biology – conservation

Answer each of these questions in CONCISE essay form 3 pages or less for each question. Your essays can also include maps, tables, lists, pictures, or other graphic materials, if you feel these will help support your argument and explanation. These materials will not count towards the total pages. It is important to remember that there is no right answer to any of these questions. The best answer will be one that reflects your thoughtful consideration of the information we have covered this semester, supported by points raised in our class dialogues and the readings, and other literature or sources that you may discover through new research.
The Eastern Coyote appears to be a genetic mix of coyotes (Canis latrans), timber wolf (Canis lupus), and possibly even a small amount of domestic dog (Canis familiaris).  Eastern timber wolves are protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but coyotes and dogs most definitely are not.  Provide your explanation for why you think that the Eastern Coyote is or is not a new and distinct species, and should/or should not be protected.

Most of the species living with us on this planet have not been identified or studied scientifically, and we know very little about the genetics or ecosystem role of the few species that have been named. Some conservation biologists encourage us to invest our limited resources to continue to develop the taxonomic base for the worlds species (in other words, invest in more research to identify, classify, and study unknown species). Others prefer to focus on the development of management strategies to reduce the decline or loss of species without worrying about finding and naming everything. Argue in defense of one of these positions, or, alternatively, present an argument as to why and how you feel we can accomplish both goals. If you recommend we do both tasks then please prioritize them which should get more resources, and why? Support your answer with materials from our readings. Include in your answer a description of the research questions you feel should be investigated and answered by conservation practitioners as part of their work.

You have taken a job with the TRAFFIC program of World Wildlife Fund ( and you are assigned to live in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Your task is to develop an education program that will inform local people of the risks and dangers from collecting and consuming endangered wildlife. You visit several rural markets selling many living and dead endangered species as pets and meat, and you use these experiences to formulate your ideas. Describe the content of the program you will develop and the media you will use to reach your audience. and you are assigned to live in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Your task is to develop an education program that will inform local people of the risks and dangers from collecting and consuming endangered wildlife. You visit several rural markets selling many living and dead endangered species as pets and meat, and you use these experiences to formulate your ideas. Describe the content of the program you will develop and the media you will use to reach your audience

The additional material below is to help answer the 3 questions. It is all of the sources tudied in our class. Of course not all of them should be mentionned but the more the better. The “Conservation Biology for All” textbook source is the most important source.


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Discuss how the CHF relates to the HFSON conceptual framework which are conservation of energy social integrity personal integrity and structual integrity and should include application of nursing process

Discuss how the CHF relates to the HFSON conceptual framework which are conservation of energy social integrity personal integrity and structual integrity and should include application of nursing process.

Discuss how the CHF relates to the HFSON conceptual framework which are conservation of energy, social integrity, personal integrity, and structual integrity and should include application of nursing process




Discuss how the CHF relates to the HFSON conceptual framework which are conservation of energy, social integrity, personal integrity, and structual integrity and should include application of nursing process Discuss two nursing practice roles that relates specific medical surgical topic. .Discuss a potential legal issues related to the care of the medical surgical patient ¦Â Continue readingœC

Discuss how the CHF relates to the HFSON conceptual framework which are conservation of energy social integrity personal integrity and structual integrity and should include application of nursing process

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Using the plant fossil record for future conservation efforts

Using the plant fossil record for future conservation efforts.

Assessment will be through individual reports written in the style of scientific literature reviews of approximately 2000 words, excluding references. The report will assess the student’s skills to synthesise, evaluate and contrast new knowledge and to place conclusions into a wider context with appropriate scientific rigour.
The written review and critical analysis of the research material will be assessed on whether students have developed a coherent and understandable research-based review, have understood and effectively marshalled the theories and hypotheses which underlie their topics, have accurately portrayed the current scientific literature and cited appropriated sources and other “objective” criteria that measure the student’s success at the task of condensing a large body of information into an essay understandable by a scientifically literate audience.
Also, where appropriate, students should explore the implications of the research topics presented, the possible models/theories that are the basis for them and their deficiencies, weaknesses and/or gaps. In addition, students may also detail possible approaches for pursuing further research in each topic area.
The assessment of the assignments will include: organization of the essay, effectiveness at synthesising, evaluating and communicating complex scientific ideas and theories (use of figures/diagrams, use of metaphors), written delivery (sentences make sense, paragraphs are logical etc.), correctly use and formatting of references, etc. (see rubric)
The overall aims of the course are for the student to have:
• Gained a broad view of the current major issues in evolutionary biology and how they are being tackled by experts in the field.
• Advanced their skills for effectively summarising information and presenting key results and concepts via critical evaluation of the literature.
• Developed their skills in the design and execution of scientific literature review and the evaluation, synthesis and interpretation of results.

Literature Review Rubric (1) (1)
Literature Review Rubric (1) (1)
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a learning outcomeOverall structure and flow of the essay
Does the essay follow a logical flow and is well-structured with appropriate use of headings and figures? Has the required word limit been adhered to?
2.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a learning outcomeIntroduction and overview of the literature
Does this section adequate introduce the subject area and outline the scope of the essay and the key questions being addressed as part of the review? Is the research topic placed in a broader context based on the literature presented?
5.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a learning outcomeDiscussion (including addressing any aims, questions and hypotheses relating to the topic being reviewed) and your own conclusions derived from this discussion.
Does the essay cite clear examples from the literature to support the arguments presented? Does the essay demonstrate independent thought and understanding of the field, including strengths and limitations?
5.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a learning outcomeReferences
Are references appropriate and from primary sources? Are all references cited in the essay with correct use of the specified reference formatting (in this case CSIRO)?
3.0 pts
Total points: 15.0

Using the plant fossil record for future conservation efforts

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Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA).

For the weekly forum, navigate to the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) website (<link is hidden> and do some reading related to soil moisture or lack of moisture (<link is hidden> cropland management, drought, no-till, salinity, etc.). Then see if you can find a unique news story from anywhere in the world from the last 6 months that you now understand better having done a little research at the NRCS first (NOTE: Do NOT use the same article as another student). Title your post with the name of the news article along with the topic you are linking it to from the NRCS website. Be sure to provide links for both. Any images or figures or videos you can embed to bring this topic to life would be great as well.

Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)

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Conservation of Biodiversity Essay

Conservation of Biodiversity Essay.


Biodiversity also known as biological diversity is the existence of a wide variety of species (species diversity) or other taxa of plants, animals, and micro organisms in a natural community or habitat, or of communities within a particular environment (ecological diversity) or of a genetic variation within a specie (genetic diversity). (Oxford dictionary of biology). The root of concern for conserving biodiversity are increased loss of species, increased rates of deforestation and soil erosion, shifting of global climate due to human activities and the reason for conservation of biodiversity will be discussed in details with respect to its aesthetic value, medicinal importance and its ecological value.

The concept of biodiversity is important in building awareness, knowledge, information, ethics, and other complex mixture of agriculture, protected areas, etc. Figure 1 shows how these fit into the society together to achieve a common objective which is the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biological resources, and equitable sharing of benefits.

Figure 1

Loss of biodiversity

The causes of the recent loss of biodiversity are degradation, destruction and conversion of ecosystems which results in the loss of species.

Pollution, over exploitation, habitat disturbances and the discovery of exotic species has increased the loss of species in the ecosystem. Also, some pressures from humans has led to the depletion of genetic variability which in turn has resulted in the vulnerability of species, inbreeding problems and the inability to adapt to environmental changes. Habitats of the rainforest are known to have a diversity of rich species and more than half of the total species on earth are found here. This is threatened by the continuous destruction of habitats which was brought about by cutting down of forests for humans needs. For instance, trees are used in making timber and fuel while woods are used for agricultural purposes. Forests are important for trapping rainwater but due to deforestation, areas like India and Bangladesh experience flooding of plains, erosion and desert formation.

The Amazon forest of South America is rich in fauna and flora and the removal of these affects air and water quality, microclimate, recycling of inorganic and organic substances, loss of plant species that have potential benefits. Also, in the tropical moist lowland forest, human exploitation has become predominant, leading to poor nutrients in the soil and high level of acidity. If these issues are not addressed appropriately and with urgency, most of the forests will be lost or reduced by the next century. (National research council 1992). The burning of trees releases carbon dioxide thereby contributing to greenhouse effect. “The earth’s biota is experiencing its greatest loss of specie since the end of the cretaceous era 65 million years ago. Also, it is the first mass extinction event that has been caused by a single species one that we now hope will act, if for no other reason than its own self interest, to stem the tide.” (NSB, 1989) as cited by (National research council 1992).

Reason for biodiversity

Biodiversity in natural habitats represents different types of species and genetic material which are of important use to humans. For instance wild plants continue to be used as a source of new drugs like aspirins, penicillin, quinine and taxol. Taxol which is derived from the bark of pacific yew (Taxus brevifoia) is recently of interest as it can be used as an anti-cancer agent. In 1970s, the rosy periwinkle of Africa was discovered to contain alkaloids that inhibit cancer cell growth which treats Hodgkin’s lymphoma and childhood leukaemia. (Reece, B.J et al 2011). The loss of these also leads to the loss of other possible medicinal benefits. Legumes are very important in economic development and they also have potential genetic raw material that can be used for agricultural biotechnology. For instance, some legumes form nodules on their roots which harbours Rhizobium used for conversion of Nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form used for plant growth. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus a native of Papua New Guinea has spread through the tropics over 15 years and the “wonder tree”(Leucaenea leucocephala) a native of central America are used as a solution to problems of insufficient firewood and soil erosion. (NRC, 1975, 1979) as cited by (National research council 1992).

Some of these legumes are threatened by extinction due to inadequate investigation and the increase in the loss of genetic diversity in crops and their varieties. Biodiversity in its totality is responsible for a lot of public services examples are the major global cycles of energy (fixing of solar energy through photosynthesis), water and elements such as nitrogen, carbon and phosphorous. They also include processes like hydrological cycle in Amazon basin, where a significant portion of Amazon rainfall is generated internally. This can be seen in the Panama Canal, which requires 52 gallons of fresh water for each ship that transits the canal. (Eblen, R.A and Eblen, W.H 1994) Ecologically, Biodiversity has brought about the discovery and evolvement of individual species and ecosystem over millions of years. These need to be preserved in order to keep the life support system. Economically, forest fires, floods and hurricanes caused by human activities, have a huge economic consequence.

The cost of cleaning them is very high and the after effect is on humans is very bad. Desertification and soil erosion reduces crop production leading to famine in some developing countries. The continuous use of hardwood timber will lead to the fall of the industry leading to economic loss. These losses lead to extinction of species with potentially great economic importance. Biodiversity has a lot of aesthetic value as humans find almost all aspects of life beautiful and interesting. This is why some people enjoy watching birds or going to the country side. The study of biodiversity has brought about important concepts like vaccination and antibiotics- these are the building blocks in recent medicine. The discovery of thermal vents in the ocean bottom which was brought about by biodiversity has made scientists realize life existence at temperatures above boiling point of water.


The conservation protection and enhancement of biodiversity is a big challenge for nations, organizations, government agencies and we as individuals. This is because the continuous need to meet the needs of people is unlimited. If our biodiversity is not conserved, then our future generations will be in a biologically impoverished world where resources are insufficient. It can be said that Biodiversity supports life on earth as we depend on the air, water, food, wetlands used to filter pollutants from trees and so on. To conserve biodiversity, the need to restore, conserve protect and enhance the variety of life in a community so that the species are abundant is very crucial as this will provide continued existence, adaptation and normal ecological function. This is essential for a stable ecosystem. This can be illustrated in figure 2

AAAS Advancing science serving society (2012). Biodiversity: A new recognition of a timeless phenomenon. [online image]. Available from: <> [ Accessed 3 February 2012]. Colorado state university (2009). Colorado natural heritage program: connecting conservation and science [online] Colorado: Colorado natural heritage program. Available from: <>. [Accessed 8 January 2012]. Lovejoy, E.T (1994) In Eblen, R. and Eblen, W., (1994). The encyclopaedia of the environment: the René Dubos centre for human environment. Newyork: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp 60-61. Oxford dictionary of Biology (2008) 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford university press. Panel on biodiversity research priorities, national research council (1992). Conserving biodiversity [online]. Washington, DC: National academy press. Available from: National academies press online [Accessed 8 January 2012].pp12-34. Reece, J.B et al., (2011). Campbell biology [online] San Francisco, US: Pearson education ltd. Available from: Mastering biology online . pp1284-1308. Szaro, C.R and Sexton, W.T (1996) In Breymeyer,A et al., (1996). Biodiversity conservation in Transboundary protected areas: proceedings of an international workshop.[online]. Washington, DC: national academy press. Available from: National academies press online 5370&page 57#p200063759970057001.pp55-106. TamilNadu Agicultural University Coimbatore (2008). Environment and Pollution: Conserving Biodiversity [online image]. Available from: <> [Accessed 3 February 2012].

Conservation of Biodiversity Essay

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Wildlife Conservation Essay

Wildlife Conservation Essay.

Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal speciesand their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife andwilderness lands to humans.[1] Many nations are government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent nonprofit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes.[2] Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife.

The science of extinction. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters.

Major threats to wildlife
Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below:[3]

* Habitat loss: Fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Moreover, the habitat that remains has often been degraded to bear little resemblance to the wild areas which existed in the past.

* Climate change: Because many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements, climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight insects are harmed and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in moisture level. * Pesticides and toxic chemical: Widely used, making the environment toxic to certain plants, insects, and rodents. * Unregulated Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife. Along with this, mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem. * Natural phenomena: Floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, lightning, forest fires. * Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms. * Over-exploitation of resources: Exploitation of wild populations for food has resulted in population crashes (over-fishing, for example)

North American Model of Wildlife Conservation

The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation is considered to be one the most successful conservation models in world.[citation needed] It has its origins in 19th century conservation movements, the near extinction of several species of wildlife (including the American Bison) and the rise of sportsmen with the middle class.[4][5] Beginning in the 1860s sportsmen began to organize and advocate for the preservation of wilderness areas and wildlife. The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation rests on two basic principles – fish and wildlife are for the non-commercial use of citizens, and should be managed such that they are available at optimum population levels forever. These core principles are elaborated upon in the seven major tenets of the model.

Public trust doctrine

In the North American Model, wildlife is held in the public trust. This means that fish and wildlife are held by the public through state and federal governments. In other words, though an individual may own the land up which wildlife resides, that individual does not own said wildlife. Instead, the wildlife is owned by all citizens. With origins in Roman times and English Common law, the public trust doctrine has at its heart the 1842 Supreme Court ruling Martin V. Waddell.[5][6]

Non-frivolous use

Under the North American Model, the killing of game must be done only for food, fur, self-defense, and the protection of property (including livestock). In other words, it is broadly regarded as unlawful and unethical to kill fish or wildlife (even with a license) without making all reasonable effort to retrieve and make reasonable use of the resource.[7][8] [edit]Wildlife as an international resource

As wildlife do exist only within fixed political boundaries, effective management of these resources must be done internationally, through treaties and the cooperation of management agencies.[7][8]

Government involvement

The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy was developed to allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed “framework” to successful conservation. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the “International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources “(IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco)”[9]

The strategy aims to “provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions.”[9] This thorough guidebook covers everything from the intended “users” of the strategy to its very priorities and even a map section containing areas that have large seafood consumption therefore endangering the area to over fishing. The main sections are as follows: * The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement: 1. Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems. 2. Preservation of genetic diversity.

3. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems.
* Priorities for national action:
1. A framework for national and subnational conservation strategies. 2. Policy making and the integration of conservation and development. 3. Environmental planning and rational use allocation.

* Priorities for international action:
1. International action: law and assistance.
2. Tropical forests and drylands.
3. A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas. Map sections:
1. Tropical forests
2. Deserts and areas subject to desertification.

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Wildlife Conservation Essay

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Conservation of natural resources and physical environment Essay

Conservation of natural resources and physical environment Essay.

It is a fact that population growth or its decline is a resultant effect of both births and deaths or in some countries; immigration and emigration are indeed significant factors of this phenomenon. The carrying capacity as defined by specialists is that maximum number of persons that can be comfortably supported in a particular environment without posing any possible threats of depletion of the available resources in the near future.

It thus not only considers space availability but also emphasizes on the importance of relating the numbers to the available resources as well as the potential of the earth system as a whole to support them (S.

P. Hays, 1986). It is therefore important to realize that human beings are part and parcel of the world’s ecosystem and its only valuable for them to preserve its best. The ecosystems has constantly undergone modifications by humans not only as a consequence of population expansion but also due to enhanced technological know how and human consumption.

It is the human race that has in the past destroyed habitats, polluted his own environment that has adversely changed the atmosphere hence threatening global stability. Experts have further warned that these observable negative impacts could see the ecosystem undergo irreversible damages if not quickly addressed. Conservation of natural resources involves good management, wise and proper utility of the abundant earth resources by man (D. W. Ehrenfeld, 1972).

Read more: Essay About Conservation of Natural Resources

This is not only for economic reasons but also for the survival of the new generation to come. Wood and wood products for instance, form the fundamental economic gain from forests but it is also worth noting that most forest zones are the major water catchment points and since water is life, then, it is only fair to preserve forests so as to support life. The human race has therefore developed interest in the study of his environment with the intention of understanding it better.

These studies have not been fruitless sine certain scientific fields like ecology which deeply analyses living organisms in relation to each other and their physical environment have significantly improved man’s understanding of the ecosystem by bringing out clearly the vital roles of specific organisms in the universe. Through this information, man has comprehended that his survival depends on the other part of the system as well. The principle “Energy is neither created nor destroyed” suggests the capacity of the earth’s self renewal but also raises a particular concern over nonrenewable energy resources that are fast getting depleted!

It is for this noble purpose that various nations have set up their own policies on environmental conservation with the major aim of achieving better and healthy lives for their citizens now and in the future. However some countries like Iraq and others in record have no restrictions to various areas considered ‘special’ environmentally especially considering the fact that some wildlife in those parts are at a risk of getting extinct. This therefore brings the big debate on whether its really necessary to conserve our environment?

Since the mid-nineteenth century, the globe has recorded increasing mean atmospheric temperatures, a phenomenon attributed to the emission at extremely high levels, of greenhouse gases. This warming trend has been traced to originate from human activities. As much as we are fast to point blame on industries and other businesses, research has it that everyone creates pollution through various activities that we undertake daily and therefore contribute to the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

This is because every manufactured product finds its way to us and by all means leaves behind some carbon footprint however small (John Darabaris, 2007). Thus man being aware of the deadly impacts of this phenomenon on his environment is constantly struggling to reduce carbon footprint to he smallest possible amounts. Modern science has sophisticated instrumentation that can precisely predict harsh weather events that may result from global warming.

Industrialization that has seen man adopt modern farming techniques, improved infrastructure amongst many other human practices is here to stay and even advance further, yet it must be controlled and channeled appropriately into activities that will not deplete the scarce resources. History has it that man, through industrialization, has enhanced erosion activities at the coast and affected the duration of planting seasons in many agriculturally dependant zones, thanks to the constantly warming globe.

Human race is very much aware that if these trends persist, more destructive and violent storms are yet to be observed, dreadful and deadly diseases are also likely to attack depending on the new temperatures of the earth which may favor the existence of new pathogens. This not only poses human race at great risk but also predicts real danger to the vast resources that we have on earth. Permafrost for instance, is a major factor that controls several environmental processes and thus changes in nutrients, water content and even temperature will for sure have some effect on the soil composition (Bolter, M.

1999). It is also expected that a warmer globe will initiate more energy to be pumped into tropical storms hence developing stronger and more destructive and vicious storms. The warm condition also, according to scientific predictions, could make earth observe long periods of drought and this will definitely cause global food shortages. Such persistent drought conditions also put the globe at the risk of experiencing more wild fires that will destroy property and other natural resources.

Wildlife is one of the most treasured natural resource not only because of its economic importance but also because of its aesthetic value and ecological significance. However, the current trajectory path traced by global warming effects could result into the extinction of rare planet species that would otherwise fail to adapt to the new environment due to the shift in ecosystem. The physical topography is not spared either since man now understands that the warming trend has significantly speeded the melting of polar ice bringing along with it severe and unbearable weather conditions.

Science and engineering technology has significantly contributed to the advancement of humanity thereby increasing the understanding of our world, ambitions and inspirations, and our ability to satisfy our diverse needs in our lifetime (Clift, 1998). Our survival on the planet earth will indeed to a great extent depend on how we effectively relate to all the other living organisms and even to the physical environment. As much as man has been innovative, new technologies do come with diverse environmental challenges.

The increasing world population for instance, has seen a significant rise in energy demand. A clean and reliable yet sustainable energy source is thus essential to meet this demand, the selection of which must be carefully made. Innovative solutions are therefore called upon from the concern industrial sectors, governments and even communities. Europe, America, China, India and other industrialized nations depend almost entirely on fossil fuels; the developing nations are reportedly increasing their consumption of the same!

Arguably, the methods used to produce and consume these fuels are not the best and have significantly contributed to the destruction of the ecosystem. It is for this reason that man has used the available technology to develop alternative means of producing energy with minimal or no impact at all on the environment. Using this knowledge man has resorted to energy sources that are found naturally in the environment (Carroll, 1993). For instance, using solar panels has made it possible to harness solar energy safely into viable use.

This is a significant step made in protecting and saving the environment since it does not cause pollution and is also considered an infinite source of energy. However, this invention came with its own challenges such as unpredictable climatic patterns especially in the twentieth century , a phenomenon associated to global warming thereby forcing man to diversify into other energy sources such as the nuclear energy, wind power, sea power amongst many others. Nuclear power alone has attracted many developed countries with most of them claiming it is the answer to the global energy crisis.

The only controversy that arises on nuclear energy production is the after effects it has on the environment. Storing and effectively damping radioactive material for as long as a thousand years is still a threat to the environment and the planet at large. Most people are now aware of various threats resulting from environmental problems. Many people are reported to panic in some cases, though it makes them have a clear understanding of the necessity to conserve and protect the little we have or else face permanent destruction from the cruel nature we have created.

Since we can’t afford to despair, this extraordinary times calls for extraordinary solutions that promises a better tomorrow. Experts have issued warnings about the changing climate for example, and our understanding is that we have the solution with us. Therefore, by taking individual responsibility, there is hope, these damages can either be slowed down or completely reversed (Engel, 1990). The current generation understands so well that the generation tomorrow will enjoy the natural resources we have today only if we live in a sustainable way and this is irrespective of whatever modernity dictates.

Indeed, with this kind of rapid loss of biodiversity, the global community full of researchers and practioneers must move with speed before the situation gats out of hand (Jacobson 1995). By conserving the resources and managing them sustainably, the future is secure of having clean water, clean energy, clean air and even fertile soils for productive agriculture. Modern man has also realized that diversity in culture and biological diversity are greatly linked (Mc Neely, 1995).

Different societies within this very globe possess very unique cultural practices, beliefs and knowledge about the environment that is very valuable especially in solving certain environmental problems. Redesigning industrial systems to obtain safe technology reduces waste and encourages recycling of refuse in biological lines. This is a concept full of hope that will see the world maximize the use of raw materials, reduce the consumption of energy and with minimal or no negative impacts on the environment (D. Worsher, 1977).

Different cultures for example, find different uses of different plans which essentially constitute the ecosystem. By preserving the diverse or sometimes complex cultural practices and lifeways, biological systems will then be protected in the process. It is imperative to note that human beings have constantly adjusted and adapted to their environment almost simultaneously as it changes. This justifies the argument by scholars that ‘nature and culture are indivisible’ and thus the necessity to narrow down human ecology to the analyses of socio-natural systems (Bennett, 1996).

Due to fundamental shifts in the interrelationship between industrialization and the other part of the ecosystem, experts have identified possible radical changes that may accompany these historical moments and therefore suggested thorough rebuilding of all industrial systems. Mediterranean region for example, has been greatly eroded due to poor farming methods like overgrazing and deforestation. Siltation and salanization are also some observable effects from irrigation activity at the region (Hillel, 1991).

Different regions thus have dispatched relevant authorities to help sensitize and educate the communities living around such valuable resources on the importance of conservation measures and proper management. Conservation of the environment is therefore not debatable if the treasured human race needs to protect its self against possible harm in the future. The rapid race at which global climate has changed, the ever expanding global population amongst many other critical environmental declines are some of the critical issues that need addressing as a mater of urgency.

Intensive research work carried out by various scientific groups indicates for instance, that the world losses 22 million acres forest area yearly (Elizabeth, 2006). Similarly, very toxic chemicals find their way into the atmosphere yearly some of which last over decades in the environment. It is therefore very serious to realize that we are obviously threatened when our natural resources are threatened since we greatly depend as major sources of medicine, food, shelter, fuel, just to mention a few.

Nature is known to be unforgiving and respects no boundaries; environmental problems threaten global economy, health and even security. The tropical forests which are rapidly disappearing hold the source of close to twenty-five percent of prescription drugs (George P, 1973). A world without energy, food, safe clean water or inhabitable environment exposes its people to political unrest as well as economic instability. This could see the world spend an enormous sum of money inform of peacekeeping, humanitarian aid or even in attempt to revive global markets.

With this kind of understanding, man has realized the significance of working together with a lot of commitment by all countries to provide lasting solutions to fundamental problems and also offer sustainable management of the scarce natural resources. This indeed is an assurance of hope that promises better future to all the human society. References D. W. Ehrenfeld, (1972), Conserving Life on Earth; D. Worsher, (1977), Nature’s Economy; Roderick Nash, (2001). Wilderness and the American Mind, NY: Yale University Press,). R. Nash, (1982), Wilderness and the American Mind; NY. S. P. Hays, (1986), Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency.

Bolter, M. (1999). Consequences of Global Warming on Soil Processes in Arctic Regions, Polarforschung, 66, 1/2, 1-10. Jacobson SK (ed). (1995). Conserving wildlife: international education and communication approaches. New York NY: Columbia University Press. Noss RF. (1997). The failure of universities to produce conservation biologists. Cons Biol 11(6) Hillel, Daniel. 1991. Out of the Earth: Civilization and the Life of the Soil. Free Press. NY. Bennett and Flatley, G. W. , J. W. (1996) ‘Using Contingent Valuation to Determine Australian Tourists’ Values for Forest Conservation in Vanuatu’.

Economic Analysis and Policy 26 (2) Donald Worster, (1994) Nature’s Economy, NY: Cambridge University Press. William Cronon. (1991) Nature’s Metropolis. NY: Norton. Elizabeth Kolbert (2006). Field Notes on a Catastrophe: Man, Nature, and Climate Change. NY, Bloomsbury. Carroll, W. J. (1993). ‘World Engineering Partnership for Sustainable Development. ’ Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 119 Clift, R. (1998). Engineering for the environment: The new model engineer and her role. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 76(B2)

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Conservation of natural resources and physical environment Essay

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