompassing high volumes.
Endurance and power are greatly dependent on maximum strength, and that is why strong people often offer increased power outputs and have high levels of muscular endurance (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Therefore, a maximum strength phase can be used to build on abilities attained during the anatomical phase and grow on the specific neuromuscular traits associated with power development. One can use ballistic and plyometric exercise to convert the strength attained into speed. However, it is crucial to containing some of the exercises which encompass high intensity in a bid to maintain strength and at the same time avoid fatigue.
This chapter looks into the issue of intensive tempo, speed, anaerobic endurance, and maximum speed. It is important to find a way to maintain these and to develop them without suffering from fatigue. It is important to have an annual training plan and a chart of the same. This will help one understand the distance he has to go and to look back and see whether the plan worked out like it was meant to.
Individuals or athletes need to have a work-out plan. The workout plan is important because it helps the athletes plan for their time and find ways to incorporate a few sessions in their free time. The workout is important to athletes as it helps them reduce fatigue and also increase their fitness. It offers a chance for athletes to their body active, and thus they will avoid the issue of getting tired too fast. There are different types of training plans; these can be generalized training or specialized training.
A work-out plan is important because it helps athletes to plan for their time appropriately. It helps them understand when they should work-out at a low tempo and when to intensify. Therefore, it is important to come up with a training session plan as it will help show the extent of importance of the work-out plan. The training sessions can differ, and the athlete can alter them to avoid monotony. Athletes can have a daily cycle of their training which will stipulate what they are supposed to do at a certain time and what will follow after that.
A work-out plan is mostly an individualized activity, and thus the athletes should take the initiative to make sure they have one, and they usually follow it. Some athletes will only follow the workout plan for a particular time and eventually stop being serious in adhering to it. Therefore, it is important to enact and follow this plan seriously. It can prove to be very crucial in the development of an athlete as it will give him a stronger edge.
This chapter focuses on the issue of training methods. It looks into the issue of strength and power development. This greatly focuses on the issue of strength and the implementation of a strength training regimen. This requires one to determine and establish the training goals. It is also very important to determine the necessary phases of training in a bid to find a way to enact a strength training program. The phases of training are important because they help maximize training outcomes and that is why they are referred to as phase potentiation (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 151). This means that these phases facilitate the development of an athlete in the specific phase.
It is important to put in mind all the components involved in the training plan. It is important to avoid implementing a resistance training plan randomly. The resistance plan can be effective if all the training all the training factors are integrated and incorporated (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 187). Therefore, the instructor or the coach is required to consider the agility component, the conditioning program, the strength training regimen, and the tactical training activities and consider them as the overall unit of training. Failure to consider these factors as a whole may lead to a potential increase in overtraining and possible optimization of performance.
When selecting the exercises, it is important to consider the phase of training. There are certain exercises which prove effective when they are implemented at specific times during a periodized plan (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 187). It is important to understand the phase of training because it will be important on the issue of strength and how to better this and power output. Strength training requires the manipulation of training variables. Therefore, this requires the incorporation of aspects such as intensity and volume in a bid to get the necessary results.
This chapter focuses on endurance training. It focuses on how to develop endurance and the factors that affect endurance. It outlines the need for endurance in athletes and thus offers endurance training programs which are based on the lactic acid method. In order to develop endurance, it is important to have aerobic and anaerobic training sessions (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Therefore, there is a need for high-intensity exercises in a bid to attain and maintain endurance. Endurance involves going the extra mile, and thus it will require more exercises than before which are more involving.
Endurance training requires a certain edge, and thus it will require different exercises. This will mean an increase in volume, intensity, and density. Therefore, to attain high endurance, it is important to come up with a method to develop it, and thus all factors that affect aerobic and anaerobic endurance will be crucial to understanding how to incorporate them in the process. Endurance training is different from the other training, and it is bound to be harder than the rest. It serves as a way for someone to workout harder and more aggressively to attain results.
The glycogenolytic effects of exercises show that the muscle glycogen stores are often affected by the acute bouts of the endurance exercises (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Endurance training will take up more energy, and thus it may have effects on the body. Therefore, it is important to optimize the training by using nutrition strategies. This training is effective is it well planned and implemented.
People who participate in dominant aerobic sports will require training in energy systems in a bid to gain endurance. Training in energy systems gives someone the edge to keep going and thus making them stronger and helps them to maintain high standards over a long period. One can encompass specific racing endurance in a bid to develop and maintain endurance. Endurance can prove the difference between athletes who exercise and athletes who exercise aggressively. It can prove the main difference between training and endurance training as the results are expected to be different.
Every training is supposed to have a purpose. This is why there are different kinds and types of training. Different athletes will feel that some training is better than others while others will feel that all training are crucial. However, training will differ between the fields of athletes. They might all be important, but some will be more important in a certain field than others. Speed and agility training is crucial for athletes as it makes them more flexible and increases their reaction and anticipation.
Speed training will require athletes to perform unique exercises which will improve their fitness and make them more flexible. People with speed can be trained to maintain this and maybe to improve on this. However, people without space can also be taught on how to act and react at speed. Therefore, speed training is important to help people maintain high standards over a long time. It greatly relates to agility training; this helps people keep up for longer periods of time without getting worn out easily or giving up fast.
It is important to come up with a training plan for speed and agility as the two closely relate and depend on one another. Agility is important because it gives athletes the necessary strength to exceed their limits and to keep on going regardless of how long they have been at it. This training is effective as it will ensure that an athlete has more energy to keep up and the speed training will give the athlete an extra edge over their competitors or others and thus help them grow.
This training is more effective if the athletes start it from an early date so that they can keep growing and developing into it. Every training requires time before it is fully implemented and thus it would be very effective if it was enacted into the system over time and the athletes got the chance to through it over longer periods.
Bompa, T., & Haff, G. (2009). Periodization. Human Kinetics Publishers.