Dinka Cultural Art

Dinka Cultural Art


The Dinka people occupy significant parts of South Sudan, where they explore significant cultural arts. As one of the Nilotic speaking groups, the Dinka exhibit explicit cultural associations, and their skills are pertinent to the various activities that people engage in throughout the region. Remarkably, art is portrayed as an essential element among the Dinka people. For instance, as opposed to dances and other folklores that are predominant among this tribe, men folk carve spears and fishing hooks, while women weave baskets using mats and papyrus used as beds. This paper focuses on exploring the Dinka cultural arts by examining dance and songs that are pertinent to execute the needed characteristics.

The Dinka Dance and Folklore

Dance and song play an integral role among the Dinka people and entire South Sudan. They are conducted on different occasions to depict specific meanings associated with them. Additionally, different songs and dances have particular patterns that differentiate them from the other and the substances that they contain. For instance, the ox drug song, which is so predominant among the Dinka people, is a preliminary song by a group of Dinka men in a large formed circle with the girls making different integrals patterns for the overall beauty of the music.  In this song, different characteristics are depicted, and the singers and the dancers are in specific designs that are different from any other among the tribes in South Sudan (Pendle, 2017). Notably, most dance formation is a mixture of men and women in specific patterns.  The dance styles are initiated by the singer, who is also the song composer. The composition and the dance patterns depict a particular meaning based on the occasion.  The Dinka’s folklore is rich in stories associated with the origins of animal behaviors, everyday life, and customs.

The Dinka dance is an impeccable art. The patterns depicted in different dances and songs among the Dinka people portray a unique cultural celebration as it is generally done on specific occasions.  Dance among the Dinka people is also a sign of unity and depicts seasons of the years and events celebrated. Artists from various traditional groups usually come together during these occasions to showcase their talents. They incorporate a broad range of themes and issues in these cultural arts’ good associations among people. Culturally, through dances and songs, most artists in the region promote explicit ethnic heritage through the association of unique designs. Notably, most through music and dance, people can relate adequately and exhibit certain useful and meaningful situations among the entire tribe.

Characteristics of the Dinka Dance

The Dinka dance has working movements and styles that make it different from others. The bending of knees, accompanied by the swinging of the machete, is used to elaborate on the song’s meaning. There is also the formation of closed circles with dancers facing each other or sometimes facing the center.  The Dinka dance exhibit formations using formalized floor patterns, with men and women interchange during the process (Mayik, 2020).  Additionally, the dancers often move along the circle while others use straight-line formations with spears and arrows as the main dancing tools.

Moreover, the choice of language, commonly Juba Arabic, English, and Kiswahili, or sometimes a mixture of these languages, is common among most Dinka songs and dances. Notably, Dynamic is common in most modern dances. Overall, through dance formations, the dress code, and styles, Dinka culture is adequately depicted. The mixture of men and women is a sign of unity and is common in most dances.

Play and Leisure for Dinka cultural group

The Dinka tribe has little time to play and recreation purposes. However, during celebrations often after harvest, they engage in cultural dances and songs accompanied by social events to make the day a success. Leisure is also not common among these people as they are entirely busy with their herds. When the opportunity for such an event arises, the men engage in mock sparring where they use sticks or spears and shields to make the event enjoyable. Additionally, celebrations are expected during the autumn when people are together where offerings are done to honor political leaders and traditional spiritual figures (Jurkuch, 2019).  Drought seasons provide the best leisure time for the Dinka people. The common forms of entertainment are sports and wrestling. In wresting, two strong engage in fierce entanglement as the others cheer from a distance. It is the most common source of entertainment as mostly done by youths. Overall, leisure is also closely tied to religious practices, one of the main cultural focus among the Dinka people. The association and inclusion of cultural practices such as specific dress codes and tools portray cultural indication.

Art, Play, and Leisure in The Dinka Group Changing through Globalization

 Globalization brought a significant impact on art, play, and leisure in the Dinka group. The inclusion of modern art forms interfered with the cultural norms that were prevalent among the group. Transmogrification, which was the main impact of globalization on traditional beliefs and religious systems, saw Dinka’s art being disintegrated as the shred norms receiving significant setbacks from the original ones (Currie, 2012).  Significantly, globalization involves sweeping changes in cultural and social patterns that are pertinent to a specific group. Among the Dinka people, the sweeping of these systems saw most of the cultural practices being disintegrated. For instance, the introduction of the cyber-culture saw significant developments in traditional beliefs and norms that significantly changed the lifestyle’s nature.

Globalization led to introducing new dress codes and lifestyles, contrasting the original exhibition among the Dinka people. For instance, the wearing of long and full dresses opposes the traditional beads and skin wear among these groups. The increasing advancement in communication, information technology, and transportation methods changed the original perception that was common among the Dinka. English, which is regarded as the global and official language, virtually pushed the Dinkas indigenous dialects to nothingness as people try to make significant changes as much as possible. Excessive use of modem technologies such as computers saw the death of traditional drugs and dance styles. Categorically, anthropologists have played an integral role in preserving cultures that have been influenced by globalization. By creating museums and the initiation of cultural sites, most of the cultural practices that have been lost due to globalization have been preserved. Notably, through inhibition of the traditional artistic methods, anthropologists have helped build resonate avenues where societies who have lost their cultures, art, play, and other associated variables can make a new focus. Overall, the establishment of reading materials and impeccable resources has helped preserve cultures to better standards regardless of the impacts of globalization.


Currie, G. (2012). Art and the Anthropologists. Aesthetic Science: Connecting minds, brains, and experience, 107-128.

Jurkuch, J. W. (2019). The portrayal of Aspects of Dinka Culture Through Oral Narrative Performance.

Mayik, B. M. (2020). Investigating the impact of child abduction and cattle raiding among the Dinka, Nuer, and Murle communities in Jonglei State, South Sudan. International Journal of Peace and Development Studies, 11(2), 9-14.

Pendle, N. R. (2017). Laws, landscapes and prophecy: the art of remaking regimes of lethal violence amongst the western Nuer and Dinka (South Sudan) (Doctoral dissertation, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)).

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Hadhramis: Cultural and Ethic

Hadhramis: Cultural and Ethic

The Hadhramis community an Islamic community that traces its origin from Hadramawt (Freitag). They were subdivided into families, migrated and dominated the Indian Ocean region. Their main economic activities before the migration were farming and trade of the farm products (Aishobaily). When they wandered towards the Indian Ocean, they specialized in trading, which saw them generate a lot of wealth (Freitag). Whenever they settled in the migration process, the Hadhramis left one mark or another that marked their history to date (Aishobaily). The Hadhramis are Arabs and have strong background knowledge of the Islamic faith. Their faith has been their primary source of unity since their early civilization. As a community, they are staunch supporters of Islamic culture (Freitag). The Hadhramis has influenced not only their offspring’s but also taught other communities in the world about the Islamic religion.

Hadhramis: Cultural and Ethic

Hadramawt is the place where the Hadhramis are believed to have originated. It has its legendary but considered mysterious. Hadramawt is a small village which is surrounded by the valleys (Freitag). This made the habitat inhospitable due to the severe desert environment and hostile communities. The Hadramawt is located deep in Southern Arabia where it is believed to be a land of civilization. For this reason, the Hadhramis were skilled in farming and trade. As a result, they were able to settle in the cities where skilled labor was required (Walker). The Hadhramis are skilled to the extent that, they were able to build mud skyscrapers and old markets where the camel caravan docked the transport goods and slaves from their surrounding communities. The people of the Hadhramis maintained their culture, and this saw them prosper even in overseas countries (diaspora). They have maintained their culture for centuries, unlike the Saba community who bordered them as their family.

The Hadhramis have been involved in many cases of migrations especially in the 19th and the 20th century (Aishobaily). By mid-1930s the Hadhramis were estimated to have migrated over 110,000 people abroad, which is almost equivalent to a third of the population (Freitag). “New opportunities opening up overseas encouraged the Hadhramis to venture out from their homeland around the Indian Ocean.” (Calvin, Ulrike Freitag and Clarence-Smith 3). Their migration resulted from their sea trade, escape from hard living conditions and to spread the Islamic Faith. For this reason, we find many Hadhramis scattered in different countries in Asia, especially along the South and Southeast Asia (Ibrahim and Ibrahim). During the 19th and the 20th emigration most of the Hadhramis who migrated settled in India, Malaysia, Singapore, and in the Dutch Indies which later became Indonesia (Talib). A few moved and settled in western countries such as Cardiff in South Wales, Gulf, and Saudi Arabia. Some Hadhramis have also settled in East Africa especially Tanzania and Zanzibar where they have settled for more than 2000 years (Freitag). These Hadhramis have a solid connection to their homeland, Hadhramawt, where they are seen to send their children for further studies and marrying. This has been captured as it has been described “The Hadhramis have enjoyed relatively open access to their homeland compared to other migrants. Indeed many were wealthy enough to sustain intense and intimate relations with their land of origin” (Calvin, Ulrike Freitag and Clarence-Smith 4).

Wadi Hadhramawt were the first half to have migrated in the 19th century due to poverty. They once had a flourishing agricultural economy, but due to war, they migrated in search of security and better living conditions. The majority moved to India while a small group moved to Aden and the Red Sea towards the East African coast. The migration along the Indian Ocean was further influenced by the opening of the Suez Canal in the year 1869 (Manger). In whichever directions the migrants turned to, they could find their compatriots heading major activities, and this gave them chances to easier jobs mainly at the port. The compatriots would host them and later organize them for further journeys towards the south or help them find employment in that area.

Many Hadhramis saw migration as a means of social and economic advancements (Potter). This was because of the strong background that had really equipped them with skills. While some of the Bedouin were gathering ideas on how they would raise enough money to go and stock their large flocks back home (Manger), other brilliant minds were figuring how they would set international businesses that would see most of their people employed and others move to other countries in such more wealth (Walker). Wherever they settled, they intermarriage with the local communities and taught them their Islamic faith, this led to the rise of communities such as the Muwalladin (Manger). Though not all Hadhramis were successful, some were rebellious and thus remained dislocated and disoriented people. The economic and political conditions are what determined how the migrants faired. In some regions, the migrant was forced to move even further to the Indian Ocean while those who had accumulated enough wealth went back home.

From the migration activity, some settled as foreigners for a good while others went back home. Those who remained behind were in pursuit of more wealth and education (Manger). This saw them, tour the whole region beside the Indian Ocean in search of more resources. An example of those families that remained behind is the Sayyid Abu Muhammad Bin Shihab (who went to study along Shafii mufti of Mecca), Ahmed b. Zayni a- Dahlan and many others.

The Hadhramis moved to the diaspora in families and settled in different regions. It is difficult to tell which family moved where since it has not been adequately captured by the history authors. In the diaspora, they were required to embrace one another and help each other economically until one could support himself. An example of those who moved to the diaspora is Muhammad ‘T’ who was born in the Hadhrami tribe inhabiting the al- Hawta. He had many wives and children whom he moved with. Later he was joined by his son Salim whose mother was diverse. Salim became his father’s favorite, and after his death, he moved to Kalimantan where he used to trade with the Dayaks. Salim was able to establish himself in the Jakarta, and he mainly traded Muslim clothes. He became prominent, and therefore his commercial activities went as far as Vietnam. Salim had so much stock which he sold after World War I at a very high price, therefore, making him gain a lot of wealth (Walker). He later became the richest person in Singapore by surpassing the wealthy Al- Kaff family who also came from the Hadramawt.

Hadramawt is considered a cosmopolitan place. This is because there are many trade routes that passed across it. These routes brought the Phoenicians, the Hajez and the Yemeni to the land. There were many ports along its coast and ships from all corners of the Indian Ocean harbored there. They mostly harbored on the port of Mukalla and the Shihr on the Gulf of Aden.

The modern Hadramawt is the 5th governorate of the Republic of Yemen. It retains its cosmopolitan characters in that oil and fishing industries attract laborers mainly from Yemen and East Africa. Some Somalis have also escaped their country to go and seek refuge there. It has an inland about 200 kilometers from the coasts called the valley of Wadi Hadramawt (where Osama Bin Laden’s family is believed to have originated) where many foreigners influence is discreet.


Aishobaily, Abdulrahman. Migration from Arabia Peninsula. Arab News, 19th February 2014. https://arabnews.com/new/527851. Accessed 14 April 2019.

Ibrahim, Ahmed Abashouk and Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim. The Hadhrami Diaspora in Southeast Asia: Identify Maintenance or Assimilation? Koninklijke Brill, 2009.

Talib, Ameen Ali. Hadhramis in Singapore. Al-bab.com, November 1995. https://al-bab.com/hadhramis-Singapore/. Accessed 14 April 2019.

Walker, Iain. The Hadhramis of the Indian Ocean: A diaspora and its network. Copas Ox, 2011. https://www.conpas.ox.ac.uk/2011/the-hadhramis-of-the-Indian-ocean-a–diaspora-and-it-networks/. Accessed 14 April 2019.

Potter, Lawrence G. Sectarian Politics in the Persian Gulf. Oxford University Press, 2014.

Manger, Leif. The Hadhrami Diaspora Community- Building on the Indian Ocean Rim. Berghahn Books, 2010.

Allen, Calvin, Ulrike Freitag, and William Clarence-Smith. Hadhrami Traders, Scholars, and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, the 1950S- 1960S, Int J Afr Hist Stud, vol 59, no 3, 1997.

Freitag, Ulrire. Hadhrami migration in the 19th and 20th centuries. British Yemeni Society’s Journal, 1999. https://al-bab.com/hadhrami-migration-19th-20th-centuries/. Accessed 14 April 2019.

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A Cultural Connection: Showcasing Quality Through Diversity


Develop a PowerPoint presentation (“using speaker notes”) that will be presented to the Director of Quality. Include the following information in training:

  1. Devise one quality improvement goal and one objective addressing cultural competence in healthcare for the hospital.
  2. Develop three initiatives to meet the objective within the next year.
  3. Select one initiative and create a staff training that can be implemented within the next 30 days. The training should include:
  • An analysis of the growing need for diversity awareness and inclusion
  • Discuss the value of cultural competence in healthcare quality improvement
  • Evaluate the relationship of patient satisfaction and employee satisfaction related to diversity awareness and inclusion
  • A training activity related to cultural competence and quality improvement

Rubric below:

A – 4 – Mastery

Clear and thorough explanation of one quality improvement goal and one quality improvement objective addressing cultural competence in healthcare. Provided multiple (4) supporting rationales for the goal and objective.

A – 4 – Mastery

Comprehensive list of at least three initiatives designed to meet the quality improvement objective. Included multiple (4) examples for each item on the list.

A – 4 – Mastery

Clear and thorough training plan. Included comprehensive descriptions with multiple (4) supporting examples for each sub-bullet.

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Cultural Awareness Quiz

Cultural awareness quiz

A cultural quiz is an online test that asses ones understanding and awareness of a given culture. They mainly base their questions on business, work, working in multicultural situations and other cultural questions about a specific country. A culture is a complex institution of a specific place that encompasses knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by the inhabitants.

Cultural Awareness Quiz

I took a Bolivian culture test offered by the kwint essential site. Various queries about the Bolivian culture were tested. My score was a real surprise. As I countered the quiz, I experienced some real brain teasers. Nonetheless, I scored an equivalent of seventy per cent in the test. This proved my speculations wrong. I thought that I was devoid of multicultural knowledge.

I found out that I was well conversant with the economic issues. I could perfectly and without much strain respond to quizzes based on these perspectives. The issues on business were mainly about how the Bolivians conduct their businesses. My knowledge on social interaction in business was notable. Socio-economic aspects of businesses are very vital. Business etiquette is also a field that I was conversant with. It dealt with the expected behavior.  Time consciousness and punctuality was also a booster in my performance. On the other hand I found out that I was weak on the social and cultural aspects of the Bolivians. The social culture of the Bolivians is much more complex and is much dissimilar to other cultures in the world. My understanding of the social aspects was shallow, so I flopped on this part.

How to improve my inter-cultural knowledge

Inter-cultural knowledge is very vital, especially in the contemporary world. Today, people are bound to work or set businesses within areas of diversified cultures (Barry, 2012, 278). Cultures in different settings are not always similar. For a successful career or a flourishing business in any setting, good mastery of cultures is highly essential. For peaceful coexistence between professionals despite their areas of study or their native countries intercultural knowledge is vital. These are the steps that I or any other person can take to improve intercultural knowledge.

Cultures can be different between continents and nations and within the same company or family. The company or family may experience differences in ethics, ethnicity, geography, and history, moral, political and religious aspects.  The basic requirement to enhance on one’s intercultural knowledge is empathy. Empathy is the ability to recognize the emotions in a situation (Christine, 2011, 156). The other important aspect is the proper understanding of other peoples’ behavior and their thinking traits. For proper results, four important things have to be put into consideration.

Enhancing on Knowledge on other people’s culture is very vital. Knowledge capacity improvement can be done by studying the various cultures from books and other sources. With this interaction with different cultures is made smooth. Language is part and parcel of culture. Therefore, it is also important to learn various multicultural languages (Mirela, 2012, 343). One of the widely used languages is French and English languages. About three-quarters speak the languages of the world’s population.

Self-confidence is also important in the achievement of cultural competence. One has to believe in ones abilities in the bid to acquire intercultural competence. One should also be competent in one’s culture. This is called cultural identity. As the English men said, charity begins at home. A good mastery of one’s culture sparks the insight to gather knowledge of other cultures. If all these steps are followed then, intercultural competence is inevitable.

Importance of improvement on cultural awareness by managers

Managers are vital in the running of the firm. They offer insight and guidance on various matters in the firm. With the current global situation, firms consist of persons from different cultures. To ensure they achieve the company’s goals they have to be conscious of the different cultural origins of their work force.

The most critical and common challenge today in different companies is managing people who execute the businesses’ strategies. Therefore it’s important for all managers to recognizing the cultural discrepancies in their companies and hence knows how to handle the various workers under their watch. It also enables human resources managers to make the right decisions on hiring workers (Barry, 2012, 145). This ensures that the hired workers align with the business’s core values despite their cultural diversity. Managers with multicultural awareness can coordinate their workers and hence prevent the occurrence of conflicts in the company. Inter-cultural knowledge also facilitates smooth interaction between the company and its customers.

A case example is in the tourism industry. This is a global industry which experiences stiff competition. The clients in this industry are from numerous cultural diversities. For a company to ensure that they maintain a large customer base they have to put in mind the existence of cultural miscellany.


Barry, T. (2012). Promoting concepts of cultural awareness. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Pearson.

Christine, H. (2011). Cultural awareness in healthcare. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mirela, V. (2012). Raising cultural awareness. London: Routledge.

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Is it immoral or insensitive to set evidence-based medical practice over other cultural medical beliefs?

Is it immoral or insensitive to set evidence-based medical practice over other cultural medical beliefs?

Part 1

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words:
•  Is it immoral or insensitive to set evidence-based medical practice over other cultural medical beliefs?
• Fadiman compares the Hmong to a visual perception puzzle (p. 237). Do you agree or disagree with her metaphor? Explain your reasoning.
Provide sources to support your perspective on this issue.

Part 2
Respond to climates response. 75 words minimum.

Is it immoral or insensitive to set evidence-based medical practice over other cultural medical beliefs?

According to the John Hopkins website, “Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) aims for the ideal that healthcare professionals should make “conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence” in their everyday practice.” This means that it is factual-based care. Do not think it s immoral to provide care under this model versus cultural and medical beliefs. As we have whiteness’, the spirit catches you, and you fall. Many of these beliefs have no scientific merit or value and are not always safe. It’s a hard thing to try to convince someone that their cultural beliefs are not safe, but it is our duty as medical professionals to assist everyone and help them maintain good outcomes. We need to make sure we can do this in a caring manner, and as we have seen, sometimes it may not always happen the way we would like. 

I do not believe that it is considered a perception puzzle. There is science-backed evidence, and the cultural beliefs are just that, beliefs … and it is what they see. Yes, it is how they interpret and perceive this – but that does not mean that it is a puzzle to be solved but more of a kaleidoscope view of the science-based truth. 


Is it immoral or insensitive to set evidence-based medical practice over other cultural medical beliefs?

According to the National Institute of Health. (2021). “Evidence-based medicine (EBM) uses the scientific method to organize and apply current data to improve healthcare decisions. Thus, the best available science is combined with the healthcare professional’s clinical experience and the patient’s values to arrive at the best medical decision for the patient.” While Steven Tenny & Matthew Varacallo (2021) stated that “Culture is a combination of a body of knowledge, a body of believers, and a body of behavior which involves several elements that are often specific to ethnic, racial, religious, geographic, or social groups that includes personal identification, language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions.” Based on these definitions, I don’t think it is immoral or insensitive to set evidence-based medical practice over other cultural medical beliefs unless in a situation whereby it goes against the wishes of that patient, which can be insensitive.

Fadiman compares the Hmong to a visual perception puzzle (p. 237). Do you agree or disagree with her metaphor? Explain your reasoning.
Fadiman compares the Hmong to a visual perception puzzle because a puzzle is like words one can see but is trying so hard to put the words together. I will agree with her because the Hmong family was very difficult to understand while talking to them and will not also understand the people either. The visual perception was needed to “understand, evaluate and interpret what was seen.”
Fadiman, A. (1997). The Spirt Catches You, and You Fall Down. A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. 
National Institute of Health. (2021). Cultural Respect. https://www.nih.gov/institutes-nih/nih-office-director/office-communications-public-liaison/clear-communication/cultural-respect

Tenny, S. Varacallo, M. (2021). Evidence-Based Medicine. StatPearls: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470182/

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Stage Cultural Analysis

2.      Cultural Analysis


To enter a global market, we need to have an idea about the country’s cultural background, which helps or her build up a good business. As was explained in Stage 1, Italy is one of the five largest industrialized economies in the world. It is the gateway to the world’s largest single market, the European Union. It enjoys excellent economic contacts with the new democracies in Central and Eastern Europe. The products to be marketed are trade “Camel leather” bags and accessories. The company started in 2010 and has currently gained a business success to almost 800 million dollars in assets. The company started with only five employees but now employs more than 500 employees. The turnover of the company started at 500 but is presently at 3000.

Stage Cultural Analysis

III-Geographical setting:

Italy has an ancient history as a location. With other countries, Italy has experienced a tumultuous period that saw a mass exodus of her people and the disastrous consequences of two World Wars.

Yet over the past 60 years, the country has reclaimed its position as a significant social and cultural player in world affairs. Italian goods and services have excellent international reputations, and Italy remains one of Europe’s most popular tourist destinations.

  1. Location:

Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia.

  • Climate:

Predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in the far north; hot, dry in the south.

  • Topography:

Italy is located in Southern Europe and comprises the boot-shaped Italian Peninsula and several islands, including the two largest, Sicily and Sardinia. The Apennine Mountains form the peninsula’s backbone; the Alps form its northern boundary.

IV-Social Institutions:

Before, Italian families seemed to be extended families, including grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and parents. But the average Italian family today is made up of one or two children.

  1. Family:

Typically, due to different cultural concepts of lifestyle and values, families in the South will have more children than those of the North of the country, often more than two. The family is the center of the social structure and provides a stabilizing influence for its members; the family provides emotional and financial support. Nowadays nuclear family style is more embraced, as it contains of parents and two children only, as there are only few left that live with extended family style which contains grandparents, parents, children, cousins, aunties, uncles.

4.   Role of male & female:

As the culture is being changed in Italy time by time, so, the responsibilities are being more, this responsibilities before was taking cared by the male only, but after the development and education, women also playing a huge role. The role of being a traditional housewife to Italian women is no longer appealing. Young housewives see this job as more of a necessity than a choice. Working positions of women vary depending on their location in Italy. The majority of mothers who have a child from ages 0 to 2 are working mothers (47.4 percent) while 42.8 percent are housewives.

  • Education:

Free education is available to children of all nationalities who are residents of Italy. They start with nursery then primary school, middle school, high school, then professional institutions that include higher education. At present the Italian school system is divided into three parts:

  • Primary school (scuole elementare)
  • Lower secondary (scuola media)
  • Upper secondary school (scuola superiore)
  • Political System:

Independence Day of Italy is 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870).

  1. Political structure: In June 1946, the Italian people voted to abolish the Monarchy and the country became a Democratic Republic. The Italian Parliament is made up of 946 elected members. There are two houses, both with equal rights and powers.
  2. Political Parties:  Also Italian voting system is based on a ‘Party List’ system, where each party’s candidates are ranked in order of priority.
  3. Stability of Government:

Italian governments have been known to be unstable, and it has had a lot more general elections than other countries.

  • Taxes:

Taxation in Italy is levied at national, regional and municipal level. The Italian tax system is managed by the (Italian Inland Revenue). The Tax Year runs from 1st January to 31st December. All workers are subject to taxation of their income or other benefits, except for daily allowances paid for business trips and lunch tickets. The amount of tax to be paid depends on the type and duration of the contract. I have to keep in my mind about this point before opening a business over there; as a resident, also I have to pay taxes, and it differs from business to business.

  • Role of Regional and local government:

The Italian constitution provides for four territorial bodies: regions, provinces, metropolitan cities, and towns.

The republic is divided into regions, provinces, and communes. There are 15 ordinary regions and an additional 5 to which special autonomy has been granted. The organs of regional government are the regional council, a popularly elected deliberative body with the power to pass laws and issue administrative regulations; the regional committee, an executive body elected by the council from among its own members; and the president of the regional committee. Type of government: republic, capital: Roma (Rome).

D- Legal System:

The Italian legal system is governed by the Constitution of the Italian Republic, promulgated in 1948. This is a fixed constitution, meaning that ordinary laws cannot amend it.; It can be amended or added to solely using a special procedure, which is highly complex and is laid down in the Constitution itself.  And it’s based on civil law system; appeals treated as new trials; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

  1. The legislative power of Parliament: The Constitution confers upon Parliament, which is made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives the task of creating laws, which are the primary sources of the State’s legal order.
  2. The company is a member of the intellectual property rights of Italy in order to protect its patent from competitive growing market.
  3. In order to meet the current corporate responsibility, the company has registered several social organizations ranging from sports organizations to scholarship body that help the society.  

V-Religion & Aesthetics:

A-  Religion:

Includes: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Muslim. Before Christianity gained a firm grip on the people of Italy, ancient Romans worshipped a series of gods and goddesses. In the Italy today, the Roman Church still wields a powerful sword, and the people of the Church look to the Pope for guidance. Italy is a Christian country, with some 88 percent of the population belonging to the Roman Catholic Church.

            B- Aesthetics:

  1. Visual Arts

The country is a home for visual arts ranging from domestic and foreign visual arts.  To promote this, the country organizes visual arts fairs to display its artistic works. 

  • Music:

Italy is the home of opera music. Opera music was created in Italy in the 17th Century by Italian music composer Claudio Monteverdi. He wrote his first opera, L’Orfeo, in 1607, which was composed to commemorate the annual festival of Mantua.

Italy has produced a few significant names in the world of classical music over the past few hundred years. Rock music is the most prevalent form of popular music in Italy during the past few decades.

  • Drama:

Italian rulers began in 1485 to finance productions of Roman plays and imitations of them. This prompted interest in rewriting Roman plays into Italian as well as the writing of new plays. One of the first important vernacular tragedies was Sofonisha by Gian Giorgio Trissino.

  •   National Holidays & Events:

There are a few major religious and historical celebrations, which are National Public Holidays and are celebrated all over Italy. On these days the shops, businesses, museums and other attractions tend to be closed. Festivals form a large part of life in Italy and these celebrations are not just confined to religion, historical events, art and culture.

  •   Famous Sports:

Football, Men’s tennis & Stadio Olympico.

  •   Painting:

Leonardo da vinci is the most famous in Italy, Having shown an early talent for painting, he was apprenticed at the age of fourteen to the artist, Verrocchio, patron of one of the finest workshops in Florence.

  •   Theater:

The Commedia dell’ Arte, or The Italian Comedy, as it is sometimes called, flourished all over Italy, and later in France, as a popular form of theatre in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The characters of the commedia fall into three classes: servants (zanni), older men, (vecchi) and young lovers.

  •   Cinema:

Italian Cinema was not that much famous, as Italian Cinema has had its ups and downs, ranging from trashy, low-budget films to local comedies. The foundations for this important industry were laid before the Second World War when the Fascist Government set up a Board of Judgment for popular culture. With Mussolini’s approval, they created some important structures for Italian Cinema.

VI-Living Conditions

With high per capita income rates, the people of Italy enjoy outstanding living standards. This is also contributed to the growing GDP.


The Italian language is a member of the Romance group of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. During the long period of the evolution of Italian, many dialects sprang up. 93% of the population is native Italian speakers. Around 50% of the population speaks a regional dialect as their mother tongue. Italian (official) 94%; Sardinian, Ladino, Friaul, German, French, Slovene





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Vietnam Cultural Environment Analysis

Maximum number of points = 10
– If nothing is turned in by the deadline or the analysis is conducted on a country other than the one selected in the beginning of the semester = 0 points
– If the write-up is turned in by the deadline and the analysis is conducted on the country selected in the beginning of the semester, the 10 points are distributed as follows:
    – 1.2 points for respecting technical specifications (writing in essay format rather than bullet points; meeting the requirement of 3 pages, double-spaced, Times New Roman 12, 1.25 margins; the length of 3 pages is a specific requirement; maximum of 3.5 pages accepted, beyond that there would be a penalty);
    – 2 points for describing the cultural environment of the country using Halls framework (out of which 1 point for correctly identifying if the country is high or low context; and 1 point for explaining which characteristics make the country high or low context)
    – 2.8 points for describing the cultural environment of the country using Trompenaars framework (out of which 0.2 points for correctly identifying the value* the country takes on for each one of the 7 dimensions; and 0.2 points for explaining the choice of value on each one of the 7 dimensions)
    – 1 point for identifying challenges for American investors posed by the cultural environment
    – 1 point for identifying opportunities for American investors posed by the cultural environment
    – 2 points for formulating 2 recommendations (1 point for each recommendation) to an American investor to successfully navigate the countrys cultural environment (the recommendations have to be actionable items and they must take into account identified differences between American culture and the culture of the country, using either Halls or Trompenaars framework for the comparison between the two cultures; to get the full points, each recommendation has to be supported with arguments).

* value = is the country universalist or particularist?/is the country neutral or affective?/etc.



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Cultural Knowledge and ethnicity in nursing essay assignment

Cultural Knowledge and ethnicity in nursing essay assignment

Biological differences in selected groups and populations can have a strong impact on the kind of care a nurse delivers. Select a race or ethnicity for this assignment and conduct independent online research on this group or population. Identify two medical conditions that impact the selected group or population.

In a 1-2 page Word document:  APA Format

  1. Explain each medical condition and its impact.
  2. Be sure to address how that group’s own biological differences contribute to the causes of each condition.
  3. Discuss how biological differences might influence the level of care being delivered.

Cultural Knowledge and ethnicity in nursing essay assignment


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Learning Outcomes
1. Discuss cultural competence in professional nursing practice.
2. Evaluate how collaboration and teamwork assist in care delivery.
3. Assess the use of technology in professional nursing practice.
4. Compare and contrast the past and future of professional nursing.
5. Discuss QSEN.
6. Apply the IOM’s core competency of quality improvement.

Professional nurses must be culturally competent in order to succeed in a diverse healthcare environment. Future professional nurse leaders understand the need for collaboration, cultural sensitivity/diversity, technology, and quality. The field of nursing has changed significantly over the last few decades, but the goal has always been and will always be to provide quality care that is patient-centered—to obtain quality outcomes driven by practical application of best practices. The means of reaching the goal is currently based on evidence and nursing research. This week you will learn about quality and safety education for nurses (QSEN), cultural competence, and service quality in professional nursing. You will also engage in discussions about collaboration and technology in ensuring quality. Finally, you will demonstrate an understanding of the future of professional nursing based on research.

Cultural Competence & Service Quality.  

Cultural competence enables the professional nurse to provide quality care to all patients, irrespective of socio-cultural differences. Cultural competence and service quality can only be unified if the professional nurse first acknowledges his/her personal biases. Nurses practice in various health settings that require unique skills to provide adequate care to the diverse patient population that they serve.
For this discussion, identify a time in practice when you encountered or experienced a laxity in cultural competence. Avoid using names of person(s) or organization(s). Provide an insight into the lessons learned. Use scholarly resources to support your discussion.


Collaboration, Technology Use, & Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) in Professional Nursing.  

Nursing care requires promptness, precision, and quality to ensure optimal care outcomes. Collaboration and teamwork provides comprehensive and efficient care for the patient. Technology enables prompt and accurate healthcare delivery. Collaboration coupled with technology enables healthcare providers to deliver care that is expeditious and efficacious.
For this discussion, select (a) the impact of technology, (b) collaboration, or (c) CQI in professional nursing care. Then, make an argument in favor of its application in your practice. Be as detailed as possible, so that your classmates can clearly agree or differ in their professional opinions. Use scholarly resources to support your discussion.


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Discuss the imperative for cultural competence in health care and culturally sensitive health intervention.

Discussion Topic 1: I Foresee Great Things for You
Planning for the future is a major component for ensuring any healthcare organization is financially sound. Being a part of that future as a nurse entrepreneur is an exciting prospect. For this discussion, share with your colleagues in this course what you forecast for the future of healthcare finance and what role you might play in helping to build that future. Describe how you fit the profile of a nurse entrepreneur.
Please continue working on your project. You can inform your professor if you encounter difficulties, have questions, or need feedback.
Your Task:
Consider the following for this module:
Discuss the imperative for cultural competence in health care and culturally sensitive health intervention. How does self-awareness influence cultural competence? What factors should be considered when designing a health promotion program (e.g., to increase physical activity, reduce smoking, etc.) for your target cultural group? Your responses to these questions should be based firmly upon health behavior and/or health planning theory; a wonderful example of such is Airhihenbuwa’s PEN-3 Model. (Click here for a discussion of the PEN-3 Model.) Keep in mind that this is but one such model, which, incidentally, draws upon accumulated knowledge from the fields of cultural studies and health education.
Here’s an additional article describing an application of the PEN-3 model to a chronic disease: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1033&context=jhdrp
Please also look up another article that applies to the PEN-3 model as part of scholarly research.


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