Theory and Methodology of Training

Theory and Methodology of Training

Summary of Periodization

Chapter 2

The book, Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training, is a major resource on periodization for coaches, sports scientists, and athletes all over the world (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Chapter two of the book discusses the principles of training, and it begins by expounding the difference between multilateral development and specialization and looks at these concepts separately trying to give readers a better view of both. Multilateral development and overall physical development is a necessity in athletics (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 9). It is important for athletes to use multilateral development plan during the early stages of development as it lays the groundwork for the later times of training where the athlete will focus more on specialization (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 84). Multilateral training is effective as it helps the athlete develop the psychological and physiological basis necessary in maximizing performance in a later period of his or her career (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 84). People will often feel the urge to shift from multilateral training and begin on specialized training, and thus it is important to curb this urge. The coach or trainer is expected to be the one responsible for preventing this deviation.

This chapter also expounds on the concepts of individualization and the need for developing a training model. This chapter shows the need for athletes to have sequencing training load. The instructor should develop a training model to help the athletes develop themselves. This chapter emphasizes the need for training principles, including incorporating principles in training and letting these principles guide a person through the training. That is why it is important to understand when to engage in multilateral training and when to shift to specialized training. It is also important to understand when to work as a team and when to train as an individual.

This chapter discusses the essence of loading elaborating deeper on standard loading. Where similar training densities and training loads are used all through the preparation stage, linear loading is used in the development and incorporates periods of recovery to maximize on adaptive responses. Also, step loading includes progressive overload put together with periods of unloading and concentrated loading which is referred as short-term overreaching because it includes high intensities and volumes over a short time.

Chapter 4

This chapter focuses on the variables of training such as volume, density, intensity, complexity, and index of overall demand among other concepts (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Volume refers to the quantity of work that is involved in the training phase/session. Volume can be increased by increasing the density or increasing the quantity of work during training. In some sports such as cycling and running, the volume can refer to the duration or the distance covered.

However, intensity refers to the power output or the velocity of progression (Bompa & Haff, 2009). The intensity can be measured as speed, power, or force. This chapter shows that volume and intensity are inversely related in a lot of case. High intensities and volumes lead to increased physiological stress and can lead to neuromuscular fatigue. There are instances where high volumes of work which incorporates low intensities can serve as a ground for the increased intensity workloads which supposedly come later on.

On the other hand, density relates to the distribution or frequency involved in training sessions. This shows that it is important to have sessions for working and phases whereby the athlete takes a break. It is necessary to establish an appropriate work: rest ratios so that one can attain the necessary energy systems. This chapter tries to explain the need to properly incorporate these variables into training and understand how to balance them. Volume, intensity, complexity, and density are effective variables of training which can have beneficial or damaging consequences, but it depends on how they are used.

Chapter 5

To maximize preparedness, it is important to have a period of rest and recovery. This period is important so as to maintain fitness and dissipate fatigue and it can be achieved by properly designing a program which has logical variations in intensity, volume, and exercise solution (Bompa & Haff, 2009). In training, fatigue can be broken in either chronic or acute. Chronic includes the time when a person does not manage to recover from stimulus especially due to high intensities and volumes over a long period while acute fatigue is mostly specific to the task.

One can incorporate the aspect of overreaching, which is when one encompasses high intensities and volumes over a short period. Overreaching is often followed by unloading which aims to compensate and usually takes up two to five weeks after the overreach period. Rest and recovery can be affected by the aspect of overtraining. This focuses on long periods of decrease in performance as a result of non-training and training stressors. This can be caused by monotonous training patterns which are sustained over a long time or are frequently used (Bompa & Haff, 2009).  In order to prevent overtraining, it is important to individualize training, periodize the program, incorporate recovery and restoration measures, keep a training log, and educate the athletes on issues of nutrition, sleep, and other non-training stressors.

Recovery can be either passive or active. Passive recovery may include sleep which aims for about nine to ten hours. This may also incorporate 30 minutes naps during the day so as to keep the athlete fresh. These naps can also act as simple active recovery methods. Other recovery methods can include light exercises which may improve lactate clearance, massage which will reduce anxiety, stress, tension, and depression while improving the mood and increasing relaxation (Bompa & Haff, 2009). It is important to have ample time for rest and recovery if one is to keep up with other athletes or aiming at bettering them.

Chapter 6

This chapter focuses on the annual training plan. This involves aspects of periodization whether it is periodization of strength training, periodization of endurance, or periodization of speed (Bompa & Haff, 2009). It is important to pick certain exercises at specific times in the periodized plan (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 187). The annual training plan can be used to divide the year into some distinct phases which have specific goals. It is important to use a sequential approach to stimulate the adaptations because it is highly unlikely for one to maintain high capacity throughout the year.

The duration presented within the annual training plan depends on the sport and competition. A person can design a template according to how it seems fit. The training plan can incorporate a hypertrophy phase which is also referred to as the anatomical adaptation. This phase is meant to increase strength, lean body mass, and lay the neuromuscular foundation by encompassing high volumes.

Endurance and power are greatly dependent on maximum strength, and that is why strong people often offer increased power outputs and have high levels of muscular endurance (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Therefore, a maximum strength phase can be used to build on abilities attained during the anatomical phase and grow on the specific neuromuscular traits associated with power development. One can use ballistic and plyometric exercise to convert the strength attained into speed. However, it is crucial to containing some of the exercises which encompass high intensity in a bid to maintain strength and at the same time avoid fatigue.

This chapter looks into the issue of intensive tempo, speed, anaerobic endurance, and maximum speed. It is important to find a way to maintain these and to develop them without suffering from fatigue. It is important to have an annual training plan and a chart of the same. This will help one understand the distance he has to go and to look back and see whether the plan worked out like it was meant to.

Chapter 9

Individuals or athletes need to have a work-out plan. The workout plan is important because it helps the athletes plan for their time and find ways to incorporate a few sessions in their free time. The workout is important to athletes as it helps them reduce fatigue and also increase their fitness. It offers a chance for athletes to their body active, and thus they will avoid the issue of getting tired too fast. There are different types of training plans; these can be generalized training or specialized training.

A work-out plan is important because it helps athletes to plan for their time appropriately. It helps them understand when they should work-out at a low tempo and when to intensify. Therefore, it is important to come up with a training session plan as it will help show the extent of importance of the work-out plan. The training sessions can differ, and the athlete can alter them to avoid monotony. Athletes can have a daily cycle of their training which will stipulate what they are supposed to do at a certain time and what will follow after that.

A work-out plan is mostly an individualized activity, and thus the athletes should take the initiative to make sure they have one, and they usually follow it. Some athletes will only follow the workout plan for a particular time and eventually stop being serious in adhering to it. Therefore, it is important to enact and follow this plan seriously. It can prove to be very crucial in the development of an athlete as it will give him a stronger edge.

Chapter 10

This chapter focuses on the issue of training methods. It looks into the issue of strength and power development. This greatly focuses on the issue of strength and the implementation of a strength training regimen. This requires one to determine and establish the training goals. It is also very important to determine the necessary phases of training in a bid to find a way to enact a strength training program. The phases of training are important because they help maximize training outcomes and that is why they are referred to as phase potentiation (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 151). This means that these phases facilitate the development of an athlete in the specific phase.

It is important to put in mind all the components involved in the training plan. It is important to avoid implementing a resistance training plan randomly. The resistance plan can be effective if all the training all the training factors are integrated and incorporated (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 187). Therefore, the instructor or the coach is required to consider the agility component, the conditioning program, the strength training regimen, and the tactical training activities and consider them as the overall unit of training. Failure to consider these factors as a whole may lead to a potential increase in overtraining and possible optimization of performance.

When selecting the exercises, it is important to consider the phase of training. There are certain exercises which prove effective when they are implemented at specific times during a periodized plan (Bompa & Haff, 2009, 187). It is important to understand the phase of training because it will be important on the issue of strength and how to better this and power output. Strength training requires the manipulation of training variables. Therefore, this requires the incorporation of aspects such as intensity and volume in a bid to get the necessary results.

Chapter 11

 This chapter focuses on endurance training. It focuses on how to develop endurance and the factors that affect endurance. It outlines the need for endurance in athletes and thus offers endurance training programs which are based on the lactic acid method. In order to develop endurance, it is important to have aerobic and anaerobic training sessions (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Therefore, there is a need for high-intensity exercises in a bid to attain and maintain endurance. Endurance involves going the extra mile, and thus it will require more exercises than before which are more involving.

Endurance training requires a certain edge, and thus it will require different exercises. This will mean an increase in volume, intensity, and density. Therefore, to attain high endurance, it is important to come up with a method to develop it, and thus all factors that affect aerobic and anaerobic endurance will be crucial to understanding how to incorporate them in the process. Endurance training is different from the other training, and it is bound to be harder than the rest. It serves as a way for someone to workout harder and more aggressively to attain results.

The glycogenolytic effects of exercises show that the muscle glycogen stores are often affected by the acute bouts of the endurance exercises (Bompa & Haff, 2009). Endurance training will take up more energy, and thus it may have effects on the body. Therefore, it is important to optimize the training by using nutrition strategies. This training is effective is it well planned and implemented.

People who participate in dominant aerobic sports will require training in energy systems in a bid to gain endurance. Training in energy systems gives someone the edge to keep going and thus making them stronger and helps them to maintain high standards over a long period. One can encompass specific racing endurance in a bid to develop and maintain endurance. Endurance can prove the difference between athletes who exercise and athletes who exercise aggressively. It can prove the main difference between training and endurance training as the results are expected to be different.

Chapter 12

 Every training is supposed to have a purpose. This is why there are different kinds and types of training. Different athletes will feel that some training is better than others while others will feel that all training are crucial. However, training will differ between the fields of athletes. They might all be important, but some will be more important in a certain field than others. Speed and agility training is crucial for athletes as it makes them more flexible and increases their reaction and anticipation.

Speed training will require athletes to perform unique exercises which will improve their fitness and make them more flexible. People with speed can be trained to maintain this and maybe to improve on this. However, people without space can also be taught on how to act and react at speed. Therefore, speed training is important to help people maintain high standards over a long time. It greatly relates to agility training; this helps people keep up for longer periods of time without getting worn out easily or giving up fast.

It is important to come up with a training plan for speed and agility as the two closely relate and depend on one another. Agility is important because it gives athletes the necessary strength to exceed their limits and to keep on going regardless of how long they have been at it. This training is effective as it will ensure that an athlete has more energy to keep up and the speed training will give the athlete an extra edge over their competitors or others and thus help them grow.

This training is more effective if the athletes start it from an early date so that they can keep growing and developing into it. Every training requires time before it is fully implemented and thus it would be very effective if it was enacted into the system over time and the athletes got the chance to through it over longer periods.


Bompa, T., & Haff, G. (2009). Periodization. Human Kinetics Publishers.

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The War of the Worlds

This book discusses the events that occurred before the war. It focuses on the idea of invasion and its implication to the people. The author talks about Mars claiming that the planet was running out of natural resources. This reason eventually motivates Martians to invade earth for its natural resources. The narrator witnesses the weird lights on Mars, which leads him to argue that there is a ‘thing’ coming to Earth to cause calamity, struggle, and death. This shows that there are signs of war before it commences and the author saw these signs and warned the people about them. However, the people did not heed his warnings because they did not believe that creatures from Mars would invade Earth.

The story talks about a two-week invasion in which the people regard to the invasion with complacency, but they are soon provoked into a defensive nature of war. This story has a certain edge that causes panic amongst the people with the idea of an invasion disturbing the minds of many people. The plot of this story lies on a strange disk that lands on Earth and eventually hatches. The alien inside, Martians destroy all with its heat ray and spreads terror within the land. Humans seem powerless against the alien, and the latter eventually seizes control of the planet. However, people feel the need to fight and protect what belongs to them, and this leads them to a defensive battle. This story may seem a little misguided, but it presents people with a perspective on how to handle attacks and what eventually leads them to battle and show how to react.

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Book Review: The Boy Who was Raised as a Dog

This assignment aims to analyze the text, The Boy Who was Raised as a Dog by Bruce D. Perry and Maia Szalavitz.

By completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following competencies and behaviors:

Competency 4: Engage in Practice-Informed Research and Research-Informed Practice.​
C4.GP.B: Apply critical thinking to engage in the analysis of quantitative and qualitative research methods and research findings.​
Related Assignment Criterion:
2. Integrate multiple sources of knowledge, including research-based knowledge.​
Competency 6: Engage with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.​
C6.GP.A: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituencies.​
Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 7: Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C7.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 8: Intervene with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C8.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and constituencies.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 9: Evaluate Practice with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C9.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to evaluate outcomes.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Assignment Description
After reading the book, you will answer the questions listed below. Some questions will solicit your personal opinions or experiences, while others require you to cite evidence to support your response. Still others will require you to provide examples to support your work. All questions require you to think critically about what you read. To show comprehensive analysis in response to each question, you will need to do the following:

Integrate multiple sources of knowledge, including research-based knowledge.
Use social work databases as appropriate to support responses.
Use scholarly evidence to inform analysis of social work practice.
Use the textbook materials to apply the person-in-environment perspective in social work practice to the individual or family in the case study.
Remember this is a written assignment, and it should follow current APA formatting for written assignment submission.
Assignment Instructions
Answer the following questions using the guidelines provided above:

In the introduction to The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog, Perry distinguishes between being human and humane (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, p. 12).
What are the differences? Provide a personal or historical example to illustrate your point.
What is the author’s main idea? Summarize it in 1–2 sentences. Does he consistently come back to this idea in each case he examines? Explain using examples from the various chapters.
In many sessions Dr. Perry has with the children, he describes doing a coloring activity with them. How does this help his relationship with the children? What are some of his techniques?
Do the children you read about in The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog have an opportunity to experience a normal adult life? Explain your answer; cite the text if possible.
In Chapter 4, “Skin Hunger,” Perry describes and explains the concept of the “failure to thrive” (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 89–91). What does this mean? What key points about the ability to thrive were made in the chapter? What are some of the causes and lasting problems associated with the condition?
What is a good environment? Does this vary based on cultural or economic reasons?
According to the text, why was Tina unable to behave normally for a child her age? Is she a “lost cause,” as they say, or does she still have the ability to overcome the difficulties of her youth? Cite the text, and provide evidence to support your opinion.
In Chapter 5, “The Coldest Heart,” Leon is diagnosed as a sociopath (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 112–113). In your well-read opinion, who is responsible for his condition? Explain, providing textual support and evidence. What can we learn from his story?
Summarize the story of Chapter 6, “The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog,” in 5–8 sentences. What lessons did Dr. Perry learn from Connor and Justin?
Which is more important, nature, which is biology, or nurture, which is the environment? Provide an example.
Are the roles of socioeconomic class and race important elements in the work that Dr. Perry does? Does he handle these issues well? Explain.
What is RAD (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 192–194)? How does a child acquire the disorder, and what are the symptoms?
In his conclusion, Dr. Perry gives a summation of his ideas. What are some of the ways in which Dr. Perry suggests children, and all people, can thrive?
In Chapter 11, “Healing Communities,” Dr. Perry states, “The world we live in now is biologically disrespectful” (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, p. 262). Explain what he means, and interpret the idea. Do you agree?
Perry, B. D., & Szalavitz, M. (2017). The boy who was raised as a dog: And other stories from a child psychiatrist’s notebook—What traumatized children can teach us about loss, love, and healing (3rd ed.). Basic Books.

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Positive and Negative Effects of History in Film and Book of Amistad

Positive and Negative Effects of History in Film and Book of Amistad

The film and the book by Jones show how African blacks, who got seized by slave traders, earned their liberty and returned to their homeland. The story revolves around Cuba, America, and Spain. It talks about an event in 1849 that involved Amistad, a Spanish slave ship which got used in the transfer of slaves to the Caribbean. The African slaves revolted against their captors and they ended up killing all except three, the cabin boy, and the two owners of the slaves. The commandeered the ship and forced one of their captors to lead them to their homeland, Sierra Leone, Africa. The captain tricked them and change directions in the night. They finally found themselves in Long Island, American Coast. The slave ship belonged to Spain and when words reached Queen Isabella in Spain of the whereabouts of one of their ships, she requested for the ship and the slaves. A controversy boiled over the fate of the slaves. Two people on board claimed that the slaves belonged to them. According to Spain and America, slave traded had become illegal. While in Connecticut, the slaves got arrested. President John Quincy Adams was in favor of the slaves and called for their release. The judge of U.S Supreme Court, who presided over the cases, freed the slaves and found the claimants guilty of illegal trade. The slaves got freedom to stay in America or return home.

History has the option of being taught using textbooks in the classroom or showing movies on the various books used for studying history. Showing movies is very important because it helps students learn and keep factual information in textbooks that associate with those movies (Bingham 78). Information in the textbook must have consistent with that shown in the movie. However, some movies have episodes or lines different from those that the book they are based on hash. Research shows that watching a film related to a certain textbook, increases students recall of various events by about 50% in comparison with reading the text alone. On the contrary, when the information presented in a film contradict with that present in its relative book, people get tempted to recall the misinformation in the movie (Osagie 4). The power of movies is that they have stronger retention capacity than that of textbooks. Similarly, the recall of misinformation portrayed in the movie still has a 50% capacity of the time. In order to supplement or enhance educational practice, teachers have the responsibility of guarding students against the negative effects of movies that portray contradicting information from those of their relative books. Research shows that people still get subjected to misinformation even if they get briefed about it before watching the movie. However, when warnings get specified about particular inaccuracies get shown before watching the film, the effect of misinformation end.

            Films increases interest and learning in a classroom environment. Teachers and other stakeholders in learning must know that students are susceptible to inaccurate information even if the right information is present in the text . These have problems for the normal educational practices of utilizing movies as a teaching aid. The public also faces these problems as they consume popular movies or films on history. Good films add interest in history and have a lot of information which is accurate. Film producers usually compromise on some facts in the text so that the movie presents a more entertaining story than that in the text. This is what has subjected many movies to inaccuracies as learners are keener on the content of the movie and not the entertaining part. The film Amistad and its corresponding textbook, Mutiny on The Spanish Ship Amistad, show incongruence. The film displays some inaccuracies that misrepresent the textbook. One instance of misinformation presents itself when the film shows Cinque, the leading protagonist, sitting in shackles before U.S Supreme Court as the trial progressed. According to the textbook, Cinque was in prison when the trial was going on. On a general point of view, most information present in the movie and the textbook is similar. In fact, for a non-critical reader, it is difficult to notice the difference any misinformation present in the movie. In all, the movie clearly represents the textbook.

The film revolves between mushy Hollywood platitudes and stoic political correctness. The movie has too much history in it. The much history in the film makes the movie lack a strong flow. The diffuse in nature as it divides its powers among various aspects. It displays the pain and queer experiences that the captives faced during their struggle for liberty under captors (Jones 78). It also brings into effect the U.S presidential elections that were around the corner and legal representatives who argued about the destiny of the 53 African slaves. History is not more diffuse and complex than movies. People have the liberty of choosing characters in their own capacities. For instance, a character like Lewis Tappan gets picked and followed for his best efforts to bring an end to slavery.  Some pro-slavery rowdies ransacked his house in New York and burned in furniture. He had the heart of goodness and justice for all. The spirit of liberty ran in his blood.

 The correctness of the courts that administered the ruling for the African captives is questionable in the minds of many pro-slavery people (Davis 21). Some people say that there are no laws in America that try foreigners for their crime. The crime depicted in the movies was that of killing the captors who boarded the slave ship headed for the Caribbean. Some propose that the court should have proposed a sale of the slaves based on their market values. Others feel that New York, and not Connecticut, was the best place for the trial (Sanello 34).

The book and the film for sure have their own advantages and disadvantages as media for propagating knowledge. Films have the inherent ability of developing interest in students for the story. Most filmmakers add or subtract some content from the original sources or documents that movies base on to meet their aims. Less interesting films are less watched and hence their markets are poor. Filmmakers try their best so that they avoid problems. There are things that make movies eye-catching and endearing (York 9). This involved episodes full of suspense and tension. For them to meet such effects in their movies, filmmakers have to do away with part or add to a section of the story. In so doing, accuracy gets compromised. The realistic representation of the original document is not met. This makes movies unreliable sometimes when looking for information on certain stories. Conversely, books are good sources of information on about particular historical facts. Textbooks are very reliable sources because once published, it is difficult to doctor their content (Morris 34). Moreover, they pass through reviews for accuracy and relevance. Moreover, books are usually the first source of information on certain topics because they get written by those who experienced the facts. Unlike books, movies get information from textbooks, translate and produce similar information through acting. During the process of translation, the original information gets vulnerable to change, and hence a change of meaning. The best source of information on history is books or other recorded documents. Books are also good, but they sometimes mislead students. Movies serve as teaching aids in educational institutions. Looking at the book and the film on which Amistad get based, the book is the original source while the movie derived its content from the book. The film Amistad represents the book well, but there are instances that the books misinform the moviegoer. Warning people against misinformation present in particular sections is very important so that wrong indoctrination of the people ceases.

Another important aspect of the movie or the film Amistad is how it treats slave trade. Slave trade is one aspect of history that the movie displays. Slave trade thrived in the olden days. Slaves from Africa got traded for other products. The transatlantic trade involved sale Africa, US, and Europe. Slaves were taken to plants to work as laborers. Most of those firms were plantations. In the movie and text, Amistad, African slaves got sold to a Spaniard in Cuba and they board a ship to the Caribbean. The 53 Africans on board revolted against their captors on their way to the Caribbean (Bingham 56). They killed all their captors except three. They forced the remaining chapters to lead them to Africa, their homeland. This is a show of how worse slavery was. Slavery was a very bad act during the Trans-Atlantic trade. The African slaves in Amistad serve to display slavery in a way that suggests that it is worse than death. The Africans killed their captors just in search for freedom. Moreover, when the slave ship reached the shore of U.S, some people reacted differently towards slave trade. Some of the residents of Connecticut expected nothing but a sale of the slaves so that they could get a share. Many sharp reactions came from the government of Spain and U.S.  Slave trade was illegal. The government of Spain through Queen Isabella, requested a transfer of the slaves and Amistad to Spain. She claimed that the slaves belonged to Spain. Government of U.S said that the slaves could not go to Spain because the slave trade was long banned. President of U.S supported the pleas made by the slaves. He proposed for their release. This was a campaign gimmick for the president. The judge of the U.S Supreme Court, who ruled the case, ruled in the favor of the slaves. This was a show of the end of slave trade in America.

One disadvantage of the movie is that there exist unjustified aspects that it propagates. Murder is very bad. The slaves got charged through partial application of the law. The slaves murdered many captors but went unpunished (Zafiris 89). This is the worst aspect of the movie. The law that got used to punish the two owners of the slave should also apply to the captives. Since the slaves murdered, the government should have charged them with murder. This part of the film displays double standards of the American law.

Given the above two sources of information, as a teacher one should embrace both during teaching. They both add value to education in different ways. For better and better understanding, the film is used as an educational aid. This helps students who had difficulties with class notes understand what was not clear (Schwartz 10). The textbook is the first source of information. This is because it has all the relevant facts that learning the various topics in its need. It has the option of being referenced easily because students carry them anywhere. Movies are only important in supplementing the textbooks. However, movies may misrepresent the original information. Filmmakers usually add or remove some parts of the original information when they are looking for ways that make their movies interesting. Films are also good sources of information but they should warn viewers against any view or aspect of it that is incorrect during their starts.

From the above discussion, it is obvious that books and film make good sources of information. They form the basis of history. Amistad is one good representation of a book and a film that relate. However, the film has some of its parts different from those in the book. This makes it inaccurate. These parts need specification during the start of the movie so that viewers get the correct information. The main advantage of movies is that people have a long retention capacity than those of textbooks. In all, books and films are essential for learning.

Works Cited

Bingham, Dennis. Whose Lives Are They Anyway?: The Biopic As Contemporary Film Genre.

            New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2010. Internet resource.

Davis, Natalie Z. Slaves on Screen: Film and Historical Vision. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard

            Univ. Press, 2000. Print

Morris, Nigel. The Cinema of Steven Spielberg: Empire of Light. London: Wallflower, 2007.


Osagie, Iyunolu F. The Amistad Revolt: Memory, Slavery, and the Politics of Identity in the

United States and Sierra Leone. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000. Internet resource.

Sanello, Frank. Spielberg: The Man, the Movies, the Mythology. Lanham, Md: Taylor Trade Pub,

            2002. Print.

Schwartz, Barry. Abraham Lincoln in the Post-Heroic Era: History and Memory in Late

Twentieth-Century America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. Internet resource.

York, Neil L. Fiction As Fact: The Horse Soldiers and Popular Memory. Kent, Ohio: Kent State

            University Press, 2001. Print.

Zafiris, Anna. The Representation of African Americans in Steven Spielberg’s ‘amistad’.

            München: GRIN Verlag, 2010. Internet resource.

Jones, Howard. Mutiny on the Amistad: The Saga of a Slave Revolt and its

Impact on American Abolition, Law and Diplomacy. Oxford University Press,1997.

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Literature Review: Learner Analytics and Visualization Techniques


Literature Review: Learner Analytics and Visualization Techniques

2.1 The Concept of learner analytics and Visualization Techniques

The concepts of learner analytics and visualization techniques have gained increased importance within the academic sphere. This segment of the paper reviews the two main concepts and underscores their importance in learner analytics. In recent year, study has begun to grow on the need for better measurement, tracking, and visualizations of information about learners. Research on learning analytics in many areas has developed so that it has been able to describe the number of activities to assist in the understanding and optimization of learning and the environments where learning occurs. It is necessary to organize information categorically so as to facilitate the human in directing information (Calude & Maurer, 2011). Visualizations that use different organizational views entailing the same information can be a remarkably effective aid.

Literature Review: Learner Analytics and Visualization Techniques

When it comes to co-located learning in a learning environment like the classroom, the learners find it way easier to cooperate with their teachers effectively. This is not the case in a digital environment or in an online classroom whereby both learners and teachers are separated by a substantial space but joined through technology. Thus, it is harder for teachers to assess the progress of learners and also be aware of what the learners require. Teachers would also find it harder to develop effective communication with their learners since such a plan does not support physical feedback from the learners. The learners also have difficulties in ensuring that what they are assigned to do meet the requirements of the teachers. However, there has been progress when it comes to learner analytics. This has evolved and has been able to describe various elements for instance tracking, visualization and analysis of data that has been obtained from learners. This data has been effective in analysis the behaviour of students.

With the increase in availability and also access to information, developments of a wide variety of visualization and data retrieval tools have been developed. This growth has been beneficial in learner analytics, especially to learners. Such tools are operated by users to identify data and knowledge that is relevant to the task at hand. This has helped users in the process of assessing, analyzing and visualizing information presented to them. Furthermore, it enables the users to internally consider the possible relationships among various diverse groups of data mentally (Leung 2011, p. 51).Sense-making activities in many cases usually result to accumulation of large amount of data, knowledge and information. This information is represented in form of external visual representations such as diagrams, graphs, documents and sketches. (Lytras, 2010).

The concepts of visual analytics and data visualizations have not been clearly distinguished previously. This is as a result of varied information that details how visualization tests have a relationship with visual analytics. Main objectives of information visualization involved creating effective interaction techniques for a given class of data and method of producing view.  Visual analytics is more than visualization. It is a fundamental way to integrate visualization, human factor and data analysis (Green, 2009). The problem arises when coming up with a solution is hard to achieve if the goal is to combine best –fit automated analysis algorithms and visual and interaction techniques. Visual analytics aims to give higher priority to data analytics from the start and through all interactions.

The learning from users’ behaviour and effective use of visualizations should play a pivotal role in the analytical process. Learning analytics in many cases seeks to advance brilliant combination of analytical approaches and advanced visualization techniques, which may play a crucial role when it comes to semantic analysis. In cases that the information is semantically rich, there is an increased chance that the information could be visualized in a variety of ways or levels. This is usually the choice of the visualization developer who decided upon how they would need the information to be presented (Olej, Obrsalova, & Krupka, 2011).

2.2       Learner Analytics Tools and Resources

At this point, learner analytics tools certainly play instrumental roles in relative procedures. This section reviews the various learner analytics tools and resources that are currently in the market. Studies conducted have been able to show that visualizations enable understanding and realization of patterns. There are several tools relevant to learner analytics. One such tool is SAM (Student Activity Meter) (Lytras, 2010). This tool is used to visualize the time spent on learning activities and material utilized in online learning environments.  Under SAM, several visualizations exist that promote collaboration and understanding among learners. An example of such visualizations includes systems that are utilized in order to increase the awareness of resources that are used. These can be through a timeline that provides a chronological account on the use of resource (Lytras, 2010). There is also second level that functions to classify data into indicators of a higher level. An example words counts are used to detail participation rates and are also related to a model.

SAM is tasked with the role of visualizing and analysis of activities that go on and resource are utilized.  SAM utilizes the first as it shows the activities that learners attempt in a given period of time. It applies the second characteristics by use of basic statistics resulting from time utilization. There also other systems which visualize learner analytics that are used by SAM.  CAMera is another such example used in visualizing the activities of a user and shows clear metric events. It utilizes the CAMera schema that entails capturing the interactions of a user through the use of tools and resources. SAM also uses computer based data even though in this case it focuses on higher-level indicators (Zimmermann & Cunningham, 2001). SAM as a tool is used not only by the teachers but by the learners in their individual learning environments. Teacher objectives are usually contained under SAM. Under SAM, the following objectives for teachers are supported.

Knowledge and understanding of the learning progress is one of the teacher’s objectives. This is a situation whereby the teachers are aware of what and how learners are doing so as to assess their progress. SAM provides visual overviews for the time that learner spend and the resources that these learners use .Comprehensive analysis of virtual learning cannot be achieved due to lack of face-to-face communication (Shrum & Glisan, 2009).Thus, relative visualizations provide reliable indicators for awareness. Teachers can also apply the visualizations to find patterns and be able to identify potential problems. Information on learner time tracking is also used which allows teachers to assess their initial stage estimates. This allows them to determine how time is spent by students who take part in various activities. Such information is also used in statistical researches regarding the process of learning. From this, popular learning materials are determined which lead to resource discovery.

Learner goals are also targeted under SAM objectives. This involves self-monitoring whereby self-reflection and understanding is realized. Furthermore, time tracking can help the learner understand his/her time allocation in comparison to their peers and support occasionally to reveal how much time is spent to the teacher. One of the objectives of SAM is to visualize when, on which resources and for what period of time students have been working when compared to their peers. Thus, when it comes to such goals, particular emphasis is placed on resource proposal that provides resourceful learning material used by peers. This is advantageous in self-regulated learning (Pozzi & Persico, 2010).

Back office software is also used in learner analytics. The creation of this tool shows that different interfaces and clients could be created in the process. It is used in collaboration with Moodle. Clients can interact with Moodle, increasing markedly in capacities, from being a monolithic platform to an interoperable application. Moodle is a web services layer that consists of a set of contracts that make use of certain functions defined in Moodle external libraries (Ewall, 2007). It is able to provide data on how learners are progressing which is quite helpful to teachers. The data is presented in a table for clarity in addition to use of bars for comparisons. One main characteristics of Moodle is that it is more advanced when compared to other tools.

Since the wide usage of the web and other technologies, the manner of teaching and learning has been changing. This development is no longer just due to technological changes that support new models of learning but also to new motivations, trends and learning models. Thus, constant development must be considered when talking about learning analytics tools and resources. The idea for the basis of learner analytic tools use is that they can interact with various systems in the same instance, performing the same actions in several places (Shrun & Glisan, 2009).

There are various changes that take place in learning process. As a result, technology is tasked with the responsibility of providing solutions to these changes, for instance coming up with new tools used for learner analytics. Thus, application of external tools is easier to implement which interact with the LMS. It becomes easier to improve the functions of tools such as back office which lead to flexibility. Allowing opportunity of learning to the use of technology is encourage since it is advantageous in developing new ways of learning (O’Neil, 2008).

Single management systems can include course administration. This part provides the main features associated with courses such as creating, modifying, deleting and viewing important course details. The aim is to facilitate the users’ administration without accessing the platform. (Khosrowpou, 2006).  User administration is also a control system within the back office tool. The client permits total control of Moodle users through an easy and intuitive interface. Client management is the part of the tool. It allows the choosing of protocols that will be used to connect with the platform within the tool. There is also the log administration that controls the activity in the Moodle, so that they view the logs happening in a course, a date or made by a user. This way, both teachers and students can be able to track their progress as the course continues. In addition to this, roles can be created, modified or deleted during the process (MacArthur, Graham, & Fitzgerald, 2008).

            Jigsaw has also been identified as a learner analytical tool. It utilizes analytical systems that are visual to as to support investigative research. Jigsaw main objective is to maximize pixel use to take advantage of both the user’s high acuity central primary point and extensive peripheral field. Its two main goals are to move quickly through large document collections, permit investigators to operate efficiently and support hypothesis formation together with collection of information. This enhances credible decision making especially based on the defined hypotheses. In many case, it works with large collections of text documents or other reports and with the entities, which have been obtained from them. Jigsaw utilizes several windows effectively with representations carefully designed for investigative problems that are complicated.

The user is thought to be in an ‘information cockpit’ with multiple monitors located in front of and above the user. However, although Jigsaw has some linking and brushing to integrate the windows, it does not have the stable interaction Wire Vis employs (Richards & Lassonde, 2011). Human Capital Management rules put expectation Jigsaw users in a way that they would be less in motion but rather in need of cognitive effort. This is not the case in WireVis whereby cognitive effort would not be required for instance in window management connection. This is certainly an issue worthy of additional review and evaluation. Jigsaw is operational and straightforward in nature. The model provides a point of view for investigating these goals in that light. The interface of this tool permits direction integration with involves representations of reports and entities, changing details and focus. As with Wire Vis and other tools that have been described, simplicity and intuitiveness also seek to attain cognitive goals.

            Finally, when it comes to making comparisons, Jigsaw uses a unique approach, employing an increasing, question-based planning to present in various aspects of information that are used for investigation and possible relationships, as compared with Wire Vis top-down visualization of the entire data set and its context. Undoubtedly, both approaches are reasonable and could be present in a general tool for complex problem solving, and will be subject to future study. Nonetheless, the Jigsaw tool would be an effective tool for learner analytics in diverse situations (Ewall, 2007).

2.3 Effectiveness of Learner Analytics

Learner analytics has been instrumental in assessing the learning process in different ways. Findings have provided a basement upon which objective decisions regarding viable improvements have been made. Successful assessment can be attributed to relative tools and resources. This section of the paper details the effectiveness of learner analytics as well as the tools that are used in this process. SAM was applied in an extensive online free course learning analytics so as to get feedback on the effectiveness of the method. A multi-method strategy is usually followed using a structured questionnaire, review of documents, case studies and semi-structured focus group discussions (Rogers, 2002).

In organizational and academic research, SAM should be introduced in a manner appropriate to the skill level and professional knowledge base. There should be a concern with learner satisfaction, learning outcomes and experiences by the learner for instance, the nature of interactions. These strategies would allow determining the effectiveness of the design, growth and establishment of learner analytics. Attention should also be placed on the importance of collection of information that may be utilized by the teacher or instructor (O’Neil, 2008). Any obstacles or barriers are also realized during this stage. From this, adjustments and correction can be made to ensure success in the end. Formative assessment is also done as to gather information during the early stages so as to determine if the efforts produce the intended outcome.

The learning and knowledge analytics (LAK) online course was organized in order to evaluate setups and demographics involved. Moodle was used extensively for communication and collaboration in academic and organizational learning. Evaluating this tool in this varied viewing elicited dynamic discussions. These discussions arose as a result of the outcomes that were expected and the methods to be used. The client activities of the Moodle system were visualized in SAM.  Registered participants were up to 270 for the course and were primary researchers engaged in the learning analytic field and teachers who are concerned in learning analytics.

An online survey was also used and it was composed of two paths. The main objective of the case study was to get more details on the SAM in a comprehensive course and the perceived usefulness of SAM by learning analytics experts. Two dozen individuals, between the ages of 27 and 62 years old took part in the survey. A dozen of them are teaching courses, and the rest have been involved in teaching courses for more than 10 years. This was a complete test that would be able to inform the research being conducted and provide conclusive results.

Learning and Knowledge Analytics (LAK) teachers recognize the teaching subject as slightly different. Provision of providing feedback to students becomes the main concern. The LAK teachers are majorly interested in finding students who are doing as expected of them. The idea of locating the best student becomes less importance when weighted against Agricultural researchers. Usage of the documents is a perquisite by LAK and other Agricultural researchers. Knowing how and when online tools have been utilized and knowing if sources that are independent are used is rated a bit lower. Therefore, they are also concerned with document application within Moode (Smith & Sadler-Smith, 2006). Student application is also rated high. Collaboration and communication is also more important for LAK teachers. The time tracking issue is almost rated equal in both circumstances. Comparing with the goals set by the teachers the recognition and the support is also the most vital within this tool.

As far as the LAK teachers are concerned it is the duty of SAM to deal with provision of teacher feedback during learning to students. This is related to the capability of visual analytics. The time spending issue in many instances is less prioritized. The open questions, which detailed how to implement each of the visualization, provided practical insights on the use of SAM. For instance, one teacher would use the line chart in order to identify the likelihood and intensity of participation. Furthermore, another teacher can learn about sequential time that a course takes place. The classroom activity status in this case is verified by the line chart. Thus, the teacher would expect it to be amended if few students take part and few share little, while a large number is at the centre. Determining the effectiveness of SAM would be able to underscore the variables that impact on the learning program (Zimmermann & Cunningham, 2001).

When it comes to most of the other issues pertaining to the process of learning, the teachers cannot come up with a decision that they agree on as a whole. The second part of the survey was based upon both the teachers and the learners. When queried to assess the contributions of each visualization, inconclusive answers were produced. There is no statistical evidence that shows that both learners and the teachers would rate the visualizations differently (Cress, Dimirova, & Specht, 2009).

The learner analytics is used by the student for comparisons with peers. Three learners use the corresponding coordinates for comparison with the rest of the class for self-reflection so as to measure progress and growth motivation. In this scenario, a single person did not understand how the corresponding coordinate worked. This individual preferred the bar graph that showed the group he fitted in most. The bar graph indicated the rate of growth motivation and progress.  It was based on the individual liking, which was not the intention of the study. The bar chart was perceived as redundant by one teacher, which arises as a result of the addition of the histograms within the parallel coordinates.

The recommendations to improve learner analytics in both academic and organizational learning have certainly proven to be useful. Eight of those participating wanted to continue using SAM in the field while four were not sure of their final decision. An open debate about how each individual liked SAM was asked. From the results, three mentioned the simplicity and the quantity they can see using the tool. Two of them enjoyed the rapid application at which the tool could be used. Two participants also liked the precise, accurate information based on circumstances that the tool provided. Furthermore, they also enjoyed the insightful outcomes of the tool.

Technology, as opposed to individual user simulation should be utilized when it comes to automation of the measurement process. This would lead to the reduction of the time to be used during the learning analytics process. The best practices in such cases is to establish a common set of  relevant key performance indicators that are monitored and also measured on a regular basis for the learning organization. Current technology and also establish methods of data collection instruments should be utilized in order to produce results that are more detailed. For instance, it may involve collection of data from learners and teachers two to three months post-training. In the end, the data collected will be more effective


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Leung, H. (2011). Advances in web-based learning – ICWL 2011. Berlin: Springer.

Lytras, M.D (2010). Technology enhanced learning : quality of teaching and educational reform: First International Conference, TECH-EDUCATION 2010, Athens, Greece, May 19-21. Berlin: Springer.

MacArthur, C. A., Graham, S., & Fitzgerald, J. (2008). Handbook of writing research. New-York : Guilford.

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MacBook – “Think Different” (laptop computer)

MacBook – “Think Different” (laptop computer)

MacBook is a brand of apple that was introduced in 2006 as a replacement of iBook and a transition by the Apple Company from PowerPC to Intel. Solely, MacBook was aimed for education since it has highly improvised features to benefit students. Its speed, size, and internal storage are classic too. MacBook recorded the best sale in 2008 as laptop brand in the USA (Ray 4-7).

MacBook – “Think Different” (laptop computer)

Honda Accord Plug-In Hybrid – “Power of Dreams” (Auto motor cars)

Honda Accord Plug-In Hybrid is a brand of one of the leading motor company, Honda and was first introduced in 2012. Its major sales were in 2013, and it was only limited to few states in USA.

Diesel Jeans – “Be Stupid”

Question 2

MacBook is classified under laptop category, which is marked with high competition. Under laptop categories, eminent changes are experienced. The changes experienced are improved internal storage size and security of data against viruses. Also, processing speed, energy consumption, and introduction of touch screens in laptops are the latest change in trend in this category. These changes have impacted on the brand by making production expensive and stiffening competition for manufacturers while it has made laptops just like a heaven on earth for users.    

This brand is categorized under automobile cars. The changing trend in this category is the worrying environmental issues led by global warming. This has impacted in the improvement of efficiency of a engine to reduce emissions that escalate greenhouse effect (Car and Driver 1). Manufacturers of automobile more so cars are capitalizing on fuel consumption and lately, some have produced electric cars. Honda Accord Plug-In Hybrid is one of the brands that use electricity and gasoline (Car and Driver 1).  

Diesel Jeans brand is categorized under fashion. The changes in fashion are vast, and the latest in jeans is the type of materials used in the manufacturing where a stretching material is preferred by ladies. Also, the hardness of the material used in the manufacturing 21-century jeans is changing in jeans. Today, lover of jeans are looking to a type that do not fade and is easy to wash (Polhemus 34-37). This has impacted on Diesel jeans because its manufacturer at some point could not sell their old stock due to lack of compliance with the changing trend. Ultimately, this has led to losses and tightens rivalry. 

Works Cited

Car and Driver. “2014 Honda Accord Plug-In Hybrid – Instrumented Test.” Car and Driver. Car and Driver, 4 May 2013. Web. 3 Oct. 2014. <>.

Polhemus, Ted. Diesel: World Wide Wear. London: Thames & Hudson, 1998. Print.

Ray, John. My Macbook. , 2014. Print.

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Literature Review on CRM Strategies for Ryanair

1.0 Introduction

Customer relationship has been a remarkable move towards creating a mechanism that can enhance means for maintaining personal reliability. To be aware of customer relationship management (CRM), one has to value the constantly shifting nature of the customer (Greenberg 2010).  There are a huge number of companies paying outing a great amount of their finances on CRM making it imperative for service firms to identify the aims of their CRM proposals and the type of payback accrued by these companies. According to Shanmugasundaram (2008) CRM is a business plan to attain, raise and maintain profitable customer relationships with the aim of building a sustainable competitive edge. CRM is a critical strategy as relationships are coming to the front position of the competitive arena. There should be a mutual win for customers and all the firms’ stakeholders including employees and business partners for instance suppliers, debtors and creditors.

Literature Review on CRM Strategies for Ryanair

CRM enables firms to modify particular manufactured goods and services according to every consumer’s requirements. It is possible to produce a personalised customised, face to face practice that will make the customer believe that he/she is being valued by the company enhancing creation of new markets chances that are found on tastes, earlier purchasing behaviour and past buying characteristics of the consumer. A customer is placed at the middle of a firm, consumer service is one of the important components of CRM but CRM also deals with managing customer relations within all company functions, places of contact and meetings (Almotairi 2009).

1.1 Company Background

Ryanair Ltd. is one of the pioneer airlines to offer cheap scheduled passenger services. From 1985, Ryanair followed the footsteps of southwest airlines by consequently saving costs and offering low cost flights. The airline firm headquarters are located at Dublin, Ireland and has an employee capacity of about 4,200 employees. The airline operates with a fleet size of 120 Boeing 737-800 (Ryanair 2007). They have a Mission statement that they want to be one of the Europe’s most yielding and cheapest airlines. The company has an objective of establishing itself as Europe’s an airline that offers low-fares through improving and expanding services at low-fare (Ryanair 2007).

Ryanair uses the internet to communicate with their customers. They are well positioned with big plans for expansion, analysing their macro environment (Ryanair 2010).  Tickets are sold online direct to the customers. Ryanair has been able to differentiate itself in the air industry by satisfying its customers since customers want flights to be affordable and quick. Customers not only pay less but also receive better services than Ryanair’s close competitors. Thus Ryanair has gone a mile ahead to improve both the positives that customers want when flying. Through their website Ryanair is able to reach its customers.

Figure 1 Market Positioning on the European Airline Market

Description: F:\4\Ryanair and its low cost flights in Europe_files\9deb8c5a2dd51090c48a8dfc5cd89355_SMALL.png

Source:  Ryanair (2007)

2.0 CRM Strategy

The main aim of CRM strategy is to come up with means of providing best value to consumers in more competent ways that employees identify as pleasing. The approach should be perfect for the consumer, the staff and the company. If the approach is not perfect for the customer Ryanair suffers sales and loyalty loss. The brand also has no future, it has to be good for the employee since if not they won’t be motivated to deliver the best damaging both the firm and the customers (Band et al. 2008). How good it is determines how motivated employees and customers are in continued investment. Due to competitive global market improved services are vital and the aim of the CRM strategy benefits the firm, clients and staffs equally.

3.0 Dimensions of Customer Relationship Management 

CRM helps Ryanair to successfully allot available possessions to the segment of customers that is yielding most by identifying customer. CRM begins with potential consumer identification also referred to as customer acquisition. The stage aims at winning prospect consumers that could be most yielding. At this phase the lost customers due to competition can be analysed and how to win they trust again (Charalampos & Chang 2008). Consumer drawing; the step follows consumer recognition, the firms goes ahead to straight endeavour and possessions into pulling towards the intended subdivision. A component of client appealing could be express selling which is an encouragement procedure which encourages clients to place orders through various outlets (Richards & Jones 2008). Consumer maintenance; it is the essential apprehension of CRM. Exceeding consumer’s expectations is an essential condition of retaining customers (Charalampos & Chang 2008). The essentials of client maintenance are face-to-face marketing, reliability systems and grievances supervision. Face-to-face selling refers to personalised selling movements that are enhanced by sensing and foreseeing transformations in client’s conduct (Ngai et al. 2009). Client enlargement; this engages a reliable extension of business deal, concentration and client’s productivity. The element of purchaser duration worth examination is clear as the forecast of the entire net earnings a firm may look forward to achieve from a client (Kostojohn et al.2011).

4.0 Objectives of Customer Relationship Management

 According to Dyche (2010) organisations pay for CRM products and services following the goals, consumer yielding and significance reproducing; Rynair is able to identify their  important consumers and worth maintaining. A firm could also gauge the consumers whom are responsive   to prices and those who bring small yields and low volume purchasers. Customer retention; it is vital to identify and appreciate that a portion of customers have left and specifically who they are. Identifying the reason behind their departure is a hard task. If a company loses more customers that means more revenues are lost by the firm. It is also a hard task to retain the existing one but it is much cheaper to retain them than acquiring new one (Frow 2011). Cross-selling and up-selling; this is concerned with identifying kind of products and services will add to customers total yielding. Extended-selling is trading a commodity or the service to a consumer that he/she had previously bought, the aim being to have repeated sales. Selling- more, encouraging a faithful consumer to purchase more yielding products and services. Extended-selling helps a firm trade the appropriate commodity and services to the appropriate consumers within the appropriate time frame. Behaviour prediction; firms are able to consider the most probable action of the consumer. According Ranjan & Bhatnagar (2008) data mining techniques are used to predict customer’s behaviour and foretell consumer’s prospect conduct. The important thing is a Rynair can actually identify who potential consumers could be. Personalisation is the capability of the company to tailor communication, commodity and services on foundation of the facts and tastes of the customers. This eliminates the guesswork and improving appreciative of consumers and their tastes over that client’s dealings with the firm (Tuzhilin 2012).     

5.0 Developing CRM Strategies

The development entails a double focal point to the organisation’s company plan and its client policy. How effectively the two interconnect essentially influences the achievement of its CRM plan.

5.1 Company strategy 

It’s important to first consider business strategy before one determines the way the client policy could be expanded and the way it could change in future. The company plan procedure could start by means of an assessment of the firm’s vision, particularly as it relates to CRM (Ko et al. 2008). The industry competitive environment should as well be assessed.

5.2 Consumer Strategy  

 Firm objectives are under the control of chief executive officer, the board of governors and a plan manager, whereas client policy is normally the duty of the selling subdivision. CRM needs a team approach but it is regularly vested in individual based responsibilities, together with information and technology and selling (Lambert 2009). Consumer policy entails investigating present and prospect consumer foundation and coming up with types of partitioning that can be appropriate. Majority of the writers advocates in shift from a group market to that one of personalised or face to face marketing setting. Ryanair can exploit internet selling chances and essential cost-effective type of the internet to allow a great extent get into the market of partitioning. The plan expansion procedure includes a comprehensive evaluation of company plan and advancement of suitable consumer policy (Frow 2011). With this a firm is in a position to build up and put into practice its CRM actions.

5.3 The Value Formation Procedure

The value formation procedure converts the yields of a plan progress route interested in systems that together pull out and bring significance (Ata & Toker 2012). It has three elements which includes, influencing the worthiness Ryanair could offer the consumers, focussing which worthiness Rynair airline could receive from the clients and effectively overseeing worthiness trade that engages maximisation of long-term worthiness of attractive consumer subdivision.

5.3.1 The Value the Consumer Enjoys

Worthiness obtained as of Rynair draws on the concept of the gains that improves the customer offer. Firm to firm and services selling perceives the client as a co inventor and co maker (Kim & Kim 2009). The gains might be integrated in the structure of a worth plan so as to describe connection along with the well doing of the commodity, the satisfaction of client’s requirements and the entire expenditure  to the consumer (Richards & Jones2008). To conclude whether the value of plan is probable to an outcome of a better purchaser satisfaction Rynair should perform a value appraisal to measure the virtual significance that clientele set on the a variety of qualities of a commodity. Analytical tools may be used to determine customers with similar favourites considering commodity qualities. Such a tool could as well disclose considerable sell subdivisions through provision requirements which are not entirely addressed through qualities of the real offers (Frow & Payne 2009).

5.3.2 The Value the Company Obtains and Life Span Value  

As of this viewpoint Rynair consumer worthiness is a result of co creation of worthiness, the utilisation of enhanced attainment and preservation plans and the utilisation of successful means supervision. Basic to this notion of customer worthiness is further research to conclude how the present and prospect consumer’s yielding differs transversely in various consumers and consumers subdivisions (Kevork &Vrechopoulos 2009). It is also vital to determine the financial side of customer attainment and consumers preservation and chances for selling between clients, inducing clients to purchase more and generating clients support should be appreciated (Nguyen & Papadopoulos 2011). These basics add to increase client’s duration. Client’s preservation corresponds to a significant piece of explore on worthiness generation. When a firm calculates the customer lifetime of various segments it is able to concentrate with the most yielding clients and client subdivisions. Worthiness generation procedure is one of the critical components of CRM since it interprets firm and consumer long term plans into particular worth offer declarations which expresses which worthiness is to be given to the client.        

5.4 Information Management Procedure

This procedure is interested in compilation and application of client’s facts and in order in all Rynair’s client’s interaction areas to come up with consumers near and suitable selling reactions (Ngai et al. 2009).  The main components of the information supervision procedure are the facts storeroom that gives a business recollection of consumers, IT system which comprise of the firm’s computer hardware, systems and network, examination implements and workplace face and backside office functions that supports most of the performance concerned in bordering straight with clients and supervising in-house process, running and provider dealings (Greenberg 2010). 

5.5 Performance Evaluation Procedure

The performance evaluation procedure covers important duty of making certain that Ryanair’s planned objectives in conditions of CRM are brought towards a suitable as well as satisfactory benchmark and fundamental for prospect enhancement is set up (Elmuti et al. 2009).  The main components of this process are shareholder results; in order for a firm to attain the crucial purpose of CRM they opt to believe how to put up staff worthiness, client value and investor value and how to cut costs. Performance supervising; for a firm to become customer oriented they need to monitor and measure their CRM performance.      

6.0 Conclusion

Ryanair has exhibited being successful in the past and not known to be second to anyone. Just like any other company Ryanair spends quite amount of their budget on CRM to win new customers and retain the existing customers. Ryanair creates an internet platform to foster their communication with their customers. They sell their tickets online minimising time wastage and they are not only cheap but deliver best airline services. For one to understand the objectives and strategies of CRM one must study the customers’ point of view and firm’s perspective. For instance for a company to win customers loyalty and profitability it has to be dedicated  to the client but not vice versa for it to remain competitive. The concept of CRM provides firms with opportunities to modify specific products and services according to conformance of each and every customers need. They are able to personalise customise, one-to-one experience that gives the individual customer sense of being cared for thus creating new marketing opportunities based on preferences, previous behaviour and history of the customer. CRM dimensions help an organisation to come up with the best strategy of identifying, attracting, retaining and developing customers of lifetime.  There should be a mutual win- win between a firm and its customers, that is there should a value creation in the process of CRM.

7.0 References

Almotairi, M 2009, ‘A framework for successful CRM implementation’, In European and Mediterranean conference on information systems, 1-12.

Ata, U. Z., & Toker, A 2012, ‘The effect of customer relationship management adoption in business-to-business markets’,  Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 497-507.

Band, W, Sharyn L, & Andrew, M 2008, Trends 2009: Customer Relationship Management. Forrester Research.

Charalampos, M., & Chang, Y. S, 2008, Beyond CRM: a system to bridge the gap between the customer and the global manufacturing supply chain. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Proceedings of the 41st  Annual  278-278.

Dyche, J 2010, The CRM handbook: A business guide to customer relationship management. London 1st Ed-Wesley Educational publisher Inc.   

Frow, P. E., & Payne, A. F 2009, ‘Customer relationship management: a strategic perspective’, Journal of Business Market Management, Vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 7-27.

Elmuti, D., Jia, H., & Gray, D 2009, ‘Customer relationship management strategic application and organizational effectiveness: an empirical investigation’, Journal of Strategic Marketing, Vol. 17, no.1, pp. 75-96.

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Nguyen, A. H., & Papadopoulos, T 2011, Exploring the potential benefits of CRM systems in customer-centric age: A case study of a telecom company in Vietnam.

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Literature Review on Stress faced by Secondary School Teachers in Singapore

Literature Review on Stress faced by Secondary School Teachers in Singapore

Table of Contents

Learning Objective. 3

Timetable for the two hour training session. 4

Navigation Key. 5

Icebreaker exercise. 6

What is stress?. 6

Stress managing techniques. 7

Improving well being. 7

Conclusion. 8

References. 9

Literature Review on Stress faced by Secondary School Teachers in Singapore

Learning Objective

In the contemporary settings, stress has become a common element in peoples’ daily lives. Issues such as financial crisis, autocratic employers, and work overload pose as examples of stress that one faces daily. The contemporary society is characterized by high reliance on industrialization and technology thus giving teachers a stressful period in their line of work. It is universally accepted that the modern society has placed a critical obligation on the teachers’ shoulders. The aforementioned statement is attributed to the fact that the society considers teachers as the entity responsible for molding students or preparing them for the challenges presented by the world. Consequently, with all these responsibilities placed on teachers they are usually susceptible to suffer from stress. From the above statements, one determines that teachers’ stress can be correlated to the negative exposure of emotions like anger and frustration while undertaking their daily tasks (Lambert & McCarthy, 2006). In accordance with the views highlighted by Menlo (2009) in his work, it is suggested that the commencement of multiple innovations in the school setting act as a stressor in the teachers’ lives. Factors incorporated into the school setting such as more administration and time-consuming systems of assessment act as the leading causes of tension in teaching (Kyriacou, 2009). This review will highlight several domains of stress in relation to secondary school teachers in Singapore and provide an efficient way of tackling the stress. Emphasis will be placed on one workshop and expound on it to reveal its beneficence to handling stress.

All over Singapore, teachers are subjected to long working hours and to top it up, there is no guaranteed job security. It is also evident that the nature of the job is transforming and the requirements of the employers and education ministry is also changing thus leading to a highly competitive work domain. Due to the aforementioned facts, the job is becoming more complex and creating overwhelming stress to the teachers. When a teacher strives to attain the required results while enduring such an unfavorable working environment, the individual is susceptible to suffer from stress. In turn, this sort of stress adversely affects the teacher by causing physical and health issues to the individual (Price, 1970). In the psychological context, the key to coping is not found in the stressor but in the coping mechanism (Kyriacou, 2000). The aforementioned author has the belief that it is the actual stress assessment and managing model that has an impact on the magnitude of the reaction of the stressful impetuses. The SMART workshop accommodates cognitive restructuring practices to aid individuals to manage the stress through altering their stress evaluation and perception of stress-induced acts (Palmer & Cooper, 2010). The process of cognitive restructuring involves the attainment of cognizance of any form of cognitive distortions and negative thought practices, challenging the detrimental thoughts, and replacing them with other beneficial habits (Varvogli, & Darviri, 2011).

                                       Timetable for the Two Hour Training Session

            Primarily, an exercise termed as the ‘icebreaker’ has to be conducted for the effective highlighting and execution of the critical problem; namely, stress in secondary school teachers. This review supports the establishment of the training manual for the ‘Stress Management and Relief for Teachers workshop’. This training manual shall be implemented in Singapore for the mainstream secondary schools. The workshop will be executed as a 4-hour program during the regular break in school terms. The Stress Management and Relief for Teachers workshop plays a more critical role than the mere issuance of techniques for relieving stress in the workplace. The adoption of the aforementioned training manual reveals a new framework for managing stress other than merely treating the symptoms related to the stress (Townsend & Avalos, 2007). The underpinning of the SMART workshop is emotional intelligence. Once an individual is able to manage the stress in the workplace, it acts as an advantage to the workers since they increase their output (Menlo, 2009).

Navigation Key

            Generally, stress is discussed in a negative context and yet it can also possess positive values. Stress can be considered as a potential opportunity when it offers several potential achievements. Emmett (2008) expounds on a term referred to as ‘Eustress’. This term simply refers to any form of stress, which bears positive outcomes. Other authors argue that stressors may manifest themselves in environmental form. Under this domain, the stressors that are environmental factors are responsible for accruing stress in an individual’s workplace. Generally, these are prerequisites to a teacher or any other worker experiencing stress reaction (Li & Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, 2008). The stressors further subdivide into four distinct categories namely organizational level stressors, group level stressors, individual level stressors, and extra organizational stressors (cite). The impact of the stressors on individuals vary, with some having positive effects (self-motivation) while others having the negative or counterproductive effects.

Icebreaker Exercise

Primarily, an exercise has to be conducted for the effective highlighting and execution of the critical problem; namely, stress in secondary school teachers. This review supports the establishment of the training manual for the ‘Stress Management and Relief for Teachers workshop’. This training manual shall be implemented in Singapore for the mainstream secondary schools. The workshop will be executed as a 4-hour program during the regular break in school terms. The Stress Management and Relief for Teachers workshop plays a more important role than the mere issuance of techniques for relieving stress in the workplace. The adoption of the aforementioned training manual reveals a new framework for managing stress other than merely treating the symptoms related to the stress (Townsend & Avalos, 2007). The underpinning of the SMART workshop is emotional intelligence. Once an individual is able to manage the stress in the workplace, it acts as an advantage to the worker since they increase their output (Menlo, 2009).

What is stress?

The first act in the complex process of better management of stress involves the effective identification of stress in the workplace (Keeves & Watanabe, 2003). The term stress is derived from the Latin language (strictus) to depict strictness. Stress has managed to become part of every individual’s daily communication and conversation. According to Emmett (2008), stress is correlated to the pace of an individual’s life. With regard to the aforementioned statement, anything horrible or interesting that is responsible for enhancing intensity in one’s life can affirmatively be responsible for stress. According to Keeves, three models of stress exists that one is to consider when highlighting the issues on stress. The first consideration is the environmental model also referred to as the stimulus event. Secondly, is the individual’s response and the final aspect is the boundary between the environs and the individual.

Stress Managing Techniques

            After the actual implementation of the SMART workshop, its generic core shifts from managing stress to improving an individual’s well-being (Emmett, 2008). Individuals who advocate for the well-being practice claim that the existence of positive evaluation and emotional states of employees tend to improve their quality of life and overall performance. Under such circumstances, employees tend to have ‘optimal states’ which translate to happier and productive workers (Blömeke, 2013). In the same respect, Warr (1987) asserts that five fundamental components subsist, which contribute to an individual’s mental well-being. These include independence, aptitude, integrated operations, affective well-being, and ambition. 

Improving Well Being

It is universally accepted that stress experienced at the workplace acts as a source of multiple problems in a human’s circulatory system. This can lead to serious heart problems, for example, heart attacks (Boey, 2010). Ultimately, when an individual is subjected to stress his/her body experiences adverse effects of the stress. The SMART workshop adopts both the overt and covert tendencies of individuals in the process of eliminating stress in the workplace. This strategy is developed to tackle the specific stressful situations that the teachers have mentioned. The workshop’s focal points are two conventional tactics to stress management namely; a psychological practice intended to highlight the negative perceptions attributed to stress and another psychological practice, which reduces the physical level of stress thus aiming to eradicate stress mentally and physically.


In order to promote the successful advancement of the quality of the education in Singapore, the state has to place its education system at the pinnacle of its priorities. The society considers teachers as the builders of the nation, thus the authorities should improve the working surroundings in the school settings. All the areas tackled above highlight how the education sector can be improved. Focus needs to be placed on the wellbeing of the teachers and clear objectives should be set to ensure efficacy in the system’s operations. The navigation key, stress management techniques, timetable and icebreaker exercise are important parameters for establishing and addressing the issue of stress faced by secondary school teachers.


Blömeke, S. (2013). Modeling and measuring competencies in higher education: Tasks and          challenges. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Boey, E. K. (2010). Teacher empowerment in secondary schools: A case study in Malaysia.          München: Utz.

Emmett, R. (2008). Manage your time to reduce your stress: A handbook for the overworked,            overscheduled, and overwhelmed. Macmillan Audio.

Keeves, J. P., & Watanabe, R. (2003). International handbook of educational research in the         Asia-Pacific region. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

Kyriacou, C. (2000). Stress-busting for teachers. Cheltenham: Thornes.

Kyriacou, C. (2009). Effective teaching in schools: Theory and practice. Cheltenham: Nelson       Thornes.

Lambert, R. G., & McCarthy, C. J. (2006). Understanding teacher stress in an age of         accountability. Greenwich, Conn: IAP.

Li, Z., Shiu, L., & Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research. (2008). Developing teachers      and developing schools in changing contexts. Hong Kong: China University Press.

Menlo, A. (2009). Meanings of teaching. S.l.: Information Age Pub Inc.

Palmer, S., & Cooper, C. L. (2010). How to deal with stress. London: Kogan Page Ltd.

Price, L. W. (1970). Organizational stress and job satisfaction of public high school teachers.

Townsend, T., & Avalos, B. (2007). International handbook of school effectiveness and   improvement. Dordrecht: Springer.

Tsai, S. L., & Crockett, M. S. (January 01, 1993). Effects of relaxation training, combining           imagery, and meditation on the stress level of Chinese nurses working in modern hospitals in Taiwan. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 14, 1.

Varvogli, L., & Darviri, C. (April 01, 2011). Stress management techniques: Evidence-based                   procedures that reduce stress and promote health. Health Science Journal, 5, 2, 74-89.

Warr, P. B. (1987). Work, unemployment, and mental health. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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Motivation: Theoretical Literature Review


Literature Review

A great deal of review has been given to the study relating to the research objectives. It allows relevant literature that flexible comparison to be made and drawn upon different perceptions on issues and concepts of the study. At the same time, it allows constraints for empirical research to be realized. The literature review in this paper includes a general overview of management theories as well as Marks and Spencer. The review focuses on the company’s performance management practices for success missions. The specific literature review focuses on the discussion on the impacts of staff motivation in enhancing performance of the employees. It goes to an in-depth analysis of studies focusing on the effects of the recruitment strategies on the performance of an organization, with specifics to Marks and Spencer. This section also assesses and explains the management theories and concepts relating to and supporting the motivational theory in relation to Marks and Spencer. While examining the literature review, the study aims at identifying gaps that the study seeks to fill and outsource in the existing literature.

Theoretical Literature Review

A manager’s key role in enhancing an organization’s success is to comprehensively understand employee motivation, its concepts and individual differences in personality and needs of workers. Being keen to employee motivational theories and factors, their changes over time in terms of priorities and the approach to these concepts, has been a step for managers towards better rewards of success. According to Robbins (2005), employee commitment, performance efficiency, productivity and loyalty are functions of motivation.  Personality and productivity as some of the best motivational factors are considered as continual process which require the right mindset and attitude that can only be achieved at a rightfully motivated work ethics. Kovach (1987) suggests that the dilemma of many companies is to find out why their employees come to work on time, stay in the company for their full working lives, and are very productive at the same time. The significance of employees’ motivation, that makes them behave in certain ways, therefore may finally determine whether an organization fails or succeeds.

Many studies have been done on motivation and found out that more motivated employees are more productive, efficient, and stay in an organization for a long time. Thomas (2009) argues that the challenge of employee motivation in the work place rests with the ability of identifying the motivating factors of each employee considering the differences in personalities and other individual differences. The differences may be in terms of psychological, social, demographic, economical or political differences that every employee may have based on various levels of their needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs(1946) states that a complete individual satisfaction, therefore motivation, is a function of five needs; psychological, safety, esteem, love, and self actualization. These factors are very necessary in work place and managers who have mastered these concepts and theories are prone to much success.

Robbins (2005) argues that hygiene factors such as job security, salary, benefits and working conditions can prevent employee dissatisfaction. However, they may not go along way in motivating the worker as well to the expected levels of motivation that will enhance more efficiency and productivity.  When more sense and mindset of self-actualization such as achievements, recognition, responsibility, personal growth and advancements, are conferred upon an employee, he or she will be more motivated. Instances of personal growth and effort recognition by an organization have myriad ways of extracting the best out of every worker. Such an organization would be reaping the advantage in the market place over its competitors that are still suffering from instances of absenteeism, high costs of re-training certain employees’ motivational programs, and production declines. According to Wiley (1997) in the process of ensuring employees are motivated, employers or managers must understand the drive of workers and what motivates them and such understanding are very essential in enhancing productivity.

Woodman et al. (1992) describes motivation as the internal acting force that makes a person to behave in a specific goal-oriented manner. Motivation is what makes people do what they do best at work, what make people want to work, that’s motivation (Reece and Brandt, 1990). In the same way, Daft and Marcic (2004) suggest that motivation involves both external and internal forces that arouse passion, enthusiasm, and persistence in pursuing a specific action. These studies argue about a common idea, that motivation must be accompanied by individual behavior, causes for that behavior, and the reasons for such behaviors which differ depending on the differences of individual needs. Managers and therefore an organization should not limit their energy on a specific model of motivation but should embrace the diversity of motivational models in order to realize the different needs of employees (Kovach, 1987).The aspects of models of motivation remains dynamic as various surveys prove that priorities of employee motivational factors change over time due to changing economic conditions, changes in working environment/industry, competitions in the industry, changes in the workers attitudes, labor market conditions among others.

Robbins (2005) discussed several theories that link motivation to organizational success. He argues that the reinforcement theory is an interlink theory that maintains rewarding a behavior with recognition immediately following the behavior is much likely to encourage the repetition of the behavior. He also suggests that involvement of the employees to taking part in the various responsibility of the organization is in conjunction with the ERG theory. This is also compatible with the efforts to stimulate the achievement need of the employees. Increasing the intrinsic factors in the job, for instance achievements, responsibility, and growth, make the employee be more satisfied working and is more likely to be motivated to perform. This is compatible and very consistent with the Herzberg’s two –factor theory.

Mark and Spencer Management is one of the few and unique management organizations which have adopted series of employee motivations. M&S online (2011) points out Mark and Spencer as having managers who understand well the concepts and theories of motivation and have enjoyed the full benefits of a motivated worker. One of the responsibilities of the section managers is motivate and inspire their team. This involves coaching them and inspiring their team of customer assistants in order to deliver better services that customers are happy about. According to Kovach (1984), section managers train their team and provide their psychological needs that instill passion and real zeal for the products they work with.

The management orientations of Marks and Spencer support the basic concepts and theories of motivating employees since they have evidently increased its management motives. B Robbins (2005) argues that the two-factor theory by Fredrick Herzberg, which emphasize on work itself, recognition, and responsibility as the sole motivators are directly the same approach employed by the Mark and Spencer. Optimum employee understanding and training, training, responsibility, and recognition practices to performance of various employees have been the foundation of the company’s overall performance. The ranges of management opportunities in Marks and Spencer are a vital illustration of the company’s ability to share responsibilities and instill the zeal and passion of action within every employee. This has largely been impacting on the company positively as sales volume in fiscal year records high margins. M&S online (2011)  clearly puts it that one of the success stories was the imitative for Marks and Spencer to undertake successful change, facilitation which was required to transform the company into a learning organization, making use of knowledge creation and management.

M&S have over 375 stores and have enjoyed the loyalty of over 11 million shoppers in a week. This is a record of a company that has also enjoyed the efficiency of 66,000 workers who are well motivated to extract such margin of sales. The company remains one of the unchallenged companies in clothing sales due to it lenience to changing employee motivating factors. Various management changes have been taking place within Marks and Spencer and they have been developmental in nature which goes someway to explaining why the results have been successful. The company has changed their marketing mix, dropped and added products, service and customers, downsized and made large numbers of employees redundant and at the same time have developed the capacity to solve their own problems and achieve both high performance and quality of work life. This may be because their scientific approach and scientific- based strategy for change management, and employee engagements.

The management understands well the theories and concepts behind motivating employees in enhancing high productivity. Despite massive management and corporate structural changes in the recent past, the company still remains the leading in worldwide quality food and clothing retailer (M&S online, 2011). Management at M&S has been undergoing through series of restructure in late 1990, a situation which was occasioned by the results of the pressure from the ever changing economic demands and environment in the world. This made many companies to undergo series of management realignment, including M&S. the company took that to its advantage in order to benefit from the new series and management concept about employee motivation. Today, M&S stands as one of the largest food and clothing retailers in the world.

Since 2002, M&S have operated it Human resource services from Salford, Manchester. This is where administrative services that support employee issues are centered (M&S online, 2011). In line with the changing factors that might affect the company’s employees in an otherwise ways, M&S introduced People Policy Specialists to the Human Resources Services in 2008.  PPS was responsible for the provision of the employee relation support and guidance for the Mark & Spencer management by providing employee customized laws and its policies. The Human Resources Service and the Recruitment services in most M&S branches have re-strategized the recruitment standards and services since 2011(M&S online,2011). Many modern theorists believe that in order to succeed business culture needs to be change-oriented and, hence, Mark & Spencer need to adapt to differentiating changing environments and internal workforce diversity.

According to Liao (2005) and Schneider (1994), the recruitment strategies and approaches of the Human Resources management of any company are reliant on the incorporating and situational agendas of the organization. They have myriad effects on the performance of the organization. Incorporative approach, as suggested by Schneider (1994) is an effective Human resources management which is deemed necessary in fostering employee motivation, commitment and development. This approach aims at creating a conducive working environment that emphasizes on the employee development during recruitment, training, participation, and communication which conversely make them innovative, committed and flexible in their work. Bergenhengouwen (1996) argues that the concept of core competence goes beyond strategic capability in looking for an organization’s competitive advantage. It however depends on the recruitment strategies that an organization applies. M&S has been taking great steps in enhancing its recruitment strategies, which have been viewed as the starting point of successful strategies for the company through proper schedules of acquiring, training, retaining, and developing human resources.

The spotlight programme introduced in 2010 has made the recruitment strategies very efficient and aims at giving spotlight recognition for exceptional services of an employee. This strategy has enormously boosted the performance of M&S in the competitive environment through it valued and credible recruitment agency at the HRM (M&S online, 2011). Their annual report plans for 2013-2015 has a massive focus on the UK environment since their anxiety to expand their multi-retail services speaks well over its performance through recruitment channels in the region.

The current competitive scenario of firms in various industries is increasing and organizations are faced with competitive focus of their products. Management performance is one of the value characteristic of a highly performing organization and investment in human resource as one of the major source of competitive advantage compliment efficient management. Although Mark and Spencer have been heavily investing in its business strategies, management performance has also been a key competitive advantage that has enhanced the company’s success over the years. It has been taking a strategic approach can be especially beneficial for staff functions within companies, as they often are required to justify their need for resources and their contribution to the company. The new changes to business units and flatter company structure are likely to increase employee empowerment and responsibility, increasing more of the direct contacts with customers and building new knowledge through valuable management efficiency. Modern theories suggest flexible strategies which are better, accommodating change in the structure of the management, where they specialize in their field of tasks (Johnson and Scholes, 2002; Francis, 2003) has been the key source of management success in many organization, including Mark & Spencer.

 To become more flexible Mark & Spencer has decided to apply a more horizontal management organization technique. Through a clear leadership role of appointed heads of business units, centralization has also been expected to be high only to a certain degree, not to prevent adaptability and flexibility of staff. Coordination is also expected to be in a form of a clear structured hierarchy and division of labor. M&S may establish one or more specific coordinating roles to encourage job enrichment and staff satisfaction. Liaisons, individual or departmental, committees, task forces, project groups, etc are all examples of possible structural coordinating tools.

Empirical Literature Reviews

 In according with Maslow hierarchy of needs, Marks and Spencer observes workers basic or safety needs at each level. Their sole idea is to make more employees want to achieve a higher level of needs such as social or esteem needs that makes them undergo self actualization. In pursuit of managing employee performance, management has to undergo various transformations that can adopt favorably with changing cultural changes. Mark & Spencer has a management scenario of rapid organizational transformation, which is based on a vision imposed on the company in a mainly directive fashion, down from the top, by its management and CEO, but which could potentially lead to a widespread change of attitudes and behaviors in the company.

Basic motivational theories describe the vice as a psychological factor which develop within an individual a passion to achieve some goals. Fodness (1994) argues that the psychological demands of an individual are the instances of the recurrence which makes wants unlimited. M&S understands this and that’s why the company trains workers regularly to keep these workers motivated. This makes them adapt to the changing work environment and pressure that comes with fashion.

One of the reasons behind the above mentioned transformations and changes is to modify the changing the attitudes and behaviors of the staff. In most cases, and during training, employees are being required to reconsider their attitudes towards how work is performed and their attitudes to their counterparts externally. Working relationship is vital to all from all levels of the whole organization. In this case, there are three people-related process that is to be undertaken: creating willingness to change; involving people, and sustaining the momentum (Doorewaard and Benschop, 2003; Burnes, 2004).

In the process of seeking and creating the willingness and readiness for change, Mark and Spencer’s management is aware of the positive aspects of the proposed change may also have negative impact on the company’s performance. Therefore, the company has to make its employees be fully aware of the pressure for such change during the business period, giving them an on-going feedback on the performance and areas of activity within the organization, and understanding staff’s fears and concerns. A constant communication and involvement will have to be present, providing resources and explanations for change. Aligned line managers will have to give all support needed to the change agents, develop new competence and skills and reinforce desired behaviors, such as increased pay or bonus. The theoretical literature has provided a foundation for narrowing the review of literature to the motivational theories and other studies on Mark and Spencer. The specific literature has in turn provided a platform to identify the gaps that this study intends to cover through empirical work.


According to Brewton and Milward (2001), a valid research methodology should relate to the research methodology, and also ensure to obtain relevant data which addresses the research question. It should also consider the time constraints and resources and be ethically sound. The study aims at fulfilling these conditions. This part of the study focuses on the practical aspects of proving and extracting the relevant information for analysis.

Research Design

The research design for this study is descriptive which ensures a cross examination of the relevant information for the analysis of the impact on the staff performance to motivation of the employees and the overall impact it has on Marks and Spencer as a business. It will also help in extracting relevant information on other variables like recruitment strategies effects on the performance of Marks and Spencer and a comprehensive classification of the connection that exist between performance management and the organizational success of Marks and Spencer. Technique of survey questionnaire and other interview tools will be used. In the process of uncovering the real effects of motivation to the performance of Mark and Spencer, the study adopts the use of exploratory tools of investigations of the relevant information.

The design of the paper take following illustrated diagram, passing through the faces of the interviewer, the respondent and the interviewer for recommended action;

In the same way, the study focuses on using analytical research tools   to uncover and assess the magnitude of employee motivation in terms of the organization and interlink it with relevant motivational theories and concepts. The study adopts interpretive strategy to take information from the respondents’ point of view given the environment of the study. Just as Suanders et al (2009) argues, interpretive perspective is a highly recommended strategy especially in cases involving business organization and management particularly in the areas of human resource and organizational behavior.

The study aims at utilizing both qualitative and quantitative research techniques in order to minimize the limitations or constraints .Qualitative research techniques are being used to review the qualitative information and literature on the topic of study. Information from materials and content on motivational effects on the Mark & Spencer are intended to be qualitatively reviewed. Qualitative reviews were also in form of situational analysis of various materials that contain information on welfare or satisfaction labor community as the organization grows over time. These materials included scholarly articles, books, journals and many other sources of secondary information.

Data Type and Source

Since the paper is based on the Mark and Spencer management case, the employees and management from a sample of various stores are to be chosen for extraction of relevant information. The sources of information are therefore both primary and secondary. Reliable and valid primary data obtained from different employees from different organizations with the help of questionnaire by employing field survey method and secondary data was collected through the websites, journals, published research papers etc. using chart, (figures) graphs etc. Both qualitative and quantitative data being collected for analysis and formation of credible conclusion on the research questions objects and topic of study. Secondary data are extensively collected from both soft and hard copies of text books containing information on life skills and motivational theories, materials and resources from libraries and archived. Empirical information intended to be collected from journal articles and other scholarly materials as stated above. On the other hand, primary data collection is done from the actual field of study way of administered research instruments, like questionnaire.

The questionnaires are to be delivered through postal delivery, internet/email, group delivery and collection. The questionnaire forms the sole part of primary data as it describes the real intent of exploratory and descriptive part of the paper. It is also very vital for the study since it will enable the study to actually explain the relationship between worker motivation and performance, particularly to Mark and Spencer which is the case study. This works effectively in thee case of self-administered questionnaire as this study adopts.

Ethical considerations

Appropriate behavior is to be adopted during the study in relation to those who become subject to the study. The study is therefore guided by principles and guidelines of ethical procedures which do not infringe another person’s rights.


Bergenhenegouwen G. (1996) Competence development – a challenge for HRM professionals: core competences of organizations as guidelines for the development of employees, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 20 Issue 9, pp.29-35;

Burnes B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organizational Dynamics, 3d ed., London, Prentice Hall.

Johnson G. and Scholes K. (2002) Exploring Corporate Strategy, 6th Edition, London, Prentice Hall;

Kovach, K.A. (1984), ‘‘Why Motivational Theories Don’t Work,’’ SAM Advanced Management Journal, 45(2), 54-60.

Liao Y. (2005) Business strategy and performance: the role of human resource management control, Personnel Review, Vol. 34 Issue 3, pp.294-309;

Robbins, S.P. (2005), ‘‘Motivation: Concepts to application’’, in Managing and Organizing People, C. University ed. Boston: Pearson, 163-193.

Schein (1990) cited in Millward L. (2005-in press), Understanding Occupational and Organizational Psychology. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Schneider B. (1994) HRM – A Service Perspective: Towards a Customer-focused HRM, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 5 Issue 1, pp.64-76;

Wiley, C. (1997), ‘‘What Motivates employees according to over 40 years of motivation Surveys,’’ International Journal of Manpower, 18(3), 263-281.

Brewton, P. and Milward, L. (2001) Organizational research methods: Thousand Oaks, sage Publications.

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Book Review: In an argument, which is written down, there has to be an element of seeking the truth

The claim is that in every argument, there has to claims, which are justified, as well as based on rational. 

2.         To justify a claim, means to provide evidence, which shows that a claim is true. This can be through the work of other people in that sector, or even through a statement given by a credible person concerning the given claim. When a claim has been justified, it means that it has been approved as being true.

3.         An assumption is when a person gives their view without any evidence to support it. It means that the person has made the view, based on his thoughts. Assumptions are not good as they are usually not true. 

4.         People who hold positions in government should ensure that the claims they make are justified. They should not claim about things, which are not true. This is because it has serious repercussions to the people he leads as well as himself .On my part; I would not be pleased if the leader assumed things, which were false. This is because it makes one doubt all his words and people will not be interested in any of his affairs. Even children might start to mock the leader, since he does not make assumptions, which are justified. 

5.         According to the author, it is vital that clarification is given by the arguer. The presented reasons must be justified using sufficient evidence. This is because the arguer is committing an offense of plagiarism. This means that the reason given might have been obtained from another source, without the permission of the original author. The audience should be aware if the arguer is making assumptions. This makes them be informed that the information provided is not credible. Any audience member can be requested to give their own view, based on valid evidence. 

6.         During arguments, there is a process of achieving a goal. This means that the elements of product and process are present in any argument. 

7.         Texts are known as results and products of the argument process. The texts are extremely essential in any argument process, which is ongoing. This is because it is based on inquiry and there are certain elements, which characterize it. They include; Gathering information, finding facts, as well as focusing on different viewpoints concerning the matter. These texts represent the need to persuade effectively, through seeking the truth.

8.         Propaganda has different meaning to the authors. Most times the political field has a lot of propaganda, which is due to the opinion held by the different parties. This might in turn, create opposition among people, based on their different claims. The parties make arguments, which are known as propaganda.

9.         In most arguments, the arguers seek to ensure that one of them wins. When this takes place, the arguers tend to ignore vital issues, such as providing the truth to their claims. Both of them need to know that no argument should occur if there is no truth being involved. 

10.       In an argument, which is written down, there has to be an element of seeking the truth. The aim of the argument should be to find claims which are true through justification.

11.       It is through making decisions, which are rational, that people become civilized. Through discourse, which is rational, people become morally upright, as well as give information, which is true. The actions a person displays and the justification they give, show the basis of the claims of an arguer. This is whether they are based on self-interest and power, or rationality.

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