Malcolm X and His Contribution to Islamic Religion

Malcolm X and His Contribution to Islamic Religion

Malcolm X was a human right activist and Muslim minister of African-American origin. He was born in May 19, 1925 and was assassinated at the age of 40. Malcolm X was popularly known to many as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, the Islamic name he gave following his commitment to the fundamentals and Islamic ideologies (Sabrina 4). While growing up among the whites in Michigan, Malcolm X started developing mistrust for the white Americans following the believe that it was the white terrorist who murdered his father while he was six years (Turner 61-2). This incident marked the transformation of this little man as he turned to crime upon moving to Harlem. At the age of 20, Malcolm X was arrested and taken to prison for criminal offense (larceny, breaking, and entering). During his prison life, Malcolm X joined the Nation of Islam; a movement founded by Wallece Fard in the 1930s (DeCaro 76). He rose to the ranks to become a leader in the Nation of Islam. He opted for the name X, believing that he had lost his true lineage following forced slavery on his African ancestors. For years, Malcolm X featured as the public face of this controversial Islamic group that believed and worshipped Allah and also lived to Mohammed’s teachings. In protecting the Nation Islam’s teachings, Malcolm X strongly advocated for Black-White separation, scoffed at the American’s civil rights movement, and espoused black supremacy by emphasizing on white-black integration (Kly 77).

Malcolm X and His Contribution to Islamic Religion

Following the mysterious disappearance of Fard, Elijah Muhammad ascended to the leadership of the movement. The Nation of Islam became very powerful and influential, especially among the African-Americans who had been released from prison and where in search of help and guidance (Turner 54). The group preached strict adherence to moral codes and relied on fellow African-Americans for guidance and support. The primary goal of this movement was not integration, but empowering the blacks to establish their own churches, support networks, and schools (DeCaro 85).  After making his personal conversion to Muhammad, Malcolm X’s talents were recognized by Elijah, making to become the spokesperson of the Black Muslims. Having been disillusioned with Muhammad and the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X led repudiation to the Nation of Islam and its fundamental teachings (Sabrina 6-7). It was after this walkout that Malcolm X embraced Sunni Islam. Following years of Middle East and African travels, Malcolm founded the popular Organization of Afro-American Unity and the Muslim Mosque, Inc. upon his return to the U.S.

While emphasizing the concept of Pan-Africanism, black self-defense, and black self-determination, Malcolm X disavowed the then prevailing racism. His repudiation of the Nation of Islam prompted his assassination by a three-member team from the Nation of Islam movement. Malcolm X significantly contributed to the growth and development of Islamic region in the U.S. and other parts of the world (DeCaro 98). Through his inspirational and eloquent prose style, he electrified urban audiences, thus, impacting on their religious choices. His contribution to the spread of Islamic religion was facilitated by the establishment of the Mecca pilgrimage in 1964, a place that has since attracted Muslim faithful (Kly 65-6). His mission in supporting the spread of Islam came to an end on February 21, 1965 when the rival Black Muslims group arranged for his gunning down while he was leading a mass Muslim rally in Harlem (Sabrina 9). Although Malcolm X is no more, his Islamic ideologies and philosophies lived to be embraced by the Black Power Movement and the rest of the Muslim followers globally. 

Works Cited

DeCaro, Louis A. Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity. New York [u.a.: New York Univ. Press, 1998. Print.

Kly, Yussuf Naim, ed. The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz). Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2008.

Sabrina, Zerar. Malcolm X’s Ideology: From the Puritan/Nation-of-Islam Doctrine to Independence Rhetoric. GRIN Verlag, 2010.

Turner, Richard Brent. “Islam in the African-American Experience”. In Bobo, Jacqueline; Hudley, Cynthia; Michel, Claudine. The Black Studies Reader. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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Explain the contribution of EBP to professional nursing

Explain the contribution of EBP to professional nursing.


Overview of Selected Evidenced-based Practice



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practice focus

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future practice setting

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content for this section includes:

Explain the selected nursing concern
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review and the contribution it will provide to this EBP proposal
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review for this EBP proposal by including:
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framework is applied to this EBP proposal

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Explain the contribution of EBP to professional nursing

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Develop deliver and justify a relevant contribution to the clinical setting demonstrating conceptual links with principles of nursing in chronic illness

Develop deliver and justify a relevant contribution to the clinical setting demonstrating conceptual links with principles of nursing in chronic illness.

Develop, deliver and justify a relevant contribution to the clinical setting demonstrating conceptual links with principles of nursing in chronic illness



ACTIVE DIABETES MANAGEMENT Develop, deliver and justify a relevant contribution to the clinical setting demonstrating conceptual links with principles of nursing in chronic illness “ diversity, empowerment, collaborative decision making and mutual relationships. Your project is to be delivered in the clinical setting but submitted for marking at the university. develop a project that ¦Â Continue readingœDiabetes Management

Develop deliver and justify a relevant contribution to the clinical setting demonstrating conceptual links with principles of nursing in chronic illness

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Discuss and evaluate a range of theories of ageing and their influence in shaping beliefs about ageing older people™s health care needs and experiences as well as the contribution they make to maintaining active ageing societies

Discuss and evaluate a range of theories of ageing and their influence in shaping beliefs about ageing older people™s health care needs and experiences as well as the contribution they make to maintaining active ageing societies.


Discuss and evaluate a range of theories of ageing and their influence in shaping beliefs about ageing, older people™s health care needs and experiences as well as the contribution they make to maintaining active ageing societies;




There are many ways of considering ageing and the perspective taken has an influence on how we consider and explain the process. These ways of considering have been termed models and theories of ageing. For the purposes of your study in this unit these terms will be used interchangeably.
In this module we are going to look at three models of health that have been applied to Ageing.
1. Biomedical
2. Biopsychosocial
3. Sociocultural
We will begin by viewing two lectures. The first contrasts a Biomedical and Biopsychosocial model in relation to Angina. This video is not specific to ageing but does illustrate the two models. The second discusses Ageing from a Sociocultural perspective.
We will then read a summary of each model.
Gill Furze “ Biomedical vs. Biopsychosocial treatments: The example of Angina
Age, aging and ˜growing old™: Socio-cultural perspectives

Biomedical models of ageing
Biomedical Model of Ageing
Biomedical models focus on biological factors and exclude psychological, environmental, and social factors in discussions of illness, health and ageing. Physiology, pathology and biochemistry are core areas of investigation. As such, biomedical models form the basis of traditional western medicine, and the model under which most health professionals continue to primarily be taught and practice. Within a biomedical model disease is considered to be an organic condition that may be eradicated or cured by medical intervention targeted at physiology, pathology and biochemistry.
Disease is something that is experienced by a person, that person then becomes the object of treatment by the medical professional. As treatment is provided after symptoms appear, we can consider traditional western medicine under a biomedical model to be primarily reactive rather than preventative. Treatment is typically provided in a medical environment (hospital or Drsoffice) out of the context of the persons own personal environment.
Biomedical models have in the past and continue to make an enormous contribution to health and well-being. It is through a biomedical model that we have been able to map and understand the anatomical and neurophysiological structures of the body, and to explore genetics. However the model does not come without its shortfalls. Failing to consider the impact of individual differences, life circumstance, environmental and psychological impacts on health and well-being, the biomedical model is insufficient in facilitating well-being and global quality of life, is insufficient in providing holistic treatment, is insufficient in targeting public health and global health issues, and insufficient in promoting, healthy, active and successful ageing across the lifespan.
Under a biomedical model a distinct power imbalance is also seen between the ˜object™ of treatment (people “ patients “ consumers) and the provider of treatment (the health professional). Here we have an emphasis on people as passive recipients of care provided by the health professional with the knowledge to tell us ˜what is best, what we need™. Without consideration of factors outside of physiology, pathology and biochemistry, the opinion, concerns and circumstances surrounding the illness are not given equal weighting.

Here are some topics currently under discussion within the Biogerontology field that are consistent with a biomedical model of ageing.

The shortening of telomeres has been described as the molecular clock of ageing. A link has in fact been found between the age and telomere length such that shorted telomeres are associated with shorter life expectancy.
Mitochondrial damage
Changes in mitochondrial Fe homeostasis cause a decline in mitochondrial function. Decline in mitochondrial function causes neuromuscular degenerative disease and tissue dysfunction.
Micronutrient inadequacy
Inadequate micronutrient intake leads to metabolic changes that can increase the chance of DNA damage leading to increased risk of cancer, immune dysfunction, cognitive decline and accelerated ageing due to mitochondrial decay.
Immunological Point of view
Change in immune system function is a key characteristic of ageing and one key reason why older people are more prone to chronic and degenerative health conditions. Reactivity of dendritic cells to self-antigens can be characteristic of ageing, this over-reactivity may then induce lymphocyte T proliferation leading to higher risk of autoimmune diseases

Have a look at this animation of for a quick and very simplistic but effective summary of changes to our body we can expect as we age. We will also briefly summarise some below:


As we age our eyesight does decline, for some this decline may result in no noticeable functional loss of vision. Others may be aware that they must hold the newspaper a little further away to read, may need to read larger print, or notice it takes longer to focus on smaller objects. Conditions impacting vision common in older people include presbyopia, cataracts, and macular degeneration.


Hearing loss related to ageing is called presbyacusis and results in a loss of hearing across all frequencies. Your ability to detect changes in pitch reduces, listening in background noise becomes harder, wax production reduces, your eardrum thickens, the bones (ossicles) that transfer sounds to your inner ear may move less easily, you have also accumulated a lifetime of damage to your inner hair cells that transmit sounds as nerve impulses to your brain for processing causing issues with the perception of sounds particularly complex sounds such as speech.

Ageing and Taste

Taste receptors detect sweet. salty, bitter and sour tastes. Saliva helps us to dissolve food and drinks and therefore release the flavour producing chemicals and substances in food, the odours from these chemicals and substances waft up to your nose where you then ˜smell™ your food. Whilst the taste receptors on your tongue are quite resilient with age, your sense of smell declines and as this occurs so does your ability to ˜taste™. In addition many older people experience loss of saliva production which in turn reduces our ability to breakdown our food and release those flavour producing stimulants. It also reduces our ability to ingest and digest our food. Many medications commonly used by older people can also impact on taste sensation including blood pressure and arthritis medication, chemotherapy and radiation treatments.

Metabolic Changes

Gaining weight as we age whilst common is NOT inevitable. Body fat starts to increase from around 25 years of age however muscle mass and body water decrease. Hence, you may gain weight or lose muscle tone. What does happen as you age is that you have a lower basal metabolic rate, so in short you burn less calories. Our nutrition needs change as we age. If we still eat in our older years, what we did when we were 17, it is likely we will gain weight.

Respiratory Changes

As we age, our lungs become less elastic, and our chest wall stiffens. Our trachea expands which results in decreased surface area in our lungs meaning we cannot cough as forcefully and therefore have more difficulty clearing residue in our lungs. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of death in older adults involving food, fluid or saliva entering the lungs and causing infection. This can be related to obvious swallowing difficulties or silent aspiration of saliva and bacteria in the oral cavity either during waking hours or more commonly while asleep. Good oral care is essential in reducing the prevalence and negative consequences of aspiration pneumonia in older people. Lung capacity and function reduce as we age however maintaining a healthy lifestyle including aerobic exercise helps to keep our respiratory system healthy. Pulmonary related disease is a leading cause of illness and death in older people.


Some relatively recent statistics regarding biomedical risk factors for older people

Also look at the National Institute on Ageing: Biology of Ageing
The effects of medicines in older adults
The effects of medications in the body are considered in relation to pharmacokinetics (how the drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolised and excreted) and pharmacodynamics (how the body is affected by the drug at the level of the cell and organ). As people age the manner in which their bodies absorb, metabolise and eliminate medications changes and is usually slowed and diminished. Therefore, such considerations as rate of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, body fat to lean mass ratio and hepatic and renal function are important considerations for older adults. Therefore, it is important to consider not only the actions and side effects of medications but the physical functioning of the person taking them.
In addition, as people age the number of medications they take is inclined to increase and this raises the potential problem polypharmacy and adverse drug interactions. For this reason medications need to be kept to a minimum and reviewed and discussed regularly with the older person to promote optimum efficacy and medication adherence.
(Hunter, S. 2012, Miller™s Nursing for Wellness in Older Adults, Chapter 8 Medicines, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 110-139).
Biopsychosocial models of ageing
Biopsychosocial Model of Ageing
The Biopsychosocial model dates back to 1977, theorised by psychiatrist George Engel. Engel argued that their was a need for treatment extending beyond a traditional medical model, to include in addition consideration of treatment from a psychological and social viewpoint. Engel viewed the traditional medical model as reductionistic, viewing disease as nothing more than deviation from normal œmeasurable biological variables. Engel acknowledged the enormous contribution of the biomedical model in advancing the science of medicine however argued that the model is insufficient to understand and treat the presentation and impact of disease on individuals and society.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognised health as biopsychosocial in nature since 1946 ˜Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity™. Today the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001) provides a biopsychosocial model of health and classification system by which all health professionals can strive to achieve care that addresses biological, psychological and social (including social determinants of health) influences on health and the impact of disability on individuals, groups and care givers (the impact of one persons disability on another is called third party disability).
Lets have a look at the ICF below:
As you can see from the diagram above, relationships between components of the model are bidirectional. They are also dynamic, changing with circumstance and complex due to the many factors that influence the experience of disability. Hence one person may have the same impairment (the same disease process and stage) but may experience significant differences in the degree of disability and handicap due to their individual life circumstances, the situation at hand (what they are trying to engage in and the level of support they are receiving), and their own psychological state and perception of their impairment in their current circumstance. In summary, the ICF; 1) is hierarchical in nature consisting of two components œFunctioning and Disability™ and ˜Contextual Factors™ with each of these consisting of two further components, classifying health and health related conditions from the perspectives of ; ˜Body Functions and Structures™ (The impairment/disease, what we would look at from a biomedical perspective) and ˜Activities and Participation™ (How does the impairment impact the persons ability to complete a particular activity, and what impact does this have on the persons overall functioning and participation in life); and ˜Personal Factors™(socioeconomic factors, ethnicity, psychological health, general approach to life, life goals, activities of importance to the person) and ˜Environmental Factors™ (social determinants).
You SHOULD have heard about the biopsychosocial model many times before in your studies. If you are new to your degree you will hear about it many times again. It is the model on which ˜active ageing™ and ˜successful ageing™ are based.
If you have a particular interest in the application of biospychosocial models of health to ageing READ the following interesting but slightly heavy article:
Scherer, M.J., Federici, S., Tiberio, L., Pigliautile, M., Corradi, F., &Meloni, F. (2012). ICF core set for matching olderadults with dementia and technology. Ageing International, 37(4), 414-440.
Sociocultural models of ageing
Sociocultural Models of Ageing
There are many different social and socio-cultural models relevant to ageing. The basic premise of these models is consideration of society on a persons functioning and health. Under these models a person™s experience of disability is as much shaped by the society and culture in which they live as it is by the disease they experience. Lets have a brief look at some of the models that fall under this domain in no particular order.
Disengagement theory
As we age we experience decline, as we decline with age we become increasingly disengaged from society and preoccupied with our own world. As we do so we ˜hand over™, or transfer power to the younger generation. This theory has been discounted by most people in the field of ageing.
Role theory
Role theory is based on the view that who we are, our self concept, our behaviour, is defined by the roles we play. The roles we expected to play differ across the life course. In our older years we may lose some of our earlier roles and be socialized into new roles. As this occurs we experience role loss which may be accompanied by loss of identify and self-esteem.
Activity theory
As we age, the more active we remain, the greater our life satisfaction, more positive our self-concept and smooth our transition into ageing will be. Adjustment will be easier and we will be better able to adjust to our new roles in society.
Political Economy of Ageing
Throughout the life course a persons™s access to resources is determined by their social class. socio-economic constraints, gender, sexual orientation, functional ability and race. Hence all of these factors shape an individuals experience of ageing. Many difficulties older people face are socially constructed.
Continuity theory
Individuals do not change significantly as they age but maintain consistent patterns of behaviour. Shifts in roles still encompass similar roles, a persons approach to life and adaptation to change remains relatively consistent, and personality across the lifespan similar. A persons satisfaction in life is determined by consistency across the lifespan in activities and lifestyles. As we age we solidify and clarify our younger selves with central personality characteristics and our core values becoming more pronounced.
Age Stratification theory
In society we talk about and divide people into groups based on age. Young, middle aged, old etc. Out classification of people into these cohorts shapes our expectations of the roles individuals take, individual experience, and our expectations of people. Along with these roles and expectations our concept of life satisfaction differs across age groups, the experiences of these cohorts differs with historical periods and events. These different experiences then shape how different cohorts think, behave and contribute to society.
Social Exchange theory
Social exchange theory underpins the argument between older people as a ˜burden™ vs ˜resource™. A persons contribution to or worth in society is weighed up against the cost of supporting them. This process of weighing up determines a persons status in society and associated satisfaction with life. Under the resource argument, older people may have less financial and material resources to contribute to society but have wisdom, life experience, love and time to give back to society.
Gerotranscendence theory
As we age we begin to shift from a materialistic view of the world to a more spiritual or transcendent one. We explore our inner selves, are less self-centered, contemplate more and focus on wisdom, spirituality and solitude.
Life Course Perspective
How we age is shaped by our cohort, culture, history, location, individual development and experience of life events, our relatedness to others, and human agency. We are impacted by intergenerational transmission, shared and individual experience.
Social Phenomenology
Emphasis is placed on understanding ageing through the meaning of experience rather than on objective factors. How we age is dependent on the meaning we attribute to our life and social experiences in the context of everyday life.
Social Constructivism
Similar to social phenomenology, how we make meaning of our individual experiences and the ageing process shapes how we age. The realities of ageing and age-related concepts are however socially constructed through interpersonal relationships such that how one views a relationship is more important than the objective nature of the relationship.
Feminist Perspective
Views current theories of ageing as insufficient as they fail to adequately address gender differences in the process and experience of ageing, with the experience of women ignored.
Postmodernist Theories
Views knowledge as socially constructed, affected by situation, circumstance and individual point of view and therefore no form of meaning should be taken as truth. Value is instead placed on individual choice and autonomy including as we age.

You may have found this page a little daunting given the number of different slants to the sociocultural model presented here. For the purpose of this unit and clinical practice in general it is important to have a brief understanding of the key points presented by these models.
That is the need to consider the influence of he society, culture and individual circumstances surrounding illness. As clinicians we often ˜think™ we are working under a biopsychosocial model however the ˜social™ side is often what we neglect. We focus our attention on the impairment, then we ask ourselves ˜How does our patient seem to be coping with this illness (psychological consideration), then we may give brief comment or thought to how they cope when they go home™. That is usually where we stop.
When working under a biopsychosocial model, EACH of the components must be given EQUAL consideration. It is for this reason that we as health professionals of all disciplines must step out of our scientific comfort zone to gain a much deeper understanding of social determinants of health and ageing and what we can do to make a positive impact on these determinants.

READ (Optional):

Consedine&Skamai (2009). Sociocultural considerations in ageing men™s health: Implications and recommendations for the clinician. Journal of Mens Health, 6(3), 196-207.
Assessment outline
Case Scenario One:
June Carter is an independent, socially active and fit 75 year old woman who takes great pride in her appearance. She has three adult children and five grandchildren and has been widowed for ten years. She visits her local GP to discuss her plans to commence a sexual relationship with Jim (65 years) and her concerns about her sexual function.
In relation to this scenario consider and discuss the perspectives of June, June™s GP and June™s adult children and possible courses of action from these perspectives. Be sure to discuss and evaluate the theories and beliefs about ageing that may shape the beliefs and attitudes of the different people involved. In doing this analyse the manner in which age is intersecting with other social categories in this scenario. Also, include a discussion of the physical and biological changes that may have an impact on June™s situation.

Structure for the presentation
1. Brief introduction about my presentation give outline what I™m going to talk about
2. Give definition of the aging, active aging
3. Give the perspective
A. June perspectives( looking for book or research talk about old ladies want to start new relationship )
Some of it
o Feeling lonely
o Losing body function
o Think what the society think about her relationship for example her children
o Does she really care what they think because we don™t know form which culture she is? (find research which culture support or against society
o Normally older don™t go to gp to talk about sexual activity so she seem well education
B. GP perspectives
o Normally they don™t talk about it feel shy or uncomfortable
o Usually they don™t talk about sexual functioning and sexual diseases
C. Children perspectives
o They might think that she is too old to have sex
o They might think that hersexual interest kind of behavior problem rather a basic human need for love and intimacy
o If she get married and die she might loss her probity and Jim get it ( fear of losing inheritance)
4. the theories and beliefs about ageing such as
a. Biomedical
b. Biopsychosocial
c. Sociocultural
5. analyse the manner in which age is intersecting with other social categories in this scenario
6. Discussion of the physical and biological changes that may have an impact on June™s situation.
7. Pharmacodynamics and nutritional considerations
8. Conclusion
Your presentation should:
1. Include references for the material included in each slide and a reference list in accordance with APA.
2. Be between 5 and 8 minutes in length
3. Everything used should have in text reference
In this project presentation you will address the following Learning Outcomes:
1. discuss and evaluate a range of theories of ageing and their influence in shaping beliefs about ageing, older people™s health care needs and experiences as well as the contribution they make to maintaining active ageing societies;
2. examine critically how age, as a social category, intersects with other social categories such as gender, class, ethnicity and sexuality;
3. explain how the ageing body is constructed, understand the ageing of body systems, differing pharmacodynamics and nutritional considerations in different social, cultural and biological discourses and the bearing this brings to health and health care practices.
Books might use
Older People: Issues and Innovations in Care
Nay, R. and Garratt, S., Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier 4th ed. 2013
A Bitter Pill: How the Medical System is Failing the Elderly

Sloan, J., Greystone Books 2009
Aging in European Societies
Powell, J.L. and Sheying, C., Springer 2013
I Feel Great About My Hands: And Other Unexpected Joys of Aging
Graydon, S., Douglas and McIntyre 2011

Discuss and evaluate a range of theories of ageing and their influence in shaping beliefs about ageing older people™s health care needs and experiences as well as the contribution they make to maintaining active ageing societies

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Examine the methods for generating knowledge in health and social care demonstrating an understanding of the particular knowledge generated by research and its contribution to the theory and practice of nursing and social work.

Examine the methods for generating knowledge in health and social care demonstrating an understanding of the particular knowledge generated by research and its contribution to the theory and practice of nursing and social work..

Examine the methods for generating knowledge in health and social care, demonstrating an understanding of the particular knowledge generated by research and its contribution to the theory and practice of nursing and social work.

-Critically appraise the two research articles relating to a topic in health and social care, demonstrating an understanding of research concepts, processes and principles, and critique and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses. Examine the implications of these studies for practice. It is better to critique the papers separately one after another and then write a conclusion at the end. Do not compare them. I will download the two articles in my account panel.

-Examine the methods for generating knowledge in health and social care, demonstrating an understanding of the particular knowledge generated by research and its contribution to the theory and practice of nursing and social work.
Demonstrate the ability to search, find and discuss the evidence relating to specific practices in nursing and social work.
Understand the different methods of research design, data collection and data analysis in qualitative and quantitative research.
Critically discuss the ethical issues involved in research in nursing and social work settings.
-Critically analyse and evaluate research that informs current practice.
Evaluate different methods of data collection and assess their respective advantages and disadvantages in specific situations.
Critically reflect on practice and research evidence ensuring an evidence-based approach to the professional role


Burns, N. and Grove, S. (2008), The Practice of Nursing Research: appraisal, synthesis and generation of evidence 6th (St Louis: Elsevier.

Holloway,I. and Wheeler,S. (2010) Qualitative Research in Nursing. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Parahoo,K. (2006) Nursing Research: Principles, Process and Issues. 2nd Edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Polit,D.F. and Beck,C.T. (2012) Nursing Research: generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

*Relevant Supplementary Reading

Jolley, J. (2010) Introducing Research and Evidence-based practice for Nurses (Chapters 4, 5 and 6). Pearson Education Ltd.

Aveyard, H. and Sharp, P. ( 2009) A Beginner’s Guide to Evidence-Based Practice in Health and Social Care Professions (Chapters 4 and 6). Open University Press

Examine the methods for generating knowledge in health and social care demonstrating an understanding of the particular knowledge generated by research and its contribution to the theory and practice of nursing and social work.

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Assignment on the Contribution of Charles Babbage, Adam Smith and Robert Owen in the Field of Management Essay

Assignment on the Contribution of Charles Babbage, Adam Smith and Robert Owen in the Field of Management Essay.

Contribution of Charles Babbage in the field of Management Charles Babbage (1792–1871) is known as the patron saint of operations research and management science. Babbage’s scientific inventions included a mechanical calculator (his “difference engine”), a versatile computer (his “analytical engine”), and a punch-card machine. Babbage’s most successful book, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers, published in 1832, described the tools and machinery used in English factories.

It discussed the economic principles of manufacturing, and analyzed the operations; the skills used and suggested improved practices.

He showed that reducing the tasks of manufacturing to their simplest activities increases the numbers of people who can do them and, thus, reduces the average wage which needs to be paid. According to him, a work should be divided into mental and physical efforts and a worker should be paid a bonus in proportion to his own efficiency and success of the business.

Babbage emphasized the importance of division of labor, indicating that greater profit could be made by specializing.

Babbage also emphasized the importance of balance in processes and the principle of optimum size of the manufacturing unit for each class of product. Contribution of Robert Owen in the field of Management Robert Owen (1771–1858) was a successful Scottish entrepreneur and a utopian socialist who sowed the first seeds of concern for the workers. He was repulsed by the working conditions and poor treatment of the workers in the factories across Scotland.

Owen became a reformer. At New Larnark, in his factory he was trying to make different approaches to the workers. He reduced the use of child labor and used moral persuasion rather than corporal punishment in his factories. He chided his fellow factory owners for treating their equipment better than they treated their workers. In 1813 he proposed a factory bill to prohibit employment of children under the age of ten and to limit hours for all children to 103/4 hours per day with no night work.

The bill became law six years later, but was limited to cotton mills, reduced the age limit to nine, and included no provision for inspections; therefore, the law had little impact. Owen was totally devoted to management as a profession. Under his direction, houses and streets were built, the minimum working age for children was raised, working hours were decreased, meal facilities were provided, schooling were introduced, and evening recreation centers were opened to meet the problem of leisure. He is the father of modern Personnel Management.

Contribution of Adam Smith in the field of Management Adam Smith (1723–1790) was a Scottish political economist. His Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, established the “classical school” and with its publication, he became the father of “liberal economics. ” Smith argued that market and competition should be the regulators of economic activity and that tariff policies were destructive. The specialization of labor was the mainstay of Smith’s market system. According to Smith, division of labor provided managers with the greatest opportunity for increased productivity.

He gives three reasons for the increased output due to the division of labor: a) to the increased dexterity in every particular workman b) to the saving of time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another c) to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labor, and enable one man to do the work of many. His idea about the division of labor is fundamental to modern work simplification and time study, and extends also into such areas as production simplification.

Assignment on the Contribution of Charles Babbage, Adam Smith and Robert Owen in the Field of Management Essay

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Economic Contribution Of Melbourne Foodbowl: Vegetables

Economic Contribution Of Melbourne Foodbowl: Vegetables.


Discuss about the Economic Contribution of Melbourne Foodbowl for Vegetables.



Melbourne is the second largest city in Australia, only second the Sydney. The city has a population of over 4.6 million people. Melbourne is also the most productive agricultural zone in Victoria; producing several varieties of foods, especially fresh vegetables. This essay discusses the contribution of Melbourne’s food bowl to the Australian economy (Deloitte Access Economics, 2016).

Value of Melbourne’s Foodbowl

Melbourne’s food-bowl constitutes over 1.7 million hectares of agricultural land. Several agricultural activities make up a number of commercial enterprises namely, fresh vegetable produce, dairy, poultry, and livestock other products. The total contribution of Melbourne to the regional economy amounts to $2.45 billion. The $2.45 billion contribution to the regional gross product represents 0.84% of the local economy. Similarly, the food-bowl contributes 7,687 direct and 5,719 indirect full-time employees and another 7,595 in the manufacturing industry. These employees make up 21,001 workers representing 1.06% of the total regional workforce.

The amount has RGP contribution been growing over the years as the demand for food also grows. Melbourne is focused on resolving the paradox of urbanization brought about by increased demand for food while the production lowers. The potential impact of urbanization is evident in the amount of pressure being put on the farmland. The current scenario indicates that the food-bowl has been affected by urban encroachment and has been significantly reduced by 10,897 hectares, equivalent to 0.62% of the total food-bowl (Deloitte Access Economics, 2016).

The amount of food sourced locally lacks adequate research for backing. Additionally, the information about the supply chain is not readily available to the public. Comparing local production and local consumption demonstrates that certain foods are locally sourced, but it is important to assess other factors that could affect the ratio (Carey & Sheridan, 2017). Other factors for consideration include the perishability of fresh produce, seasonality of foods, traceability of produce, and the definition of local area. In the study, the definition of local is food produced in Melbourne’s food-bowl.    

The urban development in Melbourne is continuously affecting the value of the food-bowl in multiple ways. Some of how the urban encroachment is changing the food-bowl in that the agricultural land is becoming less, leading to lower food supply over time. Concomitantly, the population growth of Melbourne is growing leading to higher food demands. Both events drive the prices of food to higher levels.

The threats to Melbourne’s food-bowl contribution due to urbanization are relevant. It is estimated that the city will have over 7 million people in the near future and this is expected to affect the current food-bowl capacity as the farmland gets lost to urban development. Future projections indicate that the annual agricultural output will reduce by between $32 million and $111 million, while food prices are expected to increase (Infrastructure Victoria, 2015).

Conclusion and Recommendation

Melbourne’s food-bowl produces significant benefits to the regional economy of Victoria.  Other than providing food for the masses, the food-bowl creates employment to thousands of people who depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. However, the growing urbanization is threatening to reduce the supply capacity of the food-bowl while increasing the demand for food. Consequently, it is expected that the cost of food will modestly increase which will increase the total contribution to the regional gross product. City planners and developers can choose how they want the city to grow and where (Carey, Caraher, Lawrence, & Friel, 2016). It is vital that Melbourne makes the right choices about available information on land use for the different purposes including food production and housing.


Carey, R., & Sheridan, J. (2017). Australia’s city food bowl’s: fertile ground for investigating biomes and food security. Geographical Education, 30, 16-23.

Carey, R., Caraher, M., Lawrence, M., & Friel, S. (2016). Opportunities and challenges in developing a whole-of-government national food and nutrition policy: lessons from Australia’s National Food Plan. Public health nutrition, 19(1), 3-14.

Deloitte Access Economics. (2016). The economic contribution of Melbourne’s foodbowl. Melbourne: University of Melbourne.

Infrastructure Victoria. (2015). The current and future state of Victoria: a spatial perspective. Melbourne: SGS Economics and Planning.

Economic Contribution Of Melbourne Foodbowl: Vegetables

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Contribution Of The Cognitive Development

Contribution Of The Cognitive Development.


Discuss about the Contribution Of The Cognitive Development.



This assignment will reflect the theories and evidence related to the experience, learning and development of child in the school. The contribution of the cognitive development will be described with evaluating the ways by which the educational experiences and achievement of children can get impacted through the involvement of parents. The role of environmental and biological factors is huge in the cognitive development of the children as they help them to attain various stimuli from environment through their sense. There are various theories of parenting styles which help to understand the role of cognitive development. It has been evaluated that the competition is increased and the parents are more concerned about the study and the development of their children (Lauricella, Wartella and Rideout, 2015).

Contributing the cognitive development

There are various factors that contribute to cognitive development such as environmental factors, and biological factors. Environmental factors include learning opportunities, economic status, play and family and society while biological factors include sense organs, heredity, maturation and intelligence. The opportunity a child gets to learn affects the cognitive development. In the context of biological factors, the cognitive development can be increased with intelligence because without of this child would not be able to attain stimuli from the environment properly. The role of heredity is major in cognitive development of children as they get same development as their parents. Environmental factors refer the importance of play, family and society in the cognitive development of the child. With the help of play, the interaction of child is increased towards the environment and attains various stimuli. The theory of cognitive development is piaget’s theory, socio culture theory, core knowledge theories and information processing theories. The piaget’s theory describes that there are distinct stages of cognitive development such as qualitative change, broad applicability, brief transition and invariant sequence. Piaget theory is able to describe the structure of development of human thought. As consequences, it develops the motivation that it could direct education to generate new methods of teaching (Demetriou, Shayer and Efklides, 2016). It has been said that under this theory children of different ages think in different ways According to his theory child as scientist make their own knowledge without involving anyone. Children are intrinsically motivated they do not require any motivation or rewards to learn new things (Hurley, 2011). The role of parents in their children’s learning is important because their daily activities, way of talking and understanding influence them. The involvement of parents in the study of their children at home is vital. It has been researched that creating effectual partnerships between families, schools and parent to support learning of children leads to efficient learning outcomes. Parents are considered as the first educators of learning leads to improved learning results. Research shows that the quality of teacher is essential for helping effective parental engagement (Chapman and Adams, 2002).

Child’s educational experiences and achievement

There are various ways in which parents can influence the learning experience of the children. It has been analyzed that the involvement of the parent is considered as the avenue for promoting academic performance. It has been found that the low educational achievement and further prospects of looked after children have become the concern of international issue (Mannay, Staples, Hallett, Roberts, Rees, Evans, and Andrews, 2015). The involvement of parent increases the behaviour of children at home and in the classroom. The role of parents and teachers is vital as they work together to increase the social functioning and define concerns behaviour. There are two kinds of parents such as highly educated parents and better educated parents. Effective educated parents are considered to the quality of school while educated parents are given attention to the quality of the teacher of the children and may effort to make sure that their children are efficiently served (Prisacariu and Shah, 2016). The parents can include in parent teacher conference and volunteering at school, they might motivate staff to attend to their children individual’s requirements. It has been evaluated that highly educated parents are motivated to read their children than less educated parents. Educated parents can amplify the development of their children. They are more focused to pose questions instead of employ a wide and more complex vocabulary (Faith, 2012).

There is a Diana Baumrind’s Parenting Styles that defines how parents manage their children’s behavior, which in turn influences their development. Diana Baumrind’s is developmental psychologist who differentiated among permissive parents, authoritarian, lenient and authoritative parents. Authoritarian parents are strict and expected that their rules should be followed by their children which put negative impact on the child’s education. On the other hand permissive parents are strict at all and they are very responsive towards their child. It has been defined with the help of this theory parents should adopt the authoritative parenting while dealing with their child because it is the combination of warmth and expectations. The importance of parental education is vital and considered as the strongest correlate of the success of children in school. Parental education impacts the learning of children directly (Givertz, 2016).

It cannot be said that how much and whose contribution is more in the context of increase learning of the child (Hamilton, Spinks, White, Kavanagh and Walsh, 2016). Moreover, quasi-experimental strategies have attractive effects of parental education on the outcomes of children. For example, American family has adopted the one study of Korean children which demonstrates that the education level of adoptive mother is considerably linked with the child’s educational attainment. Parents are more concerned about the health of their child and that is why they want from teachers to tell them about health food (Sylvetsky-Meni, Gillepsie, Hardy and Welsh, 2015).

Social influence on Child’s educational experiences and achievement

It is essential for the parents and the school to invest in very young children to increase their future well being. It is not necessary that the effectiveness of every school is same, it is not sufficient to teach the 123s and ABCs and call it a day. A considerable amount of school work during the grades is contributes to facilitating children make expert problem solvers and solution seekers. Problem solving is an essential skill in the life of children because it carries the ability to analyze a condition or situation and find out the ways to resolve the issues as soon as possible (Smith, Swallow and Coyne, 2015). School is the place where kids get learning environment and start to explore new things. The contribution of school in the life of child is important as it helps to increase the child knowledge about the things and let them recognize things in their own way. Problem solving skills of child motivate them to keep trying (Nokali, Bachman and Votruba?Drzal, 2010).

 Social environments consisted physical surroundings, community resources and social relationships. Physical surrounding have huge impact of the child’s development as lack of open space and facilities are associated with poor health consequences (Feldman, 2015). It is necessary for child’s development to provide them open space and facilities where they can meet other people and can observe their activities (Hamilton, Spinks, White, Kavanagh and Walsh, 2016). Along with that the availability of the good quality educational facilities is integral. For instance, presenting early childhood education is linked with improved childhood development and those people who are surviving in socio-economically communities are likely to have facilities of early childhood education. It has been found that children who do not focus on education have also been exposed to be at huge risk of maltreatment in the time of childhood. Community resources are also put impact on the development of the children’s’ education. For instance, as per the Australian study it has been found that the children are associated with neighbourhood with more pro-social behaviour amongst children (Rilling and Young, 2014). Good social environment increase the positive social relationship of children. Social behaviour and the aptitude to increase the positive relationship with others were visualized as skills which would develop generally. There is an amplifying identification that social behaviours are cultured and that children must be taught pro-social behaviour (Faith, 2012).

Examine and explore ways that people learn and how this has informed pedagogies

There are so many things in the world which increase the completion such as English communication is become vital for growing efficiently and that is why parents want admission of their children in convent school instead of government. They push the school to involve the sports activities, computer learning and English communication subject in their pedagogies. So that their children can become more advanced and learn new things which make them enable to compete time to time with others. Parents are focused towards activity and health care of their children because diseases and lack of care of health can be seen in the world (Lauricella, Wartella and Rideout, 2015). They learn that the involvement of how to protect from disease should be involved in the pedagogies so that children can learn about disease and protect themselves from harmful things. Schools play an integral role in developing children and help them to get interact effectively with their peers and teachers (Sylvetsky-Meni, Gillepsie, Hardy and Welsh, 2015).

Self reflection

From my own experience, I have learned that the role of parents in their child’s learning, achievement and development is important because they learn what they see in their surroundings.  However, there are various factors of environmental and biological that affect the cognitive development in the child but it can be managed in an efficient manner by adopting appropriate parenting style. Economic state of the family has significant role in the cognitive development because it helps to provide better opportunities and training to the children which help in cognitive development. The vital reinforcement for the development of child is being provided by the emotional and social maturity of a child. It has been observed by me that when emotional and social development of children are ignored by educators, this may often lead to adults who are rationally gifted but in real they are struggling in their daily lives because of lack of social skills. School is the place where children spent their day and it is essential that the curriculum of school should be designed to facilitate its student from firm social relationship and school should force them to connect with other children and adults in adequate and caring way. The character of children is made with the influence of their surroundings (Bornstein and Bradley, 2014). I realized that the environment for growing child should be systematic and parents should more concentrate about the healthy environment and teach them that how to behave with elders, at school and outside. It would facilitate them to understand the characteristics of behaviour. There are various parenting styles that affect the child’s education significantly, I have analyzed that parents should authoritative parenting instead of permissive and authoritarian parenting because it is the combination of warmth and expectations. By following this style, parents can enhance the cognitive development in their child.


Bornstein, M.H. and Bradley, R.H. eds., 2014. Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. Routledge.

Chapman, D.W. and Adams, D.K., 2002. The quality of education: Dimensions and strategies. Hong Kong: Asian Development Bank.

Demetriou, A., Shayer, M. and Efklides, A. eds., 2016. Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development: Implications and applications for education. Routledge.

Faith, R. 2012. The School’s Role in Influencing Child Development. Accessed on 5th March, 2018, from:

Feldman, R., 2015. Sensitive periods in human social development: New insights from research on oxytocin, synchrony, and high-risk parenting. Development and Psychopathology, 27(2), pp.369-395.

Givertz, M., 2016. Parenting Styles/Discipline. The International Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Communication. Wilen Online Library.

Hamilton, K., Spinks, T., White, K.M., Kavanagh, D.J. and Walsh, A.M., 2016. A psychosocial analysis of parents’ decisions for limiting their young child’s screen time: An examination of attitudes, social norms and roles, and control perceptions. British journal of health psychology, 21(2), pp.285-301.

Hurley, A. 2011. Cognitive Development: Overview. Accessed on 5th March, 2018, from:

Lauricella, A.R., Wartella, E. and Rideout, V.J., 2015. Young children’s screen time: The complex role of parent and child factors. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 36, pp.11-17.

Lauricella, A.R., Wartella, E. and Rideout, V.J., 2015. Young children’s screen time: The complex role of parent and child factors. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 36, pp.11-17.

Mannay, D., Staples, E., Hallett, S., Roberts, L., Rees, A., Evans, R.E. and Andrews, D., 2015. Understanding the educational experiences and opinions, attainment, achievement and aspirations of looked after children in Wales.

Nokali, N.E., Bachman, H.J. and Votruba?Drzal, E., 2010. Parent involvement and children’s academic and social development in elementary school. Child development, 81(3), pp.988-1005.

Prisacariu, A. and Shah, M., 2016. Defining the quality of higher education around ethics and moral values. Quality in Higher education, 22(2), pp.152-166.

Rilling, J.K. and Young, L.J., 2014. The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development. Science, 345(6198), pp.771-776.

Smith, J., Swallow, V. and Coyne, I., 2015. Involving parents in managing their child’s long-term condition—A concept synthesis of family-centered care and partnership-in-care. Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, 30(1), pp.143-159.

Sylvetsky-Meni, A.C., Gillepsie, S.E., Hardy, T. and Welsh, J.A., 2015. The impact of parents’ categorization of their own weight and their child’s weight on healthy lifestyle promoting beliefs and practices. Journal of obesity, 2015.

Contribution Of The Cognitive Development

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Marketing Makes A Positive Contribution: Consumers

Marketing Makes A Positive Contribution: Consumers.


Discuss about the Marketing Makes a Positive Contribution for Consumers.



Marketing makes a positive contribution to the common goods and marketers are serious about environmental stewardship (Fisher, Campbell and Svendsen 2012). Common goods are those goods that are intangible in nature and non excludable in nature. These goods are based on some of the criteria as if whether the consumption of the goods are done by a particular individual prevents other individuals for consuming it or not. This particular criterion defines the rivalry between the individuals for the consumption of the good (Connolly et al. 2013). When a person consumes the good, the other person should not be stopped from acquiring that good. The second criterion for common good is that they should be non excludable. It checks that if it is possible to preclude all the consumers to access the goods, even if they have not paid for the good. The best examples of common goods are air and water. The environmental stewardship is the dutiful utilization and protection of the natural environment by sustainable and conservation practices. Environmental stewardship is usually practiced or utilized by all individuals and organizations (Demarche et al. 2012). It is the responsibility of all organizations to maintain the environmental stewardship with their products. Marketing of any organization plays, the most important role in the positive contribution to the common good and marketers should be extremely serious about environmental stewardship.

The following report outlines a brief discussion on the basic concept of common goods and environmental stewardship. The report helps to understand the economic, ethical and legal issues or problems that have a serious impact on the marketing in addressing the common good and environmental stewardship (Berliner and Prakash 2013). The report provides various examples with proper justifications. The description of the above discussion is provided in the following paragraphs.


Economic Issues

The economic issues or the problems can be defined as the basic problems that are related to the finite resources of an economy. When these resources are not enough or are insufficient in nature for satisfying all the requirements and needs of a human being, the situation is claimed economic issue or economic problem (Barrage, Chyn and Hastings 2014). There are three distinct questions that are to be answered for any economic problem. These questions include what should be produced, how can be produced and from whom it can be produced. These economic issues have a major impact on three common goods and environmental stewardship. There are several examples for such cases. The recognized chain of hotels namely, the Hyatt Regency strongly follows the utilization of common good environmental stewardship (Sison and Fontrodona 2012). They believe that environmental stewardship should be maintained by all organizations and businesses to keep the balance of the eco system and common goods. They have undertaken several measures for their actions. The main actions undertaken by Hyatt Regency to maintain the environmental stewardship include the utilization of resources thoughtfully, reducing the energy utilization and emission of greenhouse gases, reduction in the utilization and wastage of water, tackling the waste, focusing on the food waste. They have started to build a culture of environmental stewardship (Donati 2012). Moreover, the main benefit of Hyatt Regency is that they are working together for maintaining environmental stewardship from their business. However, there are several economic issues or problems in maintaining this stewardship. These economic issues have a strong impact on the common goods and environmental stewardship. For any organization, the economic issues have an impact on the marketing (King 2014). The main economic issues or problems that arise due to common good and environmental stewardship in any organization are as follows:

  1. i) Excess Resources: The resources that are utilized for maintaining the environmental stewardship are required in excess amount (Dasgupta and Ramanathan 2014). These resources are extremely needed or required for the maintenance of environmental stewardship. For example, the utilization of resources thoughtfully, reducing the energy utilization and emission of greenhouse gases, reduction in the utilization and wastage of water, tackling the waste, focusing on the food waste are done with proper measures. They cannot be done without proper resources (King 2014). These resources are expensive and thus can affect the economic balance of the organization.
  2. ii) Time: This is another most important resource utilized for the maintenance of common good and environmental stewardship. The implementation or maintenance of the excess resources in any organization or business requires time (Carroll 2014). Time is the most important resource for any organization. If time is wasted in organization, it will directly affect the economic state of that organization.

            The economic factors that affect the business or organization are as follows:

  1. i) Consumer Confidence: This is the most important issue in economic sector. The confidence of the consumers is the most significant indicator of economy, which evaluates the overall optimism of consumers about the state of the economy (Welchman 2012). The consumers, who are confident, have the tendency to be extremely willing to spend the money than those consumers, who have lower confidence. It means the businesses are more likely to flourish when confidence of the consumers is high. 
  2. ii) Employment: The economy has the tendency to follow a specific cycle of business of the booms of economy, which are further followed by the period of decline and period of stagnation. During the periods of boom, jobs are tending to be affluent, since the companies require employees to keep up with the demand (Carroll 2014). When the unemployment rate is lower, the tends towards consumer spending are extremely high as most of the people have the income to spend, which is good for businesses and also help to drive growth. 

Interest Rates: The interest rates are the amounts, which a lender charges a particular business or an individual for borrowing money. Some of the small businesses mostly rely on the loans from several financial institutions or banks as the main source of finance (Dasgupta and Ramanathan 2014). The high interest rates usually end in the higher total business expenses for companies with debt. High interest rates can also reduce consumer spending, because high rates make it more expensive for consumers to take out loans to buy things like cars and homes.

  1. iv) Inflation: The rate at which the economy rises or increases in known as inflation. Inflation causes the increment in the expenses of business like the utilities, rent and the expenses of materials utilized in production (Johnson 2013). The rising costs are likely to force the businesses for incrementing the prices on their own services and the products for keeping the speed with inflation and to maintain profits. Inflation can mitigate the power of purchasing for the consumers unless the employers increment the wages on the basis on the level of inflation.

Thus, it can be said that the economic issues have a strong impact on marketing in a business or organization.

Legal Issues

The legal issues or problems are the second most important issues for marketing in any business or organization. The main issues in marketing are as follows:

  1. i) Illegal Data Collection: This is the most important issue in any marketing campaign. If the data that is collected for the marketing campaign is illegal, the entire marketing campaign turns out to be illegal. This wrong or illegal collection of data often can turn out to be a major problem for the organization (King 2014). Thus, it is the most important step or issue for the legal sector of marketing. The most important and essential data will include information about age, demographic, spending habits, and interests. The famous and the leading marketers like Google and Facebook have become much popular due to the appropriate collection of data.
  2. ii) Illegal Distribution of Data: This is the second most important legal issue in case of .an organization (Dasgupta and Ramanathan 2014). If the data will be distributed illegally, the entire process of the organization will be considered as illegal. This illegal distribution of data is dangerous and illegal for the environment.

Misleading Claims: Misleading claims in advertising may involve claims about the quality of the product, the availability of a service and any exclusion on a common good (Sison and Fontrodona 2013). This misleading of claims is even dangerous and illegal for the environment.

The above mentioned issues or problems clearly define that the legal issues have a strong impact on marketing and marketers.

Ethical Issues

Ethical issues are nothing but the problems in ethical path undertaken by a particular organization or marketer (King 2014). The ethical issues have an extremely strong impact on marketing. The ethical issues are as follows:

  1. i) Grouping the Market Audience: Any type of unethical practices in marketing normally result in the grouping the market audience into several segments. Selective marketingmay be utilized for discouraging the explicit demand arising from the specific market segments that are undesirable or to deprive them completely (Krasny et al. 2012). The main examples of unethical market exclusion usually include the industry attitudes towards the plus size audience and ethnic minority.
  2. ii) Ethics in Advertising and Promotion: The main point of discussion in the ethical issues in advertising content is the gender. Another important issue is ethics for marketing is violence in advertising, especially where the children should not be affected by the content (Romolini, Grove and Locke 2013). A negative advertising policy allows the specific advertiser to highlight the several disadvantages of the products of the competitors rather than displaying the evident benefits of their own services or products. These types of policies are rampant in political advertising.

Anti-Competitive Practices: The various approaches are anti-competitive (Melville, Bartley and Weinburgh 2012). For example, switch and bait is a particular type of fraud where the customers are lured or baited through the advertisements for some products or services that have a low price; however, the customers find in reality that the advertised good is unavailable and they are switched towards a product that is costlier and was not intended in the advertisements. The second type of anti competitive policy is planned obsolescence. It is the approach of designing a specific product that has a limited useful life (Fisher, Campbell and Svendsen 2012). It will become non-functional or out of fashion after a certain period and thereby lets the consumer to purchase another product again.

The above mentioned issues are problems are the main ethical issues in case of marketing addressing to common good and environmental stewardship.


Therefore, from the above discussion it can be concluded that, marketing of any organization plays, the most important role in the optimistic involvement to the general goods and marketers should be extremely serious about environmental stewardship. Common goods are those particular type of goods, which are non excludable and non tangible in nature. These types of common goods are checked on some of the basic criteria to check whether their consumption done by any particular individual is preventing the other individuals from consumption or not. The criterion normally checks, whether there is a possibility for precluding the various consumers from accessing the goods or not. This criterion is checked even after the good is not purchased. The most relevant examples of the common goods are water and air. The dutiful protection and usage of the environment by practices that are conservative and sustainable. The maintenance of environmental stewardship is the basic responsibility of every organization with their services and products. The above report has provided a brief description on the basic concept of common goods and environmental stewardship. The report has also helped in understanding the various legal, economic and ethical problems and issues, which have the  most dangerous impact on the marketing for addressing the environmental stewardship and common good. The report has also provided several examples with relevant justifications. The report has thus clearly proved the statement that marketing makes a positive contribution to the common goods and marketers are serious about environmental stewardship.


Barrage, L., Chyn, E., and Hastings, J. 2014. Advertising, reputation, and environmental stewardship: Evidence from the BP oil spill. Ann Arbor, 1001, 48109-1220.

Berliner, D., and Prakash, A. 2013. Signaling environmental stewardship in the shadow of weak governance: The global diffusion of ISO 14001. Law & Society Review, 47(2), 345-373.

Carroll, C. 2014. Native enclosures: Tribal national parks and the progressive politics of environmental stewardship in Indian Country. Geoforum, 53, 31-40.

Connolly, J. J., Svendsen, E. S., Fisher, D. R., and Campbell, L. K. 2013. Organizing urban ecosystem services through environmental stewardship governance in New York City. Landscape and Urban Planning, 109(1), 76-84.

Dasgupta, P., and Ramanathan, V. 2014. Pursuit of the common good. Science, 345(6203), 1457-1458.

Demarche, P., Junghanns, C., Nair, R. R., and Agathos, S. N. 2012. Harnessing the power of enzymes for environmental stewardship. Biotechnology advances, 30(5), 933-953.

Donati, P. 2012. Discovering the relational character of the common good. Sociology and Catholic Social Teaching: Contemporary Theory and Research, 6, 193.

Fisher, D. R., Campbell, L. K., and Svendsen, E. S. 2012. The organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship. Environmental Politics, 21(1), 26-48.

Johnson, D. 2013. Can competent authorities cooperate for the common good: towards a collective arrangement in the North-East Atlantic. In Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean (pp. 333-343). Springer, Dordrecht.

King, P. 2014. Socialism and the common good: new Fabian essays. Routledge.

Krasny, M. E., Crestol, S. R., Tidball, K. G., and Stedman, R. C. 2014. New York City’s oyster gardeners: Memories and meanings as motivations for volunteer environmental stewardship. Landscape and urban planning, 132, 16-25.

Melville, W., Bartley, A., and Weinburgh, M. 2012. Change Forces: Implementing Change in a Secondary School for the Common Good. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy.

Romolini, M., Grove, J. M., and Locke, D. H. 2013. Assessing and comparing relationships between urban environmental stewardship networks and land cover in Baltimore and Seattle. Landscape and Urban Planning, 120, 190-207.

Sison, A. J. G., and Fontrodona, J. 2012. The common good of the firm in the Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition. Business Ethics Quarterly, 22(2), 211-246.

Sison, A. J. G., and Fontrodona, J. 2013. Participating in the common good of the firm. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(4), 611-625.

Welchman, J. 2012. A defence of environmental stewardship. Environmental Values, 21(3), 297-316.

Marketing Makes A Positive Contribution: Consumers

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Adam smith vs Karl marks philosophy economics contribution Essay

Adam smith vs Karl marks philosophy economics contribution Essay.

To begin with, Smith came up with the concept of the ‘invisible hand’ (Communist (1848)). This concept was to explain that seeking self interest is not necessarily bad but it sought to explain the reality that people tend to act in their own self-interests. When individuals pursue their self interests, they promote without their knowledge the good of the community at large and so it can be said that an individual who wants to maximize their revenue maximizes the revenue of the society too.

This liberty to customers to buy freely what they want and for the producers to produce what they want without any pressure enables the market to settle on a product distribution and prices that are beneficial to all individual members of the community. This liberty to both producers and consumers and the greed to maximize their interests, drives them into a behavior that is beneficial to all in that particular community. Due to this, producers are forced to employ methods of production that are efficient with an aim o maximize their profits.

This leads to low prices that are meant to out do their competitors and this forces investors to go for firms that wants to maximize their profits and hence this works as mechanism of balancing.

The invisible hand concept acts as the root of modern economics. A good example is the general equilibrium which states that if the economic forces are balanced in the absence of external influences, then the economic variables will not change. This requires that everything in the market beginning with pricing to production be controlled by the players in the market but not by other forces.

These external forces may include among others the regulations that are imposed by the government or other organizations that may have a say on the market. According to the general equilibrium, when the prices are very low, then there is surplus supply and when the prices are very low, then there’s a shortage in supply. As a result of this, the situations tend to control themselves without the need for any regulator from outside. These outside forces in the market slow the rate at which the economy grows and they also lead to infancy in the division of labor. As a result of that need for self improvement, efficient division of labor is realized as well as improved efficiency in the economy. This concept is very much in use even in today’s economy .

The modern market structure borrows greatly from the earlier ideas of natural monopoly by Adam Smith.( The Poverty of Philosophy >human nature)

The division of labor

Division of labor is a clear indication of qualitative step towards increased productivity and so it acts as an engine that drives towards realization of economic progress. Smith realized that labor division and for that matter labor specialization would improve greatly on the concentration of workers on the duties they perform. This concentration would come as a result of doing a single task many times or repetitively.

The need for improvements in productivity of the work force is said to be the root cause for labor division. According to Smith, labor division can lead to increased productivity. This productivity from the workers can be attributed to specialization in one task since specialization leads to greater skill on their particular subtasks compared to what would be accomplished by the same number of workers performing a broad task. For maximum productivity from workers, skills that they have should be matched with the corresponding equipments.  Most of today’s increase in productivity can be attributed to the matching of technological, human and physical capital and mostly in the manner in which they are organized. This means that laborers need to be equipped with the right skills so as to be effective in what they do compared to when there would be no job specialization and hence anybody could perform any job.

Todays economics has borrowed greatly from these ideas from Adam smith. Many organization have realized the need to equip their employees and some even hire unskilled ones but pay for their acquisition of skills. Another outcome of labor division according to Adam smith is minimization of time that is wasted by employees when moving from one task to the other. A lot of time is wasted when people keep on relocating and this proves expensive to the company in the long run because they have to pay the employees. Through labor division, this time wastage is minimized .

The modern concept of scientific management borrows greatly from Adam Smiths ideas .Scientific management emphasizes on the connection between activities and the transformation that occurs within the process. This is also supported by William Petty who notes and demonstrates its importance in the construction of Dutch ships.

He admits that people with a particular task to perform had discovered new ways of doing their work which were later observed and justified by political writers on economy. (An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)> specialisation)

The wages of labor

Wages of labor are dictated by mostly by the availability of job vacancies and also by the availability of workforce. When there are many workers and the available vacancies are few, the amount of money the workers are paid usually fall. Likewise, when employers compete against one another and the labor supply is limited, the wages paid to the employees usually rises but its worthy noting that this process is made possible by unity among laborers and masters. This kind of unity enables laborers to come together and stop biding for jobs against each other hence making the employers increase the wages paid to them.

Likewise when employers come together in unity and stop binding against each other, the wages fall. However, in places where the amount of labor is more compared to the amount of the amount of revenue that can used to pay for waged labor, the competition among the employees in greater than the competition between the employers. Smith argues that the amount of revenue must keep on increasing constantly compared to the amount of labor so that wages may remain high. Profits of stock too have an impact on the wages because the more money is spent on compensating labor; little is left for personal profit. This is clearly shown in countries where competition amongst employees is great compared to competition among employers, profits will be much higher.

Due to these views, Smith attacks people who are politically aligned and try to use their political influence to manipulate the government and other powers into their bidding. Smith feared that people of this class could form a powerful block and take advantage of their closeness with the authorities into manipulating the state into enforcing certain regulations meant to serve their interests against the general interests. These would maker other players vulnerable and have no say in the way businesses were being conducted. According to other people the level of specialization brought about by division of labor was externally determined but in the contrary, Smith argued that it was the dynamic engine towards economic progress.

Surprisingly, Smith himself criticizes the division of labor arguing that it leads to mental mutilation of the workers hence rendering them ignorant and insular because their lives are limited only to doing a single task many times. These ideas by Smith are incorporated into today’s discussions on economic issues. Human capital is one of the discussions in which Adams Smiths ideas are used. Human capital is one of the four types of capital that were identified by Adam as being important for the success of a company. As argued by Smith previously, human capital and the productive ability of the labor force is both dependant on the division of labor. It’s worthy noting that human capital includes skills, dexterity, and the ability to make the right decisions and human capital can be acquired through informal schooling and on the so called on-the-job training. These acquisitions of skills aimed at improving the effectiveness of the workforce are still practiced today by many companies. (An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) > productivity)

Adam Smith vs Karl Marx

Both Adam Smith and Karl Marx shared a common idea and this common idea was their praise for capitalism .These two early pioneers of modern economics agreed that capitalism was the key in unleashing the productive powers. This argument stated that for the employees to be more productive, they needed to be subject to their bosses or seniors. If the employees were left to work at their own leisure these two men agreed that their productivity would be minimal and as a result, their employers would incur big losses. This created the need for competition among both the employers and the employees as well since this would keep these two parties on their feet through out. But despite these similarities in their in their views, there was differences in their ideas as well.

Marx and Smith both seem to agree that capitalism is the ultimate driving force in profit maximization .New profits and value added, they seem to agree came as result of the employers paying the workers the exact value that is in the market for their labor capacity. But the sad thing was that in most cases, the market value of the goods which the workers produced exceeded that market value. This clearly means that the employers were making maximum profits while paying little to their workers. Both Marx and Smith agree that   there are different types of capital and they play different roles during production.

Production Capitals include things like land, natural resources or raw materials and lastly technology. All the above named different classes of capital were dependant on each other in production. These two men seemed to agree also that social relations of production should not only be made up of relationships between individuals but rather should be between large groups of people or certain classes of people. These two men had the same idea of a free market. They described a free market as a market in which all prices of the goods that are on offer are decided by mutual consent between sellers and buyers  and also one  that did not mislead both the sellers as well as the buyers.

They both argued that these two major people in the market, the buyer and the seller, should not be forced into making decision by an external party. The relationship between these two players should not be manipulated by any one but to the contrary, it should be left to obey the natural law of supply and demand. The difference between free and controlled markets is that  controlled markets are controlled by external forces These forces mostly refers to governments which may directly or indirectly try to have control of prices or the supplies in the market. One area where these two men seem to differ is their idea of job specialization.

Smith advocates for specialization for jobs among workers. He argues that laborers who were assigned too many different duties were less productive than those who were assigned a specific task to perform day in day out. He says that this leads to efficient usage of time and it seeks to save time that is usually wasted by workers when moving from one task to another. But to the contrary, Karl Marx disapproves this idea arguing that job specialization could result to workers with more poor overall skills.

This, as he says would be brought about by tendency of people to resist change. He also says that when people perform one task repeatedly, it may lead to boredom and make them less enthusiastic about their work. He describes this whole process as a kind of alienation. According to him, the more workers become specialized and do the same thing over and over, they later become totally alienated. Marx goes ahead to argue that division of labor brings with it spiritual depression to the workers. This means that the workers perform their duties feeling as if they are being forced other than doing out of their own will .This greatly lowers the morale of the workers and as a result lower their productivity.

Physical tiredness or fatigue can be brought about by job specialization as Marx goes ahead to argue since they no longer feel like human beings but they feel more of machines. Contrary to the idea of Smith, Marx believes that fullness of production is very essential to human liberation goes on to say that he would accept the idea of a strict division of labor as a temporary necessary evil.

These views can be said to be in total contrast to those expressed by Smith. Smith on his part believed that any business was a collection of inter related tasks that were aimed at solving a particular issue. So as to effectively do this, Smith argued that the workload should be divided into simple sets of tasks which could be done effectively by workers who were equipped with special skills for doing that particular job. It’s worthy noting that Smith, despite his advocating for division of labor, he does not advocate for achievement of labor division at all costs. It’s worthy noting that in contrast to Smith’s view which were only limited to functional domain only and were made up of activities that were direct in sequence as far as the manufacturing process is concerned, modern processes are very inclusive. It was as a result of his ideas that labor division was adopted. Today, we can clearly say that much of today’s practices in the job markets have borrowed greatly from the ideas of Smith. In all organization, there is job specialization.

This has led to the rise of departments in many organizations and each department is allocated certain workers who are in most cases equipped with certain skill to enable them perform specific duties .The sense in this whole exercise as argued by Smith is that it saves a great deal of time that could be wasted by employees when moving from one task to another. This proves very essential since no employer will want to waste his money employees without maximizing their productivity.

However, it is good to note that Smith admits that seeking self interests is not always good. All he tried to do was trying to reverse believe that self interest is generally bad. He also intended to bring to the light the idea that wile human motives are selfish and greedy; the out come of these human behaviors would bring benefits to the whole community at large.

This is the direct opposite of the ideas that Marx had .In his arguments; Marx says that the major struggles are always between the producers and those who work in the industries. Another of his greatest contribution to modern economics was his sharp distinction between the two types of division namely social and economic division of labor .If these two labor divisions are conflated, it might look as if labor division is inevitable rather than being constructed socially and influenced by power. (Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) & Karl Marx, The Poverty of Philosophy).


Edwin G. West, (1976)The Man and His Wor

Adam smith vs Karl marks philosophy economics contribution Essay

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