Case Study: Pediatric Healthcare: “Increased Coronavirus Cases Among Children”

Case Study: Pediatric Healthcare: “Increased Coronavirus Cases Among Children”

Financial Management Role: Business office Manager

Case Study: Pediatric Healthcare: “Increased Coronavirus Cases Among Children”. Start your areas of research with: Children Hospitals, Children’s Hospital Association, American Academy of Pediatricians and CDC.

Above is the case study and my role pertaining to the case study. Below are instructions for the assignment and examples. Again my role is a Financial Management: Business office manager and the case study I will focus on is increased coronavirus cases among children.

Week 1 Assignment: Role Application to Selected Case Study

Instructions – Provide a 2 to 3 research page (How to write a research paper) paper that includes the following items:

1. A description of the role/position as you understand it, specifically

– The level of the management the position is on (please remember- none of the positions is about Chief Executive, Chief Financial or Chief Operations officers at hospitals or other HC organizations. Your roles are not performing at the senior executive level);

-Immediate supervisory and subordinate chains;

– The main skills that are necessary to be effective and efficient in this position.

2. An explanation as to how the role you have selected is vital to this particular case:

-Discuss two job-specific managerial points affecting your organizational performance from the position of the provider

For example,

Case: increased Tuberculosis incidence among the homeless population of Nsk.

Job: a financial/business officer.

Managerial issue: an inability to send payments to the vendors for the supplies due to the lack of funds.

Reason: a high number of rejected health care insurance claims or not insured population served; high supply utilization due to the contagious nature of the issue and requirements to its clinical management.

Organizational outcome: clinical services are lacking appropriate medicine and supplies>low patient satisfaction>people refuse to come to the clinic or follow the treaments> low service utilization>reduced clinic income.

Solution: The business officer seeks additional funding sources from government organizations and grant providers. The insurance claim process is reassessed and the insurance claim cycle optimization process is established.

***This example cannot be used in the students’ submissions.

3. A description of how your role will interact with the other roles. What will the reporting structure look like? Who will you be working with and in what capacity?

The paper (no more than 3 pages) should be formatted according to APA style requirements and include a minimum of two credible resources from the course readings, UMGC library or other credible sources. An abstract is not required.


To write a winning submission you need to learn how to write a research paper.
Makes sure to apply APA, develop citations correlating to your references.
The paper has two main portions: research about the job itself and what job-specific managerial issues are relevant to the specific case (personal conclusions supportive evidence). Please note, the same managerial issue may be perceived differently from the position of a provider, payer or patient.
For example, Administrative Officer job>Measles in WA state case

Managerial issue: identify unvaccinated children in the assigned area.

-provider: run Electronic Health Record reports and cross-check them with the local public health department (potential data on unvaccinated children between 1 and 5 y.o.) and administration (demographic data in the area). Plan for educational and vaccination fair efforts to offset the vaccinated population numbers.

-payer: examine member subscriptions (through the claim reimbursement) and identify insured children between 1 and 5 that were not vaccinated. Project financial losses relevant to the spike of vaccination or health care related issues relevant to Measles in case of epidemics.

-patient: having vaccinated child>not worrying about Measles. In the case of falling sick, seeking immediate medical attention. Plan for the out of pocket expense in an emergency fund. Having unvaccinated child>seeking educational information on the case, making decision to vaccinate or not, to be ready for significant caregiving and medical out of pocket expenses in case the child is falling sick.

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What does coronavirus mean for the future of sport and fitness clubs?

What does coronavirus mean for the future of sport and fitness clubs?

Globally, many organizations still do not know the importance of forecasting in their day to day operations. When an organization has the appropriate resources at the right moment, it is guaranteed to function well. In today’s harsh business settings where companies try to use their resources appropriately, forecasting is a critical technique to save costs and to predict future demand to utilize resources efficiently. Most large companies utilize forecasting to formulate their strategies since it is impossible to make decisions in their absence. Some unpredictable events, such as COVID-19, which has negatively affected businesses, and the economy, is indisputable that companies need to prepare in advance. 

What does coronavirus mean for the future of sport and fitness clubs?

Firstly, poor customer service is a matter that affects many fitness centers. Management of an organization is not a simple task; hence being sensitive about familiar downfalls in business help individuals proactively evade problems as it is a regular test. The fitness facility sector has already faced problems in the past year due to the Covid-19 pandemic. However, long before the pandemic, 24-hour fitness had seen many clients defecting to other affordable fitness alternatives, and this was necessitated by the high charges the company charged to the members, which led to the company posting reduced revenue that last quarter. Early in 2019, the company had also recorded reduced earnings because it had introduced an automated system for members to sign in and out as they used the facilities. Due to the complex system’s introduction, it lost many customers hence a drop in revenue collection. These challenges could have been sorted out initially had management consulted with the users to solve emerging issues accordingly. Good instructor’s interaction with clients: The reception employees play a critical role in ensuring smooth running. 

Secondly, inadequate use of technology in fitness centers has become an essential requirement. Even though technology is vital for a business to stay competitive in today’s setting, embracing the right digital technology for any fitness company is critical to guarantee its success. With the pandemic, 24-hour fitness witnessed a reduction in customers since members shared equipment, making it hard to maintain social distancing to prevent the spread of Covid-19. Many people opted for home-based gym exercises, which meant that many members no longer attended the sessions, which led to some members never returning to the club again, leading to structural changes to the company. Due to lockdowns, many got out of the habit of exercise, and even after restrictions were relaxed; many had formed a new habit of not attending gym sessions. Many people replaced gym attending other activities easy to carry out with no equipment and in open fields. The company should have used technology and sold its services as digital content, such as online sessions, since many switched to online sessions and sought workout information on various online platforms.

Thirdly, insufficient fitness space, equipment, and inadequate training centers, especially near residential areas. The company had most of its gym facilities situated in urban centers near active office space; hence, if workers were not going to come back to the offices, clients would not attend gym sessions as many professionals operated from home. The company should have invested earlier in surroundings where members could attend their gym sessions near their localities as they stay at home. It should have purchased extra training pieces of equipment and instructors to ensure adequate service to clients. The changes would ensure enough customers hence revenue, for the company to remain operating. 

Finally, relates to the company’s low marketing strategies, especially the inefficient use of online marketing, including social media networks. Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter help develop a brand image and send information and provide avenues for users to interact with the center. It also ensures increased customer recommendation as social media is critical to ensure a good relationship between clients and the company and aid differentiate like services offered by other fitness companies, which increases sales of company services. The best promotion will ensure company services are sold, and enough revenue is generated to achieve desired set targets for the company and remain in business in the near foreseeable future in the competitive fitness business enterprise. 

Many motives exist as to why a company may decide to rebrand its business. It may be due to the emergence of external forces outside the control of the management and company at large. Rebranding 24-hour fitness includes changing the logo and graphic design parts, marketing supplies, website, and other social media networks such as Linked In. This process will guarantee enhanced gym reputation, reenergize the employees, and attract fresh clients who may not be interested before rebranding the company or did not know its existence. The first component in the process involves changing the company’s name, and this will ensure a new business attitude; even though some brand recognition will be lost, the positives will be more than the negatives. A superior business name will grab potential consumers’ attention and ensure that the brand message is conveyed, which will resonate with the intended customers. The name should reveal the perfect customer’s fitness and personality level, including being easy to pronounce and spell while still promoting inclusivity in society.

Another essential component is revising the business plan, which is necessary to reflect alterations in the fitness offerings, brand, and general objectives to be achieved, and this will keep changing over time to accommodate future modifications. The mission statement will be the facility’s new activities, which affect the business operations in the long-run. The plan also includes marketing to carry out targeting current consumers and future clients in different demographics. The existing sessions and offerings for groups will need adjustment to ensure inclusivity for any interested potential customer. Employees will be hired by professional human resource personnel to ensure adequate staff receptive and caring gets an opportunity to guarantee good services to all clients.

The third component in the strategy is modifying image identities, the design material which signifies the business, and this is a critical element of the brand conundrum, and it also includes photography, the company logo, and typography. In order to preserve brand recognition, minor modifications will be necessary to guarantee business identification. Color designs for the website and other sites will remain muted since, in that form, they symbolize the company’s brand character. The company’s website should remain updated anytime changes occur in the brand, such as updates about videos and photos taken during training or marketing purposes. Changes will also be necessary for the profile picture and changing other social media names to reveal its image. Modifications of email marketing material such as newsletters will help market the company effectively. Additionally, seeking feedback from clients about the fitness facility’s perception and utilizing the information for marketing on all platforms.

Individuals in charge of fitness facilities should develop ways of increasing client engagement to ensure business stability. The management in various training centers should put up good infrastructure in the training facilities such as superior and clean training environment and training tools for clients in different geographical locations. These are essential elements and requirements in fitness centers worldwide, especially during the present pandemic. The covid-19 pandemic has led to profound changes in fitness and other sports activities globally. Digitization and technology have created an avenue for the management of fitness facilities simplifying the management process. Regardless of the keeping distance to reduce the spreading of the virus, consumer support and service should continue, including the laid down protocols, which will remain relevant post the pandemic. 


Dwivedi, Y. K., Ismagilova, E., Hughes, D. L., Carlson, J., Filieri, R., Jacobson, J., Jain, V., Karjaluoto, H., Kefi, H., Krishen, A. S., Kumar, V., Rahman, M. M., Raman, R., Rauschnabel, P. A., Rowley, J., Salo, J., Tran, G. A., & Wang, Y. (2020). Setting the future of digital and social media marketing research: Perspectives and research propositions. International Journal of Information Management, 102168.

Early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior in children living in the U.S. (n.d.). BMC Public Health. Retrieved January 15, 2021, from

The global economic outlook during the COVID-19 pandemic: A changed world. (2020, June 8). World Bank. Retrieved January 15, 2021, from

León-Quismondo, J., García-Unanue, J., & Burillo, P. (2020). Best practices for fitness center business sustainability: A qualitative vision. Sustainability12(12), 5067.

What does coronavirus mean for the future of sport and fitness clubs? (n.d.). Economics Observatory | Questions and answers about coronavirus and the UK economy. Retrieved January 15, 2021, from

What does coronavirus mean for the future of sport and fitness clubs?

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Case study of public leadership on handling of the coronavirus pandemic

Case study of public leadership on handling of the coronavirus pandemic.

How do I develop my assignment case study?

During the module, you will develop a case study for analysis in your end of module assignment. Working to develop your own case study is an exciting opportunity to bring your passions and interests to the fore and allow them to flourish. Developing a case study is also a useful way for you to connect the theory and practice, and advance your analytical skills. Engaging with a particular public management concern and becoming an independent researcher is also useful grounding for preparing your dissertation.

What is a case study?

In social sciences, a case study is a research method involving an in-depth and detailed examination of a particular example or instance. For example, of a public leader’s role in addressing a crisis or a public service organisation’s approach to a social or policy concern.

A case study is not just isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. The case study for example may:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on the theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring a case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions.

What sources should I use in developing the case study?

In research, case studies are often developed from primary research, ie. research you undertake yourself, for example through conducting a series of interviews, or observing meetings. For your assignment in this module, you will instead draw on secondary research, ie. research undertaken by others, for example as published in policy reports, academic articles or the media. As such it is important that you select a case that is well-documented, so that you can draw on varied sources, and where there are different perspectives presented.

How do I select a case study?

In selecting the case study, you need to ensure that you read the assignment brief carefully:

Using your case study and the annotated bibliography, critically reflect on the role of public leadership in addressing a public management challenge.

Drawing on the leadership theories discussed in this module, you should:

– identify the leadership approach(es) being employed, and by who;

– discuss the challenges faced, and how these were addressed;

– reflect critically on the impact of the leadership shown.

You need to ensure that your case study clearly demonstrates these two elements, and ensure that you can clearly demonstrate the links between practice and theory.

Linking theory and practice

The key to the assignment is to link theory and practice, and in doing so show your analysis.

For example, showing how the case exemplifies, expands or challenges the theories we have explored in the module.

But also, how the theories give you analytical insights into the case, that allow you to understand the case, bring different perspectives to bear, and raise questions about the nature of the leadership.

What is a good case study?

In selecting the case think about the opportunity it offers you to demonstrate critical thinking.  A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions or theories
  • Propose practice courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for research or practice

You should also select a case that interests you: this could be a particular leader, organisation, or public management issue that you are interested in or provoked by; or one that you have personal or professional experience of, or aspire to work within/ on. Your example could be local, national or international. You could draw on an example from the UK, your home country or anywhere else.

Note, a good case study is not necessarily a successful example of leadership.

How do I analyse the sources?

In developing your case study, it is important that you ask questions about the different sources you are using. Some useful questions to consider when working with a source include:

  • WHO? Who created this document? Whom, if anyone, is quoted in it? Who is the intended audience?
  • WHEN and WHERE? When and where was the document originally created? What, if anything, do you know about the circumstances under which it was created?
  • WHAT? In your own words, what does this document say? What do you think are the most important points in it? What did you learn from it?
  • HOW? How does the creator of this document get his or her message or ideas across? How would you describe the language and tone of the document?
  • WHY? Why do you think the document was originally created? Why do you think it may be considered important?

Support in developing your case studies

Time is allocated each week for developing your case study, and your annotated bibliography, ensure that you use this opportunity, and do not leave it until just before the assignment is due.

In Week 6 and Week 12 of the module, we will have an opportunity for you to share the development of your case study with your tutors:

  • In Week 6, you can submit an example annotation from your bibliography, and a short 100-word summary of your case study with five supporting reference. You will receive feedback on this from your tutors.
  • In Week 12, you can submit an outline of your assignment for feedback. An example of an assignment structure, along with other tips and guidance will be provided on Canvas in this week.

Your tutors are also on hand to guide you and give you advice, you can contact them by email or their office hours.

Case study examples

Keeping informed of topical issues by regularly engaging with quality and balanced media will be helpful in selecting a case study.

Here are a few suggestions:

  • Public leadership of the pandemic

Given the significance of this issue, and how it is affecting the lives of everyone globally, makes this an obvious choice; but there are different ways to approach this idea, for example:

  • Institutional leadership: how have organisations such as the World Health Organisation, or the National Health Service here in the UK led the response? How have local community organisations demonstrated leadership?
  • Individual political leaders: there has been a lot of comment on how individual leaders have responded to the pandemic, from Donald Trump in the US to Xi Jinping in China; you could even look to compare two contrasting examples of public leadership; for instance, in the UK, there have been comparisons drawn between Boris Johnson and Scotland’s Nicola Sturgeon, and more recently Greater Manchester’s Andy Burnham;
  • Professional leadership: the pandemic has raised an interesting perspective on the role of expertise in leadership, with scientists and medical professionals coming more to the fore as public leaders;
  • Dynamics of leadership: another issue that has attracted attention has been the gendered dynamics of leadership, for example, how the crisis has exposed ‘strongman’ leadership, and brought the value of more empathetic and relational leadership to the fore. Female leaders and their handling of the pandemic, such as Germany’s Angela Merkel or New Zealand’s Jacinta Ardern.
  • Public leadership on the defining issues of our time

Key social issues such as, institutional and systemic racism and climate change have also dominated in recent months, and your assignment could focus on these, for example: 

  • Black Lives Matter: this global movement brings an interesting perspective to leadership, adopting a more collective and distributed approach, in contrast to leadership approaches in earlier civil rights movements.
  • Extinction Rebellion: this movement has adopted a co-leadership approach, sharing responsibilities between a small cadre of leaders

Case study of public leadership on handling of the coronavirus pandemic

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How coronavirus stress may scramble our brains.

How coronavirus stress may scramble our brains..

· Read the article on the next 4 pages from Science News. This magazine is for the general public. The entire article is lengthy, so I only included part of it. I also included the URL if you wish to read it all.

· The first part of the article is an introduction and discusses a study with medical students as the subject. I, however, want you to answer the 6 questions below in complete sentences about the more recent scientific study in blue font in the reading.

· Upload your answers in a MS Word.

1. How many subjects were in the study? Do you think this is a representative sample? Why or why not?

2. What was the independent variable in the study?

3. Based on your answer to question 2, describe the experimental group. Also describe the control group.

4. What was the dependent variable in the study?

5. What type of measurement was done in collecting the results? In other words, what instrument was used to do the measurements and determine what the subjects were thinking?

6. What was the conclusion(s) from the study and how does it apply to people experiencing the Covid-19 pandemic?

How coronavirus stress may scramble our brains

Imaging studies show we should give ourselves a break

By Laura Sanders


Science News online: MAY 24, 2020 AT 6:00 AM

I’m on deadline, but instead of focusing, my mind buzzes with unrelated tidbits. My first-grader’s tablet needs an update before her online school session tomorrow. Heartbreaking deaths from COVID-19 in New York City make me tear up again. Was that a kid’s scream from upstairs? Do I need to run up there, or will my husband take care of it?

These hornets of thoughts drive out the clear thinking my job demands. Try as I might to conjure up a coherent story, the relevant wisps float away.

I’m scattered, worried and tired. And even though we’re all socially isolated, I’m not alone. The pandemic — and its social and economic upheavals — has left people around the world feeling like they can’t string two thoughts together. Stress has really done a number on us.

That’s no surprise to scientists who study stress. Our brains are not built to do complex thinking, planning and remembering in times of massive upheaval. Feeling impaired is “a natural biological response,” says Amy Arnsten, a neuroscientist at Yale School of Medicine. “This is how our brains are wired.”

Decades of research have chronicled the ways stress can disrupt business as usual in our brains. Recent studies have made even more clear how stress saps our ability to plan ahead and have pointed to one way that stress changes how certain brain cells operate.

Scientists recognize the pandemic as an opportunity for a massive, real-time experiment on stress. COVID-19 foisted on us a heavy mix of health, economic and social stressors. And the end date is nowhere in sight. Scientists have begun collecting data to answer a range of questions. But one thing is clear: This pandemic has thrown all of us into uncharted territory.


The human brain’s astonishing abilities rely on a web of nerve cell connections. One hub of activity is the prefrontal cortex, which is important for some of our fanciest forms of thinking. These “executive functions” include abstract thinking, planning, focusing, juggling multiple bits of information and even practicing patience. Stress can muffle that hub’s signals, studies of lab animals and humans have shown.

“Even relatively mild stress can impair the prefrontal cortex,” says Elizabeth Phelps, a psychologist and neuroscientist at Harvard University. “That’s one of the most robust effects of stress on the brain.”

That impairment has been described in lots of studies. One memorable example comes from 20 panicky medical students facing licensing exams. After a month of high-stress test prep, the students performed worse on an attention test than they did after exams were over. Functional MRI scans showed that under stress, the students’ prefrontal connections to other brain areas were diminished, scientists reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2009.

experiment diagram of brains

Normally, an alert person’s brain has moderate amounts of chemical messengers that lead the prefrontal cortex to take charge and perform high-level thinking (left). But with stress, those chemical signals can flood the brain, activating amygdala-linked brain networks involved in sensing and responding to threats (right). A. Arnsten

When the prefrontal cortex goes quiet, more reactionary brain networks take over. Some of these “primitive” circuits, as Arnsten calls them, center on the amygdalae, two almond-shaped structures buried deep inside the brain that help us sense and respond to threats. Those fast, instinctual reactions “are helpful if you’re being faced with a snake,” Arnsten says, “but not helpful if you’re being faced with a complex medical decision.”

A more recent experiment, published online April 2 in Current Biology, illustrates how stress can shift people away from thoughtful planning. When people were threatened with electric shocks, their abilities to plan ahead flew out the window. Anthony Wagner, a cognitive neuroscientist at Stanford University, and colleagues asked 38 people to learn a familiar route through virtual towns. With practice, people learned these routes, as well as the locations of recognizable objects, such as a zebra, an apple, a stapler or Taylor Swift’s face, along the way.

“Our question was, ‘What are the effects of stress?’ ” Wagner says. To find out, the researchers used “moderately painful” electric zaps to induce stress in some participants, who returned to familiar virtual towns and were asked to find their way to the zebra, for instance. Subjects didn’t know when they would be shocked, and they couldn’t control any aspect of it.

After the training, the participants — some under stress from the expectation of further shocks and some not — were sent back into the virtual town and asked to find their way to a specific item.

But there was a trick: Participants could reach the stapler, for example, faster and more efficiently by taking a shortcut. The shortcut, however, required more planning, more initiative and a heavier reliance on previously learned relationships among streets.

Stressed people were less inclined to take the shortcut, the researchers found. People who were stressed by the possibility of a shock took the shortcut 31 percent of the time, compared with 47 percent for those who weren’t stressed. The stressed people still reached the object they were after, but in a roundabout way.

Drawing of map of virtual town used in experiment

Where to?

In a virtual town, people devised a shortcut (left map, red dotted line) to reach a target object. But under the threat of a moderate electric shock, people were more likely to fall back on a familiar route (right map, green dotted line), even though it was longer.

drawing of map of virtual town used in experiment


Functional MRI brain scans hinted at what the added stress did to the volunteers’ thinking. The objects planted around town evoked recognizable patterns of brain activity when a person was seeing one of the previously seen objects, or even just thinking about it. By spotting these neural signposts, researchers could tell when people were thinking of a particular path — or of no path at all.

Participants were given eight seconds to plan their approach to reach the target object. Unstressed people generally had a plan; their brain activity contained patterns that signaled these volunteers were thinking about the objects along the shortcut route. Neural signals of a plan even showed up among those who chose to take the familiar route.

Those awaiting a shock appeared to use little foresight. “The stressed people didn’t seem to be thinking about the familiar route when they took it,” says study coauthor Thackery Brown, a cognitive neuroscientist at Georgia Tech in Atlanta. “They were on this fight-or-flight autopilot type behavior.”

What’s more, stress quieted the activity of brain areas needed to make a good plan, including a part of the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, a structure important for memory. Those findings suggest that under stress, we are less able to call up our previously learned knowledge and memories. We are working with a deficit.

“In some sense, we’re privileged when we’re not stressed, able to fully harness our cognitive machinery,” Wagner says. “That allows us to behave in more strategic, more efficient, more goal-directed ways.”

Brown sees parallels between these lab-based stressors and the complex and longer-lasting stresses of real life. The participants were attempting to do something complicated while worrying about something else. The stressor is “operating in the background while you’re trying to plan your daily life,” Brown says. “There’s a connection there with the type of thing people are experiencing right now in the context of the pandemic.”

—-The rest of the article can be found at the URL at the top for those who are interested.—

How coronavirus stress may scramble our brains.

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Coronavirus / Macroeconomic Effects both in China and Globally

Coronavirus / Macroeconomic Effects both in China and Globally.

The general theme is the exploration of a International Macroeconomic Issue.  The paper can take the form of any event/issue/trend that involves or originated in a foreign country.  You can relate it’s effects on the United States economy or focus it’s effects on the country where the topic originated.  Focus should be given on incorporating a minimum of 6 specific macroeconomic theories to your topic.  As in the first paper superior grades will be given to work which shows direct application of macroeconomic theory in either explaining your topic and/or establishing an opinion or argument.

The guidelines regarding length (minimum of 1,200 words), method of submission and works cited (minimum of 5 sources of which one MUST be class textbook) are the same as the first paper.

The following are meant as a starting point in choosing a topic:

-Coronavirus  / Macroeconomic Effects both in China and Globally

-Microlending / Macroeconomic Effects of Enabling Individuals to Prosper

-Dollarization /  Using the US Dollar as a Country’s Official Currency

-Tulipmania / The 1st True Asset Bubble-Netherlands 17th Century

-Venezuela / Hyperinflation and Socialist Government Structure

-Hyperinflation /  The Weimer Republic-Germany 1920s

–Olympics / Macroeconomic Consequences of Hosting Games

-Japan / Demographic Ticking Time Bomb

-Cuba / After the Castros-Economic Future of Cuba

–China/US Trade War / Implications on China Economy

-Brexit / Effect on British Livestock Industry

Macroeconomic Theory Points for Paper #2:





-Supply Side Economics

-Laffer Curve

-Systematic Risk/Too Big to Fail


-Glass Stegall Act 

-Federal Reserve Bank

-European Central Bank (ECB)

-Unconventional Monetary Policy

-Quantitative Easing

-Policy Lag Time

-Expenditure Lag Time

-Monetarism / Milton Friedman

-Phillips Curve

-Direct Foreign Investment 


-Dilemma of Demand Management

-Theory of Rational Expectations

-Exchange Rates / Fixed, Managed or Free Floating

-International Monetary Fund (IMF)

-Balance of Payments Surplus/Deficit

-Purchasing Power Parity


-Comparative Advantage

Coronavirus / Macroeconomic Effects both in China and Globally

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