Developing A Philosophy, Goals, And Objectives Discussion

Developing A Philosophy, Goals, And Objectives Discussion.

philosophy

As addressed in this week’s Learning Resources, an organization’s philosophy statement derives from its mission and indicates the values and beliefs that steer decision making. An organization’s philosophy statement should be used to develop goals and objectives that lead to assured action.As effective organizations recognize, “setting specific goals in a clear and compelling way—and insisting that people work together to achieve them—is the best way to get results” (Ashkenas, 2012, para. 9).This Discussion builds on the Week 2 Discussion 2, as you create a philosophy statement, goals, and objectives for Mountain View Health Center, the organization featured in the case study introduced last week.You will continue to work within the same small group. Note: You will develop an individual philosophy statement, goals, and objectives independently. Through the collegial exchange that follows, you will offer each other suggestions for refinement.

To prepare:Review information on philosophy statements, goals, and objectives in Chapter 7 of the Marquis and Huston text and in the other Learning Resources.Review the Mountain View Health Center case study presented in this week’s media, and reflect on the mission and vision statements you developed for Discussion 2 in Week 2.Conduct additional research as necessary to strengthen your understanding of the process for creating a philosophy statement and developing goals and objectives and to deepen your thinking about the organization. For instance, you may research organizations with similarities to Mountain View and examine their philosophy statements, goals, and objectives.Draft a philosophy statement for Mountain View Health Center.Craft at least one goal and at least one related objective to operationalize the philosophy.Consider what you have learned about the importance of the philosophy statement and the process of developing one, as well as the significance of and distinctions between goals and objectives.

Post a philosophy statement for Mountain View Health Center, at least one goal, and at least one related objective. Offer insights you have gained about the process of developing a philosophy statement, as well as the significance of and distinctions between organizational goals and objectives.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

Consider the following:Are the philosophy statements, goals, and objectives clearly written and easy to understand?How well does the philosophy statement align with the mission and vision statements posted in Discussion 2 of Week 2? Does it reflect accepted values of the organization?Are the goals and objectives specific, measureable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound?How well do the philosophy statements, goals, and objectives reflect the stakeholders?

Required Readings

Cara, C. M., Nyberg, J. J., & Brousseau, S. (2011). Fostering the coexistence of caring philosophy and economics in today’s health care system. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 35(1), 6–14.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. The article addresses caring as a part of mission and philosophy and the benefits of this for nursing satisfaction and performance, patient satisfaction, quality of care, and cost reduction.

Lorenzi, N. M. (2011). AMIA’s realigned strategic plan. Journal of American Medical Informatics Association, 18(2), 203–208.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. As you read this article, consider the process used to set goals and evaluate the extent to which the identified goals are specific, measureable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound.

Kenny, G. (2012).

From the stakeholder viewpoint: Designing measurable objectives. Journal of Business Strategy, 33(6), 40–46.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Measurable objectives are an important part of the strategic planning process, yet many organizations struggle with formulating good objectives. In this article, the author suggests strategies for developing better objectives, which will then facilitate the planning process.

Urbanski, J., Baskel, M., & Martelli, M. (2011). Strategic planning—A plan for excellence for South Haven Health System. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 35(3), 227–234.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. The article addresses stakeholder involvement as a key component of South Haven Health System’s success in strategic planning and describes how the system develops goals and objectives.

Developing A Philosophy, Goals, And Objectives Discussion

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Challenges For EIA In Rapidly Developing Economies

Introduction

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is usually necessary for different projects. EIA is a concept whose origin can be traced back to the United States in the 1960s and 1970s (Akello, 2007). At this particular time, the focus was on creating a model that could be used to examine how projects could affect the environment. In addition, attempts were being made to develop standards and models that could be used to determine whether a project has been done correctly. Generally, EIA entails analyzing and evaluating the potential impact of specific tasks and activities on the environment. The overall objective is to ensure that projects are only undertaken after ensuring reliable safeguards that protect the environment and communities. The importance of the EIA process cannot be overlooked. Currently, several national, international, and local projects are being undertaken. These projects involve diverse stakeholders and can have different impacts on the environment. The projects’ effect must be fully understood, and the risks addressed. Failure to manage such risks can lead to catastrophic outcomes. For this reason, EIA is considered an essential concept that influences projects. This paper examines the challenges associated with EIA processes in developing nations.

EIA Processes

The world has been undergoing rapid development in recent years. In addition, attempts have been made to meet clients’ needs when conducting projects. Some of these projects may have severe implications for the environment. Others can affect communities’ lives and exploit available resources (Earnhart & Leonard, 2013). For this reason, the projects must be examined closely to determine how they affect the environment. The EIA process has several important goals that apply to diverse projects. For instance, EIA aids decision-making by providing critical information regarding a project. With the information obtained during the assessment, it is crucial to understand the negative environmental effect that it will have. In addition, the report helps stakeholders understand the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of some of the systems adopted during the project. Another purpose of EIA is to help project teams determine the best environmental protection methods for sustainable development. There are instances where the assessment is also done to enable decision-makers to determine the most appropriate alternative related to project scales, processes, layouts, operating conditions, and locations. The process entails analyzing the data collected during the assessment and determining the social and environmental impacts at different stages. Finally, some EIA assessments are done to identify and evaluate the critical processes in the project. The main processes may involve launching, scoping, and screening. Once the information has been obtained, it is possible to identify and select the alternative to positive outcomes.

In many countries, specific laws are used to conduct EIA processes. These laws exist in both developed and developing nations. However, developed countries appear to be more advanced in legislative frameworks for guiding and monitoring EIA (Greig & Duinker, 2014). In the best-case scenario, nations should have frameworks and laws to determine how the assessment, the people involved, and the core issues are reviewed. Moreover, there is a need to compare the impact of the projects on different stakeholders and people. The objective is to implement the project cost-effectively and sustainably. In addition, the approach will ensure that the project is undertaken in a way that will not adversely affect the local communities.

Challenges For EIA In Rapidly Developing Economies

Countries are always looking for ways through which they can develop their economies. In addition, governments rely on diverse policies, systems, and laws to achieve their mandate and respond to customers’ needs. Failure of the governments to create a suitable strategy for achieving economic development means that the communities may struggle to improve their well-being and living standards (Bruch et al., 2007). One of the areas that governments need to focus on when it comes to development is assessing the impact of projects on the environment. The process entails creating EIA systems that will help understand the implications of projects. Moreover, the framework provides a basis for determining the best possible alternative that can be used to achieve the desired goals. In this regard, EIA must affect how a country develops and responds to customers’ needs.

There has been a rapid spread of EIA in developing nations in recent years. The spread is more rampant in rapidly developing countries. These nations have adopted EIA due to external pressure from central states, international conventions, donors, international science communities, and environmental organizations (Borionia et al., 2017). When promoting such activities, governments usually clarify that the EIA process can help identify and understand the risk factors affecting a project. Furthermore, EIA allows organizations to identify and find ways to minimize the adverse effects of their activities. Therefore, EIA should be considered an essential approach that can help address the bureaucracy and proceduralist model in an area.

EIA Challenges

EIA is essentially a complex process. It entails looking at the critical areas of a project or an undertaking that can adversely affect the environment. At the same time, it may entail examining the changes that occur at different stages of the project to determine the extent to which they affect a project (Banadda et al., 2009). Consequently, the evaluators may struggle to identify all the critical areas that must be managed to ensure that a project is sustainable and environmentally friendly. The problem is even more complex in rapidly developing nations, where attempts are being made to finish projects before moving on to the next quickly. If the critical aspects of the EIA process are not managed, it may not be easy to guarantee that the projects will be environmentally friendly.

Another major challenge typically encountered when conducting EIA is that the process is broad and can include several legislations and policies. Initially, EIA was conceptualized in the United States to help determine the impact of proposed actions on specific aspects of the environment (Bice, 2019). The information from the assessment process was supposed to enable decision-makers to only commit to activities that will not lead to adverse environmental outcomes. In the present case, the scope of EIA has increased significantly. Therefore, rapidly developing countries must create updated frameworks that they can use to examine the environmental impact of both more significant and minor projects. The expansive nature of the assessment makes it a complex process. In addition, the scope of the appraisal can affect the kind of data gathered and used as the basis for developing action plans.

It may also be challenging to implement EIA undertakings in a participative manner in rapidly developing nations. By principle, EIA should be done in a participative way. In addition, members of the public need to be given a chance to take part in all the stages of the assessment. It is also imperative for state-specific people whose input may be required at various stages of the assessment process (Banadda et al., 2009). This includes the initial community assessment stage, intervention, approval, and monitoring. However, ensuring that people are involved may not be easy because of transparency. Ultimately, the final decisions may be made without incorporating the views of critical stakeholders affected by the project.

Another major challenge associated with EIA is that it is difficult to gather all the relevant information needed to decide on the project. Big data is an essential component of EIA in today’s globalized and highly dynamic world. In addition, evaluators need to use different analytical methods and approaches to make sense of the big data gathered during the assessment process (Andreou & Jones, 2014). The primary objective is to make decisions informed by facts and figures. Unfortunately, this will not always be the case since the team can struggle to gather accurate data. In addition, the sheer volume of data collected during EIA can introduce additional problems regarding assessment. Suppose the wrong information is used or the information is interpreted in the wrong way. In that case, making the right decision regarding the project being undertaken may not be possible.

Limitations of EIA

When conducting EIA, it is also essential to consider the process’s limitations and how it can affect environmental protection and sustainable development efforts. Identifying the restriction may help decision-makers understand the implication of their decisions and choices. One of the main limitations of EIA is that it may not capture the constant changes that may arise during the project and affect the environment. Issues are bound to occur at various project stages (Andreou & Jones, 2014). If the EIA is undertaken at the start of the project, it may not capture the changes in the subsequent phases. In the end, the decisions that will be made regarding the project may not be accurate. Another major limitation is that EIA perceives society, environment, and economy as embedded systems, not competing pillars in a country or community (Bruch et al., 2007). This approach tends to be based on a retrospective focus that does not explain the changes that exist in the current world. Therefore, the assessment may not accurately picture how the projects affect different pillars and issues such as water, energy, climate change, and sanitation. The final limitation is that the EIA may not give a clear way of what needs to be done to ensure that the goals of a project are achieved.

Problems Associated with EIA

One of the major problems that may be faced when conducting EIA relates to documentation. There is no standard mechanism for giving public notice on EIA. In addition, some developing nations have no clear guidelines on how the process should be documented and the issues that should be addressed (Bruch et al., 2007). Some EIA legislation and regulations are in a language that some assessors and public members may not fully understand. The lack of proper and precise documentation methods means that making a final decision on the available information may not be easy.

Another problem is that many developing nations have natural resources that tend to be transboundary. Therefore, it may not be easy for the people doing the assessment to attribute pollution or negative environmental changes to a single source (Banadda et al., 2009). The situation is further complicated because some nations have not understood or embraced EIA transboundary. Ultimately, it makes it difficult for the countries to come up with ways of dealing with transboundary issues related to environmental protection and project implementation.

The lack of formal guidelines on the scope and need for public participation in EIA is another major problem that needs to be considered. There are clear policies and procedures for public participation (Banadda et al., 2009). In addition, the scope of public involvement is fully set out in the available guidelines. This needs to be addressed in rapidly developing economies since the lack of such procedures means public participation may not be achieved. In the end, the final decisions made by the assessors may not incorporate the views and desires of the affected people.

Finally, the lack of legal foundation on the role of different agencies in the EIA process can be a significant problem in most developing nations. EIA can involve various parties and stakeholders. In addition, it may need the input of multiple agencies that play different roles in the country. These institutions can work effectively when a precise institution and legal framework set their mandate (Andreou & Jones, 2014). The lack of clear legal frameworks means that the institutions may not understand their duties, roles, and powers. In the end, the EIA may be done in a manner that does not help achieve the desired goals.

Conclusion

Developing nations usually undertake projects that can have severe impacts on the environment. In addition, the projects can affect how the countries operate and respond to challenges. In recent years, attempts have been made to develop methods for managing the impacts of projects on the environment. The countries have embraced EIA and used it to guarantee environmental protection. However, the EIA process is also associated with diverse problems and challenges, such as a lack of public participation, poor documentation, legal frameworks, and implementational concerns. These issues need to be managed if the countries benefit fully from EIA.

References

Akello, C.E. (2007). Environmental regulation in Uganda successes and challenges – comment. Law-Now., 3 (1), 20-25

Andreou, A.G., & Jones, C.E. (2014). Development of the EIA process in Cyprus Impact Assess. Proj. Appraise., 19 (3), 223-233

Banadda, E.N., Kansiime, F., Kigobe, M. Kizza, M., & Nhapi, I. (2009). Landuse-based nonpoint source pollution: a threat to water quality in Murchison Bay, Uganda. Water Polo., 11 (SUPPL. 1), 94-105.

Bice, S. (2019). The future of impact assessment: problems, solutions, and recommendations. Impact Assess. Proj. Appraise., 38 (2), 104-108

Borionia, R., Lucia, A., Figueiredo, C., Sánchez, G. (2017). Advancing scoping practice in environmental impact assessment: An examination of the Brazilian federal system Rossana. Impact Assess. Proj. Appraise., 35 (3), 200-213.

Bruch, C., Nakayama, M., Troell, J., Goldman, L. & Mrema, M. (2007). Assessing the assessments: Improving methodologies for impact assessment in transboundary watercourses. International Journal of Water Resources Development 23, (3), 391-41.

Earnhart, D. & Leonard, J. (2013). Determinants of environmental audit frequency:  The role of firm organizational structure. J. Environ. Manag., 128, 497-513 

Greig, L. & Duinker, P. (2014). Strengthening impact assessment: What problems do integration and focus fix? Impact assess. Proj. Appraise., 32 (1) (2014), pp. 23-24.

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The Impact of International Trade Liberalization on Developing Countries: Egypt Case

The Impact of International Trade Liberalization on Developing Countries: Egypt Case

Abstract

Trade liberalization can have numerous unprecedented implications for a country’s economy, development, and progression, especially when such a country is still developing. There have been numerous trade liberalizations through different policies, all of which have had different implications for the affected country. This paper will examine the implication of such liberalization of trade in a developing country, Egypt. The country’s economy and growth mainly depend on agriculture and trade in agricultural products. Liberalization of trade, therefore, would affect not only the nation’s economy but the living standards of the farmers.

Table of Contents

Abstract 2

  1. Introduction. 3

2. Effects of Trade Liberalization. 5

3. The NENA Region. 6

4. Characteristics of Economies Vulnerable to Trade Liberalization. 8

5. Effects of Liberalization of Trade in the Case of Egypt 9

5.1 Economic growth. 10

5.2 Population. 11

5.3 Poverty and inequality. 12

5.4 Agricultural productivity. 13

6. Negative impacts. 15

6.1 Inequality. 15

6.2 Taxation. 16

6.3 Negative impact on the economy. 16

7 Summary and Conclusion. 18

8 Works cited. 19

1.      Introduction

It has become a common refrain in policy issues that expanded trade determines success for developing country. According to this ideology, if the developed or industrialized nations would do away with their barriers of trade, especially in agriculture and apparel, this would provide a foundation for growth in developing countries, pulling millions of people from poverty. As the World Bank points out in one of its Global Economic prospects, a decrease in barriers to trade in the world could increase growth, provide an incentive to new forms of productivity- improvement specialization and result to a more rapid pace in creation of jobs and reduction of poverty around the world[1].

The evidence for this argument is significantly less convincing than what its proponents argue. While there are a number of reasons for believing that expanded trade can help enhance growth in developing countries, it is not likely that trade liberalization, without any support will effectively improve people’s lives in developing countries. Actually, there are reasonable scenarios in which cases of trade liberalization can indeed lead to worse results for developing nations. Additionally, it is not quite clear that liberalization of trade is the key to rapid development and growth. It is critical to note that the major stories of success in this world- more specifically Taiwan and South Korea, which now have incomes almost equal to poorer developed countries, but also nations that have more currently experienced increased growth rates like India and China, have not followed a simple path of liberalizing trade[2].

In the above cases, all governments had a critical role in guiding the economy. This guidance is inclusive of protection and subsidies for favored industries and limitations on flows of capital, policies usually opposed by the major proponents of liberalizing trade. In most cases, the path of liberalizing trade currently endorsed by the World Bank and others can be witnessed as directly against the development strategies that have been most successful in the post war era [3]. This paper discusses the effects of international trade liberalization on developing countries, and particularly Egypt.

2.      Effects of Trade Liberalization

A lot of evidence shows that liberalization of global trade, for example, by minimizing agricultural support policies in nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and by limiting protection, will increase world prices in agricultural products. The markets for sugar, wheat, rice, dairy products and cotton are most affected, and the markets in such markets can rise by tremendous levels. Egypt is an agricultural importer, so, there is definitely some cause for concern that the country will lose, as a result, of liberalization of global trade[4].

Certain studies have estimated that the trade terms effect of an increase of about 15 percent in all global agricultural prices on countries, as Egypt is about 1.2 billion dollars or 0.2 percent of the regional GDP. This estimate is larger as compared to the trade terms loses.  A number of studies have been carried out to examine the macroeconomic effects of a number of trade liberalization types to countries in the same region as Egypt, with real GDP increasing 1 to 3 percent. The level of domestic liberalization largely determines the advantages of liberalization of trade to a given country carried out by the nation. Most of the gains from liberalizations in agricultural trade are related to domestic reform and not changes in the trade policy in other nations. Additionally, the benefits of liberation of multilateral trade are usually more than the gains related to bilateral trade agreements with the European Union or the US and the advantages from agreement regarding regional trade within the region[5].

3. The NENA Region

Most of the NENA nations, Egypt included are semi arid, with little water and arable land, making production of agricultural products highly dependent on rainfall. The overall density of production in the region is, as well low when compared to other developing countries, though it is more urban than other developing nations. The performance in economy of many of the members of NENA has been weak, especially due to various conflicts and political instability. Some of these have to do with the numerous spring demonstrations that occurred last year those that are currently taking place. The real GDP per capita growth during the early 1990s was not more than 1.3 percent each year. The slow growth in economy has resulted to little growth in employment especially in the formal sector leading to persistent problems of low unemployment rates among the young people. However, the strong economic growth and performance in such countries as Tunisia and Lebanon suggest that such issues are not unsolvable[6].

For most of the NENA members, exports in agricultural products represent a relatively insignificant share of all the exports. Wheat is a major import product and a staple food for the region. Almost all of the NENA members are net importers of food. Some nations in the region have significantly low levels of protection for the producers of food. Morocco, Egypt and Tunisia are among the 15 most safeguarded economies all over the world, according to a recent study. The products that are protected the most in the area include wheat, dairy, sugar and livestock products. The European Union is the most significant trading partner for a significant number of the members of NENA[7].

Egypt has carried out a significant liberalization of trade; however, expensive limitations to conducting business and investing still remain. Egypt is a key importer of wheat and exporter of rice, cotton and horticulture. The Egypt Integrated household Survey in 1998 carried out a survey and came out with a report that examines the distributional impacts of hypothetical changes in prices for agricultural products. According to an analysis done on this report, an increase of forty percent in wheat prices would decrease the incidences of poverty among wheat growers by more than 3 percent. In the case of cotton and rice, an increase of forty percent on prices of wheat would lead to a decrease in poverty among the farmers of the crops by not less than 7 percent. For vegetables and fruits, a similar increase in price would decrease poverty among farmers by not less than 7 percent. The most significant effect has to do with growers of sugar cane. An increase of forty percent in sugar prices would lead to a decrease in poverty by more than 20 percent, mostly because sugar cane growers are poorer and dependant on income from sugar cane. However, the impact of each of these increases in price on national levels of poverty is not significant as only a small percentage of the population is a farmer of any of the crops[8].

4. Characteristics of Economies Vulnerable to Trade Liberalization

Before one can determine the full effect of trade liberalization in Egypt, it is essential to first understand what the main characteristics of the economies are. Egypt belongs to an organization called NENA whose most members are derived from North Africa. All of these countries are developing countries. Although the member countries share cultural and geographical similarities, they form a heterogeneous population with regards to food insecurity, income, and their integration in the global economy. Seven of the member countries are classified by FAO as low-income nations with instances of food insecurity. Egypt is among these seven countries. The same countries are indicated as having low per capita GDP of not more than 1 465 dollars. The same countries have also had limitations and deficits in grain trade for the past five years[9].

5. Effects of Liberalization of Trade in the Case of Egypt

In a related classification, WTO considers other members of the organization including Egypt and Morocco as net importers of food who are also developing countries. The WTO sees this group of nations as vulnerable to the probable negative impacts of implementing policies free trade in agricultural products. Specifically, this is to mean that Egypt and similar member countries are expected to experience challenges in financing some of their imports of food (WTO 2006a). In a recent study, the researchers argued for improved indicators of food security status of nations. They make use of cluster analysis to categorize 163 developing and developed countries based on five variables: production of food per capita, the proportion of sum imports to food exports, proteins and calories per capita, and the population share of nonagricultural products. These variables indicate the ability of a nation to feed itself, the ability of the nation to finance its imports in food, its level of nutrition and its population’s vulnerability to changes in agricultural and trade policies respectively[10].

The member countries also differ in their integration into the international economy. Only six of the member countries including Egypt are members of the WTO. All of these countries have at some point entered into a trade agreement with the US or the EU. The different agreements and the composition of flows in trade determine the differences in the protection level and access to partners in trade and their markets among the nations. Most of these countries have increasingly high levels of protection of imports, according to a study carried out by Bouet, Egypt is ranked 5th among the most protected countries. The study concluded that the member countries while extremely protective benefit from significantly excellent access to global markets, either because of a specialization in products that do not require high taxation or because of the preferential agreements with nations of OECD[11]. The study also argues that all member countries face increased duties on their exports on agricultural products than they do on their exports involving nonagricultural products. This trend is not surprising given the increasingly high protection of agricultural products in the European Union. The categories are shown in appendix 1.

5.1 Economic growth

The other characteristic of economies relevant to Egypt is economic performance and growth. All the member countries are lower- middle income and low- income countries according to a classification by the World Bank[12]. The per capita range of incomes for the nation is below 600 dollars in the poorest LDC, Somalia. As a whole, the region has fared way better than the rest of Africa, other than South Africa, and is almost at the same level as South Asia between 2000 and 2003, but the region is unstable because of the numerous economic and political uncertainties.

5.2 Population

The population of the region is estimated to range at about 300 million or more people. The growth rate is significant, as well. Unemployment is another significant issue facing the region. Reflecting on the low rates of economic growth, in addition to, the rapid increase in population the issue is likely to remain for a while. This can be seen in appendix 2

The situation presented in the table in appendix 2 shows an economic case in Egypt and other member countries dominated mainly by high unemployment and GDP growth per capita.

5.3 Poverty and inequality

Inequality, poverty and other social indicators are other essential characteristics of economies that can be affected by liberalization of trade. The incidence of poverty is different in all these countries. In particular, Egypt and other similar nations show lower levels of extreme poverty, however, they still register high levels of incidence of poverty at the national level and 2 dollars per day. Using the 2 dollars per day poverty line, Egypt has the highest poverty incidence of about 44 percent, more than double the poverty levels under the national level poverty line. Egypt also has relatively long life expectancy of up to 73 years. Such patterns show high poverty rates and low income in the country. The index in education combines indicators of the gross primary, tertiary and secondary schools enrolment ratios and of adult literacy[13]. The ration is significantly low in Egypt. However, adult literacy levels are roughly equal to income levels in the region[14].

5.4 Agricultural productivity

The role of agriculture and the structure of GDP are other critical characteristics of economies vulnerable to trade liberalization. The GDP structure in the region indicates that major role of industries and services in the nation’s economy. On average for the country, the services industry contributes not more than half of the nations GDP and the industry sector almost a third. In the country, agriculture contributes more than 20 percent of the total national output. Agriculture also provides significant job opportunities for the population in Egypt. This goes in line with the fact that the majority of the nation’s population lives in the rural areas. Another measure of significance of the agricultural industry is the large share of exports in agricultural products in the nation’s total exports. It is expected that liberalization of agricultural trade on households might be more significant even when an insignificant part of the exports is from the agricultural industry, as agricultural trade impacts prices of food, and, therefore, security of food particularly in poorer households[15].

Among the member countries of NENA, Egypt is considered to have the second largest economy and population after turkey. The country’s per capita is 1622 dollars more than most of the other member countries, but considerably lower than that of Tunisia, Lebanon and turkey. The largest population is concentrated along the River Nile banks and in the Nile Delta. With only 43% of the whole populace in the cities, the country is less urbanized than the other country members are[16].

Like numerous other developing nations, Egypt pursued a strategy of industrialization based on substitution of imports between the 1970s and 1960s. In 1982, a debt crisis hit the nation and Egypt became among the initial associate countries to develop a set of economic changes to adopt a trade policy that was more outward oriented. These reforms involved simplification and reduction in import tariffs, decrease in barriers that are nontariff, unification of a number of rates of exchange and depreciation of the rate of real exchange to stimulate exports. According to figures released by the World Bank, the country’s simple average tariff rate is low by world standards, not more than 60% of the countries in the globe.

The nation today enjoys a windfall because of the high prices in the world for its exports in oil and higher revenue from Suez Canal, since the fuel costs higher and has made its alternative more expensive. Partly, this liberalization was unilateral, and part of it was associated with several agreements. The country signed an EMAA in 2001 with the European Union but the union did not come into action until 2004. The country is also a member of GAFTA, greater Arab free trade agreement, an agreement under which all trade between Arab nations would be free of duty by the end of 2005. The country also signed another agreement- the Agadir Declaration- that created free trade among Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Jordan[17].

6. Negative impacts

6.1 Inequality

Production of agricultural products is concentrated more along the Nile Delta and Nile River. More than 97 percent of the nation’s land is unproductive because of limited rainfall; crop production is usually through irrigation. Egypt is mainly a food importer, and the ratio of self- sufficiency in several food crops has decreased since the 1960s. The increasing dependence of the country on imported food is a key concern and has led to a number of attempts to limit imports of food and enhance domestic production[18]. This can be seen in appendix 3

6.2 Taxation

In the 1980s and 70s agricultural policies in the country intervened significantly in marketing, production and trade. A policy dealing with industrialization based on substitution of imports meant that the agricultural industry was taxed heavily through low compulsory sales and official prices. Just the same, way, some commodities were protected by import limitations. In the 1990s the country finally liberalized its markets of agricultural products and decreased its level of protection of imports, wheat markets largely remain distorted by a number of controls on imports, consumer subsidies, fixed producer prices and government control of channels resulting to subsidized bread. In 2004, a set of key tariff reductions was put in place, resulting to the World Bank to declare that Egypt had progressed more on the issue of trade liberalization than other countries. Even with this progress, the level of protection was higher than 40% of the nations globally[19].

6.3 Negative impact on the economy

Full liberalization of global trade would increase the prices of agricultural goods by not less than 15 percent. This would probably affect the country’s economy negatively, as it is a net importer of agricultural commodities. Egypt would benefit from higher cotton and rice prices but lose from increased maize and wheat prices. Reforms in domestic trade would decrease the domestic prices of imported goods like wheat, partly offsetting the adverse impacts of liberalization of global trade, in addition to providing gains in efficiency.

In this paper, the consumption and income patterns of Egypt are reviewed based on 1997- 1998 Egypt Integrated Household Survey and indicates the impacts of changes in prices for the key agricultural commodities on poverty rates and incomes among Egyptian homes. Such changes in price might come from alterations in prices of the world market or from changes in subsidy or border policies within the country. Generally, the review indicates that changes in price have a considerable impact on poverty levels among farmers of certain crops, but these changes in price will not have a more significant effect on overall poverty rates[20].

For horticultural crops and rice, an increase of forty percent in prices would lead to an increase in national poverty of one percent. For wheat, the same increase in prices would lead to a decrease in poverty levels by one percent. A forty percent increase in sugar and cotton prices will negatively affect the nation’s poverty levels. Generally, a forty percent increase of the prices of the mentioned crops will lead to more poverty in rural and urban areas, though the increase will not be more than by one percent[21].

7. Summary and Conclusion

An essential insinuation of this evaluation is that policies concerning agricultural products are relatively inefficient and insufficient policy instrument for helping the poor in rural homes. Another fascinating implication is that, although wheat is one agricultural product affected by politics, the effect of its protection on poverty is insignificant even among the farmers of the crop. This is so because most wheat farmers are not particularly poor, as their incomes are more diversified and because numerous other families in rural and urban areas are buyers of the commodity. Although decisions of policies consider a broad range of factors not considered in this paper, this analysis takes the power off the argument of poverty alleviation for a policy in wheat protection[22].

Finally, the paper indicates that some of the poorest families in Egypt are those that are farmers but without land. Such families include agricultural tenants and laborers who use land owned by others. Policies in agricultural trade can affect the wellness of such households only indirectly and through markets of labor. As this analysis is based on data derived from 10 years ago, it is highly likely that the results and conclusions would be better if data that is more recent were used. The population share in urban areas has increased by more than 30 percent. This means that the share of farm families in the country has decreased, in which the actual impact of higher food prices is somehow negative than has been shown in the paper. At the same time, the nation’s per capita has increase by more than 30 percent. As the share of income given to food shortages as income increases, this indicates that the adverse effect of increased food prices will actually be lower than indicated in the paper.

 

8 Works cited

Adams, Richard. “Non-Farm Income, Inequality and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan”. Policy Research Working Paper 2572, World Bank, Washington, DC, 2001. Print.

Anderson, K. “Trade liberalization, agriculture, and poverty in low-income countries.” WIDER Discussion Paper 2003/25. United Nations University, Helsinki: World. 2003. Print.

Cline, R. Trade policy and global poverty. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 2004. Print.

Cline, W. Trade and Income Distribution. Washington, DC: Institute for International economics, 1997. Print.

Bouet, A. “Defining a Trade Strategy for South Mediterranean Countries”. Draft working paper, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 2006. Print.

Diaz-Bonilla, M. Thomas, Robinson, and Cattaneo, A. “Food Security and Trade Negotiations in the World Trade Organization: A Cluster Analysis of Country Groups”. Discussion Paper 59, Trade and Macroeconomics Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 2000. Print.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). “Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDC)”, 2006. Web. 13 March 2012

Frankel, J. Assessing the Efficiency gains from Further Trade Liberalization. Harvard University, 2000. Print.

UNDP (United Nations Development Program). Human Development Indicators 2005. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005. Print.

Appendices

Appendix 1

Classification 
 World bank income groupFAOUNWTOOpenness category
Food  insecure     
DjiboutiLower middleLIFDCLDC High
SomaliaLow incomeLIFDCLDC Low
SudanLow incomeLIFDCLDC Low
YemenLow incomeLIFDCLDC Low
Food neutral     
AlgeriaLower middle   Low
EgyptLower middleLIFDCNFIDC Low
JordanLower middle NFIDC Low
LebanonMiddle income   Low
MoroccoLower middleLIFDCNFIDC Low
SyriaLower middleLIFDC  Low
TunisiaLower middle NFIDC Low
Food secure     
TurkeyLowe middle   Low
Not classified     
West Bank and Gaza    Low

Sources: WTO 2005a: FAO 2006: Bouet et al 2004; Diaz- Bonila et al 2000

LIFDC is low-income food deficit countries

LDC is least developed countries

NFIDC is net food importing developing countries

Appendix 2

 Real GDP per capitaPopulationLand areaAnnual growth in GDP per capita 1990-200Annual growth in GDP per capita 2000- 2003Unemployment rateShare of urban populationPopulation density
 2000 US$Million1.00 km%%%%Per km
Algeria191631.82382-0.31.5275913
Djibouti8480.723-42508530
Egypt162267.69952.31.8114368
Jordan18015.3890.62.8137960
Lebanon39254.5105.31.3991440
Morocco127830.14460.41.6115767
Somalia6009.6627-8.13.32915
Sudan43333.523763.32.1193914
Syria113517.41842.12.41253 95
Tunisia22149.91553.11.1146764
Turkey297770.77701.71.6106792
West Bank & Gaza8493.46-1.74.22687541
Yemen55319.25280.93122636
NENA131530303.28.5921.31.9135335

Source: world Bank 2005

Appendix 3

CommodityNet exports (average over 2000-02 in dollars)CommodityNet imports (average over 2000-02 in dollars)
Cotton (lint)205Wheat732
Milled rice100Maize561
Molasses22Soybean cake207
Oranges31Beef and veal, boneless185
Dry onions17Tobacco leaves168
Vegetables dehydrated15Tea112
Potatoes6Soybean oil76
Frozen vegetables9Dry broad beans66
Flax tow and fiber7Soybeans68
Mango juice  4Refined sugar44

Source: FAO (2005)


[1] Bouet, A. “Defining a Trade Strategy for South Mediterranean Countries”. Draft working paper, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 2006. Print

[2] Cline, W. Trade and Income Distribution. Washington, DC: Institute for International economics, 1997. Print.

[3] World Bank, 2005, pp. xi

[4] Adams, 2001, pp. 23- 45

[5] Adams, 2001, pp. 23- 45

[6] World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005. Print.

[7] Adams, Richard. “Non-Farm Income, Inequality and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan”. Policy Research Working Paper 2572, World Bank, Washington, DC, 2001. Print.

[8] World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005. Print.

[9] Frankel, J. Assessing the Efficiency gains from Further Trade Liberalization. Harvard University, 2000. Print.

[10]Anderson, K. “Trade liberalization, agriculture, and poverty in low-income countries.” WIDER Discussion Paper 2003/25. United Nations University, Helsinki: World. 2003. Print.

[11] Cline, R. Trade policy and global poverty. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 2004. Print.

[12] Cline, R. Trade policy and global poverty. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 2004. Print.

 

[14] Adams, Richard. “Non-Farm Income, Inequality and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan”. Policy Research Working Paper 2572, World Bank, Washington, DC, 2001. Print.

[15] Cline, R. Trade policy and global poverty. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 2004. Print.

[16] Cline, R. Trade policy and global poverty. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 2004. Print.

[17] Anderson, K. “Trade liberalization, agriculture, and poverty in low-income countries.” WIDER Discussion Paper 2003/25. United Nations University, Helsinki: World. 2003. Print.

[18] Anderson, K. “Trade liberalization, agriculture, and poverty in low-income countries.” WIDER Discussion Paper 2003/25. United Nations University, Helsinki: World. 2003. Print.

[19] Adams, Richard. “Non-Farm Income, Inequality and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan”. Policy Research Working Paper 2572, World Bank, Washington, DC, 2001. Print.

[20] FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). “Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries(LIFDC)”, 2006. Web. 13 March 2012

[21] Adams, Richard. “Non-Farm Income, Inequality and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan”. Policy Research Working Paper 2572, World Bank, Washington, DC, 2001. Print.

[22] World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005. Print.

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A critical review of knowing when to doubt. developing a 200 pages article that was written by Mills Candice

Introduction

     This paper gives a critical review of knowing when to doubt; developing a 200 pages article that was written by Mills Candice. In this article, the author tries to give an in-depth coverage of human traits and how it can be fruitfully used in the day-to-day interactions. In doing this, a lot of references will be made on Stephen Covey’s Seven Habits of Highly Effective People (Antonakis, J. et al., 2004). Here, Covey presents the work of his research in which he explores particular behaviors which determine individual’s competencies, interactions and leadership capabilities.

Discussion

Human being is a leader by nature. Despite this, not all people can make good and competent leaders. It is incumbent upon people to ensure that they act in a way which can put them in a better position of expressing control over others. As we all understand, it is not a good thing just to be a leader. However, it is good for leader to ensure that they plan well and do all that it takes to be overboard to stand a better chance of influencing others (McGrath, J. E. (2002).

     In this regard, I would like to agree with Covey that this does not merely rely on the fact that one has a position, but on the basis that one possesses right and appropriate personal characters necessary for exercising authority over others (Howard, A. & Bray, D. W., 2008). As he argues, there should be a dear and progressive distinction between independence and dependence, meaning that it should be clearly demonstrated that an individual is capable of making personal decisions without the unnecessary influence of any other external force. It can only be possible for a person to freely interact with others if he can have a personal control over himself.

     Being able to lead others requires a lot of commitments. It requires that a leader must demonstrate endurance and selflessness. The other important thing is focus. For a person to be able to succeed in whatever it does, it is paramount that they set up goals to achieve. However this should be realistically set in order to ensure that it can be accomplished with less constraint. In this case, there should be a self mastery and a proper understanding of oneself (Bass, B. M., 1990).

     According to Covey, the most pragmatic part of this paradigm is progressivity, self discovery, and privatization. This implies that leadership competencies stem from self-awareness the understanding of one’s immediate surrounding and proper planning of activities in a more informed manner, Autonomy is not bad thing. If one gets time to sit down and makes a proper plan on how to transform himself, he will surely make a remarkable contribution to the society. However, this will particularly work if time is created for making informed decisions appropriate for solving any problem at hand (Bennis, W., 2009).

     At the same time, it is significant to acknowledge the presence of other people. Even if Covey suggests that autonomy is paramount, interdependence precedes. In this scenario, one must accept that one lives in a society full of people, and they have different interests, world views and backgrounds. Hence, there should be the formulation of mutually beneficial solutions characterized by understanding, appreciation and tolerance (Hersey, P. & K.H.  Blanchard, 2012).

     I would like to agree with Mills for emphasizing the role of open mindedness and co-operation in offering remedial measures to the various problems affecting the society. His argument on the strength of positive teamwork holds water (Avolio, B. J. et al., 2010). No one can make any positive development as a lone ranger; there should be a change of attitude in order to ensure that people work as a united team for a common goal. Everyone should be mindful of whatever he does so as not to do anything contrary to the views of others. Such conflicts are not good because they do not have any benefit.

     Since nobody lives in total isolation, it is incumbent upon all to ensure that they collaborate at all times in order to execute anything good for the benefit of the entire society (Adair, J., 2008). It is other people that a person can come up with ideas relevant to the content under which they are operating. Surely, being a leader is a multitasking experience that can not be done without a through dedication. As Mills argues, nothing can be achieved so far without involving other people. It is advisable to recognize the presence of others so as to closely work with them in carrying out any kind of activity which needs to be done.

     Conclusively, I would like to agree with the ideas of both, Covey and Mills that self awareness and cooperation are the key pillars for any development. Everyone must accept that being self-driven is a good quality which if consciously applied in a logical and thoughtful manner, can imminently transform the society. Besides, a good leader should learn to listen to others, regardless of their social position. Unity is strength because it is an undisputed recipe to development.

 

References

Adair, J. (2008). Effective Leadership. London. Pan Books. 

 Antonakis, J. et al.  (2004). The Nature of Leadership, Sage Publications, Inc.

Avolio, B. J. et al. (2010). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual 

            Review of Psychology.

Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and 

            Managerial Applications (3rd ed.). New York, NY, US: Free Press.

Bennis, W. (2009) On Becoming a Leader. Addison Wesley, New York.

Hersey, P. & K.H.  Blanchard, (2012). Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing 

            Human Resources (2nd ed.) New Jersey/Prentice Hall.

Howard, A. & Bray, D. W. (2008). ManageriaL Lives in Transition: Advancing Age and 

            Changing Times. New York: Guilford Press.

McGrath, J. E. (2002). Leadership behavior: Some requirements for leadership training. 

            Washington, D.C.: U.S. Civil Service Commission.

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Women are at the highest risk for developing postpartum depression for up to how long after childbirth?

 

NR 511 Week 4 Midterm Exam Version 2

Question 1: Women are at the highest risk for developing postpartum depression for up to how long after childbirth?

2 weeks

1 month

3 months

6 months

Question 2: CPT coding offers the uniformed language used for reporting medical services and procedures performed by physician and nonphysician practitioners. Clinicians are paid based on calculated resource costs that are calculated based on practice components.

a. Clinician education loans
b. Clinician practice liability and malpractice expense
c. Clinician reported cost reduction efforts
d. Clinician volume of patients treated

Question 3: Janet is a 30-year-old woman who has been recently diagnosed with a herniated disc at the level of L5-S1. She is currently in the emergency room with suspicion of cauda equina compression.
Which of the following is a sign or symptom of cauda equina compression?
a. Gastrocnemius weakness
b. A reduced or absent ankle reflex
c. Numbness in the lateral foot
d. Paresthesia of the perineum and buttocks

Question 4: A 58-year-old woman who had a total abdominal hysterectomy at the age of 45 is diagnosed with atrophic vaginitis. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment?
a. Conjugated estrogen 0.625 mg/day oral
b. Estradiol 7.5 mcg/24 hr vaginal ring
c. Medroxyprogesterone 10 mg/day oral
d. Conjugated estrogen 0.3 mg + medroxyprogesterone 1.5 mg/day oral

Question 5: Which of the following is a specific test for multiple sclerosis (MS)?

a. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
b. Computed tomography (CT) scan
c. A lumbar puncture
d. There is no specific test.

Question 6: Most adult poisonings are:

a. intentional and self-inflicted.
b. accidental.
c. caused by someone wishing to do harm to the person.
d. not attributed to any reason.

Question 7: A 60-year-old man presents with an enlarged scrotum. The clinician uses a penlight to transilluminate the scrotum. In a patient with a hydrocele, what would the clinician expect to find?

a. The scrotum will be dark.
b. The scrotum will appear light pink or yellow.
c. The scrotum will appear milky white.
d. The internal structures will be clearly visible.

Question 8: Which clinical feature is the first to be affected in increased intracranial pressure (ICP)?What is the normal number for the Glascow Coma Scale?

a. 7

b. 9

c. 10
d. 15

Question 9: S presents in the clinic with pain, tenderness, erythema, and swelling of his left great toe. The clinician suspects acute gout. Which of the following should the clinician suspect in the initial test results for this patient?

a. Elevated uric acid level
b. Elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
c. Decreased urine pH
d. Decreased C-reactive protein (CRP)

Question 10: Which solution should be used when irrigating lacerated tissue over a wound on the arm?

a. Dilute povidone-iodine solution
b. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
c. Saline solution infused with an antibiotic
d. Saline irrigation or soapy water

Question 11: Which ethical principle reflects respect for all persons and their self-determination?

a. Autonomy

b. Beneficence

c. Justice
d. Veracity

Question 12: During a digital rectal exam (DRE) on a 75-year-old man, the clinician suspects the patient has prostate cancer. What physical finding should make the clinician suspicious?

a. An enlarged rubbery gland

b. A hard irregular gland

c. A tender gland
d. A boggy gland

Question 13: How often should the clinician examine the feet of a person with diabetes?

a. Once a year
b. Every 6 months
c. Every 3 months
d. Every visit

Question 14: Which of the following medications is the treatment of choice for trichomonas? (Points: 2)

a. Metranidazole

b. Ceftriaxone

c. Diflucan
d. Doxycycline

Question 15: Immunizations are an example of which type of prevention? (Points: 2)

a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Tertiary

Question 16: What is the treatment of choice for a patient diagnosed with testicular cancer?

a. Radical orchidectomy

b. Lumpectomy

c. Radiation implants
d. All of the above

Question 17: George, aged 59, complains of a flulike illness, including fever, chills, and myalgia after returning from visiting his grandchildren in New England. He reports having discovered a rash or red spot that grew in size on his right leg. What disease are you considering?

a. A viral syndromes
b. Lyme disease
c. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
d. Relapsing fever

Question 18: A 24-year-old woman presents to the clinic with dysuria, dyspareunia, and a mucopurulent vaginal discharge. Her boyfriend was recently treated for nongonococcal urethritis. What sexually transmitted disease (STD) has she most probably been exposed to?
a. Gonorrhea
b. Human papillomavirus (HPV)
c. Chlamydia
d. Trichomonas

Question 19: What is usually the first sign or symptom that a patient would present with that would make you suspect herpes zoster?

a. A stabbing type of pain on one small area of the body
b. A vesicular skin lesion on one side of the body
c. A pain that is worse upon awakening
d. A lesion on the exterior ear canal

Question 20: Which drug commonly prescribed for burns is active against a wide spectrum of microbial pathogens and is the most frequently used agent for partial- and full-thickness thermal injuries?
a. Clotrimazole cream (Lotrimen)
b. Mafenide acetate (Sulfamylon)
c. Silver nitrate
d. Silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene)

Question 21: Which of the following is a role of the advanced practice nurse in palliative cancer care?

a. Detecting cancer in asymptomatic patients or those with specific symptoms
b. Arranging for follow-up care, including psychosocial and spiritual support
c. Identifying and managing complications of care
d. All of the above

Question 22: Which type of burn injury results in destruction of epidermis with most of the dermis, yet the epidermal cells lining hair follicles and sweat glands remain intact?

a. Superficial burns
b. Superficial partial-thickness burns
c. Deep partial-thickness burns
d. Full-thickness burns

Question 23: The criteria for diagnosing generalized anxiety disorder in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (text revision) (DSM-IV-TR) state that excessive worry or apprehension must be present more days than not for at least:

a. 1 month.
b. 3 months.
c. 6 months.
d. 12 months.

Question 24: In the United States, what is the second most common connective tissue disease and the most destructive to the joints?

a. Osteoarthritis
b. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
c. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
d. Sjogren’s syndrome

Question 25: A sunscreen with a sun-protection factor (SPF) of at least what number will block most harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation?

a. 4

b. 8

c. 10
d. 15

Question 26: The hallmark of an absence seizure is:

a. No activity at all.
b. A blank stare.
c. Urine is usually voided involuntarily.
d. The attack usually lasts several minutes.

Question 27: The effectiveness of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders suggests that which of the following neurotransmitters plays a role in anxiety?

a. Acetylcholine
b. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
c. Dopamine
d. Serotonin

Question 28: Which characteristic of delirium helps to distinguish delirium from dementia?

a. Abrupt onset
b. Impaired attention
c. Affective changes
d. Delusions

Question 29: A 26-year-old woman is seen with complaints of irregular vaginal bleeding. Which of the following tests should be the first priority?

a. Pregnancy test

b. Pelvic ultrasound

c. Endometrial biopsy
d. Platelet count

Question 30: The clinician should question the patient with suspected gout about use of which of these medications that may be a risk factor?

a. Low-dose aspirin

b. Thiazide diuretics

c. Ethambutol
d. All of the above

Question 31: A bulla is:

a. A vesicle larger than 1 cm in diameter.
b. An elevated solid mass with a hard texture, and the shape and borders can be regular or irregular.
c. A superficial elevated lesion filled with purulent fluid.
d. Thinning of the skin (epidermis and dermis) that appears white or translucent.

Question 32: Sam is a 25-year-old man who has been diagnosed with low back strain based on his history of localized low back pain and muscle spasm along with a normal neurological examination.
As the clinician, you explain to Sam that low back pain is a diagnosis of exclusion. Which of the following symptoms would alert the clinician to the more serious finding of a herniated nucleus pulposus or ruptured disc?
a. Morning stiffness and limited mobility of the lumbar spine
b. Unilateral radicular pain symptoms that extend below the knee and are equal to or greater than the back pain
c. Fever, chills, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate
d. Pathologic fractures, severe night pain, weight loss, and fatigue

Question 33: Which of the following statements is true concerning the musculoskeletal exam?

a. The uninvolved side should be examined initially and compared to the involved side.
b. The part of the body that is causing the patient pain should be examined first.
c. The patient should not be asked to perform active range-of-motion (ROM) exercises whenever possible to avoid causing pain.
d. Radiographs should always be obtained prior to examination so as not to cause further injury to the patient.

Question 34: The current goal of treatment for a patient with HIV infection is which of the following?

a. Viral suppression of HIV to undetectable levels in the peripheral blood
b. Compete eradication of the virus
c. Encouraging the person to have no contact with uninfected individuals
d. Complete abstinence

Question 35: Which of the following classes of drugs should be used as first-line therapy for treatment of delirium?
a. Benzodiazepines
b. Antipsychotics
c. Anticonvulsants
d. Antidepressants

Question 36: After removing a tack from a type 2 diabetic’s heel and evaluating the site for infection, what is the best plan for this patient?

a. Suggest she use a heating pad to improve circulation
b. Refer to a podiatrist for a foot care treatment plan
c. Send her for acupuncture treatments
d. All of the above

Question 37: Which of the following statements is true concerning the management of the client with a herniated disc?

a. Muscle relaxants and narcotics can be used to control moderate pain but should be discontinued after 3 weeks of use.
b. An epidural injection is helpful in reducing leg pain that has persisted for at least 3 weeks after the herniation occurred.
c. Intolerable pain for more than a 3-month period is an indication for surgical intervention.
d. All of the above

Question 38: Which patient is more likely to have a cluster headache?

a. A female in her reproductive years
b. A 40-year-old African American male
c. A 55-year-old female who drinks 10 cups of coffee daily
d. A 45-year-old male awakened at night

Question 39: The main mechanism for avoiding a lawsuit involves:

a. Good liability insurance
b. A collaborating physician
c. Good documentation
d. Open communication skills

Question 40: A 45-year-old woman is seen in the clinic with complaints of a vaginal discharge. The clinician identifies clue cells on the vaginal smear. Which of the following diagnoses is associated with this finding?

a. Trichomonas
b. Bacterial vaginosis
c. Human papillomavirus (HPV)
d. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)

Question 41: Which of the following laboratory findings should the clinician expect in a patient with untreated Graves’ disease?

a. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
b. Elevated T4
c. Elevated TRH
d. All of the above

Question 42: A 23-year-old sexually active woman presents for her first Pap smear. Her history includes nulligravida, age at first intercourse 14, and more than 10 sexual partners. Which of the following conditions should the clinician be particularly alert for during her exam?

a. Human papillomavirus (HPV)
b. Endometrial hyperplasia
c. Vagismus
d. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Question 43: When may confidentiality be overridden?

a. When personal information is available on the computer
b. When a clinician needs to share information with a billing company
c. When an insurance company wants to know the results of a breast cancer gene test
d. When a patient has a communicable disease

Question 44: A patient is diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Which of the following electrocardiogram (ECG) changes should the clinician expect as a manifestation of the disease?

a. Sinus bradycardia

b. Atrial fibrillation

c. Supraventricular tachycardia
d. U waves

Question 45: The most cost-effective screening test to determine HIV status is which of the following?

a. Western Blot
b. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
c. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test
d. Viral load

Question 46: After 6 months of synthroid therapy, the clinician should expect which of the following in the repeat thyroid studies?

a. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
b. Normal TSH
c. Low TSH
d. Undetectable TSH

Question 47: The vegetarian patient with gout asks the clinician about food that he should avoid. The clinician should advise the patient to avoid which of the following foods?

a. Rice
b. Carrots
c. Spinach
d. Potatoes

Question 48: A 64-year-old man with type 2 diabetes presents to the clinic with the complaint of “my feet feel like they are on fire.” He has a loss of vibratory sense, +1 Achilles reflex, and a tack embedded in his left heel. Which of the following would be an appropriate treatment?

a. Tricyclic antidepressants
b. Capsacin cream
c. Vitamin B12 injections
d. Insulin

Question 49 : In the consensus model for Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) regulation, the “C” of LACE represents?

a. Commitment

b. Consensus

c. Certification
d. Collaboration

Question 50: Which of the following signs or symptoms indicate an inflammatory etiology to musculoskeletal pain?

a. Decreased C-reactive protein
b. Hyperalbuminemia
c. Morning stiffness
d. Weight gain

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Developing a Healthcare Advocacy Plan

 

Developing a Healthcare Advocacy Plan

This activity will introduce you to the fundamentals of developing a healthcare advocacy plan. You will use the information you provided in last week’s Discussion to apply into a real-world scenario.

Unit outcomes addressed in this Assignment:

  • Understand the components of a healthcare advocacy plan.

Course outcomes addressed in this Assignment:

HA405-4: Develop a plan for healthcare advocacy.

Instructions:

In this unit, you will communicate a healthcare advocacy plan. Using the information you provided in the Unit 6 Discussion, you will contact either a local healthcare agency (i.e., County Health Department, etc.) or healthcare facility (i.e., clinic, hospital, or nursing home) to research two to three healthcare issues affecting the local community. In a memorandum to your local health department, present a healthcare advocacy plan that addresses your researched findings.

Explain the issues facing your community, possible methods to alleviate the concern, and how you would ethically advocate for the respective population. You must include five reasons. You are required to research the specific issues presented with credible sources (e.g., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health, Censu

 

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Developing an Improvement Project Charter

Developing an Improvement Project Charter

One of the first steps in setting up an improvement project is to write a project charter: the guiding document that helps a team structure its improvement project and develop and communicate a shared vision. 

Developing an Improvement Project Charter

The charter provides a rationale and roadmap for the team’s work that can be used to clarify thinking about what needs to be done and why. It also provides a key communication tool to help inform your team, colleagues, constituents, sponsors, and stakeholders about what the team is doing. The charter helps keep the focus on a specific opportunity or problem and identifies the improvement team members. 

The charter begins to answer the three essential questions of the Model for Improvement:

This tool provides a template for developing an improvement project charter and includes an example of a completed charter. Your project may require answers to some of these questions and not others, but we encourage teams to think carefully about the effect that each question might have on your project. 

The goal is to help the team (including the improvement project sponsor) begin the very important process of thinking through the project, communicating with others, and engaging them in your work. 

Developing an improvement project charter is an iterative process. The team should review the charter periodically with the improvement project sponsor, revising the charter as the project evolves and the team learns.

QI Project Charter

Team:

Project:  Assessing the efficacy of antibacterial foam dispensers in healthcare settings

Sponsor:

Article Reference:

FDA. (2019). Antibacterial soap? you can skip it, use plain soap and water. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved September 25, 2022, from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/antibacterial-soap-you-can-skip-it-use-plain-soap-and-water

Project Start Date:

Last Revised:

What are we trying to accomplish?

Problem

Handwashing is a successful approach to the prevention of several kinds of infections. The use of antibacterial foam dispensers in healthcare rotations is the first choice of nurses presently, however, no considerable evidence has been reported that confirms the antibacterial foam dispenser to be more reliable, safer and healthier. At the same place, no research-based evidence is found that represents the use of water and soap as a less effective method than antibacterial foam dispensers.

Project Description (defines what)

For this project, we intend to compare the manufacturing, ingredients, application, and outcomes of the use of antibacterial foam dispensers in comparison to the use of soap and water for handwashing by nurses in healthcare practice. The short-term goal of the project is to find out a comparatively more reliable, safer and healthier agent to use for hand-washing in healthcare practice. The long-term vision is to minimize the possible chances of the spread of communicable infection due to contaminated hands with microbes.

Rationale (defines why)

Replacement of antibacterial foam dispenser with long-established hand wash practice in active healthcare sites is necessary because as a matter of fact, it produces antibiotic resistance in germs and reloading of dispensers are susceptible to contamination.

Expected Outcomes and Benefits

FDA declared the use of triclosan and triclocarban in antibacterial foam unsafe for regular use and proscribe their usage (FDA, 2019). So, the success of this project will cut the hand bacterial load safely reforming the traditional hand washing preferences. Also, nurses’ false beliefs concerning the effectiveness of the anti-bacterial foam dispensers will be remediated.

Aim Statement

Nursing staff working in hospitals is taken as a population, to find out the effectiveness of antibacterial foam dispensers in comparison to the use of normal soap and water for handwashing, to meet the outcome of a decrease in the spread of infection and communicable diseases within the timeframe set for six-months.

How will we know that a change is an improvement?

Outcome Measure(s)

  • A measure of chemical exposure to a nursing staff
  • A measure of antibiotic-resistant germs 

Process Measure(s)

  • The ratio of nurses satisfying the criteria for Health Needs Assessment
  • The ratio of nursing staff completing the Health Needs Assessment

Balancing Measure(s)

  • The incidence rate of communicable diseases
  • Number of patients visiting healthcare centers with common preventable infections

What changes can we make that will result in improvement?

Initial Activities

  • Develop functioning characters for evaluation and standards for basic acuity.
    • Determine authentic measures by appraising the data collecting methods, for instance, the proportion of nurses who participated in the Health Needs Assessment

Change Ideas

Assimilate the Health Needs Assessment process to eliminate disparities in the procedure and to incorporate the given standards, seeking Health Needs Assessment, recommendation, observation, and estimation utilizing a case file.

Key Stakeholders

The nursing staff, social workers, public or private healthcare organizations, ancillary staff, infection control regulatory bodies, and hand hygiene services are the key stakeholders. Project presentation with supporting evidence-based research data will be presented to key stakeholders to engage them. Moreover, interviews and surveys will engross the stakeholders and bear the periodic meetings to measure outcomes.

Barriers

The improvement needed in this project demands a change in the personal attitude and preferences of nurses to choose normal soap with water over an antibacterial soap dispenser for handwashing. This change might be time-consuming and opposed by many nurses which is a possible barrier. However, with the support of FDA rules and scientific knowledge, it would be easy to convince the nurses.

Boundaries

The team should practice the use of soap and water for handwashing to disinfect them. The improvements made by the project would not need an assessment of antibacterial foam dispensers of different companies.

Reference

 FDA. (2019). Antibacterial soap? you can skip it, use plain soap and water. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved September 25, 2022, from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/antibacterial-soap-you-can-skip-it-use-plain-soap-and-water

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Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper

Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper

Intellectual Indebtedness and Plagiarism

Students enrolled in Athabasca University courses, including Health Studies 320: Teaching and Learning for Health Professionals, are considered to be responsible scholars, and are therefore expected to adhere rigorously to the principles of intellectual integrity. Please read the policy related to this at http://www.athabascau.ca/studserv/inthonesty.htm.

Plagiarism is a form of intellectual dishonesty in which another person’s work is presented as one’s own. Be certain that whenever you use a secondary source in your course work and assignments you reference your source in a consistent and logical manner. All direct quotes (quotations of any number of words from the original) and indirect quotes (paraphrased ideas) must be acknowledged. Failure to do so constitutes plagiarism, and as with any form of academic misconduct, it will be penalized. Penalties may take the form of rejection of the submitted work; expulsion from the examination, the course or the program; or legal action, depending on the specific nature of the infraction. Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.

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However, dutiful citation of quotes and paraphrased materials does not mean that you can write an essay assignment by stringing together a series of quotes. You should always try to summarize or describe someone else’s ideas in your own words. When you present your own ideas or opinions in a paper, provide evidence or arguments to substantiate your position. Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.

The following Web site offers information about the citation styles of the American Psychological Association http://www.apastyle.org. The AU Library Help Centre also has many useful links and resources.

All written assignments in this course must

  • use correct spelling and grammar,
  • adhere to APA format, as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (6th. ed.),
  • be your own work and be free of evidence of plagiarism,
  • use Microsoft Word (or Microsoft Word compatible) format, and
  • be submitted via the Assessment section of the course home page.

Assessment

To receive credit for HLST320, students must complete all of the required assignments and achieve a composite grade of at least “C” (60%). All assignments must follow the guidelines of the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) (2010). Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.

The assessment structure for Health Studies 320 is based on the following assignments, with the percentage weighting of each activity as indicated. Your final grade for the course will be a composite mark based on your performance on these course assignments. A composite mark of 60% is required to pass the course.

AssignmentsSuggested Due DateWeighting
Assignment 1:Development of Your Teaching-Learning PhilosophyWeek 435%
Assignment 2: Writing Learning ObjectivesWeek 930%
Assignment 3: Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching PlanWeek 1435%
Total100%

Assignment 1: Development of Your Teaching-Learning Philosophy (35%)

Suggested Due Date – Week 4

Your personal assessment of your philosophy of teaching and learning should be unique to you. This assignment will give you a good base for enhanced learning through the remainder of this course and will provide you the opportunity to achieve the course learning outcome: describe the complexities and realities of health teaching from a personal and theoretical perspective. Supporting information and assessment of your philosophy of teaching and learning is addressed in Units 1 – 3. Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.

Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper must be submitted via the appropriate dropbox on the course home page.

Evaluation Criteria for Assignment 1

  • Articulate clear statements of your personal learning style and your professional teaching philosophy.  (3 marks)
  • Link at least one of the theoretical underpinning (e.g. Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Social Constructivism) to support your teaching-learning philosophy.  (10 marks)
  • Provide one clear and detailed example to demonstrate how your values and beliefs related to both teaching and learning affect your role as a health care professional.  (5 marks)
  • Provide evidence of application of course concepts from Units 1, 2, and 3 and references from external sources as needed to support your teaching-learning philosophy. (7 marks) Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.
  • Accurate APA format including:
    • Title page, headings and subheadings (1 mark)
    • References in the body of the paper (2 marks)
    • Reference citations in the references list (2 marks)
  • Accurate scholarly format including:
    • 3-4 pages in length, excluding title page and References list (1 mark)
    • Introduction (1 mark)
    • Scholarly language and professional tone  (1 mark)
    • Grammar, spelling, and punctuation (1 mark)
    • Conclusion (1 mark)

Total possible marks 35

Assignment 2: Writing Learning Objectives (30%)

Suggested Due Date – Week 9

Currently within the teaching and learning literature you will discover ongoing debate and confusion related to use of terms such as educational objectives, instructional objectives, behavioural objectives, learning outcomes and learning objectives. In HLST 320, the term Learning Outcomes was chosen to reflect the overall achievements of the learner upon completion of the course, and the term Learning Objectives was chosen to reflect the more specific learning that should be achieved by the learner through the completion of unit learning activities. Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.

This assignment, writing of learning objectives, will allow you to gain knowledge that is foundational to the teaching learning process and provide you with the opportunity to partially achieve the course learning outcome: apply the teaching and learning process to a health-related situation in a systematic manner that reflects the principles of teaching and learning presented in this course. Supporting information to assist you in writing learner-centered objectives is addressed in the learning activities of Unit 4 and Unit 5: The Art of Writing Learner-Centered Objectives. Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.

. Assignment 2 is part 1 of developing and then simulating a learner-centered teaching plan. In this component you are asked to select from one of the following teaching and learning categories:

  • Category 1: Health care professional/individual as client teaching and learning
  • Category 2: Health care professional/family as client teaching and learning
  • Category 3: Preceptor/student health care professional teaching and learning

Assignment 2 uses random assignments. You will pick your category and then open the correct dropbox of three choices. The case will be randomly assigned within that category. Once you select a category a case study will be sent to you. You cannot change your case study once it is received so select your category wisely as it is from this case study that you will complete both assignments 2 and 3. Based on the case study a clear, measureable objective must be written for each of the 3 domains cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Assignment 2 must be submitted, marked and returned to you prior to you submitting assignment 3. Assignment 2 is foundational to assignment 3 so familiarize yourself with the assignment 3 requirements as you complete assignment 2, and be certain to consider your tutor’s feedback when completing assignment 3. Please contact your tutor if you require further clarification of expectations for this assignment. Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.

Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper must be submitted via the appropriate dropbox on the course home page.

Evaluation Criteria for Assignment 2 – Writing Learning Objectives

  • Articulate three objectives, one for each domain. Each objective is: learner-centered and discrete; written in clear, measurable terms; reflective of your assigned case study; reasonable for a three minute teaching session
    • Cognitive (4 marks)
    • Affective (4 marks)
    • Psychomotor (4 marks)
  • Provide rationale including integration of theoretical knowledge that is, evidence-based practice to support each objective (4 marks)
  • Provide evidence of application of course concepts and references of external sources as needed to support each learner centered objective (4 marks)
  • Accurate APA format including:
    • Title page, headings and subheadings (1 mark)
    • References in the body of the paper (2 marks)
    • Reference citations in the references list (2 marks)
  • Accurate scholarly format including:
    • 4 pages in length, excluding title page and References list (1 mark)
    • Introduction (1 mark)
    • Scholarly language and professional tone  (1 mark)
    • Grammar, spelling, and punctuation (1 mark)
    • Conclusion (1 mark)

Total possible marks 30

Assignment 3: Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan (35%)

Suggested Due Date – Week 14

Health teaching is not an optional practice component for any health care professional. This assignment, Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan, will allow you to gain knowledge that is foundational to the teaching learning process and provide you with the opportunity to achieve the course learning outcome: apply the teaching learning process to a health-related situation in a systematic manner that reflects the principles of teaching and learning presented in this course. Supporting information to assist you in assignment 3 is addressed in Units 6-8. Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.

Assignments must be submitted via the appropriate dropbox on the course home page.

NOTE – Assignment 2 and 3 are progressive assignments; you will not be able to submit assignment 3 until you have completed assignment 2 and received your mark. Refer back to the case study you utilized to complete assignment 2, as this same case study should be used to complete assignment 3. Also be certain to consider your tutor’s feedback on assignment 2 when completing assignment 3. Please contact your tutor if you require further clarification of expectations for this Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.

Assignment 3 consists of two parts:

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Part A: Complete the following table (possible 10 marks)

Learning Objective Teaching StrategiesRationale For Selection of Teaching Strategy
Domain: state cognitive, psychomotor or affective.List strategies you have chosen to utilizeProvide rationale to support your choice of each strategy. If you used Internet resources as teaching materials, please include the links so that your tutor can access and review these. If you used other materials, such as audiovisual aids, posters, print-based pamphlets, or handouts, please send as an appendix.

Part B: Complete a simulation of your implementation of your teaching plan. Note this is a simulation and is not to be implemented with a human subject.  Think of this simulation as your rehearsal prior to actually implementing with a client. You need to submit a video of your simulation. Your video simulation should be 3 minutes in length. You do not need to submit a copy of your narrative but you do need to plan carefully what you will include in your simulation. You can record your video using Adobe Connect, You Tube, Vimeo, or a platform of your choice.

Evaluation Criteria for Assignment 3– Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan

Part A: Table (maximum 10 marks)

  • learning objective domain is stated clearly (2 marks)
  • learning objective is clear, measurable, and worded using Bloom’s new taxonomy (2 marks)
  • teaching strategies selected are appropriate for the learning objective (2 marks)
  • rationale for selection of teaching strategy is clearly articulated and supported by scholarly evidence (2 marks). Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper.
  • format is professional and clear  with accurate spelling, grammar, punctuation (2 marks)

Part B: Simulation Video (maximum 25 marks)

  • learner objective was stated clearly and concisely (4 marks)
  • stated objective was attainable within the allotted three minute time frame (3 marks)
  • content of the presentation clearly reflected the stated objective  (3 marks)
  • presentation was planned to facilitate the learners’ attainment of the objective (3 marks)
  • presentation was logically organized from the introduction through to the conclusion (3 marks)
  • presentation included an appropriate evaluation strategy (3 marks)
  • presenter’s voice was clear and easily heard (3 marks)
  • presenter’s manner was interesting and positive (3 marks). Developing and Simulating a Learner-Centered Teaching Plan Essay Assignment Paper

 

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Developing Professional Nursing : Partnering with Consumers

‘Effective partnerships are linked to a positive experience for patients, as
well as high-quality health care and improved safety’ (ACSQHC, 2017).
For this assessment, you will be required to choose ONE ‘action’ from
the ‘Partnering with Consumers’ standard from the Australian
Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care and examine clinician
resources related to that action during your PEP that effectively aim to
promote a person-centred approach to care.
You will be required to answer a series of questions related to that action
which will require you to draw on those clinician resources sourced and
engage with the literature to draw your own conclusions on the
following questions:
How do those resources meet the related action?
How effectively do you think they are implemented in your
organisation?
What considerations may they create for your own future
professional practice?

Sample Solution

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Identify and arrange to interview an experienced nurse educator about the trends in nursing education that she/he has observed or experienced during her/his career in education

 

1-Identify and arrange to interview an experienced nurse educator about the trends in nursing education that she/he has observed or experienced during her/his career in education. You will also develop 10–12 interview questions.

2-Assignment GuidelinesThe person you select to interview must have a minimum of 5 years experience as a nurse educator currently practicing in academia, staff development, or a clinical nurse educator or patient educator. No family members please.You may arrange to conduct the interview in person, by phone, or by online web conferencing.In general, when you contact a prospective interviewee, state who you are and explain that the interview is for a university course assignment.Ask for a convenient time to meet for a 30-minute interview.Review the literature related to the nurse educator’s specific field of nursing education.Type 10–12 interview questions.Be prepared to record responses by: Leaving a space below each of your typed interview questions for jotting down responsesUsing a tape recorder, but you must ask permission for the interview to be recordedGeneral Guidelines for Developing Interview QuestionsYour interview questions will depend on the method of interview (formal or informal, face to face, or online web meeting/conferencing) and the specific area the nurse educator is practicing.Word your questions clearly and concisely.Ask open-ended questions.Begin the interview with simple, factual questions that are easy to answer (icebreakers). This will help put the nurse educator at ease and help you establish a rapport. For example: You may ask about qualifications, credentials, expertise, experience, level of education, responsibilities, and/or a typical day.You may wish to ask questions that elicit feedback about how the person became interested in nursing education, how education was selected as a career path, and what steps were taken to become a nurse educator.Next, seek information about personal experiences and opinions, such as: Teaching philosophy and goals related to nursing educationExperiences with curriculaExperiences with evaluationWays of knowing that student goals are metWays of engaging and/or enriching student learningOutlook on the future of nursing educationThe most effective teaching strategiesPositive experiences in teachingChallenges faced as a nurse educator

Assignment Guidelines:::::::::::::::::::::::Your interview paper should include:Who does the interviewee teach?What does your interviewee teach and where?Trends and changes in nursing education as experienced by the person you interviewed.A reflection that compares your interview data to class readings and the literature that you reviewed prior to conducting the interview (pay special attention to trends, themes, concepts, and changes in nursing education)What you learned as a result of this assignmentA conclusion discussing your personal thoughts, opinions, views, and insights related to the specific area of nursing education of your interviewee

Your paper should be at least 3–4 pages (excluding the cover and reference pages), typed in Times New Roman using 12-point font, and double-spaced with 1″ margins. Your paper should be written in APA format (6th edition) with correct spelling and grammar and include references as appropriate.

This week, you must submit the following information to your faculty for approval:Name of the person you will be interviewingTitle of the person you will be interviewingSpecific area of education of the person you will be interviewingLength of time the person has worked in the current position as a nurse educatorDate and time of your scheduled interviewYour list of 10–12 interview questions

 

The post-1-Identify and arrange to interview an experienced nurse educator about the trends in nursing education that she/he has observed or experienced during her/his career in education. You will also develop 10–12 interview questions. 2-Assignment GuidelinesThe person you select to interview must have a minimum of 5 years experience as a nurse educator currently practicing in academia, staff development, or a clinical nurse educator or patient educator. No family members please.You may arrange to conduct the interview in person, by phone, or by online web conferencing.In general, when you contact a prospective interviewee, state who you are and explain that the interview is for a university course assignment.Ask for a convenient time to meet for a 30-minute interview.Review the literature related to the nurse educator’s specific field of nursing education.Type 10–12 interview questions.Be prepared to record responses by: Leaving a space below each of your typed interview questions for jotting down responsesUsing a tape recorder, but you must ask permission for the interview to be recordedGeneral Guidelines for Developing Interview QuestionsYour interview questions will depend on the method of interview (formal or informal, face to face, or online web meeting/conferencing) and the specific area the nurse educator is practicing.Word your questions clearly and concisely.Ask open-ended questions.Begin the interview with simple, factual questions that are easy to answer (icebreakers). This will help put the nurse educator at ease and help you establish a rapport. For example: You may ask about qualifications, credentials, expertise, experience, level of education, responsibilities, and/or a typical day.You may wish to ask questions that elicit feedback about how the person became interested in nursing education, how education was selected as a career path, and what steps were taken to become a nurse educator.Next, seek information about personal experiences and opinions, such as: Teaching philosophy and goals related to nursing educationExperiences with curriculaExperiences with evaluationWays of knowing that student goals are metWays of engaging and/or enriching student learningOutlook on the future of nursing educationThe most effective teaching strategiesPositive experiences in teachingChallenges faced as a nurse educator Assignment Guidelines:::::::::::::::::::::::Your interview paper should include:Who does the interviewee teach?What does your interviewee teach and where?Trends and changes in nursing education as experienced by the person you interviewed.A reflection that compares your interview data to class readings and the literature that you reviewed prior to conducting the interview (pay special attention to trends, themes, concepts, and changes in nursing education)What you learned as a result of this assignmentA conclusion discussing your personal thoughts, opinions, views, and insights related to the specific area of nursing education of your intervieweeYour paper should be at least 3–4 pages (excluding the cover and reference pages), typed in Times New Roman using 12-point font, and double-spaced with 1″ margins. Your paper should be written in APA format (6th edition) with correct spelling and grammar and include references as appropriate. This week, you must submit the following information to your faculty for approval:Name of the person you will be interviewingTitle of the person you will be interviewingSpecific area of education of the person you will be interviewingLength of time the person has worked in the current position as a nurse educatorDate and time of your scheduled interviewYour list of 10–12 interview questions appeared first on Top Premier Essays.

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