Losing My Cool – Book Report


From William’s childhood home of one-story ranch house, his father made a collection of books more than any library could hold. His father used some of these volumes to operate an academic prep service, while the other books were used in his never-ending quest for wisdom. William, as a teenager, had a completely different pursuit from his father; he had the thirst for money, hoe and clothes. More striking feature was his Medusa-faced Versace sunglasses and the companion of a heavy gold-medallion hanging down his neck, whenever he styled up his speech to fit into the intoxicating hip-hop culture prevailing in the communities. Often, his childhood upbringing was influenced a lot by hip-hop and he could even cite the lyrics of Tupac and Nas songs. These were the necessities of the hip-hop youth who were also showing their prowess in order to “keep their woman in line”. Eventually, William seems to justify his thesis that the problem of “hip-hop culture” in America is pinned on US black communities, which traces down the ongoing racism by the white communities who seem to maintain their prejudices based on these claims.

The aforementioned descriptions are relevant when reviewing the book, “Losing My Cool,” written by Thomas Chatterton Williams. As Williams indicates in his book, his father, Pappy, grew up in the isolated South, hiding in the closet away from the hip-hop culture so that he could read deep into the wisdom of Plato and Aesop. He had a different destiny in mind for his son. For years, Williams juggled between “keeping it real” in front of his friends and, studying books under the influence of his strict father’s tutelage. From the cover of the book, the author could not have had a better title than this one since it has been introduced at a better time when there is a cultural war between the hip-hop culture and the American lifestyle among the young generations. Therefore, the aim of this paper will be to give a report of the content of the book, while quoting relevant lines from the book to back up my claims.

Losing My Cool

The book demonstrates that the African-Americans are living in a culture that influences them to imitate, or even become criminals. The author shows that such a stance is worthy than meaningful possibilities of other lifestyles such as his father’s morale standards. Thus, William examines the seductive power of the black hip-hop culture, by describing how his peers even from a younger age, refuse to read books stating that, “it is uncool.” The pivotal focus of this book is in his description of the misogynist, superficial atmosphere, where girls and boys idolize famous rappers such as Tupac and exchange sex for material favors. For example, he is forced to hit his girlfriend when he discovers that she is having an affair, and proceed to start a fight with the other guy as a way of saving the face and to have sex with his girlfriend again.

These experiences are no doubt a quality work of non-fiction of the symptoms of the black culture. Needless to say, the experiences have been the source of promotion of sexism and the treatment of women as “just bitches,” which are mentioned as problems of the broader culture in America. The author does not err when he mentions Eminem, whose iconic lyrics involve treating women as less than humans, and only as accessories to rappers kingdom of sex, money and riches.  Sadly, William makes it so easy to pin the blame on black people, yet the prevalence of the horrific and the destructive values stem from the reality of the disparity in demands between the white and the black communities. More so, the systematic discrimination by the whites has seen the black people living in states of unemployment and as the victims of imprisonment. The reality of the blame-game of whites against the blacks lurks in the background of this book. The hip-hop social misfit for the black people has lead to them having high stress levels, dying sooner, and getting lower level of education than the white community.

Williams explains openly the racist view by using his choice of clothes. He explains that “shirts and sweaters and trousers or jeans that fit” had to be the sagging jeans or the basketballs shorts. He explains that “he wanted to look like a man and not a kid” among other kids ascribing to the hip-hop culture. He goes on to mention that he did not want to look like “he was about to stick up a 7-eleven.” On other words, Williams uses theses expression to show how hip-hop culture was compelling the youths to dress in skanky looks so that they would not be seen as silly or uncomfortable.


Do not be judgmental of Williams’s use of vulgar language when he is describing the effect of hip-hop culture in our lives today. Rather, he is right to shed a light into the lives of other people, who are living in the damaged and limited social context of anti-intellectualism, sexism and materialism. Nonetheless, William writes to awaken us from our obscurity so that we can understand the origin of the problems pinned on the black communities. In the United States, it is a problem of the broader culture and not a black problem. For any reason whatsoever, we are continuing to blames for both the white and the black communities, but we never reach an affirmative decision to justify our blame for the decaying society. Therefore, if we can’t blame the black culture for the escalating hip-hop culture, then it should be worthwhile to investigate the entire discrimination claims happening in America today.


Williams, T.C. (2011). Losing my cool: Love, literature, and a black man’s escape from the

crowd. New York, NY: Penguin Group (USA) Incorporated.

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Book Review: The Boy Who was Raised as a Dog

This assignment aims to analyze the text, The Boy Who was Raised as a Dog by Bruce D. Perry and Maia Szalavitz.

By completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following competencies and behaviors:

Competency 4: Engage in Practice-Informed Research and Research-Informed Practice.​
C4.GP.B: Apply critical thinking to engage in the analysis of quantitative and qualitative research methods and research findings.​
Related Assignment Criterion:
2. Integrate multiple sources of knowledge, including research-based knowledge.​
Competency 6: Engage with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.​
C6.GP.A: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituencies.​
Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 7: Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C7.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 8: Intervene with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C8.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and constituencies.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 9: Evaluate Practice with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C9.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to evaluate outcomes.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Assignment Description
After reading the book, you will answer the questions listed below. Some questions will solicit your personal opinions or experiences, while others require you to cite evidence to support your response. Still others will require you to provide examples to support your work. All questions require you to think critically about what you read. To show comprehensive analysis in response to each question, you will need to do the following:

Integrate multiple sources of knowledge, including research-based knowledge.
Use social work databases as appropriate to support responses.
Use scholarly evidence to inform analysis of social work practice.
Use the textbook materials to apply the person-in-environment perspective in social work practice to the individual or family in the case study.
Remember this is a written assignment, and it should follow current APA formatting for written assignment submission.
Assignment Instructions
Answer the following questions using the guidelines provided above:

In the introduction to The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog, Perry distinguishes between being human and humane (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, p. 12).
What are the differences? Provide a personal or historical example to illustrate your point.
What is the author’s main idea? Summarize it in 1–2 sentences. Does he consistently come back to this idea in each case he examines? Explain using examples from the various chapters.
In many sessions Dr. Perry has with the children, he describes doing a coloring activity with them. How does this help his relationship with the children? What are some of his techniques?
Do the children you read about in The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog have an opportunity to experience a normal adult life? Explain your answer; cite the text if possible.
In Chapter 4, “Skin Hunger,” Perry describes and explains the concept of the “failure to thrive” (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 89–91). What does this mean? What key points about the ability to thrive were made in the chapter? What are some of the causes and lasting problems associated with the condition?
What is a good environment? Does this vary based on cultural or economic reasons?
According to the text, why was Tina unable to behave normally for a child her age? Is she a “lost cause,” as they say, or does she still have the ability to overcome the difficulties of her youth? Cite the text, and provide evidence to support your opinion.
In Chapter 5, “The Coldest Heart,” Leon is diagnosed as a sociopath (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 112–113). In your well-read opinion, who is responsible for his condition? Explain, providing textual support and evidence. What can we learn from his story?
Summarize the story of Chapter 6, “The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog,” in 5–8 sentences. What lessons did Dr. Perry learn from Connor and Justin?
Which is more important, nature, which is biology, or nurture, which is the environment? Provide an example.
Are the roles of socioeconomic class and race important elements in the work that Dr. Perry does? Does he handle these issues well? Explain.
What is RAD (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 192–194)? How does a child acquire the disorder, and what are the symptoms?
In his conclusion, Dr. Perry gives a summation of his ideas. What are some of the ways in which Dr. Perry suggests children, and all people, can thrive?
In Chapter 11, “Healing Communities,” Dr. Perry states, “The world we live in now is biologically disrespectful” (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, p. 262). Explain what he means, and interpret the idea. Do you agree?
Perry, B. D., & Szalavitz, M. (2017). The boy who was raised as a dog: And other stories from a child psychiatrist’s notebook—What traumatized children can teach us about loss, love, and healing (3rd ed.). Basic Books.

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Positive and Negative Effects of History in Film and Book of Amistad

Positive and Negative Effects of History in Film and Book of Amistad

The film and the book by Jones show how African blacks, who got seized by slave traders, earned their liberty and returned to their homeland. The story revolves around Cuba, America, and Spain. It talks about an event in 1849 that involved Amistad, a Spanish slave ship which got used in the transfer of slaves to the Caribbean. The African slaves revolted against their captors and they ended up killing all except three, the cabin boy, and the two owners of the slaves. The commandeered the ship and forced one of their captors to lead them to their homeland, Sierra Leone, Africa. The captain tricked them and change directions in the night. They finally found themselves in Long Island, American Coast. The slave ship belonged to Spain and when words reached Queen Isabella in Spain of the whereabouts of one of their ships, she requested for the ship and the slaves. A controversy boiled over the fate of the slaves. Two people on board claimed that the slaves belonged to them. According to Spain and America, slave traded had become illegal. While in Connecticut, the slaves got arrested. President John Quincy Adams was in favor of the slaves and called for their release. The judge of U.S Supreme Court, who presided over the cases, freed the slaves and found the claimants guilty of illegal trade. The slaves got freedom to stay in America or return home.

History has the option of being taught using textbooks in the classroom or showing movies on the various books used for studying history. Showing movies is very important because it helps students learn and keep factual information in textbooks that associate with those movies (Bingham 78). Information in the textbook must have consistent with that shown in the movie. However, some movies have episodes or lines different from those that the book they are based on hash. Research shows that watching a film related to a certain textbook, increases students recall of various events by about 50% in comparison with reading the text alone. On the contrary, when the information presented in a film contradict with that present in its relative book, people get tempted to recall the misinformation in the movie (Osagie 4). The power of movies is that they have stronger retention capacity than that of textbooks. Similarly, the recall of misinformation portrayed in the movie still has a 50% capacity of the time. In order to supplement or enhance educational practice, teachers have the responsibility of guarding students against the negative effects of movies that portray contradicting information from those of their relative books. Research shows that people still get subjected to misinformation even if they get briefed about it before watching the movie. However, when warnings get specified about particular inaccuracies get shown before watching the film, the effect of misinformation end.

            Films increases interest and learning in a classroom environment. Teachers and other stakeholders in learning must know that students are susceptible to inaccurate information even if the right information is present in the text . These have problems for the normal educational practices of utilizing movies as a teaching aid. The public also faces these problems as they consume popular movies or films on history. Good films add interest in history and have a lot of information which is accurate. Film producers usually compromise on some facts in the text so that the movie presents a more entertaining story than that in the text. This is what has subjected many movies to inaccuracies as learners are keener on the content of the movie and not the entertaining part. The film Amistad and its corresponding textbook, Mutiny on The Spanish Ship Amistad, show incongruence. The film displays some inaccuracies that misrepresent the textbook. One instance of misinformation presents itself when the film shows Cinque, the leading protagonist, sitting in shackles before U.S Supreme Court as the trial progressed. According to the textbook, Cinque was in prison when the trial was going on. On a general point of view, most information present in the movie and the textbook is similar. In fact, for a non-critical reader, it is difficult to notice the difference any misinformation present in the movie. In all, the movie clearly represents the textbook.

The film revolves between mushy Hollywood platitudes and stoic political correctness. The movie has too much history in it. The much history in the film makes the movie lack a strong flow. The diffuse in nature as it divides its powers among various aspects. It displays the pain and queer experiences that the captives faced during their struggle for liberty under captors (Jones 78). It also brings into effect the U.S presidential elections that were around the corner and legal representatives who argued about the destiny of the 53 African slaves. History is not more diffuse and complex than movies. People have the liberty of choosing characters in their own capacities. For instance, a character like Lewis Tappan gets picked and followed for his best efforts to bring an end to slavery.  Some pro-slavery rowdies ransacked his house in New York and burned in furniture. He had the heart of goodness and justice for all. The spirit of liberty ran in his blood.

 The correctness of the courts that administered the ruling for the African captives is questionable in the minds of many pro-slavery people (Davis 21). Some people say that there are no laws in America that try foreigners for their crime. The crime depicted in the movies was that of killing the captors who boarded the slave ship headed for the Caribbean. Some propose that the court should have proposed a sale of the slaves based on their market values. Others feel that New York, and not Connecticut, was the best place for the trial (Sanello 34).

The book and the film for sure have their own advantages and disadvantages as media for propagating knowledge. Films have the inherent ability of developing interest in students for the story. Most filmmakers add or subtract some content from the original sources or documents that movies base on to meet their aims. Less interesting films are less watched and hence their markets are poor. Filmmakers try their best so that they avoid problems. There are things that make movies eye-catching and endearing (York 9). This involved episodes full of suspense and tension. For them to meet such effects in their movies, filmmakers have to do away with part or add to a section of the story. In so doing, accuracy gets compromised. The realistic representation of the original document is not met. This makes movies unreliable sometimes when looking for information on certain stories. Conversely, books are good sources of information on about particular historical facts. Textbooks are very reliable sources because once published, it is difficult to doctor their content (Morris 34). Moreover, they pass through reviews for accuracy and relevance. Moreover, books are usually the first source of information on certain topics because they get written by those who experienced the facts. Unlike books, movies get information from textbooks, translate and produce similar information through acting. During the process of translation, the original information gets vulnerable to change, and hence a change of meaning. The best source of information on history is books or other recorded documents. Books are also good, but they sometimes mislead students. Movies serve as teaching aids in educational institutions. Looking at the book and the film on which Amistad get based, the book is the original source while the movie derived its content from the book. The film Amistad represents the book well, but there are instances that the books misinform the moviegoer. Warning people against misinformation present in particular sections is very important so that wrong indoctrination of the people ceases.

Another important aspect of the movie or the film Amistad is how it treats slave trade. Slave trade is one aspect of history that the movie displays. Slave trade thrived in the olden days. Slaves from Africa got traded for other products. The transatlantic trade involved sale Africa, US, and Europe. Slaves were taken to plants to work as laborers. Most of those firms were plantations. In the movie and text, Amistad, African slaves got sold to a Spaniard in Cuba and they board a ship to the Caribbean. The 53 Africans on board revolted against their captors on their way to the Caribbean (Bingham 56). They killed all their captors except three. They forced the remaining chapters to lead them to Africa, their homeland. This is a show of how worse slavery was. Slavery was a very bad act during the Trans-Atlantic trade. The African slaves in Amistad serve to display slavery in a way that suggests that it is worse than death. The Africans killed their captors just in search for freedom. Moreover, when the slave ship reached the shore of U.S, some people reacted differently towards slave trade. Some of the residents of Connecticut expected nothing but a sale of the slaves so that they could get a share. Many sharp reactions came from the government of Spain and U.S.  Slave trade was illegal. The government of Spain through Queen Isabella, requested a transfer of the slaves and Amistad to Spain. She claimed that the slaves belonged to Spain. Government of U.S said that the slaves could not go to Spain because the slave trade was long banned. President of U.S supported the pleas made by the slaves. He proposed for their release. This was a campaign gimmick for the president. The judge of the U.S Supreme Court, who ruled the case, ruled in the favor of the slaves. This was a show of the end of slave trade in America.

One disadvantage of the movie is that there exist unjustified aspects that it propagates. Murder is very bad. The slaves got charged through partial application of the law. The slaves murdered many captors but went unpunished (Zafiris 89). This is the worst aspect of the movie. The law that got used to punish the two owners of the slave should also apply to the captives. Since the slaves murdered, the government should have charged them with murder. This part of the film displays double standards of the American law.

Given the above two sources of information, as a teacher one should embrace both during teaching. They both add value to education in different ways. For better and better understanding, the film is used as an educational aid. This helps students who had difficulties with class notes understand what was not clear (Schwartz 10). The textbook is the first source of information. This is because it has all the relevant facts that learning the various topics in its need. It has the option of being referenced easily because students carry them anywhere. Movies are only important in supplementing the textbooks. However, movies may misrepresent the original information. Filmmakers usually add or remove some parts of the original information when they are looking for ways that make their movies interesting. Films are also good sources of information but they should warn viewers against any view or aspect of it that is incorrect during their starts.

From the above discussion, it is obvious that books and film make good sources of information. They form the basis of history. Amistad is one good representation of a book and a film that relate. However, the film has some of its parts different from those in the book. This makes it inaccurate. These parts need specification during the start of the movie so that viewers get the correct information. The main advantage of movies is that people have a long retention capacity than those of textbooks. In all, books and films are essential for learning.

Works Cited

Bingham, Dennis. Whose Lives Are They Anyway?: The Biopic As Contemporary Film Genre.

            New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2010. Internet resource.

Davis, Natalie Z. Slaves on Screen: Film and Historical Vision. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard

            Univ. Press, 2000. Print

Morris, Nigel. The Cinema of Steven Spielberg: Empire of Light. London: Wallflower, 2007.


Osagie, Iyunolu F. The Amistad Revolt: Memory, Slavery, and the Politics of Identity in the

United States and Sierra Leone. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000. Internet resource.

Sanello, Frank. Spielberg: The Man, the Movies, the Mythology. Lanham, Md: Taylor Trade Pub,

            2002. Print.

Schwartz, Barry. Abraham Lincoln in the Post-Heroic Era: History and Memory in Late

Twentieth-Century America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. Internet resource.

York, Neil L. Fiction As Fact: The Horse Soldiers and Popular Memory. Kent, Ohio: Kent State

            University Press, 2001. Print.

Zafiris, Anna. The Representation of African Americans in Steven Spielberg’s ‘amistad’.

            München: GRIN Verlag, 2010. Internet resource.

Jones, Howard. Mutiny on the Amistad: The Saga of a Slave Revolt and its

Impact on American Abolition, Law and Diplomacy. Oxford University Press,1997.

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The Custom House Introduction “Hawthorne’s controversial of preface to The Scarlet letter, ‘The Custom-House,’ is a book narrated by a nameless person

The Custom House


          “Hawthorne’s controversial of preface to The Scarlet letter, ‘The Custom-House,’ is a book narrated by a nameless person. At first it is considered to be vaguely ‘introductory’ but on the other hand, it is only relevant to novel itself. The narrator shares some few traits by the author of the book who is the chief executive of the custom House of the Salem. Customs are taxes paid into the country on the imports; the “customhouse” is a building where payments of taxes are done. The narrator found the building to be the run-down place, which is established on the rotten wharf in half-finished building. The colleagues are elderly, and they tell same repeated stories. The narrator in this case finds his colleagues to be incompetent as well as, innocuously corrupt. The narrator, on the other hand, he spends most of his times and days in the customhouse where he gets amused when few ships comes to Salem. One day when it was heavily raining, the narrator discovers some of the documents in the untenanted building. As he looks through the piles, the narrator notices that there is a manuscript which is bundled properly by the scarlet, a gold-embroidered cloth which has a shape of letter “A”[1]. The interest of Pue to be in the local history enabled him to write accounts of each events that happened in the past, this happened in two hundred of years before the narrator narrated his story of the customhouse (147).

                We also find a narrator mentioning his unease of attempting making a career that comes out as a result of his own writings. He also believes that, his ancestor are the Puritans, whom he is holding in high regards, would sometimes find it being frivolous as well as, “degenerate.” Nevertheless, the narrator decides in writing the experience of the fictional account of the Hester Prynne. He says that sometimes it may not be précised, but still believes that sometimes it might be remarkably faithful to spirits as well as the original general outline. From the first time in preface, the custom House as well as the town of the Salem are both presented as places of emptiness where only the dead people are living, in this case, the general community way of living is well as one being dead the main street is “lounging wearisomely, through the whole extent of the Peninsula”, the custom house is also said to be dead (148).

      This paper tries to introduce us to narrators as well as establishing his desires in contributing to the American culture. This narrator seems to be having many things in common with Nathaniel Hawthorne – who worked as the customs officer. Hawthorne lost his job because of political changes. He also had the Puritian ancestors considering their legacy as both a curse as well as, a blessing. The narrator does not only stand-in for the Hawthorne, but he is also carefully constructed in enhancing the aesthetically of the book and the philosophy. Moreover, we can see Hawthorne setting the narrator up to the similar Hester Prynne into significant ways. Like Hester, it is seen that the narrator is spending his days with many people who surrounds him making him feel alienated. His case of relative youth as well as, vitality separates the narrator from the customs officers who had a career.

             The narrator in this part tries to point out connections existing between himself as well as, Hester when he tries noting that, one day his name will be reduced to the custom stump, just like, she had been earlier reduced to the piles of the old papers as well as, craps of the clothes. The identification of the narrator and Hester helps the reader in universalizing her story as well as, seeing its application on other society[2].

         Despite the narrator’s devotion to the story of Hester, the narrator gets trouble to writing it. First, the narrator feels that it would be frivolous for his ancestors who are Puritian, and for sure he cannot write until relieved of career responsibilities, which are real. Second, the narrator knows his audience might be in a small number, mostly because the narrator might be relating the events that had happened back of two hundred years. The narrator’s time to spend in the company of other customhouse men taught him that it may be sometimes extremely difficult for him to write, and to make the narrated story accessible to everyone particularly the people who are no longer remarkably young at heart. Although, conversely, the narrator regards it to be part of his challenges trying to tell the story of Hester in a manner in which the story becomes meaningful as well as, emotionally affecting all the readers. The narrator’s last step to prepare in writing is the stopping battling the “real world” concerning the work atmosphere of the story that he narrates[3].

            The narrator here finds the job of writing to be highly therapeutic; in addition, he discovers the writing to be intensely practical in contrary to the assertions of the Puritian ancestors: the narrators introductions are seen to be providing the cogent discourse on the American history as well as their cultures. Hawthorne wrote this story at the time when the America sought in distinguishing itself from centuries of the European tradition in order to produce the uniquely the “American” writers – those people who, like the Hawthorne, would be able to encourage patriotism through enlarging the America’s comparatively sense of the world brief history[4].

           Hawthorne, like the narrator, both had an idea of balancing the need of establishing the weighty past, and equally compelling of needs to write the intriguing as well as, a relevant story but, both does not want to see their works placed in the pigeonhole as “Only” the American”.

Themes, Motifs & Symbols

Themes are substantially the subjects, the ideas or central topics, which are addressed, in literary work. While Motifs is the recurring structures, literary devices as well as contrasts helping in developing as well as informing the main themes in the texts. Lastly are symbols. Symbols are the objects or characters or the figures as well as colours, which are used to represent the abstract ideas and concepts. In this novel, many symbols have been used to symbolise something in the novel. In the novel, all different characters in the play have used the themes and motifs as well as the symbols. Some of the characters used them as illustrated below.

Sin, Human condition and Knowledge

          These themes are portrayed in differently in the chapters. At first the theme of sin as well as knowledge is both linked together in Judeo-Christian tradition. The Bible, on the other hand, begins with a story of Eve as well as Adam who was by then expelled from Eden because of eating from trees of knowledge of evil as well as, diverting. By doing so, Adam and Eve humanness are made aware hence separating them from divine as well as, other creatures. Once they are expelled out of the Garden of Eden, the two are forced to procreate at the same time to toil – the two “labors” which is defining human conditions[5].

The story of Adam and Eve is recalled by the experiences of Hester as well as Dimmesdale because, in all cases, the sins results in the expulsion plus suffering. However, the results in the knowledge of being a human. In the other hand, the scarlet letter for Hester functions as her passport to travel to regions where women dared to be not tread hence she speculates about her own society as well as herself especially her body than anyone in New England. We also find Hester and Dimmesdale, on the other hand, contemplating their sinfulness on a daily basis as well as trying to reconcile their lived experiences.

       The elders of the Puritan argue that the earthly experiences are obstacles which are on paths to the heaven hence, viewing sins as threats to communities which should be suppressed as well as punished.

The Nature of Evil

       The theme of the nature of evil is portrayed frequently by many characters in the novel who deliberate about the identity of the “Black Man”, which represents the evil. Many questions have been asked to regard to the theme of evil in the novel throughout the story. Many people would love to get answers concerning whether Chillingworth’s selfishness to the marrying of Hester forced her to be an evil. The confusion regarding the nature as well as the evil causes reveals all problems with Puritan Conceptions regarding to sin. 

         The book continues to argue that the true evil may have arisen from a close relationship which exists between love as well as, hate. The narrator concludes that both emotions, which depend on a high degree in intimacy as well as, heart-knowledge, render individual dependent. An act of evil is no longer found in the Hester as well as Demmesdale’s lovemaking or in cruel ignorance fathers of the puritan. Evil is poisonous since it is found carefully plotted as well as precisely, which is aiming revenge at Chillingworth, because his love is perverted.


Identity and society

         Hester feels shame when she is asked and forced by the Boston populace to put on a badge which indicates humiliation. She is not willing to leave town or imprisoned physically, hence by leaving the Massachusetts Bay Colony may allow her removing s scarlet letter as well as resuming a life which is normal. However, Hester reacts when told by Chillingworth that, she will be considered by the town fathers when she removes the letter. This behaviour has been premised on Hester by the desire of determining her identity than allowing other people to determine for her.


        Motifs are the recurring structures, literary devices as well as contrasts helping in developing as well as informing the main themes in the texts. There is a motif of civilization versus the wilderness that is shown in the novel. In The scarlet Letter, the forest which surrounds the town represents the behaviours opposing systems. Civilization is shown by the town, whiles the forest, on the other hand, and represents the space of the natural, not human authority. The nights and days have been used in the novel to emphasize the alternations of the sunlight as well as, the darkness. A person can do a specific activity in the daylight rather than night since in the night many inner natures are said to manifest at that particular time.


         Symbols are the objects or characters or the figures as well as colours, which are used to represent the abstract ideas and concepts. In this novel, many symbols have been used to symbolise something in the novel. For example, The Scarlet letter is a symbol, which represents shame, though it becomes a symbol to identify Hester. The pearl, on the other hand, is known to be a character whose primary function in the novel acts as, a symbol.


         In summary, from the story of the story of the Customhouse, The scarlet letters’ tale adds legitimacy history and cultures to the Americans history. The story of Hester in this case comes twice removed. The story is filtered for the first time by John Pue, then through the narrator.

Works Cited

Bloom, Harold. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The scarlet letter. New York: Chelsea House        

Publishers, 2004. Print.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, and Leland S. Person. The scarlet letter and other writings: 

authoritative texts, contexts, criticism. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2005. Print.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The scarlet letter with Connections. London: Holt, Rinehart and 

Winston, 2000. Print.

Meltzer, Milton. Nathaniel Hawthorne: a biography. London: Twenty-First Century Books,    

2007. Print.

Sterling, Laurie A., and Harold Bloom. Bloom’s how to write about Nathaniel Hawthorne.    

New York: Bloom’s Literary Criticism, 2008. Print.







[1] Meltzer, Milton. Nathaniel Hawthorne: a biography. London:

[2] Sterling, Laurie A., and Harold Bloom. Bloom’s how to write about Nathaniel Hawthorne.     


[3] Bloom, Harold. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The scarlet letter.

[4] Meltzer, Milton. Nathaniel Hawthorne: a biography. London:

[5] Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The scarlet letter with Connections.

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Book Review: In an argument, which is written down, there has to be an element of seeking the truth

The claim is that in every argument, there has to claims, which are justified, as well as based on rational. 

2.         To justify a claim, means to provide evidence, which shows that a claim is true. This can be through the work of other people in that sector, or even through a statement given by a credible person concerning the given claim. When a claim has been justified, it means that it has been approved as being true.

3.         An assumption is when a person gives their view without any evidence to support it. It means that the person has made the view, based on his thoughts. Assumptions are not good as they are usually not true. 

4.         People who hold positions in government should ensure that the claims they make are justified. They should not claim about things, which are not true. This is because it has serious repercussions to the people he leads as well as himself .On my part; I would not be pleased if the leader assumed things, which were false. This is because it makes one doubt all his words and people will not be interested in any of his affairs. Even children might start to mock the leader, since he does not make assumptions, which are justified. 

5.         According to the author, it is vital that clarification is given by the arguer. The presented reasons must be justified using sufficient evidence. This is because the arguer is committing an offense of plagiarism. This means that the reason given might have been obtained from another source, without the permission of the original author. The audience should be aware if the arguer is making assumptions. This makes them be informed that the information provided is not credible. Any audience member can be requested to give their own view, based on valid evidence. 

6.         During arguments, there is a process of achieving a goal. This means that the elements of product and process are present in any argument. 

7.         Texts are known as results and products of the argument process. The texts are extremely essential in any argument process, which is ongoing. This is because it is based on inquiry and there are certain elements, which characterize it. They include; Gathering information, finding facts, as well as focusing on different viewpoints concerning the matter. These texts represent the need to persuade effectively, through seeking the truth.

8.         Propaganda has different meaning to the authors. Most times the political field has a lot of propaganda, which is due to the opinion held by the different parties. This might in turn, create opposition among people, based on their different claims. The parties make arguments, which are known as propaganda.

9.         In most arguments, the arguers seek to ensure that one of them wins. When this takes place, the arguers tend to ignore vital issues, such as providing the truth to their claims. Both of them need to know that no argument should occur if there is no truth being involved. 

10.       In an argument, which is written down, there has to be an element of seeking the truth. The aim of the argument should be to find claims which are true through justification.

11.       It is through making decisions, which are rational, that people become civilized. Through discourse, which is rational, people become morally upright, as well as give information, which is true. The actions a person displays and the justification they give, show the basis of the claims of an arguer. This is whether they are based on self-interest and power, or rationality.

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A Midwife Tale, A Book By Laurel Thatcher Ulrich

A Midwife Tale, A Book By Laurel Thatcher Ulrich

A Midwife Tale, a book by Laurel Thatcher Ulrich revolves around the life of Martha Ballard; a midwife in the Northern New England. In this book, Laurel examines the early American republic and the ordinary life of people living there. Moreover, she reminds us of the women role in households and society. On the other hand, New York Burning by Jill Lepore, recounts and recreates the budding New York City of the late seventeenth century. She shows and explores the political and social life of people living in the region at that particular time. This essay seeks to compare the different methodologies used by Laurel Thatcher in A Midwife Tale and by Jill Lepore in New York Burning.

A Midwife Tale utilizes the qualitative research methodologies to exemplify the eighteenth and nineteenth History and Culture in the American Human societies. Significant events have been shown either by the use of written and even oral histories as acknowledged by citizens living within a given era and society. Oral histories are usually in the form of legends, songs and myths delivered orally. Written histories on the other hand, often take the form of recorded journals, diaries, written narratives and official documents retrieved from a particular period in history.

More often than not, written histories are utilized because they provide more of the physical evidence required to substantiate the events in a given story. Laurel Ulrich has utilized the written histories to analyze the lives of women in the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Particularly, she has based most of her work on the Diary of Martha Ballard. Through this diary, Laurel reveals the experience and lifestyle in the eighteenth century from Ballard’s and society perspective. Ulrich puts more emphasis on Ballard’s accounts of life and their importance because she considers Ballard’s diary as monument to an extraordinary life and evidence to the fragile network that links one generation to others. Additionally, the diary also makes it possible for readers to see the image and personality of Ballard as knowledgeable and science oriented lady.

Though New York Burning utilizes the qualitative methodologies, Lepore’s work is based on a journal. By necessity, she draws most of her research work from a journal written by Justice Daniel Horsmanden; a New York Supreme Court Judge. The document was written in the year seventeen forty four and it described as the most shocking and annoying documents in the early history of the American people. By adding political and cultural context to the journal, Lepore raises questions on whether conspiracy really existed or it was the blind fear that resulted in guilty verdicts for very many American slaves. Using the journal, Lepore not only confronts us with an awful conclusion, but also provides us with some background on the origin of attitudes of the whites living in New York towards all their slaves.

All in all, this essay has focused on two books; A Midwife Tale and New York Burning which remind us of the History of the American people. They remind us on the value of humanity to human lives and the importance of women to the society therefore the need to uphold and respect them.


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The Book Of Job And The Questions Of Suffering

The Book Of Job And The Questions Of Suffering 


Job’s wealth and faith. 2

From riches to ashes. 3

The suffering. 3

Conclusion. 6



            The religions of the ancient near East were mostly polytheistic. Its history spans from more than two millennia, from the bronze age to the early Iron Age. There are various sub religions that make up these religions of the ancient near east they include; Assyro-Babylonian religion, Canaanite religion, Egyptian religion, Minoan religion and many more. These religions had broad aspects that they share including purification and cleansing rituals, sacrifices, divination, polytheism, sacred prostitution. They were centered on theocracies 1[1]

            This particular paper will take an in-depth look and an exploration of the book of Job in the bible. It will further look at the questions of suffering in the book. The book of Job was written by an unknown author, it is possible that it is the most ancient literary account in the Bible. It is a book that is a mixture of divine and human wisdom that addresses major issues in life. It is also a prime example of Hebrew wisdom literature that is centered with the concept of theodicy that is defense of integrity of justice and righteousness of God in the light of the evil, injustice and underserved suffering in the world. Job is the principal character in the book of job in the Hebrews Bible. Job in the Jewish tradition is the son to Uz, the son of Nahor, the brother of Abraham. In Hebrew the name job was taken to mean the persecuted one. The book focuses on the trials that Job underwent at the hands of God and how he deals with them. The characters in the cook are Job, his wife, God, Satan his three friends and a man called Elihu.

It begins with an Introduction of the character of job; a description of him is that of a blessed man that leads a righteous life. He was praised by God such that Satan was prompted to challenge him in terms of his integrity. He even went ahead to suggest that Job only served God just because he protects him. God removed his protection on Job and allowed Satan to take his wealth, his children and physical wealth in an attempt to make Job curse God. The book is mostly on Jobs conversation with his three friends concerning his condition and the possible reasons.

Job’s wealth and faith

            Job was famous for his riches, he owned sheep, camels, oxen, donkeys and servents.an important of his possessions was his family he had seven sons and three daughters. This wealth made him to be known as the greatest man in the east. He even described the respect that people gave him 2With all this riches and honor job was not proud, he was constantly aware that it is God that was blessing him with all these things. He had great faith and this through his concern on the spiritual welfare of his children who he constantly thought had cursed or sinned against God in their hearts. Through all this wealth and faith no one was able to forestall the tragedies that were about to crash down on him 3.         


From riches to ashes

            The devil was given a free hand by God and he struck Job freely; it just took him a day to smash Job with one disaster after another. The Sabena and Chaldean bandits stole Jobs, camel, oxen and donkeys. There occurred a storm that killed all his sheep, his servants die and worst of all, all his children die in  when a house they were in collapsed in a desert tornado. He also loses his health as he is struck with boils head to toe. He became an outcast in the society with his disease which was a form of leprosy and he was seen sitting alone as he scrapped his scores that were itching with broken pieces of pottery. He sat on a heap of ashes that was symbolic of the deep sorrow and also the tearing of his clothes, wearing of sackcloth, shaving his hair and sprinkling of dust on his head. His wife went ahead and told him to curse God and die 4.



The suffering

            Job went through overwhelming and sudden suffering he suffered financially as the lost all this wealth. He also suffered physically as he lost his health, pyschologocally as he lost his children who he loved so much and finally he suffered socially since he was no longer influential and was even considered an outcast because of his disease. On top of all this he seems to suffer in the hands of everyone and anything; natural disasters wind, fire, his loved ones i.e. his wife and later his friends and even the raiders who were evil people. His reaction to this suffering was the lord is the one who gives and also takes and he continued to praise him 5.his friends tried to find a reason why he is suffering his three friend Eliphaz,Bildad and Zophar all questioned his suffering. They all held that the righteous never suffered but those who were unrighteous were 


[2]Entitled to suffering.Eliphaz told him that if indeed he was innocent why was he being punished, there was no way he was plowing iniquity and mischief he would just reap the same. He convicted Job to his foolish response to his misfortune and urged him to repent and lay his ins before God. His basic message was that Job was suffering due to his sins 7.He therefore wanted Job to see that Gods oppression was a result of his sin.Bildad told him that God is just and only judged those who sinned against him 8.Zophar told him if it is true that he is clean then God himself will deliver him from the situation 9.their proposed solution to his suffering was for him to repent his sins so that his prosperity would be restored. Job was disappointed with his friends and seeks God to reveal to him why he is suffering. Contrary to his expectations God did not answer anything to do with his suffering.

            Job is hence a book that deals with human suffering even though the suffering of the innocent is not the main purpose of the author in the book. It is more than an ancient play that is out to portray the absurdities of life, man’s weakness and Gods prominence to soverenity.this book portrays that some one who is suffering can question and also have doubts but they can also face the hard questions in life with faith still maintain relationship that is not broken with God who is ever loving. The sufferer comes to a resolution that is satisfactory resolution for personal and collective injustice and suffering that is undeserved. This observation is addressed within the context of the suffering man Job who was righteous and also many believers who suffer and can identify with Job. From this book there is the understanding of the overall concept of suffering and how it is essential for the maintenance of a relationship that loves and has meaning with God even when one is undergoing sufferings. The blame of the devil to all suffering is common with everyone but the book explores the cause and effect of suffering. There is also a realization that nothing especially suffering can happen without the knowledge, love, wisdom and power of God10 .while Satan is considered to be the prime mover of sin, evil and suffering there should not be ignoring of the fact that there is a connection between Satan’s desire and the permission that he gets from God to execute his desires. The friction is clearly portrayed in the troubled that were inflicted to job. Though God was also at work on Jobs suffering, it should not be taken that he was not concerned with what his people go through. God therefore inflicts suffering both directly and indirectly to many people for different reasons; discipline, judgement, refining, but Satan is the one behind misery in people.satan challenged Job in three areas; his righteousness, his fear of God and his separation from sin 11the issues of prosperity and its resultant retribution stands out as the main focus in the understanding of suffering in the book.


            Since God is just, it would be a wrong assumption that the fallen world under Satan’s ruler ship is fair.The failure of the traditional wisdom to answer jobs complaint is a revelation that the world operates by plan of the fallen being and only a personal relationship with God can those who suffer find meaning and purpose to the injustices that take place. There are various truths that are presented in the book of Job and include; sin is not always the basis of suffering. The [3]acceptance of the false tenets about suffering cause a blame and challenge on God. Suffering can be faced with faith, trust and a loving gracious God even when there is no immediate satisfying and logic rational to do so. God allows suffering and pain if they serve his purposes. The greatest of saint’s struggle with suffering and the suffering they go through ban have a preventive purpose 10therefore the book of job gives a guideline on how one should deal with suffering through endurance and God will eventually see them through.


Waters, J.l. (1997) Reflections on suffering from the book of job.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/Ted_Hildebrandt/OTeSources/18-Job/Text/Articles/Walters-suffering-BS.pdf

Bible Study Tools (2012). Book of Job.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.biblestudytools.com/job/

Ehlke,C.R .(2004). JOB”FAITH ON TRIAL”.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.zionfriedheim.org/biblestudies/Old%20Testament/job.htm

Seltzer, R. M. (2011). The Book of Job: A Whirlwind of Confusion – My Jewish Learning. Judaism & Jewish Life – My Jewish Learning. Retrieved October 30, 2012, from http://www.myjewishlearning.com/beliefs/Theology/Suffering_and_Evil/Responses/Biblical_and_Rabbinic/Book_of_Job.shtml

Bakon,S. (2011)SUFFERING: THREE BIBLICAL VIEWS.Retrieved October 30,2012 from bq.jewishbible.org/assets/Uploads/303/303_SUFFER30.pdf


Schoenheit, J. (2005).Job: The Righteous Sufferer.Retrieved October 30,2012  from http://www.truthortradition.com/modules.php?file=article&name=News&sid=827


 BibleWise.(2010). Books of the bible.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.biblewise.com/archives/2004/august/overview/overview.htm


Albright,W.F.(2010).The Ancient Near East and Religion of Israel. Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3262515?uid=3738336&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101374593407



[1] Albright,W.F.(2010).The Ancient Near East and Religion of Israel. Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3262515?uid=3738336&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101374593407

2(Job 29:7-9) 7I would go out to the city gate
and set up my seat in the open space;
8 when young men saw me they would hide themselves,
while the aged arose and stood;
9 leaders refrained from speaking —
they would lay their hands on their mouths;


3Ehlke, C.R. (2004). JOB”FAITH ON TRIAL”.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.zionfriedheim.org/biblestudies/Old%20Testament/job.htm




4Job2-9. His wife asked him, “Why do you still hold on to your integrity? Curse God, and die!”

5Job 1;21 “Naked I came from my mother’s womb,
and naked I will return there.
Adonai gave; Adonai took;
blessed be the name of Adonai”

6Job4:7, 8. Remember, I pray thee, who was ever punished being innocent?

According as I have seen, they that plow iniquity and sow mischief, reap the

same . . . 

7Bakon, S. (2011) SUFFERING: THREE BIBLICAL VIEWS. Retrieved October 30,2012 from bq.jewishbible.org/assets/Uploads/303/303_SUFFER30.pdf

8Job 8:3, 4: Doth God pervert judgment . . . or pervert justice? If thy children

sinned against Him, He delivered them into the hand of transgression . . .


9Job 11:4-Thou hast said: ‘My doctrine is pure and I am clean in Thine eyes.’

. . . Know, therefore, that God exacted of them less than thine iniquity deserves



10Waters, J.l. (1997) Reflections on suffering from the book of job. Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/Ted_Hildebrandt/OTeSources/18-Job/Text/Articles/Walters-suffering-BS.pdf

11Job1:8-11). 8 Adonai asked the Adversary, “Did you notice my servant Iyov, that there’s no one like him on earth, a blameless and upright man who fears God and shuns evil?” 9 The Adversary answered Adonai, “Is it for nothing that Iyov fears God? 10 You’ve put a protective hedge around him, his house and everything he has. You’ve prospered his work, and his livestock are spread out all over the land. 11 But if you reach out your hand and touch whatever he has, without doubt he’ll curse you to your face!” 







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The book Bad Blood by James Jones

The book Bad Blood by James Jones 

            The book Bad Blood by James Jones is an excellent book detailing the most important issues concerning Tuskegee study’s protocol. The book details several quotes that have been put forwards by many personalities who have been included in the story. These personalities have either directly or indirectly contributed to these quotes. These quotes have been quite informative and educative concerning the baseline target that the author wanted to bring forward. This has acted great in ensuring that the book becomes one of the most excellent in the light of Tuskegee Study protocol. The book greatly dwells in the field of medicine and public health (Jones, 37). It entails a lot of humanity issues alongside several questionable issues concerning human health. This is evident where human beings were willingly left to continue sustaining their diseases without treating them. This was in a bid to do research concerning untreated syphilis (Jones, 17). 

            It is of critical significance to note that some of the conditions detailed in the book touching on health issues are more of human pride. This follows that the treatment for the disease was not lacking, only that the doctors were proudly conducting their research. This was a bit controversial since those men could really affect other people with whom they had sexual intimacy. This follows that such diseases could spread easily. In addition, such diseases were really horrible.  In the experiment, the other issues of critical importance to note is the fact that in the initial test pool, all the participants had treatment for syphilis (Jones, 31). Therefore, although the major focus was to research on untreated syphilis, the initial test only worked to stop further treatment of the same disease. 

            In this class, we have studied several issues touching on public health and medicine. Some of these include the emergent diseases as well as those diseases that have been there or a very long time. The studies have focused on the origin, spread, prevention and treatment of such diseases. The book, Bad Blood by James Jones relate a lot to the things we have learned in class. For instance, the part touching on the origin and spread of HIV/AIDS is clearly detailed in this book.  The book points out they ways in which the dreaded disease known as HIV AIDS came about in a very systematic manner. In addition, it succinctly explains how the disease spread throughout the world. Moreover, the book sheds more light on the relationship between the disease and other sexually transmitted infections like syphilis. This forms the core of some of the topics we have dealt with in other classes in this institution.

            This book can be termed seminal in the field of research ethics. This follows that the book is quite educative as well as informative with regards to ethical issues. It clearly depicts the issue of racist history in the medical research (Jones, 23). This may be of critical importance to researchers who would wish to know more concerning the nature of diseases in the earlier days with regards to racism. In addition, this book is quite good when it comes to the courses dealing on pharmacy law and ethics. However, it is quite prudent to note that the book has helped me learn a lot concerning the issue of health and ethics compared to what I initially knew about. In addition, I have come to understand how the concept of racism acted to shape up the field of medical research in earlier days (Jones, 24). The type of exploitation depicted in the book Bad Blood by James Jones is that of medical exploitation. This involves the inclusion of human beings in medical research, thus posing major risks to their health. This follows the poor medical health care in which such people are subjected as depicted in the book. 

Works Cited

Jones, James H. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. New York: Free Press, 1993.       Print.


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This essay examines Adair’s business book on leadership as well as an article on leadership skills


This essay examines Adair’s business book on leadership as well as an article on leadership skills. The aim of this essay is to answer some of the research questions provided and thereby suggest that indeed, leadership qualities are essential in an organization.

In order to achieve this, the essay is divided into four sections. The first section gives definitions of the key terms used in the essay. The following section provides an overview of the article while the third section summarizes the book. The last piece highlights the key points from the previous sections.

Keywords: Leadership, effective leader, management



Before the writer of the essay proceeds, it is detrimental to define the various terms used throughout the essay. One of such key terms is leadership qualities, which refers to the characteristics possessed by leaders that would let others to willfully follow what the leader intends to do. An effective leader is a person who possesses the ability to get work done effectively by others in a willful manner. Management, on the other hand, refers to doing things in the right way. However, management is different from leadership since leaders do not need to be managers.

A Summary of the article

In early years, the managers organized and monitored the productivity of labor in the various organizations. Leaders, on the other hand, played a pivotal role in initiating change in an organization so as to assist the firm accomplish its objectives within the shortest possible time. The managers should present leadership qualities in organizations. Persons who possess such leadership qualities qualify to be effective leaders. Indeed, there are different qualities associated with leadership including the ability to have a vision about the future. In line with this, a principled leader focuses about the future success of the organization. Further, a true leader should be flexible in conducting activities within an organization, understand that there are constraints in achieving the objectives of a firm, share and shape ideas, adequately understand the environment around him, respect other people’s ideas and be creative in all his activities. Moreover, the leader should learn to ask other top leaders on how to carry out activities within the organization.. An effective leader would be learned and should possess the necessary skills to run an organization. In addition to this, he should establish a positive attitude to his work as well to other people around him. To sum up the article, it would be fair to say that an effective leader should portray concern for others, ask questions whenever in problems, effectively communicate, show flexibility in making decisions and also be willing to install change in addition to being creative, and innovative when undertaking activities within the organization (Martin, 2003).

A Summary of the Adair’s Book

According to Adair 2010, a strong manager and leader should reach the organization’s goals, assist the workers, promote the value of output, and encourage teamwork within the organization. In order to achieve this, the author outlines three requirements for a strong leader including achieving the task, managing individuals as well as encouraging teamwork. The author encourages individuals to think about their personal success in one’s unique situation.

In order to evaluate the leadership qualities, one needs to set objectives in an organization which should be attained within the set time. Then, planning is essential since it shows how the activities are to be conducted so as to achieve the ultimate goal in the organization. In addition, one has to apply the various leadership qualities in the organization. In case the objectives are effectively attained as set, then this is effective leadership (Eric, 2010).

            In conclusion, it would be appropriate to suggest that indeed, effective leadership is essential in organizations. It assists organizations to achieve their objectives within a given period. Certainly, outstanding leadership qualities are a worthwhile ingredient towards success of virtually all organizations.



Eric, A. J. (2010). Business and Economics/Leadership. London: Kojan.

Martin. (2003). Leading change in Health and Social Care. London: Routledge.




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US History: Book Review Inbox

Book Review Inbox

BOOK: Assata Shakur by Angela Davis

HOW TO WRITE A BOOK REVIEW: Book Reviews: Each student will prepare a typed (double-spaced, with one-inch margins, and 12-point, Times New Roman font), 3-4 page summary, and review of each of the assigned readings. These papers will constitute a significant part of your grade, so read the following description carefully. Your papers should summarize the main points the author is trying to make, evaluate the effectiveness of his arguments, and analyze the sources upon which he bases his arguments.1. Paragraph*I. Explain the author’s thesis—the main point or points that he/she is trying to make in the book (This is not a description or summary of the book; it is an explanation of the author’s purpose, the central idea or ideas around which the book is organized). Also, include a brief discussion of the book’s scope- the book’s subject and the time or geography it covers (i.e. what the book is about). This should take no more than a sentence or two.2. Next 3-4 paragraphs: Give a broad, general summary of the book. You cannot summarize the entire book in 3-4 paragraphs, but you can give an example of the author’s arguments that capture the book’s flavor. 3. Next paragraph. Discuss the sources upon which the author bases his book. What research materials did he use? 4. Last paragraph. Assess the book. Do not tell me whether or not you liked it or found it interesting, but tell me how successful the author was in achieving his objectives (thesis) and convincing you of f the validity of his arguments; also cite the strengths and weaknesses of the book (if they exist). A paragraph should be 1/2 to 3/4 pages in length This book report should be at least 3-4 pages minimum.

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