Amazon: Strategy, Valuation, and Deal Structure

Amazon: Strategy, Valuation, and Deal Structure.

Amazon

Amazon.com, Inc. – Early Development and Financing

At age 31, Jeffrey Bezos resigned his position as Senior Vice President of D. E.

Shaw & Co., a Wall Street investment firm, to found an Internet venture. Bezos, who

holds a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from Princeton

University, had been searching systematically for a way to participate in the growth of

retailing on the Internet. After considering a number of alternatives, he settled on the

idea of establishing an online bookstore.

Overview

Amazon.com was founded in Seattle, Washington in July 1994 with an initial

investment of $10,000 by Bezos. The entire first year of the venture’s existence was

devoted to development of infrastructure: designing the website, establishing relations

with distributors, developing software to manage book orders and deliveries, designing a

search engine, and developing the software to manage the cash flow of the venture. For

the most part, development efforts were performed by Bezos, himself.

Amazon.com opened for business on the Internet in July 1995, billing itself as

“Earth’s Biggest Bookstore.” The Company offers over 2.5 million titles, including most

of the 1.5 million of the English-language titles currently in print. By contrast, even the

largest traditional bookstore does not carry more than 175,000 titles in inventory.

The Company’s objective is to become “the leading online retailer of information-

based products and services, with an initial focus on books.” Amazon expects to compete

against traditional bookstores by offering books that are in high demand at discount

prices that are difficult for the traditional bookstores to match and by offering

convenience and information that cannot be duplicated by traditional bookstores.

Amazon’s reliance on the Internet affords it a cost advantage that cannot be

duplicated by traditional bookstores. The Company hopes to compete against the

potential emergence of competition of other Internet book sellers by building customer

loyalty, maintaining technological leadership, building a strong brandname, being

strongly service-oriented, and capitalizing on incremental revenue opportunities. Since

the range of services is always changing, the best way to understand the Company’s

strategy is to visit its website, http://www.amazon.com/ .

The retail book market is large and growing. By the year 2000, annual U.S. book

sales are projected by Euromonitor to reach $30 billion and worldwide book sales are

projected to reach $90 billion. The two largest U.S. retailers account for less than 25

percent of the U.S. market. Amazon.com views its market as world-wide. As of year

end 1996, the Company had approximately 180,000 customers and was receiving regular

book orders from more than 100 countries.

2

Financing

Exhibit 1 contains a chronology of Company financing from 1994 through early

1998. Exhibit 2 contains a summary of the financial statements of Amazon.com during

the Company’s early years of operation, and for the first quarters of 1997 and 1998. 1 The

Company has a December 31 fiscal year end so the statements do not reflect the effect of

the debt restructuring in May of 1998. 2

Also, in April 1998, the Company announced that it acquired three Internet

companies: Bookpages Limited (in the United Kingdom), Telebook, Inc. (in Germany),

and Internet Movie Database Limited. The acquisitions were made in exchange for

540,000 shares of common stock and the Company incurred $55 million in charges

associated with the acquisisions.

Status

As of summer 1998, Hoover’s Online (http://www.hovers.com/) reports that

Amazon.com has customers in more than 150 countries and all 50 states. The Company

is integrating into online sales of music and video. Jeffrey Bezos and family members

own 48 percent of the Company, and two Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers venture

capital funds own 12 percent. In total, 42 percent of the stock is owned by institutions.

With an annual salary of $79,197, Bezos is among the lower paid members of the

management team.

The IPO occurred in 1997 and was priced at $18 per share. In April 1998 the

Company announced a 2 for 1 stock split. The closing stock price of Amazon.com on

July 2, 1998 was $124 per share (after the split), resulting in a market capitalization of

$6.1 billion. The stock price was 28 times annual sales revenue for the prior 12 months

and 310 times book value per share. Exhibit 3 shows the price performance of

Amazon.com stock from the IPO in 1997 to July 1998.

1 Per share figures in Exhibit 2 reflect a 2 for 1 stock split after the end of the first quarter of 1998. Per

share figure in Exhibit 1 are adjusted for the split. 2 The IPO prospectus and the 1997 10-K are available in the Resources file for this case.

Exhibit 1

Summary of Financing Activities of Amazon.com

Date Amount Terms

July 1994 $10,000 From Jeffrey Bezos, in exchange for 10,200,000

shares of common stock ($.001 per share). 3

July 5, 1994 $15,000 Interest-free loan from Jeffrey Bezos. Repaid

August 1995.

November 1994 $29,000 Interest-free loan from Jeffrey Bezos. Repaid

April 1995.

November 1994 Jeffrey Bezos personal guarantee of obligations

to Seafirst Bank.

February 9, 1995 $100,000 From Miguel Bezos (father of Jeffrey), in

exchange for 582,528 shares of common stock

($.1717 per share).

April 1995 Jeffrey Bezos personal guarantee of Company

credit cards.

July 1995 Jeffrey Bezos personal guarantee of obligations

to Wells Fargo Bank.

July 24, 1995 $145,500 From Gise Family Trust, Jacklyn Gise Bezos

(mother of Jeffery), Trustee, for 847,716 shares

of common stock ($.1717 per share).

August 7, 1995 $5,408 An employee, for 42,000 shares of common

stock ($.1287 per share).

November 1995 $40,000 Interest-free loan from Jeffrey Bezos. Repaid

November 1995.

December 6, 1995 $50,000 From Tom Alberg, preferred shares convertible

to 150,000 shares of common stock ($.3333 per

share). Alberg became a Company director in

June 1996, and a senior officer of both McCaw

Cellular and LIN Broadcasting until October

1995, when they were acquired by AT&T.

May 1996 $117,200 To family member at price established in

December 1995 ($.1717 per share).

May 3, 1996 $20,000 From Mark Bezos and Christina Bezos Poore

(siblings of Jeffrey), for preferred shares

convertible to 60,000 shares of common stock

($.3333 per share).

3 If the Company proposes to register any of its securities for its own account or the account of other

security holders, Jeffrey Bezos has the right to include shares in the registration at Company expense. The

underwriter, in a public issue, may limit the number of shares in such a registration.

4

December 6, 1995

To May 16, 1996

$937,000 From 20 other investors as a private placement,

for preferred shares convertibile to 2,811,000

shares of common stock ($.3333 per share).

Average investment, $46,850 per investor.

June 21, 1996 $8,000,014 From two venture capital funds managed by

Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, for 569,396

shares of preferred stock, each share convertible

to 6 shares of common stock, (at a value per

common share of $2.3417). 4

January 1997

and February 1997

$200,000 Equally from Scott D. Cook and Patricia Q

Stonesifer (new members of the Amazon board),

for 30,000 shares of convertible preferred stock,

(at a value of $6.6667 per common share). 5

May 15, 1997 $49,100,000 Net proceeds of initial public offering of

3,000,000 shares at $18.00. All outstanding

preferred stock was converted to common at the

time of the IPO. 6

December 23,

1997

$75,000,000 Senior secured variable rate term loan at LIBOR

plus 4% or a comparable rate, and with warrants

to purchase 750,000 shares of common stock at

an exercise price of $52.11 per share.

May 8, 1998 $326,000,000 Public issue of 10% Senior Discount Notes due

2008 (sold at discount from $530 million par

value, with no interest payments to be made until

2003). Proceeds used to retire $75 million of

existing debt (including cancellation of warrants)

and for other purposes.

4 In connection with the preferred stock investment, L. John Doerr, and General Partner of Kleiner Perkins

Caufield & Byers joined the board of Amazon.com. If the Company proposes to register any of its

securities for its own account or the account of other security holders, KPCB has the right to include shares

in the registration at Company expense. In addition KPCB has demand registration rights, pursuant to

which it may require the Company to file a registration statement. The underwriter, in a public issue, may

limit the number of shares in such a registration. 5 Scott Cook, co-founder of Intuit, joined the board in January 1997, and Patricia Stonesifer, an

independent management consultant, joined in February 1997. 6 In addition to the listed transactions before the IPO, the company issued 2,136.444 shares at various times

to licensees or through exercise of stock options, bringing the total outstanding after the IPO to 23,858,702

common shares.

Exhibit 2 7

Summary of Amazon.com Inc. Financial Statements

Annual Information (Thousands) 1997 1996 1995 1994 1998-Q1 1997-Q1

Statement of Operations Net Sales $147,758 $15,746 $511 $0 $87,357 $16,005 Cost of Sales $118,945 $12,287 $409 $0 $68,054 $12,484 Gross Profit $28,813 $3,459 $102 $0 $19,303 $3,521 Operating Expenses Marketing and Sales $38,964 $6,090 $200 $0 $19,503 $3,906 Product Development $12,485 $2,313 $171 $38 $6,729 $1,575 General and Administrative $6,573 $1,035 $35 $14 $1,963 $1,142 Total Operating Expenses $58,022 $9,438 $406 $52 $28,195 $6,623 Gain (Loss) from Operations ($29,209) ($5,979) ($304) ($52) ($8,892) ($3,102) Interest Income $1,898 $202 $1 $0 $1,640 $64 Interest Expense ($279) $0 $0 $0 ($2,025) $0 Net Loss ($27,590) ($5,777) ($303) ($52) ($9,277) ($3,038)

Shares (fully diluted and adjusted for 2 for 1 split)

43,302 37,088 28,786 26,382 46,622 38,804

Gain (Loss) per Share ($0.64) ($0.16) ($0.01) ($0.00) ($0.20) ($0.08)

7 An Excel file of this figure is available.

6

Annual Information (Thousands) 1997 1996 1995 1994 1998-Q1 1997-Q1

Balance Sheet Data Cash and Equivalents $109,810 $6,248 $996 $52 $98,600 $109,810 Working Capital $93,517 $2,270 $920 ($16) $84,415 $93,517 Total Assets $149,006 $8,271 $1,084 $76 $145,007 $149,006 Long-term Debt $76,702 $0 $0 $0 $76,702 $76,702 Stockholders’ Equity $28,486 $3,401 $977 $8 $19,827 $28,486

Assets per Share $3.44 $0.22 $0.04 $0.00 $3.11 $3.84 Equity per Share $0.66 $0.09 $0.03 $0.00 $0.43 $0.73

7

Annual Information (Thousands) 1997 1996 1995 1994 1998-Q1 1997-Q1

Statement of Cash Flows OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net Loss ($27,590) ($5,777) ($303) ($9,259) ($3,038) Depreciation and Amortization $4,742 $286 $19 $1,975 $683 Changes in Oper. Assets and Liab. Inventories ($8,400) ($554) ($17) ($2,703) ($368) Prepaid Expenses ($2,977) ($307) ($14) ($1,101) ($616) Deposits ($20) ($146) ($127) ($47) Accounts Payable $29,845 $2,753 $99 $1,677 $2,798 Accrued Advertising $2,856 $598 $0 $1,895 $656 Other Accrued Expenses $5,066 $1,412 ($16) $1,088 $1,135 Net Cash Used in Operations $3,522 ($1,735) ($232) ($6,555) $1,203 INVESTING ACTIVITIES Net Purchases of Short-term Investments

($15,256) $0 $0 ($2,999) $0

Purchases of Fixed Assets ($7,221) ($1,214) ($52) ($2,071) ($926) Net Cash Used in Investing Activities

($22,477) ($1,214) ($52) ($5,070) ($926)

FINANCING ACTIVITIES Proceeds of Initial Public Offering $49,103 $0 $0 $0 $0 Proceeds from Sale of Common Stock or Options

$518 $231 $1,272 $415 $437

Proceeds from Sale of Preferred Stock

$200 $7,970 $0 $0 $200

Proceeds from Borrowing (Repayment)

$75,000 $0 ($44) $0 $0

Financing Costs ($2,304) $0 $0 $0 $0 Net Cash from Financing Activities

$122,517 $8,201 $1,228 $415 $637

Increase in Cash and Equivalents $103,562 $5,252 $944 ($11,210) $914

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Explain your answers to the “believing” questions about the three (3) premises opposing your position from the Procon.org website

Explain your answers to the “believing” questions about the three (3) premises opposing your position from the Procon.org website.

Believing

First read a book excerpt about critical thinking processes: “The Believing Game and How to Make Conflicting Opinions More Fruitful” at http://www.procon.org/sourcefiles/believinggame.pdf. Next, you will review the Procon.org Website in order to gather information. Then, you will engage in prewriting to examine your thoughts.
Note: In Part II of the assignment (due Week 4), you will write an essay geared towards synthesizing your ideas.

Part I – Prewriting: Follow the instructions below for this prewriting activity. Use complete sentences and adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling.
1. Select one (1) of the approved topics from the www.procon.org Website and state your position on the issue. PLEASE PICK SOCIAL MEDIA TOPIC THIS IS  THE TOPIC I PICKED

2. From the Procon.org Website, identify three (3) premises (reasons) listed under either the Pro or Con section – whichever section opposes your position.
3.For each of the three (3) premises (reasons) that oppose your position on the issue, answer these “believing” questions suggested by Elbow:

a. What’s interesting or helpful about this view?

b. What would I notice if I believed this view?

c. In what sense or under what conditions might this idea be true?”

The paper should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing:

· Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph.

· Address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences.

· Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling.

Assignment 1.2: Conflicting Viewpoints Essay – Part II
Synthesizing and Writing

In Part II of the assignment  you will write a paper to synthesize your ideas.
Part II – Writing
Write at three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:
1. State your position on the SOCIAL MEDIA topic you selected for Assignment 1.1.
2. Identify (3) three premises (reasons) from the Procon.org website that support your position    and explain why you selected these specific reasons.
3. Explain your answers to the “believing” questions about the three (3) premises opposing your position from the Procon.org website.
4. Examine at least two (2) types of biases that you likely experienced as you evaluated the premises for and against your position.
5. Discuss the effects of your own enculturation or group identification that may have influenced your biases.
6. Discuss whether or not your thinking about the topic has changed after playing the “Believing Game,” even if your position on the issue has stayed the same

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Explain your answers to the “believing” questions about the three (3) premises opposing your position from the Procon.org website

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The reason is that the mapping between English orthography and the sounds of English (as represented in the IPA) is a many-to-many map

The reason is that the mapping between English orthography and the sounds of English (as represented in the IPA) is a many-to-many map.

Orthography

Q1. One  reason that we cannot use English orthography to reason about the  sounds of natural languages is that not all the sounds of the world’s  languages appear in English. Give an example of a sound (represented by  way of an IPA symbol) that does not appear in English, together with the  name of the language where your sound appears and a word from that  language where this sound appears.

Q2.  In fact, we cannot even use English orthography to talk about the  sounds of English. The reason is that the mapping between English  orthography and the sounds of English (as represented in the IPA) is a  many-to-many map.

     a. the same letter corresponds to multiple sounds.

Give  an example of this situation — to do this, you should give a letter  that in different words is mapped to different sounds. Give the words in  English orthography and in IPA to make your point.

     b. the same IPA symbol corresponds to multiple letters.

Give  an example of this situation — to do this, you should give an IPA  symbol that in different words is mapped to different letters. Give the  words in IPA and in English orthography  to make your point.

Q3.  2a and 2b are enough to show that we have a many-many map. But the  situation is even more dire. Sometimes there are letters in particular  words that go unpronounced. Give an example of a word where this  happens

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The reason is that the mapping between English orthography and the sounds of English (as represented in the IPA) is a many-to-many map

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Code of Conduct Memo

Code of Conduct Memo. Code of Conduct Memo – Draft

 

You are a manager at a call center. The company frowns upon phone calls and texting during work hours. You have looked the other way a few times, but it has started to get out of hand. You need to write a memo reminding everyone that private phone and text message use on company time is viewed as a violation of the company’s code of ethics.

 

Write a 1-page memo in which you address the situation, emphasizing the violation of the company’s code of conduct. In your document, you should:

  1. Ensure the memo is clear and brief.
  2. Choose language to match the purpose and tone for the situation and audience.
  3. Format the memo accurately and according to the details in the textbook.
  4. Create an effective opening that establishes goodwill without obscuring the message.

 

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

 

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Illustrate the relationship between how audience characteristics match the context of technical writing.
  • Explain ideas in proper format using accurate details and relevant examples.
  • Employ correct Edited Standard Written English (ESWE).
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in technical writing.
  • Write clearly and concisely about technical writing using proper writing mechanics.

 

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.

Points: 50Assignment 1: Code of Conduct Memo – Draft
CriteriaUnacceptable

Below 60% F

Meets Minimum Expectations

60-69% D

Fair

70-79% C

Proficient

80-89% B

Exemplary

90-100% A

1. Ensure the memo is clear and brief.

Weight: 15%

Did not submit or incompletely ensured the memo is clear and brief.Insufficiently ensured the memo is clear and brief.Partially ensured the memo is clear and brief.Satisfactorily ensured the memo is clear and brief.Thoroughly ensured the memo is clear and brief.
2. Choose language to match the purpose and tone for the situation and audience.

Weight: 40%

Did not submit or incompletely chose language to match the purpose and tone for the situation and audience.Insufficiently chose language to match the purpose and tone for the situation and audience.Partially chose language to match the purpose and tone for the situation and audience.Satisfactorily chose language to match the purpose and tone for the situation and audience.Thoroughly chose language to match the purpose and tone for the situation and audience.
3. Format the memo accurately and according to the details in the textbook.

Weight: 15%

Did not submit or incompletely formatted the memo accurately and according to the details in the textbook.Insufficiently formatted the memo accurately and according to the details in the textbook.Partially formatted the memo accurately and according to the details in the textbook.Satisfactorily formatted the memo accurately and according to the details in the textbook.Thoroughly formatted the memo accurately and according to the details in the textbook.
4. Create an effective opening that establishes goodwill without obscuring the message.

Weight: 20%

Did not submit or incompletely created an effective opening that establishes goodwill without obscuring the message.Insufficiently created an effective opening that establishes goodwill without obscuring the message.Partially created an effective opening that establishes goodwill without obscuring the message.Satisfactorily created an effective opening that establishes goodwill without obscuring the message.Thoroughly created an effective opening that establishes goodwill without obscuring the message.
5.Clarity,writing mechanics, and formatting requirements

Weight: 10%

More than 8 errors present7-8 errors present5-6 errors present3-4 errors present0-2 errors present

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Code of Conduct Memo

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Discipline Awareness Presentation

Discipline Awareness Presentation. Discipline Awareness Presentation

 

The purpose of this assignment is for you to become more familiar with the interests, goals, research methods, and information dissemination channels associated with the primary discipline you are pursuing. As we noted in class, disciplines are not just collections of information, they also provide specific (though evolving) assumptions about and perspectives on the world. In addition, they have their own, unique rhetorical situations. Therefore, to write effectively in your discipline, you need to be familiar with it and the expectations of those who will be reading your work.

 

These presentations will take place over the course of two days. Approximately 14 students will present on Wednesday, October 10. The remaining eight students will present on Wednesday, October 17. Order will be determined by drawing names from a hat, so everyone must be prepared to present on 10/10. Presentations must last between six and seven minutes and include a visual aid (a Power Point, a Prezi, etc.). Each presentation must cite at least five credible sources; a reference page must be included on the final slides. Presentations should explain most of the following information:

  • The discipline on which you are presenting
  • The discipline’s primary object(s) of study
  • The key questions and types of questions asked by scholars in the discipline
  • Some of the overarching goals of the discipline
  • The methods scholars in the discipline use to study the phenomena of interests to them (quantitative, qualitative, mixed); provide some specifics
  • The primary approaches to sharing new ideas and knowledge with other scholars

 

Quick Note Part I: Do not confuse your major your discipline. While majors often directly correlate to a discipline, that is not always the case. For example, if you are an English major at Mason, there are four different disciplines you may be pursuing: Literature, Linguistics, Creative Writing, or Rhetoric.

 

Quick Note Part II: Some students may be pursuing an established interdisciplinary field that draws on more than one discipline. Examples of such fields include, but are not limited to, cultural studies, women’s studies, conflict analysis, global affairs, and film and media studies. If that’s the case, treat the interdisciplinary field in the same way you would a discipline (answering the questions above as you would for any discipline), but you may also want to include a discussion of the disciplines from which the field of study evolved.

 

Quick Note Part III: If you do not present on October 10, you CANNOT change the visual aid before you present on October 10. This would be an unfair advantage.

 

Due Date and Point Break Down

Each visual aide must be submitted by 11:59 PM on Tuesday, October 9 (slight change from syllabus, but it will make it easier to have the room ready if everyone submits well ahead of time). The presentation is worth 10% of the overall grade and will be graded on a 100 point scale. Anyone who is absent for the first day or presentations (Wednesday, October 10) will have their final presentation marked down one full letter grade.

 

Presentation Rubric

Category/GradeABCD-F
 

 

 

Content

(50 points)

 

 

Presentation provides a clear, engaging, detailed introduction to the discipline, covering all of the bulleted points in a logical orderPresentation provides a clear introduction to the discipline, but parts of presentation may lack specificity or some points may be under-developedPresentation provides a general overview of the disciplines covered; it is mostly clear, but lacks specifics and may not deal with several of the bulleted pointsPresentation is far too general; does not provide an effective overview of the discipline; audience left with many questions about the discipline
 

 

Sources

(30 points)

Presentation cites more than five, credible relevant sourcesPresentation cites at least five credible, relevant sourcesPresentation cites at least five sources, though there may be minor issues of credibility/relevancePresentation cites fewer than five sources or there are significant problems with credulity relevance
 

 

Visual Aide

(10 points)

 

 

Visually appealing, clean simple layout, text is easy to read, graphics enhance understanding of ideasVisually attractive, text is easy to read, colors enhance readability, graphics and special effects do not distract from understanding ideasText is sometimes hard to read, sometimes graphics or special effects distract from understandingText is very difficult to read, layout is cluttered and confusing
 

 

 

Delivery

(10 points)

 

 

Presenters are clear and professional; maintain eye contact with audience (not reading directly from screen or cards for long periods)Presenters are mostly clear and professional; mostly maintain eye contact with audiencePresenters are somewhat unclear or somewhat unprofessional; eye contact is fleeting (too much reading from screen or cards)Presenters are unclear and/or unprofessional; read from screen or cards
 

Time Penalties

 

 

Presentation lasts between 6 and 7 minutes

 

No Time Penalty

Presentation is too short or to long by a minute or more

 

5 point penalty

Presentation is too short or too long by two minutes or more

 

10 point penalty

Presentation is too short or too long by three minutes or more

 

15 point penalty

 

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What measurement do you think is necessary to determine if the campaign is successful in accomplishing its objectives?

What measurement do you think is necessary to determine if the campaign is successful in accomplishing its objectives?.

Advertising campaign

selects an advertising campaign created by an external (not in-house) advertising agency for its client that is a national or international product, brand, service, company, or organization. The campaign must be current and will have run in the media within the last two year (2016-2018). The campaign must be in the English language.

An advertising campaign is defined as a series of related ads that are based on the same theme, message, and offer. The Snickers series commercials “You’re Not You When You’re Hungry,” is a good example of a campaign. It was created for the Snickers brand by ad agency BBDO. Another good example is Dos Equis’ “The Most Interesting Man in the World” campaign created for Dos Equis by ad agency Havas.

The advertising agency must be an external agency, not an in-house agency owned or controlled by the brand or manufacturer. The campaign must have been placed and appeared in at least two different media (e.g., TV, magazine, radio, newspaper, digital, social media, etc.).

Here is the assignment:
Deconstruct and analyze the selected campaign and present your analysis in a PowerPoint or Prezi presentation of 14 slides plus an introductory, title slide and a sources slide (for a total of 16 slides). The first slide (introductory) must include your name, the advertising campaign and the advertising agency selected. Slide 16 is the Sources slide that will reference any source material or texts that you include in the body of your presentation. Sources in the slide must be in APA format. Information from the Wells Library on how to develop and write sources is at Pages.

Your analysis in the PowerPoint or Prezi will include the following:

1) Copy and paste (for print, outdoor, Web, social media) or embed or provide a link (for TV, radio or video, digital) in the PowerPoint for at least two of the ads.

2) Present a thorough description of what you believe is the target audience for the campaign, including demographics, psychographics (attitudes, values, and lifestyle – VALS). Answer the questions: a) Does the campaign in your opinion demonstrate understanding and empathy for this target audience? How? b) Does the advertising “connect” emotionally with the target audience? If so, how?

3) Answer these questions succinctly in your PowerPoint: a) What is the business problem this ad campaign is solving for the product, brand or company? b) What is the advertising communication objective of the ad? c) Is this a new product being introduced, or is this a reintroduction of an existing product? d) Is this campaign building brand awareness and identity, or is this a special sales promotion to move the product by price incentives?

4) Based on your analysis: a) what is the creative strategy of the campaign? b) what is the “big idea?” or what is the major promise of the campaign? c) what emotional “connection” has been created between the brand and the consumer? d) does the ad use some memorable creative device to communicate its benefits to the consumer? Examples of memorable creative devices are the Gecko character in Geico; or the duck in Aflac; or the Old Spice “man.”

5) a) What are the key consumer benefits of the brand that are communicated in the campaign? b) what are the rational benefits communicated? c) what are the emotional benefits communicated? d) are there supporting reasons to purchase or try the product? e) is there a “call to action”– asking the consumer to do something specifically like go to a Website, redeem a coupon, call a toll-free number, come in for a test drive?

6) Is there anything that you would do to improve the ad to make it better, more effective?

7) What measurement do you think is necessary to determine if the campaign is successful in accomplishing its objectives?

8) Do you think the ad is ethically and socially responsible? Why or why not?

9) Develop an overview of the advertising agency that produced the campaign – this will require research through sources such as www.adforum.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.  or www.adage.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Specify the ad agency name, size, (number of people and/or revenue) location, clients, awards, reputation, and advertising specializations.
Other sources to identify the advertising agency include the Websites of five major ad agency holding companies: www.omnicomgroup.com; (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. www.wpp.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.; www.publicisgroupe.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.; www.havas.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.; and www.interpublic.com. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. At these sites, you can find the individual agency you are researching under a tab that will list all the agencies the holding company owns. For instance, Chicago headquartered agency Leo Burnett is under www.publicisgroupe.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Ogilvy is under www.wpp.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., and so on.
Another way to find the ad agency that created the campaign is to Google, Use the search words for the brand and the agency, e.g. “Ad agency for Snickers, Betty White” or “Snickers advertising agency, You’re Not You When You’re Hungry” or “Geico ad agency.”

Have fun with the creation of your PowerPoint or Prezi, and feel free to use graphics, images, animation and sound. This is your opportunity to shine creatively while thinking critically about how advertising is created and constructed.

Make sure you have selected the correct agency that created the campaign. If you are not certain AFTER you have thoroughly done your research, ask me. A common mistake is to incorrectly think the company that makes the product (the manufacturer, marketer or advertiser) is the advertising agency. For instance, the maker of Tide is Procter & Gamble, but P&G is not an ad agency; it is the manufacturer and the marketer that hires ad agencies for its 300 plus brands. The same is true for other manufacturers and marketers of multiple brands: Unilever, General Mills, Kellogg’s, Kraft, ConAgra, and Kimberly-Clark–these are all manufacturers and marketers who HIRE external ad agencies; they are not ad agencies. Selecting the wrong agency will reduce the grade on this assignment by two full grades.

ASSIGNMENT RUBRIC:
1) Presentation is well organized, neatly and clearly presented. Correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation are used. Correct number of slides are included. Correct APA format used in sources slide.  25 points
2) Responses to prompts/questions are complete, accurate, and demonstrate ability to analyze an advertising campaign and to think critically about key issues related to advertising.  25 points
3) Presentation demonstrates ability to analyze and apply course and text content; ability to conduct secondary research; and ability to clearly express ideas and opinions informed from the research and source materials. All key questions in assignment are answered. 25 points
4) Presentation demonstrates ability to design, create, and write a PowerPoint or Prezi as an effective communication tool for an audience. 25 points

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What measurement do you think is necessary to determine if the campaign is successful in accomplishing its objectives?

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“Big 5” personality traits

“Big 5” personality traits.  

Please describe each of the “Big 5” personality traits. For each trait, provide an example of how it might contribute positively to an individual’s performance.
125 to 150 word or morew

“Big 5” personality traits

Develop a response that includes examples and evidence to support your ideas, and which clearly communicates the required message to your audience. Organize your response in a clear and logical manner as appropriate for the genre of writing. Use well-structured sentences, audience-appropriate language, and correct conventions of standard American English.

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Hamlet Discussions

Hamlet Discussions. 1. In a primary post of 250 words or more, respond to the following questions about the appearance of King Hamlet’s ghost: Hamlet initially approaches the ghost of his father in an effort to determine whether he is “a spirit of health or goblin damned.” However, old King Claudius answers the question himself by stating that he is “doomed for a certain term to walk the night/ And for the day confined to fast in fires, / Till the foul crimes done in days of nature / Are burnt and purged away” (1.5.11-14). In doing such, the ghost implies that he inhabits the realm of purgatory. Although vigorously attacked in the Protestant Reformation beginning with Luther, the Catholic doctrine of purgatory stipulated that those individuals who had not purged their sins in life were confined indefinitely to a place of punishment until they had accounted for their transgressions. Thus, Old King Claudius is a “goblin damned,” a fact that makes his advice immediately suspect. Quoting Shakespeare’s text at least three times, address whether the ghost is asking Hamlet for “remembrance” or “revenge.” Does Hamlet decide to believe the ghost and carry out his wishes? What are at least three reasons why he decides to do so?

2. Again, this activity depends on your reading Acts I and II with great care. In particular, you should pay attention to where advice is given. Most notably, advice is given in the following passages:

  • King Claudius to his step-son, Hamlet: Act I, Scene ii, lines 87 – 117
  • Laertes to his sister, Ophelia: Act I, Scene iii, lines 1 – 51
  • Polonius to his son, Laetres: Act I, Scene iii, lines 55 – 81
  • Polonius to his daughter, Ophelia: Act I, Scene iii, lines 115 – 135
  • Selecting ONE of these passages, summarize the advice given using modern English. If you need a refresher on summary, please see the brief article in the Purdue Online Writing Center (OWL) on summary (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
  • After selecting and summarizing the text, reflect on the nature of the advice. If the speaker in your selected passage was speaking to you, how would you respond? Would you be offended? Would you take this advice – why or why not?

3.This activity assesses your ability to rephrase and explain one of the main themes of Shakespeare’s Hamlet: political decay.

“Something is rotten in the state of Denmark”

This quote is probably one of the most famous in all of Hamlet; however, it is useful to remember that Marcellus says it rather than Hamlet himself. The quote doesn’t come from a member of the nobility, it comes from a rather ordinary guardsman, commenting on the suspicious behavior of his Prince, a man first in line to the throne of his country:

Horatio: He waxes desperate with imagination.
Marcellus: Let’s follow. ‘Tis not fit thus to obey him.
Horatio: Have after. To what issue will this come?
Marcellus: Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.
Horatio: Heaven will direct it.
Marcellus: Nay, let’s follow him. [Exeunt.]
Hamlet Act 1, scene 4, 87–91

Taking the ordinary citizen of Hamlet’s Denmark as your audience, craft an in-depth news analysis on the country’s current political state. This assignment is based on your close reading of the play’s first two acts and your practice of summary in the discussion board. Similar to the longer investigative pieces found in news magazines such as Time or Newsweek, you should examine the question of whether something really is “rotten” in the state of Denmark and, if so, what? While remaining objective, your goal is to inform your readers of the “who”, “what”, “when”, “where”, and “why” of the current government and military situation of Denmark. Assume that your readers are relatively informed, but ordinary citizens of Hamlet’sDenmark.

Draw upon the political situation as presented in the play for your evidence: the recent victory over Old Fortinbras, the threat posed by his son, and the uneasy state of the monarchy. You can also use the characters in the play as your sources, quoting the words of King Claudius, Hamlet, and the Queen (for example) as further evidence for your interpretation.

This short assignment should be between 500 – 700 words in length.

Compose your work in a .doc or .docx file type using a word processor (such as Microsoft Word,

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Hamlet Discussions

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Business and Professional Writing: A Basic Guide for Americans

Business and Professional Writing: A Basic Guide for Americans.

Readings: See Chapters 5 and 17-19 in Business and Professional Writing: A Basic Guide for

Americans

Task: In the Research Proposal, you will present what you plan to write for your research paper.

You may choose the topic for your research paper, but you must choose a topic that is of current

interest within your field. Additionally, students who are earning a degree within the School of

Business are required to incorporate some aspect or discussion of diversity into their paper topic.

Format, Genre: Memo, Proposal (see examples on pages 292-296 but use headings listed

below)

Audience: Your audience should be a professional audience within your field of study.

Length: 3-4 pages single spaced

Research projects, reports, and papers generally begin with a proposal to do research. The

proposal serves several purposes: as a planning document for the writer as a decision making

tool for the audience (instructor, employer, thesis committee, book publisher, etc.) who decides if

the project and its plan are feasible and the resulting document (s) will make a significant

contribution to the company or field of study.

Use the headings below to structure your proposal. Follow the guidelines beneath each section to

help you decide what information to include under each section.

Introduction: Begin with a brief paragraph that explains your subject and purpose of your

research paper. Be concise but clear. Be sure that you have narrowed your topic to one that is

manageable in 5-6 pages (double spaced). Your research paper will be written for readers who

want a well-documented, thorough discussion of a subject.

Background: This section sets up the background of the problem, situation, or topic that you

have chosen to research. This section is important because here you give me any background

information on the subject I might need to understand your reason for researching this topic. You

also explain why the topic is important, both in general and within your field of study. You tell

what the current thinking is, why it is a current topic of discussion within your field, why your

audience should be interested in your research, and how they will use the information. You will

probably come up with other information that might be necessary for me to know. Also in this

section, you begin to prove your credibility as a researcher to me, so you must provide

researched and documented material in this section.

Consider answering some of the following questions as you prepare this section: Why is the

topic important to your field of study? How long has it been a problem? What will happen if the

problem/situation is not solved/dealt with? What do you expect the audience to do after reading

your paper? What background information does the research paper audience need in order to

understand the information in your paper?

Ultimately, this section should present the background needed for me to see that the paper has

value or relevance to your discipline or profession.

Note: This section should consist of at least three well-developed paragraphs.

Audience: Identify the primary audience for your paper. Your audience should be a professional

audience and will most likely be within your field. It cannot be a general audience. (For example,

‘teachers’ is too general an audience and would not be approved. A more specific audience might

be UHV students in the field of education working toward elementary school certification or

elementary school teachers within Victoria Independent School District who received

certification within the last three years.)

Describe how much your audience already knows about your topic. Explain the major priorities

and concerns of this audience. Analyze their attitudes toward you and your topic and explain

how you will overcome any negative attitudes they may have. Describe their reason(s) for

reading your paper and explain how you plan for them to use the information in the paper.

Note: You do not need to identify every type of audience that the text describes. Focus on the

primary audience in your discussion.

Topics to Investigate: Identify the main ideas or major topic areas of your paper. Then list the

major questions that you want your research paper to answer for your readers. Basically, you are

providing a rough outline for the body of your research paper. Indicate how deeply you will

discuss each topic. Explain the scope of your study: what areas of the subject will you cover;

what areas will you not cover and why you have made those choices. Think primarily of your

audience’s needs as you work through this section.

Methods: In this section, tell me how you plan to do the research in this section. Include specific

information about where you will research and what kinds of sources you will use (journals,

databases, Internet sources, etc.). You may use a variety of sources, but they must all be

scholarly. You must include a working bibliography listed in alphabetical order of at least 5

sources you have already read and plan to use in your research paper, at least 3 of these sources

must be scholarly journal articles. You also must include any sources you have cited in the

background section of the proposal in this bibliography. Please include a short (one to two

sentence) annotation of each source that describes its usefulness to your paper.

You may include one Internet source and must demonstrate its reliability and authority. (This

does not include databases or journals that are on the Internet, but also exist in hardcopy

somewhere. This only limits sources that can only be found on the Internet.)

I will be checking the proposal to ensure that your sources are varied, scholarly, and current.

Finally, use APA (all majors but history and English) or MLA (history and English majors)

format for your reference entries.

Qualifications: Provide any background knowledge you have in this area, including personal

reading you’ve done, classroom work/study, and work, jobs, or other activities that demonstrate

your interest and ability level. Also, you may mention any previous research you’ve done on this

or a related topic and how you are personally affected by this topic.

Note: Don’t use the list format. Write a paragraph about your qualifications.

Work Schedule: This section should begin with a short discussion of the work schedule you will

use to complete your research paper, highlighting any points of interest in the work schedule.

Next, list the major tasks needed to complete this project and the corresponding dates. You don’t

need to estimate hours. Don’t underestimate the importance of this section. This section is where

you show me your plan for completing the project in a timely manner. In addition to the tasks

that you devise, include when you will make copies of your sources to turn in with the final

version of your paper.

Request for Approval: Here you ask for my permission and for suggestions. The request for

approval is usually formulaic. Feel free to use or adapt the following sentence:

I ask that you approve my topic and my approach to it. I would appreciate suggestions on how

you think I might best proceed.

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Critical Decision Making for Providers

Critical Decision Making for Providers. Critical Decision Making for Providers

Question: View the scenario called “Critical Decision Making for Providers” found in the Allied Health Community media (http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt307v/allied-health-community/allied-health-community-v1.1.html)

In a 750-1,200 word paper, describe the scenario involving Mike, the lab technician, and answer the following questions:

What were the consequences of a failure to report?

What impact did his decision have on patient safety, on the risk for litigation, on the organization’s quality metrics, and on the workload of other hospital departments?

As Mike’s manager, what will you do to address the issue with him and ensure other staff members do not repeat the same mistakes?

A minimum of three academic references from credible sources are required for this assignment.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center. Only Word documents can be submitted to Turnitin.

RUBRIC

1

Unsatisfactory 0-71%

0.00%

2

Less Than Satisfactory 72-75%

75.00%

3

Satisfactory 76-79%

79.00%

4

Good 80-89%

89.00%

5

Excellent 90-100%

100.00%

80.0 %Content

20.0 %Scenario Description

Description of scenario is not provided.

Description of scenario is provided but is incomplete.

Description of scenario is provided.

Description of scenario is clear and accurate.

Description of scenario is clear, accurate and comprehensive.

60.0 %Discussion of Impact and Consequences of Failure to Report

Discussion of the failure to report is not provided.

Discussion of issues, their impact on the organization, and consequences is provided but is incomplete.

Discussion of issues includes a brief description of organizational impact and consequences.

Description of issues includes detailed information regarding organizational impact and consequences.

Comprehensive and compelling discussion regarding the failure to report includes consequences with recommendations to address the issue with employees.

15.0 %Organization and Effectiveness

5.0 %Thesis Development and Purpose

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

Thesis and/or main claim are insufficiently developed and/or vague; purpose is not clear.

Thesis and/or main claim are apparent and appropriate to purpose.

Thesis and/or main claim are clear and forecast the development of the paper. It is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive; contained within the thesis is the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

5.0 %Paragraph Development and Transitions

Paragraphs and transitions consistently lack unity and coherence. No apparent connections between paragraphs are established. Transitions are inappropriate to purpose and scope. Organization is disjointed.

Some paragraphs and transitions may lack logical progression of ideas, unity, coherence, and/or cohesiveness. Some degree of organization is evident.

Paragraphs are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization and/or in their relationships to each other.

A logical progression of ideas between paragraphs is apparent. Paragraphs exhibit a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Topic sentences and concluding remarks are appropriate to purpose.

There is a sophisticated construction of paragraphs and transitions. Ideas progress and relate to each other. Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader. Paragraph structure is seamless.

5.0 %Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction are used.

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, and/or word choice are present.

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

5.0 %Format

2.0 %Paper Format (Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.

Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

All format elements are correct.

3.0 %Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment)

No reference page is included. No citations are used.

Reference page is present. Citations are inconsistently used.

Reference page is included and lists sources used in the paper. Sources are appropriately documented, although some errors may be present.

Reference page is present and fully inclusive of all cited sources. Documentation is appropriate and style is usually correct.

In-text citations and a reference page are complete. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.

100 %Total Weightage

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Critical Decision Making for Providers

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