Identify appropriate differential diagnoses form a psychiatric interview

Although you are doing your clinical in a primary care setting, you are most likely seeing many patients with behavioral health issues. In this workshop, you will complete a psychiatric interview on a patient you have seen in your clinic, as described in Chapters 14-18 of the text. You may use the form starting on p. 294 to guide your interview. Please include three differential diagnoses at the end of the case study. A research article needs to be included which relates to one of the three differential diagnosis.

Upon successful completion of this assignment, you will be able to:

  • Complete a psychiatric history interview.
  • Identify appropriate differential diagnoses form a psychiatric interview.


  1. Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.
  2. Complete the case study using the rubric as your guide.
  3. Submit your completed case study to your instructor using the assignment submission link by Day 7 of this workshop.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount.

Simple Steps to get your Paper Done
For Quality Papers

Domestic violence using sutherlands differential association theory

Youth in America is more indulging in domestic violence acts as media and video games project violence nowadays. Attention to those elements in the society influencing domestic violent acts has become a serious matter since the incident at Columbine High School that took place on 20th of April, 1999. Analysts realize that major factor of today’s society that is negatively influencing our nation’s youth is media and video games. Is the assumption that means of entertainment are really factors in domestic violence is true?

Frustration and aggression created by media generally stimulates an aggressive response. Therefore, domestic violence becomes a way to release the stress resulted by a frustration environment and situation. A jobless husband, who cannot pay the utility bills or get a job, is more likely to beat his spouse (Zastrow, 2009).

Sociology theories deals and analyze societal elements influencing general public to commit domestic violent acts. Most popular theory that highlights societal factors is differential association theory presented by Edwin Sutherland (An Appraisal, 2003).

He states that criminal behavior causing the domestic violence is the outcome of a learning procedure that mainly takes place in closely associated groups that include family members, neighborhood peer groups, friends, and others like that.  An individual turns delinquent due to the dominance of factors encouraging to violation of law than factors discouraging violation of law. An individual’s decision regarding committing a domestic violent act is based on the type and characteristics of present and past relation with these significant factors. Human beings internalize the values of the society and culture around them. If a man is living in an environment where he is in frequent interaction with violent factors and infrequent interaction with non violent factors, he is more likely to get indulge in delinquent or violent activities (Zastrow, 2009) .That’s why many proponents of differential association theory of Edwin Sutherland have argued about the transmission of unethical behaviors to call for strict censorship in all the media forms, especially in violence on TV and in video games (Ainsworth, 2002).

1.      Zastrow, C., (2009). Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People, 291-292. Retrieved from’s+differential+association+theory.&source=bl&ots=b72xc0yIEf&sig=D0862qmVc0jLN9WqXsDcRPaUgkA&hl=en&ei=7ZLvS-CUAdGOONGYjK8I&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=44&ved=0CPYBEOgBMCs#v=onepage&q&f=false

2.      An Appraisal of Differential Association Theory, (2003). Retrieved from

3.      Ainsworth, P.B. (2002). Psychology and Criminal Behavior, in Y Jewkes & G Letherby (eds.). Criminology: A Reader, Sage Publications, London.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount.

Simple Steps to get your Paper Done
For Quality Papers

Determine three differential diagnoses for this case. Your rationale for including these differentials should be based upon the patient™s age history and presenting symptoms. For each of the differentials explain what you would typically find on physical examination.

Determine three differential diagnoses for this case. Your rationale for including these differentials should be based upon the patient™s age history and presenting symptoms. For each of the differentials explain what you would typically find on physical examination..


Determine three differential diagnoses for this case. Your rationale for including these differentials should be based upon the patient™s age, history, and presenting symptoms. For each of the differentials, explain what you would typically find on physical examination.





Case Study:
Your case study should be at least 2 pages long and always begin with the pathophysiology of the disorder selected

1. A 30-year-old female patient presents with lower abdominal pain that began two days ago. The pain has increased and she is experiencing vaginal bleeding that is scanty. Her last normal menstrual period ended two weeks ago and was normal for her, lasting four days. She is a Gravida 2, Para -0, Miscarriage -2, and has been attempting to conceive with her husband. She denies dysuria or urinary frequency.

Determine three differential diagnoses for this case. Your rationale for including these differentials should be based upon the patient™s age, history, and presenting symptoms. For each of the differentials, explain what you would typically find on physical examination.
Provided 3 differential diagnoses for the patient with lower abdominal pain and based the rationale for diagnoses upon the patient™s age, history, and presenting symptoms.

Determine three differential diagnoses for this case. Your rationale for including these differentials should be based upon the patient™s age history and presenting symptoms. For each of the differentials explain what you would typically find on physical examination.

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount.

Simple Steps to get your Paper Done
For Quality Papers

The interest rate differential between the two countries remains constant

The interest rate differential between the two countries remains constant.

Comprehensive Learning Assessment 1 – CLO 3, CLO 4, CLO 6

Assume that you are the CFO of a large company that has a lot of cash, the CEO of the company wants to invest some the cash temporarily either in 90 days US treasury in dollars or 90 days French government security in Euro:

The interest rate differential between the two countries remains constant

You are asked for advice and you are given the following information:

● Let iNY = 90-day interest rate in New York.

● Let iParis = 90-day interest rate in Paris.

● Let E (e) = the expected spot rate in 90 days.

Read Chapter 14 of the textbook along with seven other peer reviewed publications and write a 5-7 APA standard formatted paper. Your paper must encompass the followings:

● The variables to include in your report to the CEO of your company must demonstrate the most profitable investment for the company at the lowest risk.

● The five steps of calculations in your textbook (Chapter 14) to be explained, put in notation, and be converted into a mathematical formula.

● Your advice to the CEO must be based on:

1. The interest rate differential between the two countries remains constant.

2. The current status of interest rates in the two countries will change.

● Provide the equation that exhibits the state of equilibrium between the money market and the foreign exchange market in these two countries.

● Explain why this equation represents the Interest Rate Parity theorem?

● How you can persuade your CEO that the Interest Rate Parity theorem is a reliable tool in forecasting the Dollar/Euro parity at the maturity date.

● Please provide some reasoning on how multinational corporations can use this theorem to mitigate the currency risk in their foreign business activities.

● Provide data for Expected Dollar/Euro rates and interest rates on 90 days securities from any financial website and Federal Reserve website and demonstrate your reasoning numerically.

*Please refer to the Grading Criteria for Comprehensive Learning Assessments (CLAs) in the University Policies for specific guidelines and expectations.

The interest rate differential between the two countries remains constant

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount.

Simple Steps to get your Paper Done
For Quality Papers

Moral philosophy, justice, white-collar crime, differential association, or power

Moral philosophy, justice, white-collar crime, differential association, or power.

Pick one of the following terms for your research: Moral philosophy, justice, white-collar crime, differential association, or power.


Journal Article Analysis

Each student will select one of the key terms presented in the module and conduct a search of Campbellsville University’s online Library resources to find 1 recent peer-reviewed academic journal article (within the past 3 years) that closely relate to the concept. Your submission must include the following information in the following format:

DEFINITION: a brief definition of the key term followed by the APA reference for the term; this does not count in the word requirement.

SUMMARY: Summarize the article in your own words- this should be in the 150-200 word range. Be sure to note the article’s author, note their credentials and why we should put any weight behind his/her opinions, research or findings regarding the key term.

DISCUSSION: Using 300-350 words, write a brief discussion, in your own words of how the article relates to the selected chapter Key Term. A discussion is not rehashing what was already stated in the article, but the opportunity for you to add value by sharing your experiences, thoughts and opinions. This is the most important part of the assignment.

REFERENCES: All references must be listed at the bottom of the submission–in APA format.

Moral philosophy, justice, white-collar crime, differential association, or power

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount.

Simple Steps to get your Paper Done
For Quality Papers

Selective vs. Differential Media Essay

Selective vs. Differential Media Essay.

Answer the following questions as you work your way through the lab material typing in your answers. Then submit your finished lab report as a Microsoft Word document. This lab report is worth 100 points towards your final lab grade. Each Q is worth 2 points unless otherwise noted. Also, per the Honor Code, this work must be your own. This is due Mon. 10/8 at 11:59 PM. The theme of this lab is the identification of unknown bacteria and viruses in a lab.

Selective vs. Differential Media

Selective vs. Differential Media

Use the following website to help you answer Q 1 and 2

1. What is a selective medium? What makes the medium selective? Name 2 examples (3 pts.

) A selective medium is a medium that contains antimicrobials, dyes or alcohol that supports the growth of certain organisms, while inhibiting the growth of others. Two examples of selective medium are Mannitol Salt agar and Phenylethyl Alcohol.

2. What is a differential medium? What makes the medium differential? Name 2 examples (3 pts.) Differential medium is distinguishing microorganisms from one another based on growth characteristics. A medium is differential when you are able to visibly see the differences in growth patterns of organisms. Differential media include blood agar and Eosin Methylene Blue.

Steps Used in Identifying an Unknown Bacterium in a Laboratory

I. In a lab situation you would take you inoculum and perform a streak plate in order to separate out individual cells enough to obtain a pure culture
(see Atlas p. 5) 3. What is the most common streaking method? (2 pts.) The most common streaking method is the Streak plate method, while the most common streaking technique is the quadrant method. The quadrant method incubates an agar using a four-streak pattern.

4. What is the principle behind the Streak Plate Method of Isolation? (2 pts.) The Streak Plate Method of Isolation is used to obtain a pure culture in order to isolate a certain organism. This method allows for the organism to produce individual colonies on an agar plate.

II. After incubating your streak plate you would perform a Gram Stain as you learned in Lab #1 – The Virtual Gram Stain. I’m directing you to the Virtual Gram Stain website from the Univ. of Michigan. Click on “View Example. You will need to move your cursor over the test tubes to see what each contains. Then click on the test tubes in the correct order to run the program – this is really cool!

5. What were the results of your Virtual Gram Stain, i.e. describe what you see on the slide as to color, Gram Stain result and morphology? (4 pts.) The gram stain was negative. The shape was bacilli and had purple spores present.

III. Using the dichotomous keys provided as MSWord Documents in this lab, you would carry out specific tests utilizing selective and differential media in order to identity your bacterium. In a microbiology lab you would use “Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology”. This book includes all tests and their results to aid in the identification of unknown bacteria. Use the following websites to answer these questions:

6. What is a dichotomous key? (4 pts.)
A dichotomous key is a key used to help identify bacteria using process of elimination testing in order to identify each bacteria characteristic.

7. Based on the Information Flow Charts from Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Page 2, answer these questions: (4 pts) a. What is the FIRST test that is performed in a lab to differentiate between groups of bacteria? The first test preformed to differentiate between bacteria is Gram stain testing.

b. If you looked at your slide with the 100X oil immersion objective, what is the next thing that you would observe based on the information in the flow chart? The next step in identification is morphology.

8. The remaining flow chart pages will show you how dichotomous keys are used in bacterial identification. Scroll down to page 7 and look at the Family Enterobacteriaceae which is comprised of Gram negative rods. (4 pts.) a. What is the first test that may be performed to start differentiating among the individual species? The first test that may be performed to start differentiating among the individual species is Lactose Fermentation.

b. Use of a dichotomous key allows you to perform the next test needed to identify your mystery microbe based on the results of the test you just performed, i.e. were the results positive + or negative -. Using the flowchart, what would be the microbe which has these test results: Lactose positive (+), Indole positive (+) and Citrate negative (-)? The microbe would be Escherichia Coli.


I would like for you to read over the different types of selective media and then answer the following questions. Remember that selective media promote the growth of some bacteria while actively discouraging the growth of others.

9. For what is Chocolate II agar used? ( 2 pts.)
Chocolate II agar is used for isolation and cultivation of Neisseria and Haemophilus.

10. Based on the information in the Principle section, Phenylethyl Alcohol
Agar will select for the growth of which bacteria? What does the alcohol actually do? (2 pts.) Phenylethyl Alcohol Agar selects for the growth of Gram-positive organisms. The Alcohol in the agar interferes with the DNA synthesis of Gram-negative organisms which inhibits growth.


Please read over this section. Differential media usually distinguish or differentiate different species of bacteria based on the color of the individual colonies or the areas surrounding them. Look up these tests and answer the following questions: Blood Agar, Catalase, Citrate, Coagulase, Indole, Methyl Red, Motility, TSI, Urea, 11. What is a hemolysis and what type of bacteria produce it? (2 pts.) Hemolysis is the exotoxin of gram positive cocci (streptococcus, enterocus, and aerocccus) that destroy RBCs and hemoglobin.

12. What are the 3 major types of hemolysis and their descriptions? (2 pts.) The three types of hemolysis are B, A, Y. B is complete clearing or destruction of the RBCs or hemoglobin and it results in a clearing of the medium around the colonies. A is partial destruction and a green color forms around the colonies. Y is non-Hemolysis and shows simple growth and no change to the medium.

13. When would you use the Catalase test? (2 pts.)

This test should be used when trying to identify organisms that produce catalase. It is used when differentiating between Catalase positive micrococcaceae and catalase negative streptococcaceae and some variations of the catalase test are for mycobacterium.

14. The Citrate Tests is part of what test series? What is the color of a positive Citrate Test? (2 pts.) The citrate tests are part of the IMVIC (Indole, Methyl Red, Voges-Prokauer and Citrates tests) and are used to distinguish between enterobacteriaceae and other gram negative rods. A positive Citrate test will turn blue.

15. What is the purpose of the Coagulase Test? Why is it to S. aureus’ advantage to produce this enzyme? (2 pts.) The coagulase test is used to differentiate between staphylococcus aureus and other gram positive cocci. Coagulase forms a shield with fibrin barriers to resist phagocytoses and other cellular attacks.

16. The Indole test will help differentiate what group of bacteria? Using the Methyl Red test, what color indicates a positive result? (2 pts.) The Indole test help differentiate enterobacteriaceae and a positive Methyl Red test result is red.

17. What is the principal behind the TSI agar test? The shallow slant and deep butt allow for what? (2 pts.) Triple Sugar Iron Agar test or TSI is loaded with nutrients to help distinguish between enterobacteriaceae and other gram negative rods on the basis of glucose fermentation, lactose fermentation, sucrose fermentation and sulfur reduction. A slanted test tube with a deep butt is used. The agar contains beef and yeast extracts as well as peptone for carbon and nitrogen sources. Also, Sodium thiosulfate for reducible sulfur. Phenol red as a Ph indicator and iron in ferrous sulfate as a hydrogen sulfate indicator. The basis is as something is digested the changes in ph and hydrogen sulfate will cause the color to change.

18. What pathogens can be identified using the Urease test? What color is a positive result?
(2 pts.)

Identified pathogens come from the genus Proteus. These hydrolyze urea with and enzyme called urease. A positive result will be pink.

Watch this program that will walk you through the process of identifying a foodborne pathogen that has made people sick. Follow the instructions, clicking where indicated to start the activity. Once the file opens, click first on “Gram Stain” and you will see how it works. Then answer the following questions. 19. What Gram positive cocci were discovered using the Gram Stain? (2 pts.) The Gram positive cocci discovered using the Gram Stain are staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus.

20. The positive results of the Catalase Test indicated the possible presence of which Gram + bacteria? (2 pts.)

The Catalast test indicated the possible presence of micrococcus and Staphylococcus bacteria.

21. The Oxidation/Fermentation test was positive for which Gram + bacteria? (2 pts.) The Oxidation/Fermentaion test was positive for staphylococcus bacteria.

22. The Coagulase test specifically identified which species of Staphylococcus? (2 pts.) The Coagulase test specifically identified the species aureus.

Now using the Dichotomous Keys provided in the Blackboard section for Lab #3, identify these bacteria based on their test results. Then provide a brief description of each from the Atlas Section 12. (4 pts. each)

23. Test Results: Gram + coccus, Catalase negative, Alpha Hemolysis Bacteria are S. pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae ia an ac-hemolytic, nonmotile, encapsulated, facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus. It is a significant cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and menigitis in adults. There are at least 80 different serotypes and are defined by antigenically by their capsules. Typically starts in the nasopharynx and from there spread to the lungs and develops into pneumonia or is harbored asymptomatic for months.

24. Test Results: Gram + coccus, Catalase positive, Coagulase negative, Beta Hemolysis Bacteria are S. epidermis. S. epidermis are non-motile, facultatively anaerobic, non-hemolytic, gram-positive coccus. Normal inhabitant of human skin that has become a significant nosocomial pathogen, Most strains produce a slime layer that may enable them to attach to certain hospital apparatus used in surgical procedures, thereby gaining entrance into the body. Most infections at the site of prosthetic implantation are from S. epidermis, can be severe or fatal.

25. Test Results: Gram – rod, Lactose negative, Urease positive Bacteria are P. mirabilis. P. mirabilis are straight, facultatively anaeroic, highly motile (swarming), Gram-negative rod. It is a normal inhabitant of our intestinal tract and is in some other animals as well. It is also common in soil and contaminated water. Is has the “swarming motility” characteristics ad produces a series of visible concentric rings. Common nosocomial pathogen isolated from septic wounds and Urinary tract infections. You get it from direct contact with the source. It can lead to other complications like kidney stones and Proteus Septicemia.

26. Test Results: Gram – rod, Lactose positive, IMViC –++ (= negative, negative, positive, positive), Urease positive Bacteria are K. pneumoniae. K. pneumoniae are nonmotile, encapsulted, facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rod. It is found in soil, water, grain, fruits, vegetables and intestinal tracts of a variety of animals including humans. It is in the nasopharynx and oropharynx in humans and is often transmitted as aerosol droplets from person to person. It is a very common nosocominal pathogen. Common infections caused by K. pneumoniae are pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bronchitis, surgical wound infections, biliam tract infections and hospital associated bacteremia. The bacteria are becoming more antibiotic resistant and harder to treat in recent years.


Today a pathogenic microbe can be identified very quickly using molecular techniques such as DNA Extraction, Electrophoresis, Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Sequencing. Answer the following questions using the information in this section of your Atlas.

27. What are the 3 BASIC steps in DNA extraction? (2 pts.)
The 3 basic steps in DNA extraction are-
1. Detergent (Sodium Dodecylsulfate-SDS) is used to lyse cells and
release cellular contents. 2. Heating-dentures proteins and other cell components
3. Water-soluble DNA is precipitated in cold alcohol as a whitish, stringy mass.

28. What does electrophoresis do? What is added to the gel to make the results visible? (2 pts.) Electrophoresis is a technique where molecules are separated by size and electrical charge in a gel. Coomassie blue is added for protein staining and ethidium bromide (fluorescent dye) is used for nucleic acids.

29. What enzyme is used in PCR and why? (2 pts.)
The enzyme used in PCR is DNA Polymerase. It is used because it is able to attach the free nucleotides to complementary bases on the template and create a good copy.

Open this website and click on “The Bacterial Identification Lab”. Following the instructions, work your way through this lab.

30. Following the instructions, identify your bacterium and write the species name here. (To do so, you will need to read the page entitled “Nucleotide Sequence (1410 letter)” and click on “Descriptions”. Then click on the top “Accession Code”. Move down to the 7th line: Organism.) (8 pts.) Our bacterium species name is Bartonella henselae

31. Now, on the CDC website ( , look up the information on this bacterium and write a 2 paragraph (4-5 sentences per paragraph) answer on the disease that it causes. (8 pts.)

The disease that our bacterium Bartonella henselae causes is cat scratch disease (CSD). Most people that are affected in CSD have been scratched or bitten by a cat that is carrying it. They develop an infection at the site of injury. The lymph nodes, typically the ones around the neck, head and upper limbs become swollen. Some of the symptoms people with CSD have are fever, headache, fatigue and poor appetite. There are also some rare complications of this bacterium like bacillary angiomatosis and Parinaud’s oculolandular syndrome.

Cats and kittens can spread CDS bacterium to people through bites and scratches. About 40% of cats are carrying CDS at some point in their lives. Cats with CDS do not display and signs of the illness and you cannot determine which cats have it and which do not. You can reduce your risk of contracting CDS by avoiding rough play with cats, washing cat bites and scratches immediately with soap and water, not letting the cat lock open wounds and controlling fleas. You want to call the doctor if an infection occurs after a bite or scratch. Generally CSD is not serious. Medical treatment is not usually needed. Sometimes treatment with antibiotics like azithromycin is helpful in clearing the infection.

Prognosis is good.

On a side note, I actually had this as a child. I got it from a stray kitten scratch. I developed large swollen lymph nodes under my arms, fever and soreness. I am not sure if not as much was known back then but my Dr. did surgery to remove the lymph node from under my left arm and drained the other. It was the only surgery (excluding my c-ections) that I have ever had. I never had any further complications after the surgery and was fine immediately afterwards.

Viruses cannot be grown on media as bacteria can because they are obligate intracellular parasites and need host cells for reproduction. Therefore their identification in a lab is much more difficult. Often immunological tests are used and you will learn about these in a future lab.

32. Describe the HIV virus. What specific human cells does it infect? (3 pts) The HIV virus is the cause of AIDS. Two forms of the virus exist, HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both are retroviruses and have the ability to make DNA from and RNA template. HIV infects cells with CD4 membrane receptors, normally used for antigen recognition, but by HIV for attachment. A subpopulation of T cells, the T4 helper cells are most commonly affected and die. Other types of cells infected can be dendritic, macrophages and moncytes, HIV can be transmitted through bodily fluids to include: blood, breast milk, semen and vaginal secretions.

33. What is the principle behind growing viral host cells in a lab? What happens after the virus is introduced to the cell culture and what is the result? (5 pts.) The principle behind growing viral host cells is to attain presumptive identification of a virus, how host cells replicate, how quickly it causes damage, and the type of damage it produces. The virus inflicts damage upon the host cell, which in called the CPE (cytopathic effect). It can take as long as 4 days or up to 4 weeks to start seeing damage. Most often they start as small spots (foci) in the cell layer and spread outwards. Common damage to cells includes rounding (small or large), change in texture, or formation of syncytium (the fusion of infected cells).

Selective vs. Differential Media Essay

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount.

Simple Steps to get your Paper Done
For Quality Papers

Differential Effect Of Oil Demand Supply

Differential Effect Of Oil Demand Supply.


Discuss about the  Differential Effect Of Oil Demand Supply.





Microeconomics is a basic tool to analyse and understand various economic situations. Here, newspaper analysis will be taken to understand some basic concepts. These basic concepts are production possibility frontier, demand and supply, different types of demand and supply elasticity and equilibrium of price and quantity. Moreover, diminishing marginal utility and the concept of budget line are also very important. Here news paper analysis will be done to understand these basic concepts of microeconomics. Hence, to do this research, six different newspaper articles have been chosen. From those articles, it will be seen that which types of microeconomic factors are operating. Moreover, to demonstrate those factors clearly, some proper diagrams will be drawn. At the end, an overall conclusion will be drawn, based on those analyses. 

Analysis of articles:

Scarce resource:

In Venezuela, due to high rate of inflation, the value of Bolivar becomes low. Moreover, people are getting very low amount of money from bank. Market price of every product becomes very high. However, consumers cannot purchase those products within their limited income. On the other side, due to black market, the exchange rate of Bolivar becomes very high (CNNMoney 2018). To control this situation, the government of this country has set a withdrawal limit of money from bank.

Hence, due to higher amount of inflation, Bolivar has lost its value. On the other side, due to higher black money exchange rate, one person can get higher amount of Bolivar for $1. Those all effects have increased total money supply in Venezuela. The government of this country is trying to control this excessive inflation by limiting the amount of money lending from banks (Varian 2014). This will further create a black market and will increase the value of exchange rate f Bolivar in international market.

Figure1: increase supply of Bolivar

Source: (created by author)

High rate of inflation has increased total market supply of Bolivar. On the other side, due to black money operations, money holders are offering more Bolivar for one unit of dollar. This again increases the supply of Bolivar in the market. As a result, the supply curve has shifted from left to right (S0 to S1). In the above diagram, this extra amount of money supply (Q0 Q1) represents this excess amount of Bolivar in the country. Moreover, the price value of this currency has decreased by P0-P1 amount. 

Demand and supply:

The cost price of Christmas tree has increased in 2017. In 1974, the price of those Christmas tree was $30 each. However, in 2016, it was $95 and in 2017, it was $110 for each tree. The reason behind this increasing price of Christmas tree is shortage of supply all over the nation. Moreover, due to high competition with big box stores, the profit rate of those side vendors may decrease (Ferré-Sadurní 2018). They also pay extra charge for selling their products in New York. These are the chief reason behind the increasing price of Christmas tree in this city. Moreover, to cover up their low level of revenue from cheaper locations, they increase their Christmas tree price in this city.

The demand curve of those Christmas tree vendors represents this situation (Cashin, Mohaddes, Raissi and Raissi 2014). As the supply of Christmas tree has decreased, it will increase the price level.

Figure2: increasing price level of Christmas tree due to lower supplier

Source: (created by author)

In the above figure, as the supply of Christmas tree has declined due to shortage. The new supply curve is S1. As a result, the price of this product has also increased and become P1.

Market equilibrium:

In Jakarta, demand for new office spaces will increase in the coming year. According to a report, this demand for extra office spaces will be almost triple. This is because some e-commerce companies are expanding rapidly (Post 2018). As a result, rental charges may increase further. However, due to increasing amount of office buildings, rental charges will not increase. As they are providing extra office spaces in upcoming years, the rental charge will remain almost same.

This increasing demand and supply effect of office spaces can be analysed by a suitable diagram.

Figure 3: Market equilibrium of office space in Jakarta

Source: (created by author)

In the above figure, the initial demand and supply curve of office space in Jakarta are drawn. The initial demand curve is D0 and the initial supply curve is S0. After the mentioned increasing demand for new office spaces, this demand curve has shifted to upward, that is, D1. In this new demand curve, the rental amount could be P1. However, the supply of housing space is also increasing in next year (Varian 2014). This S1 curve is showing this effect. Hence, the amount of rent will be same in future, as well.


In the article of IPhone X, the effect of own price elasticity can be observed. Here, IPhone X is a highly elastic product. Hence, the slight change of the price of this phone will affect its demand negatively (Post 2018). The price of this Apple phone is very high. Moreover, the company is not introducing any new features to increase consumer’s attraction. Hence, the demand for this IPhone is decreasing over the year. Moreover, due this decreasing amount of demand, country is also decreasing their amount of shipping.

Hence, being elastic good, a small change of price can greatly influence the overall demand of this phone. The following figure has shown this effect.

Figure4: Price elasticity of IPhone X

Source: (created by author)

In the above diagram, an elastic demand curve of IPhone is drawn. Initially, the supply curve was S1. Hence, the corresponding price of Iphone was P1 for Q1 amount. As the price of this phone is very high and there are no new features within the phone, the world demand has reduced to Q0 level. As a result, the supply of IPhone has also decreased by S0 amount (Yan, Tian, Heravi and Morgan 2017). This is the chief reason behind the decreasing amount of shipments, that is, 30 million units to 25 million units within 3 months.


Trump tower is another example of elastic product in India. Being luxurious products, the demand for those apartments are increasing significantly. In Gurgaon, people are buying new Trump apartments rapidly. Moreover, the demand of those residential places of Trump brand is increasing in Mumbai, Pune and Kolkata (Iyengar 2018). Builders are selling those branded apartments with very higher prices. Those prices are higher than 30%, compare to other similar properties. Hence, producers or builders of those projects will earn producer surplus.

Producer surplus is an amount that they can enjoy at anytime. In a competitive market situation, there exists an equilibrium price for a particular output. However, consumer can pay more to achieve that product. This extra payment of consumer is considered as producer surplus.

Figure5: Producer Surplus

Source: (created by author)

In the above diagram, the triangle P1 E P0 represents producer surplus. In general, the market price of any apartment is P0. However, people want to buy Trump apartment at P1 price, as it is a luxurious product. Hence, the producer or developer will enjoy a surplus.

Budget Line:

Carillion is one of the largest construction companies in U.K. However, after financial crisis, the company is planning to sale their assets. To maintain this loose, the British Government has decided to provide finance to continue their operational services. The government has done this to continue public services (Iyengar 2018). However, according to some critics, this decision of government is wrong. There is no future prospect for Carillion to grow further. On the other side, the budget of British government will be increased further.

The budget line of the British government can illustrate this above statement (Luo 2014). As the government will provide more funds to this government, the budget line will shift upward in the vertical portion.

Figure6: Budget line of the British Government

Source: (created by author)

In the above figure, as the government has increased their financial support for Carillion. As a result, the budget line of the government has shifted upward in the vertical axis. The initial budget line was Pc0 Pa. After providing financial support, the new budget line becomes Pc1 Pa. There is an increment of this line from Pc0 to Pc1.


Hence, from the above discussion, the report can conclude an overall situation. In every part of daily life and economic activities, micro economic concepts are always present. The basic demand and supply tool can use in every situation. Moreover, nature of a product also indicates the elasticity of demand. This report has presented the concept of demand elasticity related to IPhone and Trump building. Furthermore, a newspaper article has represented the concept of producer surplus. On the other side, budget effect indicates the British government expenditure. Hence, this report has analysed almost every concepts of microeconomics. 


Cashin, P., Mohaddes, K., Raissi, M. and Raissi, M., 2014. The differential effects of oil demand and supply shocks on the global economy. Energy Economics, 44, pp.113-134.

CNNMoney. (2018). Venezuela’s cash crisis: You can’t get $1 from a bank. I tried.. [online] Available at:

Ferré-Sadurní, L., 2018. How Much for That Tree? $35 in Harlem, or $135 in SoHo. [online] Available at:

Iyengar, A., 2018. Carillion: Construction firm with 43,000 employees collapses. [online] CNNMoney. Available at:

Iyengar, R., 2018. Trump’s India partner sees ‘overwhelming’ interest in Gurgaon apartments. [online] CNNMoney. Available at:

Luo, C., 2014. Questioning the soft budget constraint. Annals of Economics and Finance, 15(1), pp.403-412.

Post, T., 2018. Demand for office space to soar next year. [online] The Jakarta Post. Available at:

Post, T., 2018. IPhone X forecasts cut, citing lukewarm demand. [online] The Jakarta Post. Available at:

Varian, H.R., 2014. Intermediate Microeconomics: A Modern Approach: Ninth International Student Edition. WW Norton & Company.

Yan, J., Tian, K., Heravi, S. and Morgan, P., 2017. The vices and virtues of consumption choices: Price promotion and consumer decision making. Marketing Letters, pp.1-15.

Differential Effect Of Oil Demand Supply

Place this order or similar order and get an amazing discount.

Simple Steps to get your Paper Done
For Quality Papers