Economic Growth is not always a Good Thing.

Economic Growth is not always a Good Thing.

Economic growth refers to an increase in the real GDP of a country through increased aggregate demand and supply. Increased aggregate demand leads to growth in the GDP through increased consumer spending, investment, government spending, and exports. On the other hand, aggregate supply is hallmarked by an increased working population, increased labor production through training and improved technology, increased natural resources, and other factors.

It is the dream of every country in the world to record economic growth due to the myriad of benefits associated with it. Economic growth leads to improved living standards, high employment rates, high wages, increased capital investment, enhanced investor confidence, reduced government borrowing, and high-quality public services. However, economic growth is also associated with other negative things that negatively impact human lives. Social and economic inequalities are products of economics, especially when the growth only benefits a small section of society. Those receiving low incomes continue being subjected to exploitation, poor quality of life, limited investment, and access to credit. Similarly, increased production leads to increased water, air, and land pollution, leading to climatic change, and adversely affecting countries relying heavily on natural resources. Despite economic growth being associated with improved health interventions, pollution leads to increased health challenges due to the emergence of chronic diseases such as asthma, skin cancer, eye problems, and others.

Economic growth is vital for the overall improvement of national and life status. However, economic development is not always good since it leads to negative impacts that outweigh the cost of benefits. Sustainable development is vital to ensure that the benefits of economic growth are felt in every aspect of life.

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Principles Of Economics

Question 1

As we expected preventive measures to be taken by local and national authorities to prevent the spread of COVID-19, the demand for surface and hand sanitizers skyrocketed. How did COVID-19 impact the price elasticity of surface and hand sanitizers, and could a rational (profit maximizer) surface and hand sanitizers producer or seller react to that?

Question 2

Briefly discuss how greater consumption of a good affects utility. Use the consumption of a given good or service to support your discussion.

Question 3

How is the Concept of Diminishing Marginal Product (returns) related to the concept of economies of scale?

Question 4

What are some of the advantages of a perfectly competitive market in an economy?  Use one specific business to describe a clear example of your observation of perfect competition.

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Global Economics

Global Economics


There are 6 very simple questions in this assignment and everyone should get HD (80%-90%) of the total 50 marks.

Question 1: Refer to the line chart below and discuss the possible economic reasons for those differences between the five countries. (120 words) 9 marks

Your answer should be here:

According to World Bank statistics by 2012 among the five countries listed above, China topped the group with about 1.351 trillion people. Though they prove to have the advantage of a pool of workforce among the other countries viz-a-viz the less physical capital in the country make them to second last in the graph.

Global Economics

Equally Indonesia seconds in the group in respect to population rating with 246.9M people as per to World Bank data by 2012 versus the less physical capital present in the country making them to slag behind among the five countries as per to GDP per capita comparison.

The third in population rating among the five countries according to 2012 World Bank statistics is Russia with a population of approximately 143.5M, though with a higher capability of human capital makes it to be ahead of China and Indonesia in GDP per capita comparison.

Australia proves much higher in the second of the five countries GDP per capita comparison because it enjoys a great level of physical capital in form of capital stock and at par level of human capital with great education and skills to propel economic growth consequently raising the Australian Gross Domestic product at the same time enjoying the privilege to have the most manageable population viz-a-viz its natural resources.

The UK stands out among the group to top the graph in comparison of the GDP per capita since it has the most effective and efficient technology among the five countries. Apart from this, it has invested so much of its resources in nurturing the human capital of its population through appropriate education and skills acquisition of greater man-power provision. Further the capital stock base of rates highest among the countries against a manageable population of about 62.23M.

Question 2: Refer to the line chart below and discuss the possible economic reasons for those differences between the five countries. (120 words) 9 marks

Your answer should be here:

China is achieving so much growth in the GDP growth as from the peak of its economic transformation from 2005 to be on the top of scale henceforth in comparison among the five countries. She has hugely expanded her physical capital base of the stock of their capital by marshalling resources in and without its borders. It has invested in its huge labour force by enhancing the educational levels of the population and better and appropriate skills acquisition to ensure effectiveness in its human capital. Technology-wise they have made a greater step in investing in modern machines, merchandise for effectiveness and efficiency in operations.

United Kingdom shows a relatively steady GDP growth with exhaustion of its skills and educational personnel to a point of less progressive economic growth. There is less innovation resulting to almost stagnant rate in economic growth in the period 2009-2012. The human capital is giving as sign of reaching its peak.

Indonesia portrays lack of development of new knowledge through carrying out of research and development (R&D). The low levels of technological advancement make them to slag extremely behind the five countries.

Russia and Australia almost tie in the same position due to less physical capital in the form of capital stock to enable conversion of such resources into economic productivity to add into the national gross value

Question 3: Refer to the line chart below and discuss the possible economic reasons for those differences between the five countries. (120 words) 9 marks

Your answer should be here:

The increasing technological prowess in China results to a steady positive GDP growth for nearly two decades. The deflections in the Chinese GDP growth have been manageable due to availability of human capital to propel economic progress.

The economic instability in Russia is as a result of political instability in the country as a result of waging civil wars causing extreme values in its GDP growth rate with negative figures and positive figures simultaneously.

The growth in technological progress and build of productive human capital to facilitate production processes and also the 1998 economic recession in Indonesia has been its major drawbacks to economic development.

Australia’s less of investment in huge human capital in the educational and skills acquisition to propel the economic undertakings.

Question 4: Refer to the line chart below and discuss the possible economic reasons for those differences between the five countries. (120 words) 9 marks

Your answer should be here:

The economic recession in Russia back caused the high inflationary gap experienced in the period 1994 and below.

The political stability relative across the other four nations has resulted to a more subjectively similar inflationary gap. The consumer Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) across the nations have shown a less deflection from year 2000 and beyond in its scope as the nations manage the balance of trade deficit to stabilize the local currency versus the foreign currency exchange rates.

Question 5: Refer to the line chart below and discuss the possible economic reasons for those differences between the five countries. (120 words) 9 marks

Your answer should be here:

The Chinese economic prowess in the technological advancement has resulted to efficiency in the production and timely operational levels. This modern technological improvement has resulted to high rate of raw material processing and thus absorption of experts and other line of labour force to the grid system of employment

Indonesia experiences fluctuating levels of stable employment so much due to lack of investment in the productiveness of production through reliable human capital empowerment.

The Russians economy shows high margin of unemployment with a wide deflecting stands due prioritizing in military stability rather than economic empowerment of its people. The less physical capital to put into production with other factors of production to enable economic development and thus facilitate eradication of unemployment in the nation is building up the gap between the citizens employed and the ones unemployed.

Question 6: Why you might want to use more than one chart to present variables in the above five questions? (100 words) 5marks

Clarity-different graphs presentation offers a vivid evaluation and clear analysis of the variables for effective deductions.

Verifiability-the different graphs representation enable emphasis and prioritization on what aspect of the economic development to tackle at what specific time.

Speed –the time taken to make sense of what a chart presents is of importance. The shorter the time the more effective a process is. This enables in completion of a task in record time scheduled.

Precision-the exactness in what scope and limit of the economy to scrutinize enables delegation of duties and tasks to the personalities with the specific expertise the particular area requires. This enables assigning personalities in the line they best fit for efficiency purposes in the general outcome of the whole task.


Boyes, W. J., & Melvin, M., 2013. Economics. Australia, Cengage Learning South-Western.

Greenhalgh, C. A., Layard, R., & Oswald, A. J., 1983. The Causes of unemployment. Oxford,      Clarendon Press.

International Monetary Fund. 1998. World economic outlook: a survey. Washington, D.C.,           International Monetary Fund.

International Monetary Fund Staff. 1989. World Economic Outlook, October 1989 A Survey         by the Staff of the International Monetary Fund. Washington, International Monetary   Fund.  9781451944433/A0248-9781451944433.xml.

Nafziger, E. W., & Nafziger, E. W., 2005. Economic development. New York, Cambridge            University Press.

World Bank. 2012. World Development Indicators 2012. Washington, D.C., The World Bank.  

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Macro and Micro Economics

Money can be defined as an asset used as a means of exchange. Money has a narrow and broad definition. Narrow definition includes checking deposits, currency in circulation, and debit card accounts while broad definition of money includes deposits of currency. Money is also a liquid asset used to pay for goods and services or used to settle down debts. According to Murphy, (2009, 102-3), assets can be grouped into liquid assets and illiquid assets. Assets such as checking deposits, currency in circulation, savings deposits, debit card accounts, and time deposits are more liquid than assets such as loans, bonds, real estate, stocks, and other assets. The central bank controls the circulation of money in the economy. In the United States, the central bank is a Federal Reserve System charged with regulating the circulation of money in the economy. The central bank influences the amount of debit card accounts, checking deposits, and other monetary assets.

Monetary demand refers to the amount of monetary deposits individuals are willing to hold instead of non-liquid assets (Murphy, 2009, 78-9). Demand for money is the desire to hold financial assets in monetary forms; in the form of cash or monetary deposits. Money is required for purposes of carrying out transactions (provides liquidity). This brings about a trade-off between the advantage of holding money (liquidity advantage) and the advantage of holding other assets (interest advantage). The demand for money comes about because of such kind of trade-off regarding where an individual chooses to place his wealth. An individual’s motivation to hold his wealth in monetary form can be divided into asset and transaction motives.

Several factors influence people’s demand for money. This aspect can be considered in terms of aggregate demand for money and individual demand for money. The first factor that influences individual demand for money is interest rates or the expected rate of return on money. The next factor is the risk involved in holding money arising from unexpected inflation; thereby reducing the purchasing power of money (Cesaran, 2007, 89). The last factor that influences individual demand for money is the aspect of liquidity, which occurs when transaction prices increases. On the other hand, the factors that influence the aggregate money demand include interest rates or rates of return associated with holding monetary assets. The next factor in this aspect is the price, which involves the cost involved in purchasing of goods and services. Such prices will dictate people’s willingness to hold or not hold money. Higher prices would mean a greater need to hold more money for transaction purposes. The last factor in this aspect is income. High income means that more goods and services can be purchased; thereby implying that more money is required for transaction purposes. Higher real national income implies that there is more production of goods and services, thereby increasing the demand for money for transaction purposes. The other factor influencing the demand for money is the aspect of consumer spending. It is often observed that when consumer spending is high; such as during Christmas, individuals prefer to cash in other forms of their wealth like bonds and stocks in exchange for cash. They need money to buy goods and services. This implies that if consumer spending increases, there would be a likely increase in the money demand. The other factor is the transaction costs for bonds and stocks. If it becomes expensive or difficult to buy and quickly sell bonds and stock, they become undesirable thus making people to desire to hold more of the wealth in form of money (Cesarano, 2007, 78-9). This leads to increase in the demand for money.

The equations representing aggregate demand for money can be represented as:

                                                              Md= P x L (R, Y)


P-Price level

Y-Real national income

R-Interest rates for non-monetary assets

L (R, Y) – Aggregate demand for monetary assets


Md/P=L(R, Y)

Aggregate demand for money is a function of interest rates and national income

Graph showing the relationship between interest rate and the aggregate demand for money


From the diagram above, it is observed that there is an inverse relationship between the aggregate real money demand and the interest rates. At lower interest rates, there is high demand for monetary assets since individuals would demand more money for transaction purposes. On the other hand, at high interest rates, few individuals would be willing to hold money for transaction purposes, lowering the aggregate real demand for money.

Graph showing the effect on the aggregate demand schedule of an increase in real income


From the graph above, it can be observed that increase in income levels would result into a shift in the aggregate demand for money from point L (R, Y1) to point L (R, Y2). This is because increase in the levels of income for individuals will increase their purchasing power, thereby leading to increase in the aggregate real demand. On the other hand, increase in income levels would also lead to increased interest rates (Kaushik, 1987, 78-9). This results in the positive shift of the graph as shown in the diagram.


Cesarano, F., 2007, Monetary theory and Bretton Woods: The construction of an international monetary order. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kaushik, S. K., 1987, International banking and world economic growth: The outlook for the        late 1980s. New York [u.a.: Praeger.

Murphy, A. E., 2009, The genesis of macroeconomics: New ideas from Sir William Petty to Henry Thornton. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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The Economics Of End Treatment options

The Economics Of End 


Treatment options

            There are tow treatment options for patient who can not receive kidney transplants these are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.haemodyalysis is performed in dialysis outpatient centers, patients under this therapy have to make visits to the centre thrice a week lasting between 31/2 and 41/2 hours. This is a difficult treatment for patients who have other medical complications associated with the patient due to the time commitments, patients are often forced to drop out of work as they are not in  a position to maintain their employment full time. This is the most chosen treatment modality by nephrologists. Some of the patients receive this treatment in their homes utilizing machines that have been built by NxStage and are trained thoroughly in there treatment. 

            There is logic reasoning behind this treatment but despite this fact many people are not getting home hemodialysis .a positive aspect of hemodyalsyis is the social interaction that exists between patients and staff of the centre. There is bonding between patients in the centre and go ahead to exchange information on their illness as well as the ongoing progress of the treatment. Patients tend to prefer receiving their treatment from the centers as opposed to their homes due to the fact that they can develop stress or even the development of complications outside a medical facility were one can get immediate and qualified attention.

            The second treatment is peritoneal dialysis which is different from hemodialysis.PD treatments are performed each day as opposed to hemodyalysis. Both treatments are reimbursed the same way in that the same amount which is paid for a three week treatment in hemodialysis is paid in PD seven day in a week treatment. This means that hemodialysis costs more as compared to PD daily treatments. The treatment modality for PD is very flexible hence it is advantageous compared to hemodyalysis and no thrice a week travel is required. since PD uses the peritoneal membrane there are disadvantages that can be associated with this such a disadvantage is the development of peritonitis which is an inflammation  followed by an infection of peritoneal cavity which is quite painful and requires a patient to shift to hemodyalysis. At the same time the patient will be receiving treatment for their infection and most of them can not revert back to PD. reimbursement for both treatment is on the basis of basic treatment and additional payments are on drugs and tests payment structures for both treatments are both same however the difference comes in the cost of the ancillary drugs. Those who are prescribed PD are healthier as v=compared to hemodyalysis and therefore they often do not require any additional drugs so as to maintain their quality of life. PD patients also have a greater kidney function which requires less treatment for disorders like anemia.

Ethical implication

            Many providers in the market today are out to make profits.PD is seen to be the lowest cost from the perspective of payers but in the real sense it is very profitable to the providers. This is an unethical practice since the providers are portraying it as a cheaper option while in the real sense they are making numerous gains. There are also ethical issues that are associated with production of artificial kidneys or dialyzers. Even though hemodyalysis is considered as a safe option there is the ethical issue of dialyzers that is associated to the treatment.

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The economics of money, banking, and financial markets


  1. The monetary base. 


Monetary base = reserves + currency 
                  MB          =      R       +     C


30 + 15


AED 45 billion



  1. The banks’ reserve ratio. 


Separate the sum the bank has close by the aggregate estimation of stores. For instance, on the off chance that you verify that the bank has $300 million in stores and $10 million available, you would separate 10 by 300 to get 0.3. At that point increase by 100

This gives you is equal to reserve ratio= 30%


  1. Currency drain as a % of deposits.  (1 Mark)


Currency drain ratio = currency / deposits

= 10/300





  1. Illustrate how the banks create money with the help of given information. 

(Show first 5 steps)

  • The “cash” in your ledger does not speak to physical money that you can hold in your grasp; it is basically a bookkeeping risk from the bank to you, and just exists as an issue in a machine framework. 
  • We now utilize these bank liabilities/ bookkeeping passages to make installments in excess of 99% of all exchanges (by worth). In this way we could depict bank liabilities, bank credit and bank stores (which are all the same thing) as being comparable to cash in the cutting edge. 
  • Banks make bank stores (the cash in your record) when they make advances. They add liabilities to the borrower’s record, and at the same time include a benefit (the credit contract) to their asset report. 
  • The repayable primary of the advance is recorded as a benefit. Nonetheless, the investment payable isn’t recorded as a benefit on the monetary record, yet is recently recorded as wage as and when the premium is paid. 
  • The cash that banks utilization to pay one another – national bank holds – is itself made out of nothing as a bookkeeping passage by the Bank. 

In synopsis, what we use as “cash” – the numbers in our ledgers – are just bookkeeping entrances made by banks. These bookkeeping entrances make up in excess of all the cash that

  1. Calculate the total money creation in the economy with the help of formula. 

To calculate the multiplier uses marginal propensities, as follows:




Hence, the multiplier is 10, which means that every AED 1 of new income generates AED 10 of extra income.


Mishkin, F. S. (2007). The economics of money, banking, and financial markets. Pearson  education.

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The economics of race, agriculture, and environment

The economics of race, agriculture, and environment

Part 1

Racialism is the judging or discriminating against an individual based on the genetic variations of the individual or the discrimination against based on ethnicity and culture. Economically implicit racial contents occurred way back in the previous generation but the individuals of that race are still experiencing the effects of these past acts. Competition is known to decrease the impact of racialism. The human capital theory is the advantage and disadvantages that arises between different employments due to wage differentials. It is said that personal incomes vary depending on the amount of human capital invested. The human capital theory assumes that the wage and competitive difference vary depending on the characteristics of an individual such as prior experience, age, education and gender, Margaret et al (318). This theory seems to be influenced by racial content with the aspect of men earning more than women despite the same background of education and experience.

The economics of race, agriculture and environment

The efficiency wage theory incorporates the degree of competition in terms of labor and the final market product with the size of the input work force. The labor force is divided into skilled and unskilled with efficiency being associated with skilled labor which mostly is linked to white and unskilled labor to black people. Market segmentation divides the market into public or private sector or formal and the informal sector or it could also segment the market by gender, men type of jobs and those of the women, (Ben 165). Some market sectors are also associated with a particular race, with most of the workers being of a particular race.

Part 2

The primary objective of agriculture is food production with many technologies geared towards the increase and sustainability of food production to ensure provision to the whole world at large. Distribution of food and its consumption is a factor that is influenced by climate and the preference of the group residing in a particular area. Income and lifestyle of a particular group also influences the consumption of food and its distribution. The metropolis being urban has more of industrialization than agriculture and their consumption is dependent on the supply from the rural area. The metropolis is associated with skilled labor that is incorporated in the industries and thus very little food production. Most of the people inhabiting such areas consume large amount of junk food which are cheaper and easily available. The rich can however afford to buy healthy foods that are transported from the rural areas and therefore tend to have high prices. The rich people are usually thought to be whites while the poor blacks thus some degree of racism when it comes to the distribution of food. Socioeconomic status also has a large influence on the consumption of food with the low socioeconomic individuals consuming healthy cheap foods compared to the high socioeconomic individuals who can afford junk foods that are expensive.

In the river basin region, individuals mostly rely on foods that the water source can offer that is easily available to them. Agriculture in this region is a major activity though pollution is seen as the major hindrance to the prosperity of these regions. The areas though thought to be productive are marked by the people living below the poverty line because of overexploitation of the available resources, (Andrew 2008). Markets of the products of food production are organized to different classes to suite different types of consumers. Hyper markets are associated with the rich that that are mostly classified according to race and social standings. For example a rich black person shopping in a white dominant market will be assumed to be a servant because of his color.

Part 3

The major key factors that affect productivity are the human capital. The human labor input in the productivity contributes a lot to the food production. The human capital theory best explains the concept of food production in relation to the human labor. Education and training of the workers in a production facility raises the standards of production and empowers the workers with necessary skills for a better production; this is a concept that the human capital theory applies. The knowledge and skills leads to a rise in the workers income through the increase of the lifetime earnings. The skilled workers are however sometimes selected on the basis of race with many people associating the blacks with unskilled labor thus no matter the experience or education they fail to get competitive positions with their opponents. This also applies to the judgment of labor on the basis of the school one attended and the place where one was raised. These kinds of judgment leads to the low productivity of food industries and also it could lead to poor quality of the products.

Experience is however found to have strong effects on the performance related to food production as discussed by Barry (112). Age and the state of mind of an individual also will have direct effects to the productivity of the particular individual. For example a pregnant woman or a person with a his own family to take care of will have a less productivity because of the lack of pure concentration on the work at hand unlike a young man with nothing to think about but himself. This also creates a point for discrimination if an employer will prefer single men than married ones or prefer men to women. This can be said to be some degree of racism in a way.

Works Cited

Andrew, O. “Niger river basin” water and food article, (2008): Print.

Margaret, L & Howard, F. sociology: understanding a diverse society. U.S.A: Thompson Corporation, 2006. Print.

Ben Fine. Labour market theory: a constructive reassessment. Canada: Routledge, 1998. Print.

Barry, S. & Michael, E. hunter-gather childhoods: evolutionary, developmental, & cultural perspectives. New Jersey: transactions publishers, 2005. Print.

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Did morality or economics dominate the debates over slavery in the 1850s? 

1. Did morality or economics dominate the debates over slavery in the 1850s? Explain the various arguments made for and against the expansion of slavery. Who, if anyone, was arguing for abolition?

2. John O’Sullivan declared that race was the key to nations’ history and the empires’ rise and fall. How accurate do you think that statement was? Why?

Did morality or economics dominate the debates over slavery in the 1850s? 

3. What did Emerson mean by “Mexico will poison us”? Was he right? Why or why not?

4. How did the war affect the economies of the North and of the South?

5. What strategy did General Grant adopt to achieve victory for the Union, and why did he do so? Why was his strategy criticized?

6. Describe the changes in Lincoln’s thinking that led to the Civil War as a total war.

7. Was Reconstruction a success or a failure? Or was it something in between? In your response, consider land policy, key legislation during Presidential and Radical Reconstruction, southern politics, racial and political violence, and northern “fatigue” with Reconstruction. Be sure to make clear what you mean by success and failure.

8. The debate surrounding the creation and ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment divided one-time political allies over the matter of women’s suffrage. What were the arguments for and against including a woman’s right to vote in the Fifteenth Amendment? What did this debate say about the boundaries of freedom defined by Reconstruction?

9. One of the most divisive issues during the Reconstruction period was the meaning of “freedom” and “citizenship.” Did this debate reach some closure during the Reconstruction period? Why or why not? Be sure to summarize the opinions of different social and political groups that dominated the national agenda during this period.

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Economics Discussion

Economics Discussion

Briefly present the highlights of the company’s income statement.

  • Was the company profitable or did it operate at a loss that year? 
  • What were the sources of profits and losses for the company that year?
  • Are profits or losses increasing or decreasing on a year-to-year basis?

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Finance And Economics In Health Care Delivery – Discussion 9 (Grading Rubic Attached)

The Process of Benchmarking

In order to be competitive in health care markets, organizations must ensure that the services they provide are consistent in pricing and quality with other comparable organizations. In this Discussion, you will examine how the process of benchmarking, or comparing organizations, is important in financial decision making.

To prepare:

Review the information on benchmarking found in this week’s Learning Resources.

Search the Walden Library or other reliable resources on the Internet and locate a journal article discussing how a health care organization has used the principle of benchmarking.

How could the concept of benchmarking be used in your own organization (or one with which you are familiar), regardless of size?

Consider how benchmarking could be useful to you in decision making.

Analyze the potential risks of making a faulty comparison.

Post a summary of the article you found (including the APA reference) and explain how it informed your understanding of benchmarking. Discuss how benchmarking could be used for financial decision making in your own organization (or one with which you are familiar). Also analyze the potential risks of making comparisons with an organization that is not a credible match with your own.


Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days. Comment on a colleague with different options than your own. Describe what you like about their options and if you agree with their rankings. Justify your answers.

(I will send the responses soon)

Required Readings

Baker, J., & Baker, R. W. (2014). Health care finance: Basic tools for nonfinancial managers (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Chapter 13, “Trend Analysis, Common Sizing, and Forecasted Data” (pp. 143–155)

The focus of this chapter is the use of trend analysis and forecasting to develop future budgets and make financial decisions about capital purchases, programs, and personnel.

Chapter 14, “Using Comparative Data” (pp. 157–169)

In this chapter, you are introduced to the criteria for identifying other health care organizations that are comparable to your own. Data from these organizations can then be used to evaluate your own organizational performance.

Chapter 18, “Estimates, Benchmarking, and Other Measurement Tools” (pp. 215–224)

In this chapter, you continue exploring the concept of financial benchmarking. The chapter focuses on the importance of benchmarking for identifying performance gaps.

Zelman, W., McCue, M., & Glick, N. (2009). Financial management of health care organizations: An introduction to fundamental tools, concepts, and applications (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass. 

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Chapter 5, “Working Capital Management” (pp. 187–231)

This chapter examines the concept of working capital. The authors explore the specifics of current assets and the management of the working capital cycle.

Chapter 11, “Responsibility Accounting” (pp. 468–497)

Review: This chapter explores the trend toward the decentralization of health care organizations and the challenges this presents. This chapter also describes responsibility centers, or organizational units intended to achieve specific tasks.

 Mulva, S., & Dai, J. (2009) Health care facility benchmarking. HERD, 3(1), 28–37.

Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications via the Copyright Clearance Center.

This article describes a national health care facility’s benchmarking program. It is designed to compare measures of capital project performance.

 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2013). Measuring and benchmarking clinical performance. Retrieved from

 Ettorchi-Tardy, A., Levif, M., & Michel, P. (2012). Benchmarking: A Method for Continuous Quality Improvement in Health. Healthcare Policy, e101-e119. Retrieved from

 Document: Week 10 Application Assignment Template (Excell Spreadsheet)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Expense forecasting. Baltimore, MD: Author. 

Note:  The approximate length of this media piece is 5 minutes.

In this video, Dr. William Ward discusses expense forecasting and demonstrates how to perform trend analysis, staff forecasting, comparative data analysis, and capacity forecasting.

Accessible player  

 Laureate Education (Producer). (2015). Week 10 Application Assignment Tutorial: Benefit Cost Ratio. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 Laureate Education (Producer). (2015). Week 10 Application Assignment Tutorial: Breakeven Analysis. Baltimore, MD: Author. 

 Laureate Education (Producer). (2015). Week 10 Application Assignment Tutorial: Expense Forecasting. Baltimore, MD: Author. 

 Laureate Education (Producer). (2015). Week 10 Application Assignment Tutorial: Profit and Loss Scenario. Baltimore, MD: Author. 

Optional Resources

 Hurlock J. (2012). Get to know Excel 2010: Create your first spreadsheet. Retrieved from

 Goodwill Community Foundation, Inc. (n.d.). Excel 2010. Retrieved from


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